Spalding, M, Blasco, F & Field, CD 1997, World Mangrove Atlas.
Field, CD 1996, Restoration of Mangrove Ecosystems.
Field, C & Field, CD 1995, 4-906584-01-1 Journey Amongst Mangroves.
Duke, NC, Field, C, Mackenzie, JR, Meynecke, JO & Wood, AL 2019, 'Rainfall and its possible hysteresis effect on the proportional cover of tropical tidal-wetland mangroves and saltmarsh-saltpans', Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 70, no. 8, pp. 1047-1055.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 CSIRO. Mangrove-saltmarsh tidal wetlands are highly dynamic ecosystems, responding and adapting to climate and physical conditions at all spatial and temporal scales. Knowledge of the large-scale ecosystem processes involved and how they might be influenced by climate variables is highly relevant today. For tidal-wetland sites well within the latitudinal range of the mostly tropical mangrove communities, we confirm that average annual rainfall influences vegetative cover, as well as species composition and biomass of tidal wetlands. On the basis of 205 largely unmodified, tropical and subtropical estuaries of northern Australia, a sigmoidal relationship, with a centroid inflection point ∼1368 mm, was derived between rainfall and the relative amounts of high-biomass mangroves and low-biomass saltmarsh-saltpan vegetation. The presence and probability of observed combinations of these community types were quantified using the wetland cover index, which is the ratio of total mangrove area to that of mangroves plus intertidal saltmarsh and saltpans. Accordingly, periodic changes in rainfall trends are likely manifest as either encroachment or dieback of mangroves along the ecotones separating them from tidal saltmarsh-saltpans. Presented is a new conceptual framework and model that describes how such ecosystem-scale processes take place in tropical and subtropical tidal wetlands.
Rogers, K, Boon, PI, Branigan, S, Duke, NC, Field, CD, Fitzsimons, JA, Kirkman, H, Mackenzie, JR & Saintilan, N 2016, 'The state of legislation and policy protecting Australia's mangrove and salt marsh and their ecosystem services', MARINE POLICY, vol. 72, pp. 139-155.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Bosire, JO, Dahdouh-Guebas, F, Walton, M, Crona, BI, Lewis, RR, Field, C, Kairo, JG & Koedam, N 2008, 'Functionality of restored mangroves: A review', Aquatic Botany, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 251-259.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Widespread mangrove degradation Coupled with the increasing awareness of the importance of these coastal forests have spurred many attempts to restore mangroves but without concomitant assessment of recovery (or otherwise) at the ecosystem level in many areas. This paper reviews literature on the recovery of restored mangrove ecosystems using relevant functional indicators. While stand structure in mangrove stands is dependent on age, site conditions and silvicultural management, published data indicates that stem densities are higher in restored mangroves than comparable natural stands; the converse is true for basal area. Biomass increment rates have been found to be higher in younger stands than older stands (e.g. 12 t ha(-1) year(-1) for a 12 years plantation compared to 5.1 t ha(-1) year(-1) for a 80-year-old plantation). Disparities in patterns of tree species recruitment into the restored stands have been observed with some stands having linear recruitment rates with time (hence enhancing stand complexity), while some older stands completely lacked the understorey. Biodiversity assessments Suggest that some fauna species are more responsive to mangrove degradation (e.g. herbivorous crabs and mollusks in general), and thus mangrove restoration encourages the return of such species, in some cases to levels equivalent to those in comparable natural stands. The paper finally recommends various mangrove restoration pathways in a functional framework dependent on site conditions and emphasizes community involvement and ecosystem level monitoring as integral components of restoration projects
Gilman, E, Ellison, J, Duke, NC & Field, C 2008, 'Threats to mangroves from climate change and adaptation options: A review', Aquatic Botany, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 237-250.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mangrove ecosystems are threatened by climate change. We review the state of knowledge of mangrove Vulnerability and responses to predicted climate change and consider adaptation options. Based on available evidence, of all the climate change outcomes, relative sea-level rise may be the greatest threat to mangroves. Most mangrove sediment surface elevations are not keeping pace with sea-level rise, although longer term studies from a larger number of regions are needed. Rising sea-level will have the greatest impact oil mangroves experiencing net lowering in sediment elevation, where there is limited area for landward migration. The Pacific Islands mangroves have been demonstrated to be at high risk of substantial reductions. There is less certainly over other climate change outcomes and mangrove responses. More research is needed on assessment methods and standard indicators of change in response to effects from climate change, while regional monitoring networks are needed to observe these responses to enable educated adaptation. Adaptation measures can offset anticipated mangrove losses and improve resistance and resilience to climate change. Coastal planning can adapt to facilitate mangrove migration with sea-level rise. Management of activities within the catchment that affect long-term trends in the mangrove sediment elevation, better management of other stressors oil mangroves, rehabilitation of degraded mangrove areas, and increases in systems of strategically designed protected area networks that include mangroves and functionally linked ecosystems through representation, replication and refugia, are additional adaptation options.
Duke, NC, Meynecke, JO, Dittman, S, Ellison, AM, Anger, K, Berger, U, Cannicci, S, Diele, K, Ewel, KC, Field, C, Koedam, N, Lee, SY, Marchand, C, Nordhaus, I & Dahdouh-Guebas, F 2007, 'A world without mangroves?', Science, vol. 317, no. 5834, pp. 41-42.View/Download from: Publisher's site
At a meeting of world mangrove experts held last year in Australia, it was unanimously agreed that we face the prospect of a world deprived of the services offered by mangrove ecosystems, perhaps within the next 100 years. Mangrove forests once covered more than 200,000 km2 of sheltered tropical and subtropical coastlines (1). They are disappearing worldwide by 1 to 2% per year, a rate greater than or equal to declines in adjacent coral reefs or tropical rainforests (2-5). Losses are occurring in almost every country that has mangroves, and rates continue to rise more rapidly in developing countries, where >90% of the world's mangroves are located. The veracity and detail of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization data (2) on which these observations are based may be arguable, but mangrove losses during the last quarter century range consistently between 35 and 86%. As mangrove areas are becoming smaller or fragmented, their long-term survival is at great risk, and essential ecosystem services may be lost.
Field, CD 2000, 'Mangroves', Seas at the millennium - an environmental evaluation - Volume 3, pp. 17-32.
Mangroves form coastal forests largely confined between 30°north and south of the equator. This range is determined mainly by low and extreme temperatures and, to a lesser extent, by rainfall. They are thus abundant in many lesser developed countries with fast rising populations which exert strong development pressure on this ecosystem. In recent years, pressures of increasing population, food production and development have led to a significant proportion of the world's mangrove resource being destroyed at a rate faster than they are being regenerated. Much of their elimination has been to create land for aquaculture, particularly shrimp ponds, but in many instances shrimp ponds are quickly abandoned as a result of falling production, leaving highly degraded land on which mangroves do not naturally re-establish themselves. It is estimated that shrimp ponds in Asia rarely last for more than five to ten years, leaving irreversibly degraded environments. The scale of mangrove clearance may be huge: in the Philippines, for example 70% were lost in a period of 60 years, and similar or even greater clearance rates have been seen in 'New World' areas too. A popular view of mangrove forests is that they are very productive, and under some conditions they compare well with terrestrial forests. The qualitative importance of mangroves as habitat, nursery and source of food for both commercial fisheries species and other non-commercial fauna is generally accepted, as is the fact that a large number of juvenile fish use mangroves as nursery habitats. However, there is a lack of well established quantified relationships between fish yields and area of mangrove, though several studies support the hypothesis that coastal fish resources are closely linked to estuaries and mangroves, even if controversy remains about their degree of dependence. Apart from being a productive shoreline ecosystem, mangroves can help stabilise dynamic coastlines. There is now an upsurge in the number...
The concept of mangrove ecosystem rehabilitation is considered. Four main reasons for rehabilitating mangroves are identified: conservation, landscaping, sustainable production and coastal protection. Practical aspects of mangrove rehabilitation, such as the causes of site degradation, site selection, source of seedlings and planting, monitoring and maintenance are then briefly mentioned. Future developments that may impact on mangrove ecosystem restoration such as the importance of biodiversity, biotechnology, ecological modelling, mapping, human ecology and data bases, are then briefly reviewed. Finally, the matter of choice and necessity is addressed.
The concept and goals of mangrove ecosystem rehabilitation are considered and contrasted with ideas of ecosystem restoration. Three reasons for mangrove rehabilitation: conservation and landscaping; multiple use systems for high sustainable yield and protection of coastal areas, are then examined in detail. In each case, the underlying philosophy and limitations are presented. The practical problems of site selection for mangrove planting and techniques for regenerating mangroves are then considered. Some comments and data are then offered on mangrove ecosystem rehabilitation that is being carried out world-wide. Comment is made on the paucity of information. The practice and importance of monitoring and maintaining rehabilitated mangrove ecosystems is then presented. Finally, there is a discussion on the future management and research needs of mangrove ecosystem rehabilitation.
Field, C 1998, 'Rationales and practices of mangrove afforestation', Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 353-358.
The goals of mangrove afforestation for the purposes of conservation and landscaping, sustainable yield of natural products and the protection of coastlines are identified. Basic practical considerations for the planting of mangroves such as site selection, species selection, planting and monitoring are presented. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the research needs in this area.
There is a consensus of scientific opinion that the activities of man will cause a significant change in the global climate over the next hundred years. The rising level of carbon dioxide and other industrial gases in the atmosphere may lead to global warming with an accompanying rise in sea-level. Mangrove ecosystems grow in the intertidal zones in tropical and sub-tropical regions and are likely to be early indicators of the effects of climate change. The best estimates of predicted climate change in the literature are presented. It is suggested that a rise in mean sea-level may be the most important factor influencing the future distribution of mangroves but that the effect will vary dramatically depending on the local rate of sea-level rise and the availability of sediment to support reestablishment of the mangroves. The predicted rise in mean air temperature will probably be of little consequence to the development of mangroves in general but it may mean that the presence of mangroves will move further north and south, though this will depend on a number of additional factors. The effect of enhanced atmospheric CO2 on the growth of mangroves is unknown at this time but that there is some evidence that not all species of mangroves will respond similarly. The socio-economic impacts of the effects of climate on mangrove ecosystems may include increased risk of flooding, increased erosion of coast lines, saline intrusion and increased storm surges. © 1995 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
BURCHETT, MD, CLARKE, CJ, FIELD, CD & PULKOWNIK, A 1989, 'GROWTH AND RESPIRATION IN 2 MANGROVE SPECIES AT A RANGE OF SALINITIES', PHYSIOLOGIA PLANTARUM, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 299-303.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Field, C 2011, 'Towards adaptation measures in protecting mangroves from climate change' in Jenkins, AL (ed), Climate Change Adaptation: Ecology, Mitigation and Management, Nova Science Publishers, USA, pp. 65-85.