Claude Roux is Professor of Forensic Science and the founding Director of the UTS Centre for Forensic Science (Research Strength). Since completing his PhD in 1996, he has achieved and sustained international recognition as a global leader in the area of forensic science research.
Over the last 14 years, he has supervised and completed more than 60 forensic research projects, including 5 University medals. He has attracted $5M in competitive research grants in the last 5 years, including ARC, other Government and industry funding. He has a long and established reputation for effective collaboration with forensic and other government agencies in Australia and overseas as well as with other academic partners.
His research has been largely driven by his vision of forensic science as a genuine academic and research-based discipline. Claude's research activities cover a broad spectrum of forensic science including trace evidence and chemical criminalistics, documents and fingerprints. His work in the area of the forensic analysis and interpretation of trace evidence, especially fibres, has been particularly successful. The results from this work have brought new tools and data that are now being used in actual casework. Further, his contribution to the area of fingerprint research is outstanding.
His collaborative research with industry, in particular the Australian Federal Police (AFP), has made a significant contribution to this cause. This research contributed to make Australia a world leader in the field of fingerprint research. In addition to the publication of 100 refereed papers and 13 book chapters and a large number of conference presentations (including at 11 international symposia as invited international keynote/plenary speaker), Claude’s research attracted significant media coverage (>20 stories over the past 5 years, including on BBC, ABC and CBC News, Channel 10 News, in the New Scientist and the Australian Financial Review) and 20 awards. It allowed him to establish links with leading overseas universities and research institutes in the area (eg. University of Lausanne, Switzerland, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, US Secret Service). His research in the area of homeland security has been equally successful and delivered significant outcomes. These latter are the result of a strong partnership with law enforcement, defence and analytical industries. The relevance of his research is demonstrated by the significant competitive funding received from sources including the National Security Science and Technology (NSST) Unit of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, DEST and the Department of the Attorney General and the National Institute of Forensic Science.
In 2004-2005, Claude led the UTS team that played a major role in a significant collaborative Federal Government funded project with the Victorian Police, National Institute of Forensic Science, Australian Federal Police, NSW Police Force, SA Forensic Science, University of Tasmania and Deakin University (Improved Monitoring and Detection capabilities to Minimise the Potential Criminal Use of Explosives in Australia - $700K in total). This led to a number of related projects funded by the National Security Science and Technology Unit of the Prime Minister & Cabinet (NSST) (total of $1.7M cash) and undertaken in collaboration with the Australian Federal Police, NSW Police, Agilent Tech., Uni of Canberra, ANSTO and the Biometrics Inst. as major partners.
In 2007, he was the sole academic, with one of his UTS colleagues, in a significant research project carried out by the NIFS funded by the Department of the Federal Attorney General entitled Building Illicit Drugs Forensic Capacity in Australia. Another example is Claude’s participation in the current NIFS closed?set DNA project with AFP, NSWPF, and Flinders University as major partners (contract research funded by the Federal Attorney General's Department - $1M cash). Claude was Chair of the 20th International Symposium on Forensic Sciences of the Australian & NZ Forensic Science Society (2010) and the current National President of the Australian & NZ Forensic Science Society.
2004 - date Professor of Forensic Science at UTS
2001 - 2004 Associate Professor at UTS
1998 - 2001 Senior Lecturer at UTS
1996 - 1998 Lecturer at UTS
1990 - 1996 Research Assistant at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland
2002 - date Director, Centre for Forensic Science, UTS
2011-date Director of B Forensic Science in Applied Chemistry (Honours)
2007 – date Director of B Forensic Science in Applied Chemistry
1997 - 2007 Director of BSc (Honours) in Applied Chemistry – Forensic Science, UTS
Editorial Appointments, Professional Associations and Industry Engagement (last 5 years)
2012 Theme chair, scientific committee and editorial board member for the organisation of the 6th meeting of the European Academy of Forensic Science, The Hague, August 2012.
2011 Scientific committee member for the organisation of the 19th meeting of the International Association of Forensic Sciences, Madeira, September 2011.
2010-date National President of the Australian & New Zealand Forensic Science Society.
2010-11 Editor of the section ‘Forensic Chemistry’ of the Encyclopedia of Forensic Science (Elsevier), in press.
2006-09 Editor of the section ‘Criminalistics’ of the Encyclopedia of Forensic Science (Wiley Publishers), published in April 2009.
2009-date Editorial Board member of the Australian Journal of Forensic Science (Taylor & Francis)
2009-2010 Board member of the Australian Future Forensics Innovation Network (QLD Smart State funding - NIRAP)
2008-date Editorial Board member of Science & Justice (Elsevier)
2007-date Editorial Board member of Forensic Science International (Elsevier)
2007-date Editorial Board member of the Revue Internationale de Criminologie et de Police Technique et Scientifique
2008-2009 Steering Committee member for the 3rd Trace Evidence Symposium funded by the US National Institute of Justice, August 2009
2007-2008 Council member of the Australian Academy of Forensic Sciences
2006-2010 Chair of the Organising Committee for the International Symposium on Forensic Sciences, Australian & NZ Forensic Science Society, Sydney 2010 (approx. 1,000 delegates)
2005-date Member of the Australian Academy of Forensic Sciences
2005-date Member of the International Fingerprint Research Group – by invitation only
2000-date Member of the US FBI-led Scientific Working Group on Materials
2000-date Associate member of the Senior Managers Australia & New Zealand Forensic Science Laboratories (SMANZFL)
1993-date Foundation member of the European Fibres Group – Scientific Working Group of the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes
Can supervise: YES
Fully committed to the establishment of a robust forensic science culture through education, training, research and casework experience. My research has been largely driven by the vision of forensic science as a genuine academic and research-based discipline. Interested in all analytical and interpretative problems encountered in forensic science (i.e. application of enabling sciences to address legal and societal problems).
EXPERIENCE IN SUPERVISING, COORDINATING AND ASSESSING RESEARCH
Significant experience in research supervision, including supervision and co-supervision of more than 15 PhD graduates and management of 30 PhD completions in forensic science since 2002. Considerable experience in coordinating research activity and understanding the needs of end users through my high involvement in advisory and executive groups in academia and in industry/public sector, in Australia and overseas. Strong capacity to build, foster and maintain collaborations with a large variety of stakeholders. Over the years, I have assessed research grant proposals for the ARC (DP, LP and FT schemes), EU's Sixth Research Framework Programme, Swiss National Science Foundation, US National Institute of Justice, Israel Science Foundation, Natural Sciences & Engineering Research Council of Canada. This gives me a strong sense of the international benchmark in research relevance, quality and impact.
EXPERIENCE IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND TEACHING QUALITY ASSESSMENT
The sustained success of the forensic science programs at UTS since 1996 is the testament of my strength in curriculum development. I also acquired a strong experience in teaching quality assessment through my ongoing participation in education and training initiatives of the National Institute of Forensic Science and being a member of advisory committees overseeing the quality of forensic programs at the University of Canberra, Deakin University, University of Western Sydney, University of Auckland and the Canberra Institute of Technology. Since 2000, I am also the President of the Australian and New Zealand Association of Forensic Science Educators and Researchers.
- Forensic science
- Physical evidence
- Chemical Criminalistics
Casey, E, Ribaux, O & Roux, C 2019, 'The Kodak Syndrome: Risks and Opportunities Created by Decentralization of Forensic Capabilities.', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 127-136.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Forensic science laboratories are being challenged by the expanding decentralization of forensic capabilities, particularly for digital traces. This study recommends laboratories undertake digital transformations to capitalize on the decentralization movement, develop a more comprehensive understanding of crime and security-relevant problems, and play a more central role in problem-solving collaboratively with law enforcement organizations and other stakeholders. A framework for the bilateral transfer of information and knowledge is proposed to magnify the impact of forensic science laboratories on abating crime, strengthening security, and reinforcing the criminal justice system. To accomplish digital transformations, laboratories require personnel with different expertise, including investigative reasoning, knowledge codification, data analytics, and forensic intelligence. Ultimately, this study encourages managers, educators, researchers, and policymakers to look beyond the usefulness of forensic results for solving individual investigations, and to realize the value of combined forensic knowledge and intelligence for developing broader strategies to deal with crime in digitalized society.
Seckiner, D, Mallett, X, Maynard, P, Meuwly, D & Roux, C 2019, 'Forensic gait analysis - Morphometric assessment from surveillance footage.', Forensic science international, vol. 296, pp. 57-66.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Following the technological rise of surveillance cameras and their subsequent proliferation in public places, the use of information gathered by such means for investigative and evaluative purposes sparked a large interest in the forensic community and within policing scenarios. In particular, it is suggested that analysis of the body, especially the assessment of gait characteristics, can provide useful information to aid the investigation. This paper discusses the influences upon gait to mitigate some of the limitations of surveillance footage, including those due to the varying anatomical differences between individuals. Furthermore, the differences between various techniques applied to assess gait are discussed, including biometric gait recognition, forensic gait analysis, tracking technology, and marker technology. This review article discusses the limitations of the current methods for assessment of gait; exposing gaps within the literature in regard to various influences impacting upon the gait cycle. Furthermore, it suggests a 'morphometric' technique to enhance the available procedures to potentially facilitate the development of standardised protocols with supporting statistics and database. This in turn will provide meaningful information to forensic investigation, intelligence-gathering processes, and potentially as an additional method of forensic evaluation of evidence.
Gassner, AL, Manganelli, M, Werner, D, Rhumorbarbe, D, Maitre, M, Beavis, A, Roux, CP & Weyermann, C 2019, 'Secondary transfer of organic gunshot residues: Empirical data to assist the evaluation of three scenarios', Science and Justice, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 58-66.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences The present study aimed at providing data to assess the secondary transfer of organic gunshot residues (OGSR). Three scenarios were evaluated in controlled conditions, namely displacing a firearm from point A to point B, a simple handshake and an arrest involving handcuffing on the ground. Specimens were collected from the firearm, the hands of the shooter and the non-shooter undergoing the secondary transfer in order to compare the amounts detected. Secondary transfer was observed for the three scenarios, but to a different extent. It was found that displacing a firearm resulted in secondary transfer in <50% of the experiments. The firearm also had an influence, as contrary to the pistol, no secondary OGSR were detected using the revolver. Shaking the hand of the shooter also transferred OGSR to the non-shooter's hand. In that case, the amount of OGSR was generally higher on the shooter than on the non-shooter. Finally, the largest secondary transfer was observed after the arrest with handcuffing with positive results in all cases using the pistol. In that scenario, the amounts on the shooter and the non-shooter were in the same range. This study highlights that the secondary transfer must be taken into account in the interpretation of OGSR. Indeed, an individual's hands might be contaminated by handling a firearm or having physical contact with a shooter.
Maitre, M, Chadwick, S, Kirkbride, KP, Gassner, A-L, Weyermann, C, Beavis, A & Roux, C 2019, 'An investigation on the secondary transfer of organic gunshot residues.', Science & justice : journal of the Forensic Science Society, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 248-255.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Gunshot residues (GSR) are an important forensic trace in firearm-related events. Currently, routine GSR analyses focus on the detection and characterisation of the inorganic components (IGSR). The increasing prevalence of heavy metal-free ammunition challenges these current protocols and there is an increasing interest in how the organic components of GSR (OGSR) can provide complementary information. Similar to the situation with IGSR, OGSR compounds originally deposited on the shooter during the firing process may further be transferred onto another individual or surface. Hence, the aim of this study was to provide additional information regarding the risk of a secondary transfer of OGSR. Two scenarios were investigated, the first one related to the arrest process and the possibilities of a secondary transfer arising between a shooter onto a non-shooter (e.g. between a police officer and a person of interest (POI)). The second scenario concerned the transfer of OGSR onto the non-shooter after handling a firearm for few minutes without discharging it. One calibre was chosen, the .40 S&W calibre, used by several Australian State police forces. A secondary transfer was observed in all cases for the two scenarios investigated, for three compounds of interest: ethylcentralite (EC), diphenylamine (DPA), N-nitrosodiphenylamine (N-nDPA). The firearm handling scenario resulted in a larger secondary transfer to that of the arrest scenario. Overall, the amounts of OGSR detected on the non-shooter were generally lower than that detected on the shooter and controls after the arrest scenario. The results of this study provide complementary knowledge about OGSR, which can be further used to improve the current practice and the interpretation of OGSR evidence. In particular, it highlights that the secondary transfer proposition must be considered during the interpretation of forensic findings, especially when small amounts of OGSR target compounds are detected.
Bannwarth, A, Morelato, M, Benaglia, L, Been, F, Esseiva, P, Delemont, O & Roux, C 2019, 'The use of wastewater analysis in forensic intelligence: drug consumption comparison between Sydney and different European cities', Forensic Sciences Research, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 141-151.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Rhumorbarbe, D, Morelato, M, Staehli, L, Roux, C, Jaquet-Chiffelle, DO, Rossy, Q & Esseiva, P 2019, 'Monitoring new psychoactive substances: Exploring the contribution of an online discussion forum', International Journal of Drug Policy.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2019 Elsevier B.V. Background: The rapid emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is a challenge for public health authorities and law enforcement. The phenomenon is strengthened since the increase of the Internet usage. Not only used to trade NPS, the Web is an important source of information for both potential drug consumers and experienced users. Discussion forums are among these sources of information. They are meeting points for different groups of users and include a wide range of trip reports, questions and consumption tips. Since the discussions are archived over a long period, they can be used to monitor the interest of consumers for particular substances over time. This research aims at understanding the contribution of data extracted from a major online discussion forum within a systematic monitoring process. Method: Data were collected from a discussion forum (i.e. Drugs-forum). Within the sections of the forum, the titles, content of discussion, number of replies, and the date of the first discussion were crawled and stored in a dedicated database. The intensity of the discussions related to 42 substances considered as NPS was measured through an indicator allowing to assess the popularity of substances. Furthermore, the appearance of 15 substances on the forum was compared to the date of formal notification to the EU early warning system. Results: An evolution of the different classes of substances, as well as an evolution of specific substances within a class were highlighted. Some substances were discussed for a long period of time (e.g. Kratom, 25i-NBOMe, MDPV) while others were discussed very briefly (e.g. 5-MeO-DPT, NM-2AI). Out of the fifteen substances subjected to a risk assessment from the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), nine of them appeared on the forum before or at the same time as their first date of notification to the EU early warning system. Conclusion: In line with previous research on dopin...
Lee, PLT, Kanodarwala, FK, Lennard, C, Spindler, X, Spikmans, V, Roux, C & Moret, S 2019, 'Latent fingermark detection using functionalised silicon oxide nanoparticles: Method optimisation and evaluation.', Forensic science international, vol. 298, pp. 372-383.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The application of nanoparticles for latent fingermark detection has been reported in the literature over the past two decades. One of the nanoparticles that shows promise to become a routine technique is functionalised silicon oxide nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs). In a recent optimisation of the technique, the use of carboxyl-functionalised SiO2 NPs doped with luminescent ruthenium complex was proposed as a breakthrough for latent fingermark detection. In this study, the aforementioned functionalised SiO2 NPs were extensively evaluated. Modification and optimisation of the original detection parameters were performed to enhance detection quality and improve applicability. Various detection parameters were evaluated and assessed. A lower concentration of the functionalised nanoparticles used in the colloidal dispersion was determined to offer improved detection effectiveness. A combination of increased bath temperature and reduced immersion time was found to produce good overall results. A set of modified detection parameters was suggested for the use of the functionalised SiO2 NPs to detect latent fingermarks. Performance of the modified detection parameters was compared against that of the published detection method. Comparison experiments were carried out on fingermark specimens deposited on aluminium foil, transparent polypropylene plastic and green polyethylene plastic. Three donors (weak, average and strong) and two age intervals (ten days and three months) were considered in the comparison study. Evaluation of the results suggested that the overall performance of the modified method for latent fingermark detection was superior to that obtained using the previously published detection parameters.
Moret, S, Lee, PLT, de la Hunty, M, Spindler, X, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2019, 'Single metal deposition versus physical developer: A comparison between two advanced fingermark detection techniques.', Forensic science international, vol. 294, pp. 103-112.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Single metal deposition (SMD II) is a fingermark detection technique based on the use of colloidal gold. The technique has been simplified and optimised over the years to become more reliable, sensitive and user-friendly. Physical developer (PD) is a well-established detection method based on silver deposition from a redox solution. This study presents an extensive comparison of SMD II against PD for fingermark detection on porous substrates. The two techniques were compared as (i) standalone methods, (ii) in sequence after the application of routine amino acids reagents (1,2-indanedione/zinc followed by ninhydrin), and (iii) after the substrates have been wet. More than 1000 fingermark specimens were processed. Overall, the performance of SMD II was judged to be inferior to that of PD; therefore, SMD II cannot be recommended as a valid replacement for fingermark detection on porous substrates. Indanedione/zinc and ninhydrin application negatively impacts on SMD II performance and the technique gave inconsistent results across the selected range of porous substrates. Moreover, the detected fingermarks lacked contrast making their visualisation difficult. However, even if PD remains the technique of choice, SMD II showed significant potential. It proved to be less affected by donor variability and it can be applied on both porous and non-porous substrates. It did not lead to uncontrolled background staining that commonly occurs with PD. If contrast and consistency issues can be addressed in future research, SMD II may become a viable alternative to PD.
Casey, E, Ribaux, O & Roux, C 2018, 'Digital transformations and the viability of forensic science laboratories: Crisis-opportunity through decentralisation.', Forensic science international, vol. 289, pp. e24-e25.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Robertson, J & Roux, C 2018, 'The forensic scientist of the future–are universities prepared?', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 305-306.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Roux, C, Ribaux, O & Crispino, F 2018, 'Forensic science 2020–the end of the crossroads?', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 607-618.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018, © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Forensic science has been at the crossroads for over a decade. While this situation is a fertile ground for discussion, security problem solving and the sound administration of justice cannot be put on hold until solutions pleasing everyone emerge. In all practical reality, forensic science will continue to be applied because it is simply the most reliable way to reconstruct the past through the exploitation of relics of criminal activities and by logical treatment of the collected information. In this paper, it is argued that instead of exclusively focusing on error management and processes, we should also question the very ontological nature of forensic science. Not only should the dominant conception of forensic sciences as a patchwork of disciplines assisting the criminal justice system be challenged, but forensic science's own fundamental principles should also be better enunciated and promoted so they can be more broadly accepted and understood. Such changes invite operations, education and research to become more collective and interdisciplinary. This is necessary to fully exploit the investigative, epidemiological, court and social functions of forensic science. We ought to ask the question: will forensic science reach the end of the crossroads soon?.
Seckiner, D, Mallett, X, Roux, C, Meuwly, D & Maynard, PJ 2018, 'Forensic image analysis – CCTV distortion and artefacts', Forensic Science International, vol. 285, pp. 77-85.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Maitre, M, Horder, M, Kirkbride, KP, Gassner, A-L, Weyermann, C, Roux, C & Beavis, A 2018, 'A forensic investigation on the persistence of organic gunshot residues.', Forensic science international, vol. 292, pp. 1-10.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Gunshot residues (GSR) are a potential form of forensic traces in firearm-related events. In most forensic laboratories, GSR analyses focus on the detection and characterisation of the inorganic components (IGSR), which are mainly particles containing mixtures of lead, barium and antimony originating from the primer. The increasing prevalence of heavy metal-free ammunition challenges the current protocols used for IGSR analysis. To provide complementary information to IGSR particles, the current study concentrated on the organic components (OGSR) arising from the combustion of the propellant. The study focused on four compounds well-known as being part of OGSR: ethylcentralite (EC), methylcentralite (MC), diphenylamine (DPA), N-nitrosodiphenylamine (N-nDPA). This study assessed the retention of these OGSR traces on a shooter's hands. The overall project aim was to provide appropriate information regarding OGSR persistence, which can be suitable to be integrated into the interpretation framework of OGSR as recommended by the recent ENFSI Guideline for Evaluative Reporting in Forensic Science. The persistence was studied through several intervals ranging from immediately after discharge to four hours and two ammunition calibres were chosen: .40 S&W calibre, used by the NSW Police Force; and .357 Magnum, which is frequently encountered in Australian casework. This study successfully detected the compounds of interest up to four hours after discharge. The trends displayed a large decrease in the amount detected during the first hour. A large variability was also observed due to numerous factors involved in the production, deposition and collection of OGSR.
Maitre, M, Kirkbride, KP, Horder, M, Roux, C & Beavis, A 2018, 'Thinking beyond the lab: organic gunshot residues in an investigative perspective', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 659-665.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 Australian Academy of Forensic Sciences Gunshot residues (GSR) are a common form of evidence in cases involving questions related to the association of a person of interest (POI) to a firearm-related event. GSR analyses currently focus on the detection and characterisation of the inorganic components of GSR (IGSR), which are typically particles composed of lead, barium and antimony originating from the primer. However, certain particles cannot be assigned to IGSR with a high degree of confidence due to possibility of being derived from industrial or domestic sources. Moreover, the increasing prevalence of the use of heavy metal-free ammunition challenges the current protocols used for IGSR analysis. In order to provide complementary evidence to IGSR particles, the current study focused on detecting the organic components (OGSR) arising from ammunition propellant. As the study focuses on the persistence of OGSR, three compounds well known as being part of OGSR were selected: ethyl centralite (EC), diphenylamine (DPA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NnDPA). The study assessed the retention of OGSR traces on a person's hands up to 1 h after they had discharged a firearm.
Agius, A, Morelato, M, Moret, S, Chadwick, S, Jones, K, Epple, R, Brown, J & Roux, C 2018, 'Dataset of coded handwriting features for use in statistical modelling.', Data in brief, vol. 16, pp. 1010-1024.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The data presented here is related to the article titled, "Using handwriting to infer a writer's country of origin for forensic intelligence purposes" (Agius et al., 2017) . This article reports original writer, spatial and construction characteristic data for thirty-seven English Australian writers and thirty-seven Vietnamese writers. All of these characteristics were coded and recorded in Microsoft Excel 2013 (version 15.31). The construction characteristics coded were only extracted from seven characters, which were: 'g', 'h', 'th', 'M', '0', '7' and '9'. The coded format of the writer, spatial and construction characteristics is made available in this Data in Brief in order to allow others to perform statistical analyses and modelling to investigate whether there is a relationship between the handwriting features and the nationality of the writer, and whether the two nationalities can be differentiated. Furthermore, to employ mathematical techniques that are capable of characterising the extracted features from each participant.
Agius, A, Morelato, M, Moret, S, Chadwick, S, Jones, K, Epple, R, Brown, J & Roux, C 2018, 'Using handwriting to infer a writer's country of origin for forensic intelligence purposes.', Forensic Science International, vol. 282, pp. 144-156.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Forensic science has traditionally focused the majority of its resources and objectives towards addressing Court-related questions. However, this view restricts the contribution of forensic science to one process and results in a loss of information as the investigative and intelligence roles are largely neglected. A forensic science discipline suffering from this imbalance is handwriting examination, which may be characterised as a time consuming and subjective process that is mostly carried out towards the end of the investigation for the purpose of judicial proceedings. Individual and habitual characteristics are the major handwriting features exploited, however alternate information concerning the author's native language could potentially be used as a key element in an intelligence framework. This research focussed on the detection of characteristics that differentiate Vietnamese and English Australian writers based on their English handwriting. The study began with the extraction of handwriting characteristics from the writing of people from the two populations. The data was analysed using a logistic regression model and a classification and regression tree (CRT). Each recognised four class characteristics that were capable of distinguishing between the two nationalities. The logistic regression and CRT models were both capable of correctly predicting 93% of cases. Their predictive capabilities were then tested and supported using blind exemplars in order to mirror casework settings. It appeared that when using their respective class characteristics, the two models were capable of differentiating English Australians from Vietnamese in the data set. This proof of concept research demonstrated the plausibility of exploiting this additional information from a handwriting trace and taking advantage of it in an intelligence-led framework.
Chadwick, S, Moret, S, Jayashanka, N, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, C 2018, 'Investigation of some of the factors influencing fingermark detection.', Forensic Science International, vol. 289, pp. 381-389.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The primary aims of fingermark detection research are to improve the quality and increase the rate of detection of identifiable impressions. This is usually performed through the development of new methods and technologies to provide alternatives to or improve current procedures. While research of this nature is important to pursue, it fails to address the underlying question related to the factors that affect the detection of a latent fingermark. There has been significant research that has examined the differences between techniques, donors and fingermark age, as well as the composition of latent fingermarks. However, they tend not to focus on determining how these factors influence the quality of the developed mark. This study involved the development and evaluation of over 14,000 natural fingermarks deposited on a variety of surfaces to examine the effect of substrate, age, donor variability (both inter- and intra-), depletions and type of finger on fingermark development. Fingermarks were deposited on four substrates (two non-porous and two porous) and developed with either indanedione-zinc (IND-Zn) or cyanoacrylate followed by rhodamine 6G staining (CA+R6G). Three independent assessors graded each mark on the quality of development using an absolute scale proposed by the UK Centre for Applied Science and Technology (CAST). The data generated from these assessments were then analysed for trends or other useful insights. The results from this work reaffirm that individual substrate characteristics (and the choice of development technique) play a significant role in determining the number and quality of marks developed. It was found that fingermarks were more likely to be detected on porous substrates and to also be of a higher quality than on non-porous. The effect of fingermark donor variability was also explored, with significant differences observed between donors and within donors. This research shows that current detection techniques do not detect all av...
De La Hunty, MA, Moret, S, Chadwick, S, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, C 2018, 'An effective Physical Developer (PD) method for use in Australian laboratories', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 50, no. 6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Khuu, A, Chadwick, S, Moret, S, Spindler, X, Gunn, P & Roux, C 2018, 'Impact of one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate treatment on subsequent DNA analysis.', Forensic science international, vol. 286, pp. 1-7.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Fingermarks can be exploited for both their ridge detail and touch DNA. One-step luminescent cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming techniques used for fingermark enhancement, such as PolyCyano UV (Foster+Freeman Ltd) and Lumicyano™ (Crime Science Technology), claim to be compatible with DNA analysis as they reduce the need for post-staining to increase contrast of the developed fingermark. The aim of this study was to determine the impact that these one-step luminescent cyanoacrylates have on DNA analysis and how they compare to conventional CA techniques. Four donors each deposited five sets of natural fingermarks, to which a known amount of washed saliva cells was dispensed onto half of each set of fingermarks. Each set was treated with either a conventional CA technique or a one-step luminescent CA technique prior to collection and processing of DNA, with one set left as a non-fumed control. It was found that DNA was still recoverable and detectable following each of the treatments. Lumicyano™ had a similar impact on DNA profiles as conventional CA fuming and with post-stain, however, the degradation effect of PolyCyano UV on DNA was greater than the conventional treatments. For quantities of DNA such as that from touch DNA, the use of PolyCyano UV to enhance fingermarks may impact subsequent DNA analysis by causing allele drop out at larger fragment sizes.
Morelato, M, Broséus, J, De Grazia, A, Tahtouh, M, Esseiva, P & Roux, C 2018, 'Forensic drug intelligence and the rise of cryptomarkets. Part II: Combination of data from the physical and virtual markets.', Forensic science international, vol. 288, pp. 201-210.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Technology provides new ways to access customers and suppliers while enhancing the security of off-line criminal activity. Since the first cryptomarket, Silk Road, in 2011, cryptomarkets have transformed the traditional drug sale by facilitating the creation of a global network of vendors and buyers. Due to the fragmented nature of traces that result from illegal activities, combining the results of concurrent processes based on traces of different nature should provide supplementary benefit to understand the drug market. This article compares the data of the Australian virtual market (in particular data extracted from cryptomarkets) to the data related to traditional market descriptors, namely national seizures and arrests, prevalence data, shipping countries of seized post shipments as well as outcomes of specific surveys targeting users' behaviour online. Results revealed the domestic nature of the online illicit drug trade in Australia which is dominated by amphetamine-type substances (ATS), in particular methylamphetamine and cannabis. These illicit drugs were also the most seized drugs on the physical market. This article shows that the combination of different information offers a broader perspective of the illicit drug market in Australia and thus provides stronger arguments for policy makers. It also highlights the links between the virtual and physical markets.
Moret, S, Scott, E, Barone, A, Liang, K, Lennard, C, Roux, C & Spindler, X 2018, 'Metal-Organic Frameworks for fingermark detection - A feasibility study.', Forensic science international, vol. 291, pp. 83-93.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are porous crystalline structures, currently used as sensors, separation membranes, and as catalysts. Due to their physicochemical and optical properties, they have been recently proposed for fingermark detection. This study further explored their potential for fingermark detection. Natural fingermarks, as well as charged and protein-enriched marks, were used to test the efficiency of the technique. Various parameters, such as precursor concentration, pH, immersion time and detection protocols, were investigated and optimised. The performance of the optimised MOF-based method was then compared to that of routinely used techniques. The results obtained indicated that MOFs can effectively detect fingermarks, especially protein-rich marks such as marks contaminated with body fluids. However, after comparison and evaluation against benchmark techniques, results were judged to be inferior to those from currently employed detection methods. However, with further research and optimisation MOFs may be promising as an alternative to current powder suspension techniques.
Benson, N, Oliveria Dos Santos, R, Griffiths, K, Cole, N, Doble, P, Roux, C & Blanes, L 2018, 'Erratum to 'The development of a stabbing machine for forensic textile damage analysis' [FSI (2017) 132–139]>(S0379073817300671)(10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.02.013)', Forensic Science International, vol. 285, p. 161.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 The publisher regrets that the name of Dr. Oliveira dos Santos has been mistyped in the author list. The publisher would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.
Ribaux, O, Roux, C & Crispino, F 2017, 'Expressing the value of forensic science in policing', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 489-501.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 Australian Academy of Forensic SciencesOnly a small part of forensic science activities scattered across criminal justice systems is the object of scientific scrutiny, and is taken into account when evaluating the added-value brought by this discipline. Even in its more restricted definition, forensic science faces many embarrassing questions about its capacity to provide valid and reliably interpreted information in court. The inflation of control mechanisms increases costs and reduces the scope or availability of forensic information. The viability of forensic science, viewed through this lens, is questioned. To address this challenge, it is imperative to validly express forensic science contributions that are otherwise diluted across earlier processes. These include abductive and inductive species of inferences used in crime investigation, crime analysis and criminal intelligence. The 'scientificity' of these processes may be questioned, but it is not contested that they largely determine the global outcome of justice systems. As a result, they cannot be ignored. To unlock the debate, it is proposed to turn the forensic science focus from means (instruments, techniques, methods) to ends (what is the problem, what are the objectives?). This perspective naturally leads to proactive models of policing. It also provides possible frameworks to express various uses of the information conveyed by traces for solving problems. Reframed forensic science contributions are more validly expressed and the current debate can ultimately be transcended.
Taudte, RV, Roux, C & Beavis, A 2017, 'Stability of smokeless powder compounds on collection devices.', Forensic Science International, vol. 270, pp. 55-60.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The current trend towards the implementation of organic gunshot residue (OGSR) analysis into gunshot residue (GSR) investigation protocols typically involves the sequential analysis of inorganic and organic GSR. However, to allow for the consecutive analysis of inorganic and organic GSR, specimens will often be stored for different lengths of time which may result in compounds of interest degrading. In order to optimise storage conditions, it is important to consider compound degradation on collection devices during storage. This study investigated the degradation over time of compounds potentially present in smokeless powders and OGSR on two collection devices, alcohol swabs and GSR stubs. Over a period of 63 days, the highest degree of degradation was found in the first four days. Interestingly, energetic compounds were generally found to be more stable than smokeless powder additives such as stabilisers including diphenylamine and ethyl centralite, which might be problematic considering that these compounds are common targets for OGSR. The findings can provide valuable information to operational forensic laboratories to optimise their storage durations.
Hofstetter, C, Maitre, M, Beavis, A, Roux, CP, Weyermann, C & Gassner, A-L 2017, 'A study of transfer and prevalence of organic gunshot residues.', Forensic Science International, vol. 277, pp. 241-251.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The main goal of the present study was to determine the amounts and distribution of organic gunshot residues (OGSR) on the shooter's upper body and clothing after discharging a pistol. A preliminary study was also performed to evaluate the prevalence of OGSR in the general population as well as in a police laboratory environment. In the transfer study, results indicated that OGSR are not only transferred to the hand of the shooter, but also to other parts of the upper body. Thus, wrists and forearms also represent interesting targets as they are washed less frequently than hands. Samples from the face and hair of the shooters resulted in no OGSR detection just after firing. It was also observed that the concentrations recovered from clothing are generally higher compared to the same skin area. Prevalence in both general (n=27) and police populations (n=25) was low. No OGSR was detected in the samples from the general population and only two samples from the police population were found positive.
Maitre, M, Kirkbride, KP, Horder, M, Roux, C & Beavis, A 2017, 'Current perspectives in the interpretation of gunshot residues in forensic science: A review.', Forensic Science International, vol. 270, pp. 1-11.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The traces produced when a firearm is discharged can provide important information in cases when questions regarding a possible association of the firearm with a person of interest (POI), time since discharge or shooting distance are raised. With advances in technology, the forensic challenges presented by these traces, known as gunshot residues (GSR), are moving from the analytical domain to the interpretation of the analytical results. Different interpretation frameworks are currently competing. Formal classification of particles, using standards such as that produced by ASTM, focusses only on evaluation of evidence at the sub-source level. Another approach, based on the application of Bayesian reasoning - namely the case-by-case approach - has been proposed that allows evaluation of evidence in regards to activity-related questions. This alternative approach allows an evaluation of the evidence that is more closely aligned to judicial and investigative aims. This paper critically presents the state of the art in regards to GSR interpretation in a holistic manner.
Agius, A, Jones, K, Epple, R, Morelato, M, Moret, S, Chadwick, S & Roux, C 2017, 'The use of handwriting examinations beyond the traditional court purpose', Science and Justice, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 394-400.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Traditionally, forensic science has predominantly focused its resources and objectives on addressing court related questions. However, this view restricts the contribution of forensic science to one function and results in lost opportunities as investigative and intelligence roles are often overlooked.
A change of perspective and expansion of the contributions of forensic science is required to take advantage of the benefits of abductive and inductive thought processes throughout the investigative and intelligence functions. One forensic discipline that has the potential to broaden its traditional focus is handwriting examination. Typically used in investigations that are focused on both criminal and civil cases, the examination procedure and outcome are time consuming and subjective, requiring a detailed study of the features of the handwriting in question. Traditionally, the major handwriting features exploited are characteristics that are often considered individual (or at least highly polymorphic) and habitual. However, handwriting can be considered as an information vector in an intelligence framework. One such example is the recognition of key elements related to the author's native language. This paper discusses the traditional method generally used around the world and proposes a theoretical approach to expand the application of handwriting examination towards gaining additional information for intelligence purposes. This concept will be designed and tested in a future research project.
Chadwick, S, Neskoski, M, Spindler, X, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2017, 'Effect of hand sanitizer on the performance of fingermark detection techniques.', Forensic Science International, vol. 273, pp. 153-160.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Hand sanitizers have seen a rapid increase in popularity amongst the general population and this increased use has led to the belief that hand sanitizers may have an effect on subsequent fingermark detection. Based on this hypothesis, three alcoholic and two non-alcoholic hand sanitizers were evaluated to determine the effect they had on the detection of fingermarks deposited after their use. The following fingermark detection methods were applied: 1,2-indanedione-zinc, ninhydrin, physical developer (porous substrate); and cyanoacrylate, rhodamine 6G, magnetic powder (non-porous substrate). Comparison between hand sanitized fingermarks and non-hand sanitized fingermarks showed that the alcohol-based hand sanitizers did not result in any visible differences in fingermark quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, however, improved the quality of fingermarks developed with 1,2-indanedione-zinc and ninhydrin, and marginally improved those developed with magnetic powder. Different parameters, including time since hand sanitizer application prior to fingermark deposition and age of deposited mark, were tested to determine the longevity of increased development quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitized marks showed no decrease in quality when aged for up to two weeks. The time since sanitizer application was determined to be an important factor that affected the quality of non-alcoholic hand sanitized fingermarks. It was hypothesized that the active ingredient in non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, benzalkonium chloride, is responsible for the increase in fingermark development quality observed with amino acid reagents, while the increased moisture content present on the ridges resulted in better powdered fingermarks.
Broséus, J, Morelato, M, Tahtouh, M & Roux, C 2017, 'Forensic drug intelligence and the rise of cryptomarkets. Part I: Studying the Australian virtual market.', Forensic Science International, vol. 279, pp. 288-301.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Analysing and understanding cryptomarkets is essential to become proactive in the fight against the illicit drug trade. Such a research seeks to combine a diversity of indicators related to the virtual (darknet markets) and physical (the traditional "offline" market) aspects of the illicit drug trade to provide information on the distribution and consumption as well as to assess similarities/differences between the virtual and physical markets. This study analysed data that had previously been collected on cryptomarkets from December 2013 to March 2015. In this article, the data was extracted from two marketplaces, Evolution and Silk Road 2, and analysed to evaluate the illicit drug trade of the Australian virtual market (e.g. information about the supply and demand, trafficking flows, prices of illicit drugs and market share) and highlight its specificities. The results revealed the domestic nature of the virtual Australian illicit drug trade (i.e. Australian sellers essentially ship their products to local customers). This may explain the coherence between supply and demand. Particularly, the virtual Australian illicit drug trade is dominated by amphetamine-type substances (ATS), mainly methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cannabis. Australia, as a shipping country, accounts for half of the methamphetamine offered and purchased on Silk Road 2. Moreover, it was observed that the online price fixed by Australian sellers for the considered illicit drugs is higher than for any other shipping countries, which is in line with previous studies. Understanding the virtual and physical drug market necessitates the integration and fusion of different perspectives to capture the dynamic nature of drug trafficking, monitor its evolution and finally improve our understanding of the phenomenon so policy makers can make informed decisions.
Michelot, H, Fu, S, Stuart, B, Shimmon, R, Raymond, T, Crandell, T & Roux, C 2017, 'Effect of drug precursors and chemicals relevant to clandestine laboratory investigation on plastic bags used for collection and storage.', Forensic Science International, vol. 273, pp. 106-112.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In the area of clandestine laboratory investigations, plastic bags are used to collect and store evidence, such as solvents, precursors, and other compounds usually employed for the manufacturing of drugs (although liquids may be stored in glass containers within the bags first). In this study, three different types of plastic bags were provided by the NSW Police Force and investigated for their suitability for evidence collection: two different types of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and one type of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag. Three different experiments were carried out: (1) storing relevant chemicals in the bags for up to three months; (2) exposing the bags including their content to accelerated conditions using a weatherometer, and (3) simulating an expected real case scenario. This study indicates that drugs and related chemicals stored in plastic bags may lead to a change in the composition of the chemical and an alteration or degradation of the plastic bag. All experiments led to the same conclusion: the polyvinyl chloride bags appeared to be the most affected. LDPE bags seem to be more appropriate for routine use, although it has been established they are not suitable for the collection of liquids (unless pre-packaged in, for instance, a glass container).
Michelot, H, Stuart, B, Fu, S, Shimmon, R, Raymond, T, Crandell, T & Roux, C 2017, 'The mechanical properties of plastic evidence bags used for collection and storage of drug chemicals relevant to clandestine laboratory investigations', Forensic Sciences Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 198-202.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The effectiveness of three types of plastic bags used by the New South Wales Police Force for the storage of clandestine drug evidence has been investigated through a comparison of mechanical properties. The tensile and tear properties of 'as received' low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) bags do not show major differences such that one type would be favoured over the other. However, the mechanical properties of the bags once exposed to a range of chemicals routinely collected as drug evidence have been shown to be influenced as a result of different chemical interactions. Although an interaction of reagents/solvents with an additive within the LDPE bags is proposed to influence the mechanical properties of the bags, the change in properties has been shown to be less severe than that observed for the PVC bag, where softening and damage of the bags results due to absorption of reagents.
Benson, N, Dos Santos, RO, Griffiths, K, Cole, N, Doble, P, Roux, C & Blanes, L 2017, 'The development of a stabbing machine for forensic textile damage analysis.', Forensic Science International, vol. 273, pp. 132-139.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article describes the development of a horizontal stabbing machine with an interchangeable knife holder to simulate stab events. The machine consists of a motorised arm with a pneumatic system designed to deliver 60 unique stabbing positions. The mechanics were robust and the positioning system highly reproducible with standard deviations of less than 1.0mm in the x-axis and 2.3mm in the y-axis for a given stab position. The force of the instrument may be varied by the operator to a maximum of approximately 221N. The suitability of the instrument for simulating stab events was evaluated by measuring the severance length and textile damage from stab delivered from four different knives and nine penetrating angles.
Lee, R, Comber, B, Abraham, J, Wagner, M, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, C 2017, 'Supporting fingerprint identification assessments using a skin stretch model - A preliminary study.', Forensic Science International, vol. 272, pp. 41-49.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
To support fingerprint expert opinion, this research proposes an approach that combines subjective human analysis (as currently applied by fingerprint practitioners) with a statistical test of the result. This approach relies on the hypothesis that there are limits to the distortion caused by skin stretch. Such limits can be modelled by applying a multivariate normal probability density function to the distances and angle formed by a marked ridge characteristic and the two closest neighbouring minutiae. This study presents a model tested on 5 donors in total. The "expected range" of distortion in a within-source comparison using 10 minutiae was determined and compared to between-source comparisons. The expected range of log probability densities for within-source comparisons marked with 10 minutiae was determined to be from -33.4 to -60.0, with all between-source data falling outside this range, between -83 and -305. These results suggest that the proposed generated metric could be a powerful tool for the assessment of fingerprint expert opinion in operational casework.
Evans, E, Costrino, C, do Lago, CL, Garcia, CD, Roux, C & Blanes, L 2016, 'Determination of Inorganic Ion Profiles of Illicit Drugs by Capillary Electrophoresis', JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 1610-1614.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Jones, K, Benson, S & Roux, C 2016, 'The forensic analysis of office paper using oxygen Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, part 2: Characterising the source materials and the effect of production and usage on the 18 O values of cellulose and paper', Forensic Science International, vol. 268, pp. 151-158.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 For casework applications, understanding the source processes used to create a material and the effects of those sources on the results obtained by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) of a bulk material is important. Likewise, understanding the effect of environment, home/office printing processes and some forensic testing in at least a basic context, ensures that in casework, enough information on the effects of these variables is available during comparison and interpretation. In this study, which focuses on oxygen isotopic abundance measurements, both fractionation and mixing effects were observed within the pulping and production process. Also observed in the carbon isotopic experiments, sampling that included toner changed the measured isotopic abundance values of the paper and should be avoided in casework. Inkjet printing processes were not shown to have an effect on the paper oxygen abundance values. Samples that were treated for fingerprints using 1,2-Indandione-Zn prior to sampling showed the greatest risk for misinterpretation of whether two samples had originated from the same source. While this study provides a good basis and understanding of the effects of a range of factors on document paper oxygen isotope values, further testing for a range of specific casework scenarios is required and should be undertaken on a case by case basis as the need arises.
Ribaux, O, Crispino, F, Delémont, O & Roux, C 2016, 'The progressive opening of forensic science toward criminological concerns', Security Journal, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 543-560.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Technology is increasingly offering new means of human behavior traceability. This situation is challenging the standing, scope and role of forensic science in the criminal Justice System. At the same time, criminology is developing methodologies that encompass virtual worlds, and deal with the increasing quantity of accessible digital data reflecting criminal behaviors. Identifying how these concerns overlap begs the question: should we reconsider the articulation of many aspects of both forensic science and criminology? This article proposes a progressive and systematic modeling activity along five steps: (i) the expression of the investigative logic of forensic science; (ii) the use of theories in environmental criminology; (iii) a more systematic search for associations between traces and between crime situations; (iv) the search for studies in diverse areas of criminology that actually or potentially rely on forensic case data and (v) the suggestion of models and methods for framing the approach.
Jones, K, Benson, S & Roux, C 2016, 'The forensic analysis of office paper using oxygen isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Part 1: Understanding the background population and homogeneity of paper for the comparison and discrimination of samples', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 262, pp. 97-107.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Taudte, RV, Roux, C, Blanes, L, Horder, M, Kirkbride, KP & Beavis, A 2016, 'The development and comparison of collection techniques for inorganic and organic gunshot residues', ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 408, no. 10, pp. 2567-2576.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Khuu, A, Chadwick, S, Spindler, X, Lam, R, Moret, S & Roux, C 2016, 'Authors' response to comments on "Evaluation of one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate fuming''', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 268, pp. E25-E26.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Khuu, A, Chadwick, S, Spindler, X, Lam, R, Moret, S & Roux, C 2016, 'Evaluation of one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate fuming', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 263, pp. 126-131.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Bruenisholz, E, Prakash, S, Ross, A, Morelato, M, O'Malley, T, Raymond, T, Ribaux, O, Roux, CP & Walsh, S 2016, 'The intelligent use of forensic data: an introduction to the principles', Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal, vol. 7, no. 1-2, pp. 21-29.View/Download from: Publisher's site
For the past decade, the National Institute of Forensic Science (NIFS) has been involved in and committed to raising the awareness of forensic intelligence in Australia. In this context, a discussion paper was written and distributed across Australia and New Zealand covering forensic intelligence principles and offering a 'quick reference' guide. In addition, NIFS jointly facilitated a set of papers on forensic intelligence that was published in the Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences.
The implementation of forensic intelligence requires substantial planning and adaptation within an organization. There must be commitment within an agency to refocus outcomes so that crime prevention and disruption become priorities along with the traditional focus on the court. This implies many changes including a shift from a single case focus to a multi-case focus and a breaking down of existing interdisciplinary silos. At a time of budget restrictions, the resources to implement these changes are often difficult to identify. However, established intelligence cells within forensic science facilities are realizing the benefits to be gained from this approach.
The primary aim of this paper is to raise awareness on the principles and practice of forensic intelligence through the collation and integration of recently published findings and observations. It is intended to provide introductory principles to personnel of various levels and disciplines involved in law enforcement, including forensic scientists, police officers, and those involved in administering the criminal justice system.
Talbot-Wright, B, Baechler, S, Morelato, M, Ribaux, O & Roux, C 2016, 'Image processing of false identity documents for forensic intelligence', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 263, pp. 67-73.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ueland, M, Blanes, L, Taudte, RV, Stuart, BH, Cole, N, Willis, P, Roux, C & Doble, P 2016, 'Capillary-driven microfluidic paper-based analytical devices for lab on a chip screening of explosive residues in soil', JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY A, vol. 1436, pp. 28-33.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Schwendener, G, Moret, S, Cavanagh-Steer, K & Roux, C 2016, 'Can "contamination" occur in body bags?-The example of background fibres in body bags used in Australia', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 266, pp. 517-526.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Lam, R, Hofstetter, O, Lennard, C, Roux, C & Spindler, X 2016, 'Evaluation of multi-target immunogenic reagents for the detection of latent and body fluid-contaminated fingermarks', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 264, pp. 168-175.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Roux, C, Talbot-Wright, B, Robertson, J, Crispino, F & Ribaux, O 2015, 'The end of the (forensic science) world as we know it? The example of trace evidence', PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, vol. 370, no. 1674.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ribaux, O, Crispino, F & Roux, CP 2015, 'Forensic intelligence: Deregulation or return to the roots of forensic science?', Australian Journal of Forensic Science, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 61-71.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper presents an overview of forensic intelligence through historical, operational and academic considerations. While forensic intelligence is thriving through new traceability of human activities, theoretical developments in policing and innovative technologies, it should mainly be seen as an opportunity for forensic science to contribute to making policing more` scientific in the broad sense. This paper supports the development of a modern framework to holistically use the information conveyed by forensic case data to inform policing processes, support decision-making and ensure transparency. It is argued that the scientific information, the trace, has to be privileged, rather than rejected from current debates, despite the potential fears prompted by the misinterpretation of the term `intelligence. Ulti- mately, forensic intelligence enables the emergence of a modern conception of forensic science.
Crispino, F, Rossy, Q, Ribaux, O & Roux, CP 2015, 'Education and training in forensic intelligence: a new challenge', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 49-60.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
From recent calls for positioning forensic scientists within the criminal justice system, but also policing and intelligence missions, this paper emphasises the need for the development of educational and training programmes in the area of forensic intelligence. It is argued that an imbalance exists between perceived and actual understanding of forensic intelligence by police and forensic science managers, and that this imbalance can only be overcome through education. The challenge forforensic intelligence education and training is therefore to devise programmes that increase forensic intelligence awareness, firstly for managers to help prevent poor decisions on how to develop information processing. Two recent European courses are presented as examples of education offerings, along with lessons learned and suggested paths forward. It is concluded that the new focus on forensic intelligence could restore a pro-active approach to forensic science, better quantify its efficiency and let it get more involved in investigative and managerial decisions. A new educational challenge is opened to forensic science university programmes around theworld: to refocus criminal trace analysis on a more holistic security problem solving approach.
Jackson, F, Bunford, J, Maynard, P & Roux, C 2015, 'Surveys of vehicle colour frequency and the transfer of vehicle paints to stationary objects in Sydney, Australia', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 248, pp. 124-128.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Jackson, F, Bunford, J, Maynard, P & Roux, C 2015, 'Surveys of vehicle colour frequency and the transfer of vehicle paints to stationary objects in Sydney, Australia (vol 248, pg 124, 2015)', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 251, pp. 115-115.View/Download from: Publisher's site
de la Hunty, M, Moret, S, Chadwick, S, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, C 2015, 'Understanding physical developer (PD): Part I - Is PD targeting lipids?', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 257, pp. 481-487.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
de la Hunty, M, Moret, S, Chadwick, S, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, CP 2015, 'Understanding Physical Developer (PD): Part II - Is PD Targeting Eccrine Constituents?', Forensic Science International, vol. 257, pp. 488-495.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Baechler, S, Morelato, M, Ribaux, O, Beavis, A, Tahtouh, M, Kirkbride, KP, Esseiva, P, Margot, P & Roux, C 2015, 'Forensic intelligence framework. Part II: Study of the main generic building blocks and challenges through the examples of illicit drugs and false identity documents monitoring', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 250, pp. 44-52.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Morelato, M, Beavis, A, Tahtouh, M, Ribaux, O, Kirkbride, KP & Roux, C 2015, 'The use of methylamphetamine chemical profiling in an intelligence-led perspective and the observation of inhomogeneity within seizures', Forensic Science International, vol. 246, pp. 55-64.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study focuses on methylamphetamine (MA) seizures made by the Australian Federal Police (AFP) to investigate the use of chemical profiling in an intelligence perspective. Correlation coefficients were used to obtain a similarity degree between a population of linked samples and a population of unlinked samples. Although it was demonstrated that a general framework can be followed for the use of any forensic case data in an intelligence-led perspective, threshold values have to be re-evaluated for each type of illicit drug investigated. Unlike the results obtained in a previous study on 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA) seizures, chemical profiles of MA samples coming from the same seizure showed relative inhomogeneity, limiting their ability to link seizures. Different hypotheses were investigated to obtain a better understanding of this inhomogeneity although no trend was observed. These findings raise an interesting discussion in regards to the homogeneity and representativeness of illicit drug seizures (for intelligence purposes). Further, it also provides some grounds to discuss the initial hypotheses and assumptions that most forensic science studies are based on.
Moret, S, Spindler, X, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2015, 'Microscopic examination of fingermark residues: Opportunities for fundamental studies', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 255, pp. 28-37.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Girod, A, Xiao, L, Reedy, B, Roux, C & Weyermann, C 2015, 'Fingermark initial composition and aging using Fourier transform infrared microscopy (mu-FTIR)', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 254, pp. 185-196.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Spindler, X, Shimmon, R, Roux, C & Lennard, C 2015, 'Visualising substrate-fingermark interactions: Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of amino acid reagent development on cellulose substrates', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 250, pp. 8-16.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Taudte, RV, Roux, C, Bishop, D, Blanes, L, Doble, P & Beavis, A 2015, 'Development of a UHPLC method for the detection of organic gunshot residues using artificial neural networks', Analytical Methods, vol. 7, no. 18, pp. 7447-7454.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The introduction of lead and heavy-metal free ammunition to the market challenges the current protocol for gunshot residue (GSR) investigations, which focuses on the inorganic components. Future proofing GSR analysis requires the development and implementation of new methods for the collection and analysis of organic GSR (OGSR) into operational protocols. This paper describes the development and optimisation of an ultra high performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of 32 compounds potentially present in OGSR. An artificial neural network was applied to predict the retention times of the target analytes for various gradients for rapid determination of optimum separation conditions. The final separation and analysis time for the 32 target analytes was 27 minutes with limits of detection ranging from 0.03 to 0.21 ng. The method was applied to the analysis of smokeless powder and samples collected from the hands of a shooter following the discharge of a firearm. The results demonstrate that the method has the potential for use in cases involving GSR.
Girod, A, Roux, C & Weyermann, C 2014, 'Fingermark dating (part II): Proposition of a formal framework [La datation des traces digitales (partie II): proposition d'une approche formelle]', Revue Internationale de Criminologie et de Police Technique et Scientifique, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 226-249.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
"How old is this fingermark?" This question is relatively often raised in trials when suspects admit that they have left their fingermarks on a crime scene but allege that the contact occurred at a time different to that of the crime and for legitimate reasons. The first part of this article highlighted the current lack of consensus among the answers given to this question by the experts. It was also emphasised that no methodology has been validated and accepted by the forensic community so far. This is why this second part proposes a formal and pragmatic framework to approach the fingermark dating question using current research about aging kinetics of lipid compounds found in fingermark residue. This framework allows identifying which type of information the scientist would be able to bring so far to investigators and/or Justice about fingermark dating, in which conditions and what developments are still required.
Benedict, I, Corke, E, Morgan-Smith, R, Maynard, PJ, Curran, JM, Buckleton, JS & Roux, CP 2014, 'Geographical variation of shoeprint comparison class correspondences', Science and Justice, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 335-337.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The underlying principles involved in the interpretation of shoeprint comparisons have become a topical subject due to criticisms in the 2009 National Academy of Science (NAS) report on forensic sciences  . Difficulties in the application and understanding of these principles were also highlighted in a recent court ruling  and subsequent discussion of the ruling. We report here a survey that may inform some aspects of this interpretation and discuss the implications of findings from this survey in the light of that court ruling and more importantly the NAS report. 1,511 shoeprints were taken from student volunteers in Auckland, Wellington and Dunedin, New Zealand. 500 shoeprints were sampled from student volunteers at Australian universities. 100 from each of the University of Technology in Sydney, University of Queensland in Brisbane, University of Newcastle, Charles Sturt University in Bathurst and University of Canberra, Australia. These cities are distributed along the east coast of Australia. The shoeprints, taken from each country, were compared against each other for the presence of any pattern correspondences However shoeprints have not been compared between countries. In all locations the pattern of some common and many rare outsole patterns was repeated, with Converse Chuck Taylor All Stars and Vans Canvas Era common in all locations.
Chadwick, SR, Xiao, LH, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, CP 2014, 'PolyCyano UV: an investigation into a one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate fuming process', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1-14.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
PolyCyano UV (Foster?+?Freeman Ltd) is a new one-step process for developing luminescent fingermarks using cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming without the need for further chemical treatment. In this study, conditions including the amount of PolyCyano UV powder, the humidity level of the fuming chamber, and the time and temperature of the fuming process were optimised. A variety of different surfaces were tested and aged fingermark samples were also examined. The PolyCyano-UV-developed fingermarks were compared with conventional CA-developed fingermarks and subsequently stained with rhodamine 6G. PolyCyano UV was able to develop high-quality fingermarks on the surfaces tested. However, when examined under UV light, the luminescence of PolyCyano-UV-developed fingermarks was found to be weaker than conventional CA-developed fingermarks that were stained with rhodamine 6G. When used in sequence with rhodamine 6G, PolyCyano UV was found to give significantly improved contrast compared with conventional CA-developed fingermarks stained with rhodamine 6G.
de la Hunty, M, Spindler, X, Chadwick, S, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2014, 'Synthesis and application of an aqueous nile red microemulsion for the development of fingermarks on porous surfaces', Forensic Science International, vol. 244, pp. e48-e55.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Morelato, M, Baechler, S, Ribaux, O, Beavis, AB, Tahtouh, M, Kirkbride, KP, Roux, CP & Margot, P 2014, 'Forensic intelligence framework--Part I: Induction of a transversal model by comparing illicit drugs', Forensic Science International, vol. 236, pp. 181-190.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Forensic intelligence is a distinct dimension of forensic science. Forensic intelligence processes have mostly been developed to address either a specific type of trace or a specific problem. Even though these empirical developments have led to successes, they are trace-specific in nature and contribute to the generation of silos which hamper the establishment of a more general and transversal model. Forensic intelligence has shown some important perspectives but more general developments are required to address persistent challenges. This will ensure the progress of the discipline as well as its widespread implementation in the future. This paper demonstrates that the description of forensic intelligence processes, their architectures, and the methods for building them can, at a certain level, be abstracted from the type of traces considered. A comparative analysis is made between two forensic intelligence approaches developed independently in Australia and in Europe regarding the monitoring of apparently very different kind of problems: illicit drugs and false identity documents. An inductive effort is pursued to identify similarities and to outline a general model. Besides breaking barriers between apparently separate fields of study in forensic science and intelligence, this transversal model would assist in defining forensic intelligence, its role and place in policing, and in identifying its contributions and limitations. The model will facilitate the paradigm shift from the current case-by-case reactive attitude towards a proactive approach by serving as a guideline for the use of forensic case data in an intelligence-led perspective. A follow-up article will specifically address issues related to comparison processes, decision points and organisational issues regarding forensic intelligence (part II).
Morelato, M, Beavis, AB, Tahtouh, M, Ribaux, O, Kirkbride, KP & Roux, CP 2014, 'The use of organic and inorganic impurities found in MDMA police seizures in a drug intelligence perspective', Science & Justice, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 32-41.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Traditional forensic drug profiling involves numerous analytical techniques, and the whole process is typically costly and may be time consuming. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of prioritising techniques utilised at the Australian Federal Police (AFP) for the chemical profiling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). The outcome would provide the AFP with the ability to obtain more timely and valuable results that could be used in an intelligence perspective. Correlation coefficients were used to obtain a similarity degree between a population of linked samples (within seizures) and a population of unlinked samples (between different seizures) and discrimination between the two populations was ultimately achieved. The results showed that gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GCMS) was well suited as a single technique to detect links between seizures and could be used in priority for operational intelligence purposes. Furthermore, the method was applied to seizures known or suspected (through their case information) to be linked to each other to assess the chemical similarity between samples. It was found that half of the seizures previously linked by the case number were also linked by the chemical profile. This procedure was also able to highlight links between cases that were previously unsuspected and retrospectively confirmed by circumstantial information. The findings are finally discussed in the broader forensic intelligence context, with a focus on how they could be successfully incorporated into investigations and in an intelligence-led policing perspective in order to understand trafficking markets.
Gunn, PR, Roux, CP & Walsh, SJ 2014, 'The nucleic acid revolution continues will forensic biology become forensic molecular biology?', Frontiers in Genetics, vol. 5, pp. 1-4.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Molecular biology has evolved far beyond that which could have been predicted at the time DNA identity testing was established. Indeed we should now perhaps be referring to forensic molecular biology. Aside from DNAs established role in identifying the who in crime investigations, other developments in medical and developmental molecular biology are now ripe for application to forensic challenges. The impact of DNA methylation and other post-fertilization DNA modifications, plus the emerging role of small RNAs in the control of gene expression, is re-writing our understanding of human biology. It is apparent that these emerging technologies will expand forensic molecular biology to allow for inferences about when a crime took place and what took place. However, just as the introduction of DNA identity testing engendered many challenges, so the expansion of molecular biology into these domains will raise again the issues of scientific validity, interpretation, probative value, and infringement of personal liberties. This Commentary ponders some of these emerging issues, and presents some ideas on how they will affect the conduct of forensic molecular biology in the foreseeable future.
Lloyd, AE, Russell, M, Blanes, L, Somerville, R, Doble, PA & Roux, CP 2014, 'The application of portable microchip electrophoresis for the screening and comparative analysis of synthetic cathinone seizures', Forensic Science International, vol. 242, pp. 16-23.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Variation in the chemical composition of illicit tablets and powders is common among samples within a given drug seizure. Using microchip electrophoresis (ME), multiple tablets can be screened in a cost-effective and timely manner. This method could be used in conjunction with reporting methods that focus solely on statistical sampling to infer homogeneity or otherwise of a larger subset of tablets. Some frequently observed synthetic cathinones, often present in illicit tablets seized in New Zealand, were chosen for analysis. An ME device (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100) was used to electrophoretically separate synthetic cathinones. The background electrolyte was composed of a 50mM sodium tetraborate buffer with 50mM sodium dodecyl sulphate at pH 9.66. Analytes were derivatised prior to analysis for 3min at 90°C, employing fluorescein isothiocyanate isomer I (FITC). A characteristic fluorescent profile was obtained for each tablet, in terms of the number of constituents, relative peak height ratios and migration times. The repeatability of the developed method was assessed for a wide range of tablets and relative standard deviations of 0.4-5.2% and 1.6-5.5% were calculated for migration times and peak height ratios, respectively. The use of microchip tablet profiles in the forensic case comparison of illicit drug seizure samples in realistic scenarios is discussed.
Pesenti, A, Taudte, RV, McCord, B, Doble, PA, Blanes, L & Roux, CP 2014, 'Coupling Paper-Based Microfluidics and Lab on a Chip Technologies for Confirmatory Analysis of Trinitro Aromatic Explosives', Analytical Chemistry, vol. 86, pp. 4707-4714.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A new microfluidic paper-based analytical device (ìPAD) in conjunction with confirmation by a lab on chip analysis was developed for detection of three trinitro aromatic explosives. Potassium hydroxide was deposited on the ìPADs (0.5 ìL, 1.5 M), creating a color change reaction when explosives are present, with detection limits of approximately 7.5 ± 1.0 ng for TNB, 12.5 ± 2.0 ng for TNT and 15.0 ± 2.0 ng for tetryl. For confirmatory analysis, positive ìPADs were sampled using a 5 mm hole-punch, followed by extraction of explosives from the punched chad in 30 s using 20 ìL borate/SDS buffer. The extractions had efficiencies of 96.5 ± 1.7%. The extracted explosives were then analyzed with the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer lab on a chip device with minimum detectable amounts of 3.8 ± 0.1 ng for TNB, 7.0 ± 0.9 ng for TNT, and 4.7 ± 0.2 ng for tetryl. A simulated in-field scenario demonstrated the feasibility of coupling the ìPAD technique with the lab on a chip device to detect and identify 1 ìg of explosives distributed on a surface of 100 cm2.
Taudte, RV, Beavis, AB, Blanes, L, Cole, NA, Doble, PA & Roux, CP 2014, 'Detection of Gunshot Residues Using Mass Spectrometry', BioMed Research International, vol. 965403, pp. 1-16.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In recent years, forensic scientists have become increasingly interested in the detection and interpretation of organic gunshot residues (OGSR) due to the increasing use of lead- and heavy metal-free ammunition. This has also been prompted by the identification of gunshot residue- (GSR-) like particles in environmental and occupational samples. Various techniques have been investigated for their ability to detect OGSR.Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to a chromatographic system is a powerful tool due to its high selectivity and sensitivity. Further,modernMS instruments can detect and identify a number of explosives and additives whichmay require different ionization techniques. Finally,MS has been applied to the analysis of bothOGSR and inorganic gunshot residue (IGSR), although the gold standard for analysis is scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray microscopy (SEM-EDX). This review presents an overview of the technical attributes of currently available MS and ionization techniques and their reported applications to GSR analysis.
Marriott, C, Lee, R, Wilkes, Z, Comber, B, Spindler, X, Roux, C & Lennard, C 2014, 'Evaluation of fingermark detection sequences on paper substrates', Forensic Science International, vol. 236, pp. 30-37.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Abraham, J, Champod, C, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2013, 'Modern statistical models for forensic fingerprint examinations', Forensic Science International, vol. 232, pp. 131-150.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Over the last decade, the development of statistical models in support of forensic fingerprint identification has been the subject of increasing research attention, spurned on recently by commentators who claim that the scientific basis for fingerprint identification has not been adequately demonstrated. Such models are increasingly seen as useful tools in support of the fingerprint identification process within or in addition to the ACE-V framework. This paper provides a critical review of recent statistical models from both a practical and theoretical perspective. This includes analysis of models of two different methodologies: Probability of Random Correspondence (PRC) models that focus on calculating probabilities of the occurrence of fingerprint configurations for a given population, and Likelihood Ratio (LR) models which use analysis of corresponding features of fingerprints to derive a likelihood value representing the evidential weighting for a potential source.
Jones, KM, Benson, SJ & Roux, CP 2013, 'The forensic analysis of office paper using carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry-Part 2: Method development, validation and sample handling', Forensic Science International, vol. 231, no. 1-3, pp. 364-374.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper describes the development and validation of a method for the analysis of office papers by measuring carbon isotopes using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The method development phase included testing protocols for storage, sample materials, set-up of the analytical run; and examining the effects of other paper examination procedures on IRMS results. A method validation was performed so that the Deltaplus XP IRMS instrument (Thermo Finnigan, Bremen, Germany) with Flash EA 1112 could be used to measure document paper samples for forensic casework. A validation protocol that would meet international standards for laboratory accreditation (international standard ISO 17025) was structured so that the instruments performance characteristics could be observed. All performance characteristics measured were found to be within an acceptable range and an expanded measurement uncertainty for the measurement of carbon isotopes in paper was calculated at 0.26, with a coverage factor of 2. This method was utilized in a large-scale study, published as part one of this series, that showed that IRMS of document papers is useful as a chemical comparison technique for 80 gsm white office papers
Jones, KM, Benson, SJ & Roux, CP 2013, 'The forensic analysis of office paper using carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry - Part 1: Understanding the background population and homogeneity of paper for the comparison and discrimination of samples', Forensic Science International, vol. 231, no. 1-3, pp. 354-363.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) has been shown to be a useful tool in the comparison of materials that are chemically identical either through man-made production processes or for materials that have been naturally produced. Paper therefore, is an ideal material for this type of measurement given that it is manufactured from a naturally produced product that can be difficult to discriminate based on physical feature comparison alone. To determine whether carbon isotopes are useful for discriminating document papers, 125 samples from Australia and New Zealand were collected over a 24-month period. When measured, a range of 8 was observed. A homogeneity study was undertaken to examine the range of values expected from paper sources including single sheets, single reams and multiple reams from the same brand. These results can also be used to suggest how best to sample from these different sources. After characterizing the natural variation of the material, a range of 1 was defined for use as a benchmark for discrimination. Utilizing this threshold, 68% of the 125 collected samples (when paired against each other) could be discriminated using the carbon isotope abundances alone. Additionally, correlation was observed when measured values were plotted against their production region of origin.
Abraham, J, Champod, C, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2013, 'Spatial analysis of corresponding fingerprint features from match and close non-match populations', Forensic Science International, vol. 230, no. 1-3, pp. 87-98.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The development of statistical models for forensic fingerprint identification purposes has been the subject of increasing research attention in recent years. This can be partly seen as a response to a number of commentators who claim that the scientific basis for fingerprint identification has not been adequately demonstrated. In addition, key forensic identification bodies such as ENFSI  and IAI  have recently endorsed and acknowledged the potential benefits of using statistical models as an important tool in support of the fingerprint identification process within the ACE-V framework. In this paper, we introduce a new Likelihood Ratio (LR) model based on Support Vector Machines (SVMs) trained with features discovered via morphometric and spatial analyses of corresponding minutiae configurations for both match and close non-match populations often found in AFIS candidate lists. Computed LR values are derived from a probabilistic framework based on SVMs that discover the intrinsic spatial differences of match and close non-match populations. Lastly, experimentation performed on a set of over 120,000 publicly available fingerprint images (mostly sourced from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) datasets) and a distortion set of approximately 40,000 images, is presented, illustrating that the proposed LR model is reliably guiding towards the right proposition in the identification assessment of match and close non-match populations. Results further indicate that the proposed model is a promising tool for fingerprint practitioners to use for analysing the spatial consistency of corresponding minutiae configurations.
Jones, KM, Benson, SJ & Roux, CP 2013, 'The forensic analysis of office paper using carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Part 3: Characterizing the source materials and the effect of production and usage on the delta 13C values of paper', Forensic Science International, vol. 233, no. 1-3, pp. 355-364.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
When undertaking any study of the isotope abundance values of a bulk material, consideration should be given to the source materials and how they are combined to reach the final product being measured. While it is demonstrative to measure and record the values of clean papers, such as the results published as part one of this series, the majority of forensic casework samples would have undergone some form of writing or printing process prior to examination. Understanding the effects of these processes on the d13C values of paper is essential for interpretation and comparison with clean samples, for example in cases where printed documents need to be compared to paper from an unprinted suspect ream. This study was undertaken so that the source materials, the effects of the production process and the effects of printing and forensic testing could be observed with respect to 80 gsm white office papers. Samples were taken sequentially from the paper production facility at the Australian Paper Mill (Maryvale, VIC). These samples ranged from raw wood chips through the pulping, whitening and refinement steps to the final formed and packed paper. Cellulose was extracted from each sample to observe both fractionation and mixing steps and their effect on the d13C values. Overall, the mixing steps were observed to have a larger effect on the isotopic values of the bulk materials than any potential fractionation. Printing of papers using toner and inkjet printing processes and forensic testing were observed to have little effect on d13C.
Jackson, FM, Maynard, PJ, Cavanagh-Steer, KL, Dusting, T & Roux, CP 2013, 'A survey of glass found on the headwear and head hair of a random population vs. people working with glass', Forensic Science International, vol. 226, no. 1-3, pp. 125-131.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study investigated the prevalence of glass particles on the headwear and head hair of two different population groups; the general public who do not work with glass, and glaziers from OBrien® Glass Industries who work with glass and have regular contact with broken glass. The 232 samples collected from the head hair and headwear from the random population resulted in the recovery of 6 glass fragments in total on 6 individuals (i.e. one fragment each). All of these fragments were from head hair samples with no multiple fragments recovered. The two headwear samples that were taken revealed no fragments. These results were in contrast to the survey that was conducted on the head hair and headwear of 25 glaziers from OBrien®, in which 138 glass fragments were found in total on 24 of the 25 glaziers. The size and number of fragments found in each sample were also generally larger for the glaziers group. The results from this study indicate that the prevalence of glass on the head hair and head wear of the random population is very low in comparison to the head hair and headwear of those who have regular contact with breaking glass. The significance of this finding with respect to the interpretation of glass evidence is also discussed
Morelato, M, Beavis, AB, Kirkbride, KP & Roux, CP 2013, 'Forensic applications of desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS)', Forensic Science International, vol. 226, no. 1-3, pp. 10-21.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is an emerging analytical technique that enables in situ mass spectrometric analysis of specimens under ambient conditions. It has been successfully applied to a large range of forensically relevant materials. This review assesses and highlights forensic applications of DESI-MS including the analysis and detection of illicit drugs, explosives, chemical warfare agents, inks and documents, fingermarks, gunshot residues and drugs of abuse in urine and plasma specimens. The minimal specimen preparation required for analysis and the sensitivity of detection achieved offer great advantages, especially in the field of forensic science.
Morelato, M, Beavis, AB, Tahtouh, M, Ribaux, O, Kirkbride, KP & Roux, CP 2013, 'The use of forensic case data in intelligence-led policing: The example of drug profiling', Forensic Science International, vol. 226, no. 1-3, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
To date, forensic science has predominantly focused on generating evidence for judicial proceedings. While many recognise its broader and important contribution to the initial stages of the forensic process, resources do not seem to be employed efficiently. It is often discovered retrospectively that necessary information was previously available in a database or within existing files. Such information could have been proactively used in order to solve a particular case, a number of linked cases or better understand the criminal activity as a whole. This article reviews this broader contribution of forensic science, with a particular emphasis on drug intelligence at the Australian Federal Police (AFP) in Australia. Using the AFP as a model organisation, an overview of the current situation and the contribution of physical and chemical profiling are first discussed. The situation in Europe, and in particular in Switzerland, is also presented. It is argued that a change of attitude towards a more intelligence-led perspective is required in forensic science in general, and in drug profiling in particular.
Lloyd, AE, Russell, M, Blanes, L, Doble, PA & Roux, CP 2013, 'Lab-on-a-chip screening of methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine in samples from clandestine laboratories', Forensic Science International, vol. 228, no. 1-3, pp. 8-14.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine in New Zealand predominantly involves the reduction of pseudoephedrine, extracted from pharmaceutical preparations, using hydrogen iodide. This method of illicit manufacture leaves a variety of materials at the scene that are a rich source of information. Efficient processing and preliminary identification of extraction and reaction mixtures, precursors and products is essential to minimise exposure to potential hazardous materials and to provide investigative and intelligence information. In this study, we employed a portable lab-on-a-chip instrument for the rapid and cost effective screening of methamphetamine, pseudoephedrine and ephedrine in a variety of sample types found in typical clandestine laboratory scenarios
Taudte, RV, Beavis, AB, Wilson-Wilde, L, Roux, CP, Doble, PA & Blanes, L 2013, 'A portable explosive detector based on fluorescence quenching of pyrene deposited on coloured wax-printed µpADs', Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry,Physics, Biology, materials science and bioengineering, vol. 13, no. 21, pp. 4164-4172.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A new technique for the detection of explosives has been developed based on fluorescence quenching of pyrene on paper-based analytical devices (µPADs). Wax barriers were generated (150 °C, 5 min) using ten different colours. Magenta was found as the most suitable wax colour for the generation of the hydrophobic barriers with a nominal width of 120 µm resulting in fully functioning hydrophobic barriers. One microliter of 0.5 mg mL-1 pyrene dissolved in an 80:20 methanolwater solution was deposited on the hydrophobic circle (5 mm diameter) to produce the active microchip device. Under ultra-violet (UV) illumination, ten different organic explosives were detected using the µPAD, with limits of detection ranging from 100600 ppm. A prototype of a portable battery operated instrument using a 3 W power UV light-emitting-diode (LED) (365 nm) and a photodiode sensor was also built and evaluated for the successful automatic detection of explosives and potential application for field-based screening.
Braasch, K, de la Hunty, MA, Deppe, J, Spindler, X, Cantu, AA, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2013, 'Nile red: Alternative to physical developer for the detection of latent fingermarks on wet porous surfaces?', Forensic Science International, vol. 230, no. 1-3, pp. 74-80.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper describes the application of a luminescent lipid stain, nile red, for the development of latent fingermarks on porous surfaces. An optimised formulation is presented that provides rapid development of latent fingermarks on porous surfaces that are or have been wet. A comparison with physical developer (PD), the method of choice to enhance such fingermarks, indicated that nile red was a simpler and more stable technique for the development of fingermarks. The nile red formulation showed similar performance to PD across a range of substrates and ageing conditions, although PD still showed greater sensitivity on five-year-old examination booklets used in a pseudo-operational study. The pseudo-operational trial also indicated that nile red consistently developed different fingermarks to those enhanced by PD, suggesting that it preferentially targets a different fraction of the latent fingermark deposit. Significantly, the compatibility of nile red in a detection sequence with indanedione-zinc, ninhydrin and PD is reported.
Wood, M, Maynard, PJ, Spindler, X, Roux, CP & Lennard, CJ 2013, 'Selective targeting of fingermarks using immunogenic techniques', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 211-226.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Latent fingermark detection remains one of the most commonly utilised forensic practices when dealing with scenes of crime or related items. Although many options are available to detect and visualise these marks, the quest for techniques with greater sensitivity and selectivity continues. This has led to many improvements in detection methods and also numerous new techniques being developed. However, these have largely only led to incremental advancements despite the desire for transformational improvements. The use of immunology in the detection of latent fingermarks is an area that has been investigated more recently as a possible proposal to provide these transformational improvements, specifically to overcome sensitivity and selectivity issues currently seen with existing methods. This paper reviews the attempts to harness the detection capabilities of immunology and utilise them in the field of latent fingermark detection. Results achieved to date have highlighted many advantages and possibilities in detection and visualisation of latent marks, including the possibility of gaining `intelligence from the marks themselves. This paper also presents a brief introduction to the use of aptamers as the next logical step in immunogenic techniques for investigation.
Weyermann, C, Bucher, L, Majcherczyk, P, Mazzella, WD, Roux, CP & Esseiva, P 2012, 'Statistical Discrimination Of Black Gel Pen Inks Analysed By Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry', Forensic Science International, vol. 217, no. 1-3, pp. 127-133.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Pearson correlation coefficients were applied for the objective comparison of 30 black gel pen inks analysed by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). The mass spectra were obtained for ink lines directly on paper using positive and nega
The dominant conception of forensic science as a patchwork of disciplines primarily assisting the criminal justice system (defined as 'forensics' in this article) is in crisis, or at least shows a series of anomalies and serious limitations. While the symptoms have been largely discussed previously, we argue that many of the commonly suggested solutions may not solve the fundamental problem. As a solution, we propose the forensic science community revive the forensic science perspective from its historical roots; that is, the study of crime and its traces. This will lead to the development of holistic models to provide a strategy to integrate technologies, and to help scientists develop their potential to engage in a more significant way in policing, crime investigation and, more generally, in criminology, instead of further compartmentalising the various forensic fields.
Massonnet, G, Buzzini, P, Monard, F, Jochem, G, Fido, L, Bell, S, Stauber, M, Coyle, T, Roux, CP, Hemmings, J, Leijenhorst, H, van Zanten, Z, Wiggins, KG, Smith, C, Chabli, S, Sauneuf, T, Rosengarten, A, Meile, C, Ketterer, S & Blumer, A 2012, 'Raman spectroscopy and microspectrophotometry of reactive dyes on cotton fibres: Analysis and detection limits', Forensic Science International, vol. 222, no. (1-3), pp. 200-207.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A collaborative study on Raman spectroscopy and microspectrophotometry (MSP) was carried out by members of the ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes) European Fibres Group (EFG) on different dyed cotton fabrics. The detection limits of the two methods were tested on two cotton sets with a dye concentration ranging from 0.5 to 0.005% (w/w). This survey shows that it is possible to detect the presence of dye in fibres with concentrations below that detectable by the traditional methods of light microscopy and microspectrophotometry (MSP). The MSP detection limit for the dyes used in this study was found to be a concentration of 0.5% (w/w). At this concentration, the fibres appear colourless with light microscopy. Raman spectroscopy clearly shows a higher potential to detect concentrations of dyes as low as 0.05% for the yellow dye RY145 and 0.005% for the blue dye RB221. This detection limit was found to depend both on the chemical composition of the dye itself and on the analytical conditions, particularly the laser wavelength. Furthermore, analysis of binary mixtures of dyes showed that while the minor dye was detected at 1.5% (w/w) (30% of the total dye concentration) using microspectrophotometry, it was detected at a level as low as 0.05% (w/w) (10% of the total dye concentration) using Raman spectroscopy.
Chadwick, SR, Maynard, PJ, Kirkbride, KP, Lennard, CJ, McDonagh, AM, Spindler, X & Roux, CP 2012, 'Styryl dye coated metal oxide powders for the detection of latent fingermarks on non-porous surfaces', Forensic Science International, vol. 219, no. 1-3, pp. 208-214.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Conventional fingermark powders rely on contrast induced by absorption/reflection (e.g. black powder) or luminescence in the visible region (e.g. Blitz GreenÂ®). In most cases, these powders provide sufficient contrast; however, in some circumstances surface characteristics can interfere with the visualisation of powdered fingermarks. Visualisation in the near infra-red (NIR) region, however, has been shown to eliminate interferences commonly encountered in the visible region. In this study, a mixture of rhodamine 6G and the NIR laser dye styryl 11 (STaR 11) was coated onto an aluminium oxide nanopowder and then mixed with silver magnetic powder to develop and visualise fingermarks in the NIR. When compared to Blitz GreenÂ®, it was determined that the STaR 11 magnetic powder was better suited for marks deposited on textured surfaces and for older marks, whereas Blitz GreenÂ® performed better on smooth glossy surfaces. The ability of the STaR 11 mixed dye formulation to be visualised in both the visible and NIR regions also provides a significant advantage over conventional luminescent fingermark powders.
Morelato, M, Beavis, AB, Ogle, A, Doble, PA, Kirkbride, KP & Roux, CP 2012, 'Screening of gunshot residues using desorption electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS)', Forensic Science International, vol. 217, no. 1-3, pp. 101-106.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Several studies have indicated that there are potential environmental sources of particles resembling inorganic primer found in gunshot residues (GSR); as a consequence examiners are reluctant to unambiguously assign the origin of inorganic particles. If organic gunshot residues (OGSR) were found in combination with inorganic particles, the possibility of environmental sources could be potentially eliminated, thereby significantly enhancing the strength of the evidence. Methods have been previously described whereby GSR specimens can be analysed for the presence of OGSR or inorganic GRS (IGSR). However, no methods have been reported that allow the analysis of both OGSR and IGSR on the same specimen. Described in this article is a direct method using desorption electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for the detection of methyl centralite (MC), ethyl centralite (EC) and diphenylamine (DPA) on adhesive tape GSR stubs typically used for scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis. The optimisation of numerous parameters was conducted using an experimental design. The results indicate that direct analysis of these organic components of GSR is possible although some limitations were also identified. This initial investigation has also indicated that subjecting stubs to DESI analysis does not interfere with subsequent SEM-EDX analysis of primer residues; therefore the technique described herein allows a comprehensive examination of GSR that would be highly probative in the event that both OGSR and IGSR are detected in the same specimen.
Ma, R, Shimmon, R, McDonagh, A, Maynard, P, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2012, 'Fingermark detection on non-porous and semi-porous surfaces using YVO4:Er,Yb luminescent upconverting particles', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 217, no. 1-3, pp. E23-E26.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Montgomery, LN, Spindler, X, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2012, 'Pretreatment strategies for the improved cyanoacrylate development of dry latent fingerprints on nonporous surfaces', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 517-542.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Cyanoacrylate fuming is a popular technique commonly used by evidence examiners for the development of latent fingermarks on nonporous surfaces. The process involves the preferential formation of hard, white polycyanoacrylate along the ridgelines of the fingerprint as opposed to the substrate background. This preferential deposition results in contrast between the fingerprint and substrate. This contrast may be further enhanced through the use of staining techniques such as rhodamine 6G. Because the cyanoacrylate mechanism is believed to be initiated by fingerprint constituents and catalyzed by moisture, it follows that fingerprints subjected to harsh conditions (e.g., heat, low humidity, or UV light) often produce poorly developed results. This study aimed to further investigate and validate the use of 10 percent w/v methylamine as a pretreatment strategy to overcome the limitations associated with the cyanoacrylate development of dry fingerprints and to compare the results with those obtained using previously proposed pretreatment solutions. The effectiveness of the proposed treatment was demonstrated on samples similar to those encountered in casework, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the treated fingerprints confirmed the rejuvenation of the dry latent deposits through a qualitative assessment of the polymer morphology
Wood, M, Maynard, P, Spindler, X, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2012, 'Visualization of Latent Fingermarks Using an Aptamer-Based Reagent', ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION, vol. 51, no. 49, pp. 12272-12274.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Wood, M, Maynard, PJ, Spindler, X, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2012, 'Visualization of latent fingermarks using an aptamer-based reagent', Angewandte Chemie, vol. 124, no. 49, pp. 12438-12440.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Don't touch! Aptamers selected against lysozyme are transformed into aptamer-based reagents, with which latent fingermarks can be developed with high selectivity and sensitivity. The design of aptamers targeting components of latent fingermarks opens up a new range of detection methods that previously have not been explored.
Aitken, C, Berger, CEH, Buckleton, JS, Champod, C, Curran, J, Dawid, AP, Evett, IW, Gill, P, Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J, Jackson, G, Kloosterman, A, Lovelock, T, Lucy, D, Margot, P, McKenna, L, Meuwly, D, Neumann, C, Daeid, NN, Nordgaard, A, Puch-Solis, R, Rasmusson, B, Redmayne, M, Roberts, P, Robertson, B, Roux, C, Sjerps, MJ, Taroni, F, Tjin-A-Tsoi, T, Vignaux, GA, Willis, SM & Zadora, G 2011, 'Expressing evaluative opinions: A position statement', SCIENCE & JUSTICE, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 1-2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hoile, RJ, Banos, C, Colella, M & Roux, CP 2011, 'Bioterrorism: The Effects Of Biological Decontamination On The Recovery Of Electronic Evidence', Forensic Science International, vol. 209, no. 1-3, pp. 143-148.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The investigation of a bioterrorism event will ultimately lead to the collection of vital data from electronic devices such as computers and mobile phones. This project sought to determine the use of gamma irradiation and formaldehyde gas as effective biological decontaminants, and the effect of these methods on the recovery of electronic evidence. Electronic items were contaminated with viable spores and then exposed to both decontaminants. Log values for each matrix were calculated with flash drives recording the highest value of 566 Gy for gamma irradiation and a maximum of 50 min exposure to formaldehyde saw the effective destruction of spores. The results indicate that recovery of data varied based on the decontaminant selected, formaldehyde gas giving the most promising results, with electronic data recovered after the required exposure time. Gamma irradiation proved damaging to electronic circuitry at levels required to render the items safe. The implications to computer intelligence and forensics will be discussed based on the outcomes of these findings.
In contrast with its high pro?le in popular culture, forensic science has been increasingly challenged in recent years. As reminded by Crispino et al. in this issue, forensic scientists have variously been labelled `craftsmen, accused of carrying `a misleading title, of having `no understanding of scienti?c methodology, of issuing `clearly absurd or `preposterous conclusions of individualisation, and practising a marginal, pseudo- if not junk-science. Unsurprisingly, these views are not shared by everyone. It is also obvious that such challenges and comments have been more common in the USA, especially in the post-Daubert and post-NAS eras than in Australia and in New Zealand. However, such criticisms cannot remain unheard by those involved in forensic science. The Antipodean, and indeed worldwide, forensic science community must consider these criticisms with all the rigor and seriousness that we should expect from a con?dent, mature and distinctive scienti?c discipline. But in all truth, despite the goodwill demonstrated by its individual practitioners, is forensic science really such a discipline?
Weyermann, C, Roux, CP & Champod, C 2011, 'Initial results on the composition of fingerprints and its evolution as a function of time by GC/MS analysis', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 102-108.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Determining the time since deposition of fingermarks may prove necessary to assess their relevance to criminal investigations. The crucial factor is the initial composition of fingermarks, because it represents the starting point of any aging model. This study mainly aimed to characterize the initial composition of fingerprints, which show a high variability between donors (inter-variability), but also to investigate the variations among fingerprints from the same donor (intra-variability). Solutions to reduce this initial variability using squalene and cholesterol as target compounds are proposed and should be further investigated. The influence of substrates was also evaluated, and the initial composition was observed to be larger on porous surface than nonporous surfaces. Preliminary aging of fingerprints over 30 days was finally studied on a porous and a nonporous substrate to evaluate the potential for dating of fingermarks. Squalene was observed to decrease in a faster rate on a nonporous substrate.
Szewcow, R, Robertson, J & Roux, CP 2011, 'The influence of front-loading and top-loading washing machines on the persistence, redistribution and secondary transfer of textile fibres during laundering', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 263-273.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study investigated the influence of several factors on the redistribution of extraneous textile fibres on garments during machine washing. Cotton T-shirts were seeded with known numbers of acrylic, wool and viscose target fibres in controlled positions and laundered in top- and front-loading machines, both individually and accompanied by undergarments. The persistence of target fibres was low (generally <10%), but never zero. Between 50% and 100% of recovered fibres were redistributed away from the primary contact area. A secondary transfer of target fibres always occurred to at least one undergarment, 90% of experiments resulting in fibres transferred to the inside surface of the undergarments. This implies that whilst valuable fibre evidence may be recovered from garments after machine washing, the location of recovered fibres should not be relied upon to corroborate alleged scenarios when it is known or suspected that the garment under investigation has been laundered.
Colella, M, Parkinson, A, Evans, T, Robertson, J & Roux, CP 2011, 'The Effect Of Ionizing Gamma Radiation On Natural And Synthetic Fibers And Its Implications For The Forensic Examination Of Fiber Evidence', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 591-605.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Circumstances of criminal activities involving radioactive materials may mean fiber evidence recovered from a crime scene could have been exposed to materials emitting ionizing radiation. The consequences of radiation exposed fibers on the result of the
Julian, R, Kelty, SF, Roux, CP, Woodman, P, Robertson, J, Davey, A, Hayes, R, Margot, P, Ross, AM, Sibly, H & White, RD 2011, 'What is the value of forensic science? An overview of the effectiveness of forensic science in the Australian criminal justice system project', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 217-229.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Forensic science is increasingly relied upon by law enforcement to assist in solving crime and gaining convictions, and by the judicial system in the adjudication of specific criminal cases. However, the value of forensic science relative to the work involved and the outcome of cases has yet to be established in the Australian context. Previous research in this area has mainly focused on the science and technology, rather than examining how people can use forensic services/science to the best possible advantage to produce appropriate justice outcomes. This five-year project entails an investigation into the effectiveness of forensic science in police investigations and court trials. It aims to identify when, where and how forensic science can add value to criminal investigations, court trials and justice outcomes while ensuring the efficient use of available resources initially in the Victorian and the ACT criminal justice systems and ultimately across Australia and New Zealand. This paper provides an overview of the rationale and aims of the research project and discusses current work-in-progress.
Chadwick, SR, Maynard, PJ, Kirkbride, KP, Lennard, CJ, Spindler, X & Roux, CP 2011, 'Use of Styryl 11 and STaR 11 for the luminescence enhancement of cyanoacrylate-developed fingermarks in the visible and near-infrared regions', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 1505-1513.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In current casework, most post-cyanoacrylate stains rely on luminescence emission in the visible region (400-700 nm). While traditional stains such as rhodamine 6G work well under most circumstances, some surfaces may generate background luminescence under the same conditions. Detection in the near-infrared region (NIR > 700 nm) has shown to be effective in minimizing the interferences from such surfaces. The laser dye styryl 11 generated strongly luminescent fingermarks when applied after cyanoacrylate fuming on all surfaces tested. When compared to rhodamine 6G, the dye was superior only when viewed in the NIR. Styryl 11 was subsequently combined with rhodamine 6G, and the mixed stain formulation (named StaR 11 by the authors) induced stronger luminescence compared with styryl 11 alone with an ability to visualize in both the visible and NIR regions. Reliable and consistent results were obtained when using either styryl 11 alone or the STaR 11 mixture. The enhancement achieved did not otherwise vary depending on the source of the fingermark secretions. With visualization possible in both the visible and NIR regions, the styryl 11/rhodamine 6G mixture showed significant potential as a post-cyanoacrylate stain.
Raymond, J, Van Oorschot, R, Walsh, SJ, Gunn, PR & Roux, CP 2011, 'How far have we come with trace DNA since 2004? The Australian and New Zealand experience', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 231-244.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In 2004, a survey was sent to forensic organisations in every jurisdiction in Australia and New Zealand, benchmarking practices in relation to trace DNA analysis. Concerning issues were identified such as a lack of standard training protocols, little ongoing training or proficiency testing, and poor information gathering and sharing. To assess the changes occurring in the five years since this survey, a follow-up was devised and distributed to the same organisations in early 2009. Seventy-seven surveys were received from persons active in the field of trace DNA including crime scene and laboratory personnel, and managers. The major difference noted between the two surveys was the implementation of new technologies, primarily robotic automation and subsequent changes in extraction methodology. Disappointingly, training, research and proficiency test levels were still found to be lacking, a concern given the findings of recent international forensic reviews. A major deficiency still noted from the 2004 survey was the absence of effective data management systems, indicating that the wider intelligence-led application of this evidence is not fully utilised. Reviewing the methods and processes of the dissemination of forensic data in the policing environment has the potential to broaden its application to crime prevention strategies
Fung, TC, Grimwood, KM, Shimmon, R, Spindler, X, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2011, 'Investigation of hydrogen cyanide generation from the cyanoacrylate fuming process used for latent fingermark detection', Forensic Science International, vol. 212, no. 1-3, pp. 143-149.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Cyanoacrylate fuming is one of the most common techniques employed for the detection of latent fingermarks on non-porous surfaces such as plastic and glass. The technique is generally applied by exposing items of interest to the vapours generated by heating a suitable quantity of commercial cyanoacrylate adhesive. In this study, the potential for highly toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to be generated from the overheating of cyanoacrylate was investigated. Two commercial cyanoacrylate adhesives and two quantitative methods for the determination of HCN were employed: (i) the sodium picrate method; and (ii) the picrateresorcinol method. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis was used to confirm the presence of cyanide. In addition, the thermal decomposition of cyanoacrylate was studied using simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGADTA). It was determined that detectable and quantifiable amounts of HCN were generated from the thermal decomposition of cyanoacrylate monomer and polymer at temperatures as low as 200 8C. Using an optimised picrateresorcinol method, it was shown that around 10 mg of HCN could be generated from the heating of 1 g of cyanoacrylate monomer at 200 8C. For one of the adhesives tested, this increased to above 100 mg of HCN when 1 g of cyanoacrylate monomer was heated at 280 8C. Recommendations are provided that, if followed, should ensure that the cyanoacrylate fuming process can be safely applied with minimal risk to the operator.
Ma, R, Bullock, EA, Maynard, PJ, Reedy, BJ, Shimmon, R, Lennard, CJ, Roux, CP & McDonagh, AM 2011, 'Fingermark Detection On Non-Porous And Semi-Porous Surfaces Using Nayf(4):Er,Yb Up-Converter Particles', Forensic Science International, vol. 207, no. 1-Mar, pp. 145-149.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article describes the first use of an anti-Stokes material, or up-converter, for the development of latent fingermarks on a range of non-porous surfaces. Anti-Stokes materials can absorb long-wavelength light and emit light at a shorter wavelength. This property is unusual in both natural and artificial materials and so fingermark detection techniques based on anti-Stokes luminescence are potentially sensitive and selective. Latent fingermarks on luminescent and non-luminescent substrates, including Australian polymer banknotes (a well-known `difficult surface), were developed with sodium yttrium tetrafluoride doped with erbium and ytterbium (NaYF4:Er,Yb) by dry powder, wet powder, and cyanoacrylate staining techniques. This study illustrates the potential of up-converter phosphors for the detection of latent fingermarks.
Spindler, X, Shimmon, R, Roux, CP & Lennard, CJ 2011, 'The effect of zinc chloride, humidity and the substrate on the reaction of 1,2-indanedione-zinc with amino acids in latent fingermark secretions', Forensic Science International, vol. 212, no. 1-3, pp. 150-157.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Anecdotal evidence from forensic practitioners and studies conducted under controlled conditions have indicated that the reaction between 1,2-indanedione and the amino acids present in latent fingermark deposits is highly susceptible to ambient humidity. The addition of catalytic amounts of zinc chloride to the 1,2-indanedione working solution usually in the order of 1:25 to 1:4 molar ratio (indanedione:zinc) significantly improves the colour and luminescence of fingermarks treated under dry conditions but appears to have a negligible effect on fingermarks treated in humid environments. The results presented in this paper confirmed that zinc(II) ions added to the 1,2-indanedione working solution act as a Lewis acid catalyst, stabilising a key intermediate during a rate-limiting hydrolysis step. Furthermore, studying the reaction using a chromatography-grade cellulose substrate method previously reported confirmed that cellulose substrates play a major role in facilitating the indanedione-amino acid reaction by acting as a surface catalyst in the early stages of the reaction and by directing the formation of the desired luminescent product (Joullie´ s Pink).
Lloyd, AE, Blanes, L, Beavis, AB, Roux, CP & Doble, PA 2011, 'A Rapid Method For The In-Field Analysis Of Amphetamines Employing The Agilent Bioanalyzer', Analytical Methods, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 1535-1539.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper reports the first analysis of small molecules on the Agilent bio-analyser. The Bioanalyzer is a commercial lab-on-a-chip instrument designed for the analysis of DNA and proteins. We demonstrate that the instrument is suitable for analyses beyo
Spindler, X, Hofstetter, O, McDonagh, AM, Roux, CP & Lennard, CJ 2011, 'Enhancement of latent fingermarks on non-porous surfaces using anti-l-amino acid antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles', Chemical Communications, vol. 47, no. 19, pp. 5602-5604.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Enantioselective anti-L-amino acid antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles are shown to facilitate the detection of latent fingermarks by interacting with amino acids present in friction ridge secretions. This antibody-based system is particularly effective for the enhancement of aged and dried fingermarks on non-porous surfaces, an area unexploited by current techniques.
Bossers, L, Roux, CP, Bell, M & McDonagh, AM 2011, 'Methods for the enhancement of fingermarks in blood', Forensic Science International, vol. 210, no. 1-3, pp. 1-11.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Fingermarks formed in or by blood often require specific development techniques. This review examines techniques and materials that may be used to enhance and record fingermarks deposited in blood or fingermarks generated by blood-contaminated papillary ridges. A large number of techniques are presented here and are discussed from a chemical as well as practical perspective. It is concluded that an optimized sequence of techniques targeting both latent (non-bloody) and bloody fingermarks must be applied to detect and enhance the maximum number of marks, and therefore optimize the information content from exhibits that may bear marks in blood.
Bennett, S, Roux, CP & Robertson, J 2010, 'The significance of fibre transfer and persistence-A case study', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 221-228.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In April, 1995 the body of a young woman was found in a suburb of Sydney, Australia. The body was fully clothed and bore a number of injuries to the neck, face and fingers. There were no signs of sexual assault and she appeared to have been strangled. The only physical evidence located at the scene was a number of dark, coarse fibres adhering to the soles of her shoes. These fibres consisted of nine grey polypropylene, 12 blue polypropylene and 50 black polyester fibres. The source of these fibres was found to be the carpet of a 1991 Honda CRX that belonged to the suspect. Almost all other possible sources of these fibres were eliminated. At trial, the source of the fibres was not disputed by the defence. Instead the issue became how long these fibres had persisted on the shoe soles. A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the factors influencing the transfer and persistence of carpet fibres to shoe soles and the results of these experiments became a critically important part of the prosecution.
Ribaux, O, Baylon, A, Lock, E, Delemont, O, Roux, CP, Zingg, C & Margot, P 2010, 'Intelligence-led crime scene processing. Part II: Intelligence and crime scene examination', Forensic Science International, vol. 199, pp. 63-71.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A better integration of the information conveyed by traces within intelligence-led framework would allow forensic science to participate more intensively to security assessments through forensic intelligence (part I). In this view, the collection of data by examining crime scenes is an entire part of intelligence processes. This conception frames our proposal for a model that promotes to better use knowledge available in the organisation for driving and supporting crime scene examination. The suggested model also clarifies the uncomfortable situation of crime scene examiners who must simultaneously comply with justice needs and expectations, and serve organisations that are mostly driven by broader security objectives. It also opens new perspective for forensic science and crime scene investigation, by the proposal to follow other directions than the traditional path suggested by dominant movements in these fields.
Ribaux, O, Baylon, A, Roux, CP, Delemont, O, Lock, E, Zingg, C & Margot, P 2010, 'Intelligence-led crime scene processing. Part I: Forensic intelligence', Forensic Science International, vol. 195, no. 1-3, pp. 10-16.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Forensic science is generally defined as the application of science to address questions related to the law. Too often, this view restricts the contribution of science to one single process which eventually aims at bringing individuals to court while minimising risk of miscarriage of justice. In order to go beyond this paradigm, we propose to refocus the attention towards traces themselves, as remnants of a criminal activity, and their information content. We postulate that traces contribute effectively to a wide variety of other informational processes that support decision making in many situations. In particular, they inform actors of new policing strategies who place the treatment of information and intelligence at the centre of their systems. This contribution of forensic science to these security oriented models is still not well identified and captured. In order to create the best condition for the development of forensic intelligence, we suggest a framework that connects forensic science to intelligence-led policing (part I). Crime scene attendance and processing can be envisaged within this view. This approach gives indications about how to structure knowledge used by crime scene examiners in their effective practice (part II).
Hoile, RJ, Banos, C, Colella, M, Walsh, SJ & Roux, CP 2010, 'Gamma irradiation as a biological decontaminant and its effect on common fingermark detection techniques and DNA profiling', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 171-177.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The use of disease-causing organisms and their toxins against the civilian population has defined bioterrorism and opened forensic science up to the challenges of processing contaminated evidence. This study sought to detennine the use of gamma irradiation as an effective biological decontaminant and its effect on the recovery of latent fingennarks from both porous and nonporous items. Test items were contaminated with viable spores marked with latent pIinrs and then decontaminated using a cobalt 60 gamma irradiator. Fingerrnark detection was the focus with standard methods inclurJing 1,2-inrJanedione, ninhydrin, diazafluoren-9-one, and physical developer used during this study. DNA recovery using 20% Chelex extraction and quantitative real-time polymerdse chain reaction was also explored. Gamma irradiation proved effective as a bacterial decontaminant with D-values ranging from 458 to 500 Gy for nonporous items and 797-808 Gy for porous ones. The results demonstrated the successful recovel)' of latent marks and DNA establishing gamma irradiation as a viable decontamination option.
The recent report of the National Research Council of the US National Academies Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: a Path Forward found evidence that the level of scientific development and evaluation varies substantially among the forensic science disciplines. In this paper the status of trace evidence will be reviewed from an international perspective with particular reference to case studies. The paper will argue that the trace evidence discipline needs to learn from past experience and that serious coordinated action is required at an international level if trace evidence is to continue to meet the standards expected of forensic science in the future. The paper concludes that it is vital that trace evidence remains a key component of forensic investigation due to its important role in addressing the `what happened question.
Benson, SJ, Lennard, CJ, Hill, DE, Maynard, PJ & Roux, CP 2010, 'Forensic Analysis Of Explosives Using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Irms)-Part 1: Instrument Validation Of The Deltaplusxp Irms For Bulk Nitrogen Isotope Ratio Measurements', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 193-204.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A significant amount of research has been conducted into the use of stable isotopes to assist in determining the origin of various materials. The research conducted in the forensic field shows the potential of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to pr
Benson, SJ, Lennard, CJ, Maynard, PJ, Hill, DE, Andrew, AS, Neal, K, Stuart-williams, H, Hope, J, Walker, GS & Roux, CP 2010, 'Forensic Analysis Of Explosives Using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Irms)-Part 2: Forensic Inter-Laboratory Trial: Bulk Carbon And Nitrogen Stable Isotopes In A Range Of Chemical Compounds (Australia And New Zealand)', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 205-212.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Comparability of data over time and between laboratories is a key issue for consideration in the development of global databases, and more broadly for quality assurance in general. One mechanism that can be utilized for evaluating traceability is an inte
Chan, JH, Shimmon, R, Spindler, X, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ, Roux, CP & Stuart, BH 2010, 'An investigation of isatin as a potential reagent for latent fingermark detection on porous surfaces', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 320-336.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This study investigated isatin as a potential fingermark enhancement reagent for use on porous surfaces. A number of parameters were investigated, including concentration, solvent system, pH of the solution, and optimization of the development conditions. It was determined that isatin at a concentration of 0.05% (w/v) provided the optimum balance between the luminescence of the fingermark ridges and background. A carrier solvent of dioxane mixed with acetone [12.5% (v/v)] produced the most intense luminescence. It was determined that the optimum pH for the development of fingermarks was 5.0 and that this could be reached by the addition of 4% (vlv) sodium carbonate buffer. The use of a dry heat press at 180°C for 10 s provided optimal development conditions.
Epple, R, Blanes, L, Beavis, AB, Roux, CP & Doble, PA 2010, 'Analysis of amphetamine-type substances by capillary zone electrophoresis using capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection', Electrophoresis, vol. 31, no. S1, pp. 2608-2613.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
CE with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D) was employed for the separation and detection of seven amphetamine analogues as well as amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. The separation electrolyte was 30 mM hydroxypropyl-~-cyclodextrin (HPPCD) in a 75 mM acetic acid+25 mM sodium acetate buffer adjusted to pH 4.55. Conductivity detection was compared with UV detection using this same electrolyte. Average detection limits for C4D and UV were 1.3 and 1.0 ppm, respectively. The effects of HPPCO -concentration and BGE composition on the selectivity of the separation were also investigated. An illicit, street-grade sample of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy) and a prescription dextroamphetamine tablet were also analysed.
Colella, M, Parkinson, A, Evans, T, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2009, 'The recovery of latent fingermarks from evidence exposed to ionizing radiation', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Continual reports of illicit trafficking incidents involving radioactive materials have prompted authorities to consider the likelihood of forensic evidence being exposed to radiation. In this study, we investigated the ability to recover latent fingermark evidence from a variety of substrates that were exposed to ionizing radiation. Fingermarks deposited on common surfaces, including aluminum, glass, office paper, and plastic, were exposed to doses ranging from 1 to 1000 kGy, in an effort to simulate realistic situations where evidence is exposed to significant doses of radiation from sources used in a criminal act. The fingermarks were processed using routine fingermark detection techniques. With the exception of glass and aluminum substrates, radiolysis had a considerable effect on the quality of the developed fingermarks. The damage to ridge characteristics can, in part, be attributed to chemical interactions between the substrate and the components of the fingermark secretions that react with the detection reagents.
Huttunen, JE, Dawson, M, Roux, CP & Robertson, J 2009, 'Physical Evidence In Drug Intelligence Part 3: Supercritical Fluid Extraction-High Performance Liquid Chromatography Of Packaging Tapes', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 63-72.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
It may be desirable to compare samples of packaging tape or identify their specific brand and/or model based on analytical results. Such information may, for example, be used to infer or refute hypotheses of common origin for separately seized packages o
Benson, SJ, Lennard, CJ, Maynard, PJ, Andrews, A, Hill, D & Roux, CP 2009, 'Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) - Preliminary study on TATP and PETN', Science & Justice, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 81-86.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The application of isotopic techniques to investigations requiring the provision of evidence to a Court is limited. The objective of this research was to investigate the application of light stable isotopes and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to solve complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. Due to the current threat of organic peroxide explosives, such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP), research was undertaken to determine the potential of IRMS to differentiate samples of TATP that had been manufactured utilising different starting materials and/or manufacturing processes. In addition, due to the prevalence of pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN) in detonators, detonating cord, and boosters, the potential of the IRMS technique to differentiate PETN samples from different sources was also investigated. Carbon isotope values were measured in fourteen TATP samples, with three deï¬nite groups appearing in the initial sample set based on the carbon data alone. Four additional TATP samples (in a second set of samples) were distinguishable utilising the carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions individually, and also in combination with the oxygen isotope values. The 3D plot of the carbon, oxygen and hydrogen data demonstrated the clear discrimination of the four samples of TATP. The carbon and nitrogen isotope values measured from ï¬fteen PETN samples, allowed samples from different sources to be readily discriminated. This paper demonstrates the successful application of IRMS to the analysis of explosives of forensic interest to assist in discriminating samples from different sources. This research represents a preliminary evaluation of the IRMS technique for the measurement of stable isotope values in TATP and PETN samples, and supports the dedication of resources for a full evaluation of this application in order to achieve Court reportable IRMS results.
Benson, SJ, Lennard, CJ, Maynard, PJ, Hill, D, Andrews, A & Roux, CP 2009, 'Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) - Discrimination of ammonium nitrate sources', Science & Justice, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 73-80.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
An evaluation was undertaken to determine if isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) could assist in the investigation of complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. The focus of the research was on ammonium nitrate (AN), a common oxidiser used in improvised explosive mixtures. The potential value of IRMS to attribute Australian AN samples to the manufacturing source was demonstrated through the development of a preliminary AN classiï¬cation scheme based on nitrogen isotopes. Although the discrimination utilising nitrogen isotopes alone was limited and only relevant to samples from the three Australian manufacturers during the evaluated time period, the classiï¬cation scheme has potential as an investigative aid. Combining oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope values permitted the differentiation of AN prills from three different Australian manufacturers. Samples from ï¬ve different overseas sources could be differentiated utilising a combination of the nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen isotope values. Limited differentiation between Australian and overseas prills was achieved for the samples analysed. The comparison of nitrogen isotope values from intact AN prill samples with those from post-blast AN prill residues highlighted that the nitrogen isotopic composition of the prills was not maintained post-blast; hence, limiting the technique to analysis of un-reacted explosive material.
Raymond, JJ, Van Oorschot, R, Gunn, PR, Walsh, SJ & Roux, CP 2009, 'Trace DNA success rates relating to volume crime offences', Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 136-137.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In this study, 252 trace DNA samples (from handled surfaces) from 201 burglary, robbery and drugs cases were compiled to assess success rates and to interpret the value of trace DNA evidence in volume crime investigations. The average amount of DNA recovered from the trace DNA samples collected was 1.7 ng. Full or major (12 or more alleles) profiles were recovered from 14% of samples. Samples from firearms and burglary points of entry were the least successful. Mixtures were recovered from 21% of samples, presenting a case for the collection of more elimination profiles to enable more samples to be used for database purposes. The research highlighted the difficulties in collecting data relating to the success rates of samples. Computerised automation of this process would be extremely beneficial in the assistance of policy development, method application, training, and investigative usefulness.
Raymond, JJ, Van Oorschot, R, Gunn, PR, Walsh, SJ & Roux, CP 2009, 'Trace evidence characteristics of DNA: A preliminary investigation of the persistence of DNA at crime scenes', Forensic Science International: Genetics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 26-33.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The successful recovery of trace or contact DNA is highly variable. It is seemingly dependent on a wide range of factors, from the characteristics of the donor, substrate and environment, to the delay between contact and recovery. There is limited research on the extent of the effect these factors have on trace DNA analysis. This study investigated the persistence of trace DNA on surfaces relevant to the investigation of burglary and robbery offences. The study aimed to limit the number of variables involved to solely determine the effect of time on DNA recovery. Given that it is difficult to control the quantity of DNA deposited during a hand contact, human buffy coat and DNA control solution were chosen as an alternative to give a more accurate measure of quantity. Set volumes of these solutions were deposited onto outdoor surfaces (window frames and vinyl material to mimic burglary and `bag snatch offences) and sterile glass slides stored in a closed environment in the laboratory, for use as a control. Trace DNA casework data was also scrutinised to assess the effect of time on DNA recovery from real samples. The amount of DNA recovered from buffy coat on the outdoor surfaces declined by approximately half over two weeks, to a negligible amount after six weeks. Profiles could not be obtained after two weeks. The samples stored in the laboratory were more robust, and full profiles were obtained after six weeks, the longest time period tested in these experiments. It is possible that profiles may be obtained from older samples when kept in similarly favourable conditions.
Raymond, JJ, Van Oorschot, R, Walsh, SJ, Roux, CP & Gunn, PR 2009, 'Trace DNA and street robbery: A criminalistic approach to DNA evidence', Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 544-546.View/Download from: Publisher's site
It is now routine to detect trace DNA from handled objects, and with such low quantities of DNA the principles of criminalistics are now more relevant to biological evidence. This study aimed to provide data into the abundance, transfer and persistence of trace DNA, in a particular crime scenariostreet robbery. Items commonly stolen during a robbery (handbags and wallets) were swabbed to determine the background levels of DNA present. The likelihood of DNA transferring onto wallets during and after a robbery was investigated, as was the amount of handling time needed for the offender's DNA to become a major component in the recovered profile. A significant amount of DNA was recovered from wallets and bags in regular use, including small amounts of non-owner DNA. This indicates that background DNA may interfere with the recovery of offenders DNA. Profiles recovered from wallets stolen in a simulated robbery were in the majority mixtures, however the robber was a major component of the mixture or a single source profile in 40% of the profiles. The findings demonstrate that background data on the trace evidence characteristics of DNA will aid its interpretation and presentation in criminal trials.
Maynard, PJ, Jenkins, J, Edey, C, Payne, GL, Lennard, CJ, McDonagh, AM & Roux, CP 2009, 'Near infrared imaging for the improved detection of fingermarks on difficult surfaces', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 43-62.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The near infrared spectral region offers advantages over the visible region in the detection of latent fingermarks due to increased contrast and decreased background luminescence. In this work, a chemical imaging system was used to image latent fingermarks in the near-infrared (NIR) region. A variety of porous, non-porous and semi-porous surfaces were tested using standard chemical and physical enhancement techniques. NIR dyes were also used to enhance latent marks. Both absorption and luminescence properties of the treated marks were examined over the spectral range 650-1100 nm. Significant NIR absorption was found for ninhydrin, iodine/benzoflavone, physical developer, and powdering. NIR luminescence emission was found for DFO, ninhydrin with zinc salt post treatment, 1,2-indanedione and genipin. Significant NIR luminescence emission was found for cyanoacrylate fuming followed by staining with NIR dyes. In addition, metal oxide powders coated with NIR dyes were able to enhance fingermarks on a patterned and highly luminescent surface.
Salama, J, Aumeer-Donovan, SB, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2008, 'Evaluation of the fingermark reagent oil red O as a possible replacement for physical developer', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 203-237.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Walsh, SJ, Buckleton, JS, Ribaux, O, Roux, CP & Raymond, T 2008, 'Comparing the growth effectiveness of forensic DNA databases', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 667-668.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Hoile, R, Walsh, SJ & Roux, C 2008, 'Bioterrorism: Processing contaminated evidence, the effects of formaldehyde gas on the recovery of latent fingermarks (Journal of Forensic Sciences (2007) 52, 5, (1097-1102))', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 53, no. 6, p. 1499.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Raymond, JJ, Van Oorschot, R, Walsh, SJ & Roux, CP 2008, 'Do you know what your neighbour is doing?. A multi-jurisdictional survey', Forensic Science International: Genetics, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 19-28.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Since 1997 the analysis of DNA recovered from handled objects or 'trace' DNA has become routine and is frequently demanded from crime scene examinations. However, this anlaysis often produces unpredictable results. The factors affecting the recovery of full profiles are numerous and include varying methods of collectiona nd analysis. Communication between forensic laboratories in Australia and New Zealand has been limited in the past due in some part to sheet distance. Because of its relatively small population and low number of forensic jurisdictions this region is in an excelllent position to provide a collective approach. However, the protocols training methods and research of each jurisdiction had not been widely exchanged. A survey was developed to benchmark the current practices involved in trace DNA analysis, aiming to provide information for training programs and research directions, and to identy factors contributing to the success or failure of the analysis.
Bojko, KL, Roux, CP & Reedy, BJ 2008, 'An examination of the sequence of intersecting lines using attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectral imaging', Journal of Forensic Science, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 1458-1467.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Raymond, JJ, Walsh, SJ, Van Oorschot, R, Gunn, PR, Evans, L & Roux, CP 2008, 'Assessing trace DNA evidence from a residential burglary: abundance, transfer and persistence', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 442-443.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
huttunen, J, Doble, PA, Dawson, M, Roux, CP & Robertson, J 2008, 'Physical evidence in drug intelligence, Part 2: discrimination of packaging tapes by colour', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 73-83.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The authors have considered routine exploitation of physical evidence from seized shipments of illicit drugs for intelligence purposes. Part 1 of this series addressed the identification of polymer type within the adhesive pf packaging tapes and raised important issues with regard to how data should be collated in a databse as a basis for reliable drug intelligence. this article expands onthis topic by addressingt eh sue of colour for achieving the same aim. By using a relatively simple instrumental technique to analyse opaque 'brown' packaging tapes, it was found that colour was an effective way to discriminate between different adhesive tape samples. However, unitial results showed that the analysis of colour in packaging tapes was more complex than assigning seminsubjective names to particular hues (e.g. light brown, greenm brown etc). Instead, samples in the population often differed only slightly from one another and hence proved difficult to categorise. Thus, a database or analyst must avoid using such 'discrete' labels and instead make use of 'continuous' numerical data. Here, CIELab chromaticity coordinates were used to define representative colour spaces for each tape sample and these were then compared to determine whether two such volumes intersected. This process would decide whether or not the sampes could be discriminated. While several sets of data were compared, further work needs to be carried out into the consistency of colour within single rolls of tape or batches of tape.
Choi, M, McBean, KE, McDonagh, AM, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2008, 'An evaluation of nanostructured zinc oxide as a fluorescent powder for fingerprint detection', Journal of Materials Science, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 732-737.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Zinc oxide is evaluated as a fluorescent powder for the detection of fingermarks on non-porous surfaces. Pure and lithium-doped nanostructured zinc oxide powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The zinc oxide powders were applied to fresh and aged fingermarks deposited on non-porous surfaces such as glass, polyethylene and aluminium foil. Zinc oxide was found to produce clear fluorescent impressions of the latent fingermarks when illuminated with long-wave UV light
Choi, M, McDonagh, AM, Maynard, PJ & Roux, CP 2008, 'Metal-containing Nanoparticles and Nano-structured Particles in Fingermark Detection', Forensic Science International, vol. 179, no. 2-3, pp. 87-97.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article reviews the application of metal-containing nanoparticles and nano-structured particles to fingermark detection. This area of research is attracting significant interest as advances in nanoscience are being incorporated into the field of forensic fingermark detection. Although more research is needed before some of the techniques presented can be implemented in routine casework, nanotechnology is likely to play a major role in the future to deliver more selective and more sensitive ways to detect and enhance fingermarks.
Wallace-Kunkel, C, Lennard, C, Stoilovic, M & Roux, C 2007, 'Optimisation and evaluation of 1,2-indanedione for use as a fingermark reagent and its application to real samples', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 14-26.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Stoilovic, M, Lennard, CJ, Wallace, Kunkel, CS & Roux, CP 2007, 'Evaluation of a 1,2-Indanedione Formulation Containing Zinc Chloride for Improved Fingermark Detection on Paper', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 4-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wallace, Kunkel, CS, Lennard, CJ, Stoilovic, M & Roux, CP 2007, 'Optimisation and Evaluation of 1,2-Indanedione for Use as a Fingermark Reagent and its Application to Real Samples', Forensic Science International, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 14-26.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
1,2-Indanedione is an emerging fingermark reagent used on porous surfaces. The general consensus is that this reagent is at least as sensitive as DFO, with some research showing higher sensitivity for 1,2-indanedione as opposed to DFO.However, a number o
Payne, GL, Langlois, NE, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2007, 'Applying Visible Hyperspectral (chemical) Imaging To Estimate The Age Of Bruises', Medicine Science And The Law, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 225-232.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Hyperspectral (chemical) imaging collects spectroscopic data in a two-dimensional spatial format. The potential application for the determination of the age of bruises is demonstrated and compared to reflectance probe spectrophotometry as well as photogr
Hoile, RJ, Walsh, SJ & Roux, CP 2007, 'Bioterrorism: Processing Contaminated Evidence, The Effects Of Formaldehyde Gas On The Recovery Of Latent Fingermarks', Journal Of Forensic Sciences, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1097-1102.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In the present age of heightened emphasis on counter terrorism, law enforcement and forensic science are constantly evolving and adapting to the motivations and capabilities of terrorist groups and individuals. The use of biological agents on a populatio
Stoilovic, M, Lennard, CJ, Wallace, Kunkel, CS & Roux, CP 2007, 'Use of dichloromethane in fingerprint reagent formulations', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 333-334.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Letter to the editor
Huttunen, JE, Austin, CE, Dawson, M, Roux, CP & Robertson, J 2007, 'Physical evidence in drug intelligence, Part 1: rationale based on hierarchic distribution of drugs using pyrolysis gas chromatography- Mass spectrometry as an example', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 93-106.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
A complementary intelligence-gathering tool is described for drug-crime investigation. Scientific analysis and interpretation of packaging materials from seized shipments of illicit drugs will assist law enforcement by creating a more holistic description of each seizure, thus allowing further inferences to be drawn and ultimately assisting in a more thorough understanding of the flow of drugs to or within a particular jurisdiction. The approach is intended as an extension to chemical and physical profiling methods already applied to the actual seized drugs by many law enforcement organisations around the world. Adhesives from 98 rolls of packaging tape were analysed by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PyGCMS) for the purposes of determining the types of polymers commonly found in such samples. Using these results as an example, models outlined within this document describe how drug and packaging analysis can complement each other, and how such data can be used in an intelligence capacity. Some limitations of the approach are also identified and discussed.
Stoilovic, M, Lennard, C, Wallace-Kunkel, C & Roux, C 2007, 'Re: Use of dichloromethane in fingerprint reagent formulations ', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 333-334.
Huttunen, J, Austina, C, Dawson, M, Roux, C & Robertson, J 2007, 'Physical evidence in drug intelligence, Part 1: Rationale based on hierarchic distribution of drugs using pyrolysis gas chromatography- Mass spectrometry as an example', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 93-106.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A complementary intelligence-gathering tool is described for drug-crime investigation. Scientific analysis and interpretation of packaging materials from seized shipments of illicit drugs will assist law enforcement by creating a more holistic description of each seizure, thus allowing further inferences to be drawn and ultimately assisting in a more thorough understanding of the flow of drugs to or within a particular jurisdiction. The approach is intended as an extension to chemical and physical profiling methods already applied to the actual seized drugs by many law enforcement organisations around the world. Adhesives from 98 rolls of packaging tape were analysed by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PyGCMS) for the purposes of determining the types of polymers commonly found in such samples. Using these results as an example, models outlined within this document describe how drug and packaging analysis can complement each other, and how such data can be used in an intelligence capacity. Some limitations of the approach are also identified and discussed. © 2007 Australian Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Payne, G, Langlois, N, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2007, 'Applying visible hyperspectral (chemical) imaging to estimate the age of bruises', Medicine, Science and the Law, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 225-232.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Hyperspectral (chemical) imaging collects spectroscopic data in a two-dimensional spatial format. The potential application for the determination of the age of bruises is demonstrated and compared to reflectance probe spectrophotometry as well as photography. Blood was deposited on white cotton cloth or injected subcutaneously into pig skin to simulate a 'fresh bruise'. A mixture of blood and bile was used to simulate 'old' bruises. On the cloth background all the photographic methods clearly separated the two groups of samples (i.e. 'blood only' from 'blood plus bile'). However, on the pig skin the two groups could be separated by one of the photographic methods only. Separation of blood from blood and bile mixtures was obtained on the cloth and skin backgrounds using spectrophotometry and hyperspectral imaging. In a test using serial dilutions of blood and bile mixtures, the hyperspectral system performed slightly better than the spectrophotometer. The former also had the advantage of imaging a wider area and providing spatial data. Hyperspectral (chemical) imaging and spectrophotometry are superior to photography for the detection of bilirubin on a background of skin (due to the presence of yellow chromophores); this technology combined with mathematical analysis of the spectral data warrants further investigation. © 2007, SAGE Publications. All rights reserved.
Choi, M, Smoother, T, Martin, AA, McDonagh, AM, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2007, 'Fluorescent TiO2 powders prepared using a new perylene diimide dye: Applications in latent fingermark detection', Forensic Science International, vol. 173, no. 2, pp. 154-160.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A new, highly fluorescent dye was synthesised using oleylamine combined with a perylene dianhydride compound. The new dye was characterised by H-1 NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as quantum yield. The dye was absorbed onto
Wallace, Kunkel, CS, Lennard, CJ, Stoilovic, M & Roux, CP 2006, 'Evaluation of 5-Methylthioninhydrin for the Detection of Fingermarks on Porous Surfaces and Comparison', Identification Canada, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 4-13.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The chemical 5-methylthioninhydrin was developed in the early 1990s for treating fingermarks on porous surfaces. Although many researchers showed the promise of this chemical during the years between 1990 and 1997, current research indicates that this reagent is sill not commonly used in casework. The current study assessed the commercially produced 5-methylthioninhydrin and compared it to the more commonly used reagents for detecting fingermarks on porous surfaces. The study found that 5-methylthioninhydrin is superior to ninhydrin; however, 1,2-indanedione produced a much stronger luminescence when used to treat latent fingermarks. Comparable fluorescence was produced with 5-methlthioninhydrin after metal salt treatment to DFO; the high background detracts from the ridge detail, however. The study concludes that although the cost of 5-methylthioninhydrin is higher than for conventional reagents, its use may be justified in some circumstances. The second article begins with an illustrated step-by-step demonstration of the technique for blending two exposures of the same scene. It involves the use of layers within Adobe Photoshop CS and then placing one exposure overtop of another exposure. The best qualities of each exposure are then used in the final print. The article then examines a few applied forensic applications of the blending of two exposures, including a technique for rescuing underexposed images. This issues section on Society Business (Canadian Identification Society) addresses Society awards, the Presidents message," the 29th CIS Educational Conference, guidelines for authors, a listing of award winners and past presidents, and a listing of staff members
Benson, SJ, Lennard, CJ, Maynard, PJ & Roux, CP 2006, 'Forensic applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry - A review', Forensic Science International, vol. 157, no. 1, pp. 1-22.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The key role of a forensic scientist is to assist in determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so, assist in the identification of the offender. Many people hold the belief that a particular item can be conclusively linked to a specific pers
Bojko, KL, O'Leary, R, Roux, CP & Reedy, BJ 2006, 'Forensic analysis of bicomponent fibers using infrared chemical imaging', Journal Of Forensic Sciences, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 586-596.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The application of infrared chemical imaging to the analysis of bicomponent fibers was evaluated. Eleven nominally bicomponent fibers were examined either side-on or in cross-section. In six of the 11 samples, infrared chemical imaging was able to spatia
Choi, M, McBean, KE, Wuhrer, R, McDonagh, AM, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2006, 'Investigation into the binding of gold nanoparticles to fingermarks using scanning electron microscopy', Journal of Forensic identification, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 24-32.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
For the first time, scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the binding of gold nanoparticles to fingermarks placed on nanoporous surfaces. The results show that gold nanoparticles, under standard MMDII conditions, bind preferentially to latent fingermark ridges on nonporous surfaces. Variation in surfactant concentration influences background development but does not affect the binding of gold nanoparticles to the ridges, while pH variation influences the binding to ridges but leaves valley regions unaffected.
Choi, M, McDonagh, AM, Maynard, PJ, Wuhrer, R, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2006, 'Preparation and evaluation of metal nanopowders for the detection of fingermarks on nonporous surfaces', Journal of Forensic identification, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 756-768.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
gold and silver nanoparticles using oleylamine as a stabilizer have been formulated for developing latent fingermarks on nonporous surfaces. These nanopowders are compared with conventional powders such as black powder, black magnetic powder, aluminium powder and white powder. Gold nanopowder produced sharp and clear development of latent fingermarks without background staining. Scanning electron microscope images revealed that particles were concentrated inthe fingermark ridge areas, with only minor amounts located in the valley regions.
Watt, RT, Roux, CP & Robertson, J 2005, 'The population of coloured textile fibres in domestic washing machines', Science & Justice, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 75-83.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A population survey was carried out to analyse examples of the coloured fibre population that may be expected to exist in both front- and top-loading domestic washing machines during Spring, in Sydney, Australia. White cotton T-shirts were washed both in
Massonnet, G, Buzzini, P, Jochem, G, Stauber, M, Coyle, T, Roux, CP, Thomas, JM, Leijenhorst, H, van Zanten, Z, Wiggins, KG, Russell, C, Chabli, S & Rosengarten, A 2005, 'Evaluation of Raman Spectroscopy for the analysis of colored fibers: A collaborative study', Journal Of Forensic Sciences, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1028-1038.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
A collaborative study on Raman spectroscopy was carried out by members of the ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes) European Fibres Group (EFG) on three dyed fibers: two red acrylics and one red wool. Raman instruments from six differen
Cavanagh-Steer, KL, Du Pasquier, E, Roux, CP & Lennard, CJ 2005, 'The transfer and persistence of petrol on car carpets', Forensic Science International, vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 71-79.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The significance of the presence of petrol in motor vehicle fires has often been challenged due to the possibility of a natural occurrence of petrol residues inside the vehicle. Transfer and persistence studies were undertaken to investigate the potentia
Schiemer, C, Lennard, C, Maynard, P & Roux, C 2005, 'Evaluation of techniques for the detection and enhancement of latent fingermarks on black electrical tape', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 214-238.
This study investigated a selection of methods to detect latent fingermarks on black electrical tapes. Subsequently, a sequence of techniques was developed and is suggested as a standard operating procedure. Different formulations of white and silver powder suspensions were developed by comparing Citron detergent and Kodak Photo-Flo as the surfactant in the suspension. A mixture of both surfactants in the suspensions repeatedly produced greater fingerprint development on the adhesive side compared to using either one on its own. Two techniques consistently performed to a higher standard for both fresh and aged marks on the adhesive side: cyanoacrylate followed by a combined basic yellow 40/basic red 28 stain and the white powder suspension. The contrast, sharpness, ridge detail, and simplicity of preparation and application achieved with both of these techniques made them superior to the other methods tested. The sequence that proved successful on the adhesive side of all tapes tested involved cyanoacrylate fuming and application of a fluorescent stain, followed by white powder suspension, and finally gentian violet with a transfer of developed marks if necessary. This sequence allowed maximum development and the greatest enhancement of latent marks, without causing the destruction of the deposit for subsequent methods. Latent fingermarks on the backing (nonadhesive side) of the electrical tape were also successfully developed with cyanoacrylate and the fluorescent stain, so treatment of the backing could be incorporated into the sequence.
Schiemer, CE, Lennard, CJ, Maynard, PJ & Roux, CP 2005, 'Evaluation of techniques for the detection and enhancement of latent fingermarks on black electrical tape', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 215-236.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Bojko, KL, O'Leary, R, Lennard, CJ, Roux, CP & Reedy, BJ 2005, 'Forensic applications of infrared chemical imaging: Multi-layered paint chips', Journal Of Forensic Sciences, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 832-841.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper examines the potential of infrared chemical (hyperspectral) imaging as a technique for the forensic analysis or automotive paint chips in particular, and multicomponent (e.g., layered) samples in general. Improved sample preparation procedures
Payne, GL, Reedy, BJ, Lennard, CJ, Comber, B, Exline, DL & Roux, CP 2005, 'A further study to investigate the detection and enhancement of latent fingerprints using visible absorption and luminescence chemical imaging', Forensic Science International, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 33-51.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study investigated the application of chemical imaging to the detection of latent fingerprints using the Condor macroscopic chemical imaging system (ChemImage Corp., Pittsburgh, USA). Methods were developed and optimised for the visualisation of unt
Payne, GL, Wallace, Kunkel, CS, Reedy, BJ, Lennard, CJ, Schuler, RL, Exline, DL & Roux, CP 2005, 'Visible and near-infrared chemical imaging methods for the analysis of selected forensic samples', Talanta, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 334-344.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study investigated various chemical imaging methods for the forensic analysis of paints, tapes and adhesives, inks and firearm propellants (absorption and photoluminescence in the UV-vis-NIR regions). Results obtained using chemical imaging technolo
Tahtouh, M, Kalman, JR, Roux, CP, Lennard, CJ & Reedy, BJ 2005, 'The detection and enhancement of latent fingermarks using infrared chemical imaging', Journal Of Forensic Sciences, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 64-72.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The use of a new technique, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) chemical imaging, has been demonstrated for the enhancement of latent fingermarks on a number of surfaces. Images of untreated fingermarks on glass backgrounds with excellent ridge detail were
Thomas, J, Buzzini, P, Massonnet, G, Reedy, BJ & Roux, CP 2005, 'Raman spectroscopy and the forensic analysis of black/grey and blue cotton fibres - Part 1. Investigation of the effects of varying laser wavelength', Forensic Science International, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 189-197.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Raman spectroscopy was investigated to determine the optimal conditions, mainly laser wavelength/s, for the analysis of the commonly encountered black/grey and blue cotton fibres dyed with reactive dyes. In this first part, a single blue cotton fibre, it
Burger, FJ, Dawson, M, Roux, CP, Maynard, PJ, Doble, PA & Kirkbride, KP 2005, 'Forensic analysis of condom and personal lubricants by capillary electrophoresis', Talanta, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 368-376.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Condoms may offer sexual assailants a simple and relatively effective means by which they may remove and dispose of the biological evidence of their contact with the victim. Without this valuable probative evidence, the investigator may need to turn to s
Esseiva, P, Anglada, F, Dujourdy, L, Taroni, F, Margot, P, Du Pasquier, E, Dawson, M, Roux, CP & Doble, PA 2005, 'Chemical profiling and classification of illicit heroin by principal component analysis, calculation of inter sample correlation and artificial neural networks', Talanta, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 360-367.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were utilised to validate illicit drug classification in the profiling method used at Institut de Police Scientifique of the University of Lausanne (IPS). This method established links between samples using a combination
Walsh, SJ, Ribaux, O, Buckleton, JS, Ross, AM & Roux, CP 2004, 'DNA profiling and criminal justice - a contribution to a changing debate', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 34-43.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Forensic DNA profiling is now a routine feature of the criminal justice system in Australia. Its appliations in this context continue to increase. Technological advancements and the use of DNA databases have facilitated the uptake of biological evidence into criminal investigations. The development of DNA methodology has progressed through discernible phases thay have been paralleled by discussion amongst the legal community. The context of development and the associated debate has changed. It now encompasses broader issues, concerned less specifically with the technology itself and more with the most appropriate means for its use. To contribute more purposefully to this debate and to achieve the most meaningful outcomes from the criminal justice system, we must first understand more holistically the role that DNA evidence plays and the impact that it is capable of. This paper reviews aspects of the forensic and legal contexts of the use of DNA technology in the Justice system. This is a prelude to future research and a justification for the need for such research.
Wallace, Kunkel, CS, Roux, CP, Lennard, CJ & Stoilovic, M 2004, 'The detection and enhancement of latent fingermarks on porous surfaces - a survey', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 687-705.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Fingerprints are a common form of evidence at crime scenes and can be developed at a crime scene by powdering or by the application of physiochemical methods, such as spray reagents and cyanoacrylate fuming. Research in new ninhydrin analogues has led to the discovery of the fingerprint development potential of 1,2-indanedione. The potential of 1,2-indanedione for latent fingerprint detection on porous surfaces is extremely strong. In this study a survey was conducted of state police laboratories in Australia and New Zealand, as well as members of major fingerprint research groups and laboratories in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe to determine the type and frequency of use of fingerprint reagents applied to porous surfaces and to determine the fingerprint communitys awareness and experiences with 1,2-indanedione. Responses to the survey were received from 34 agencies consisting of 28 laboratories from 9 different countries. Survey results indicate that ninhydrin and DFO continue to be the most accepted and commonly used reagents. In total, 11 different reagents were reported to be in use to detect and enhance latent fingermarks on porous surfaces. In addition, even though most fingerprint technicians had heard of the reagent, 1,2-indanedione, only 28 percent had used it in casework. Survey results support the need for systematic research on new or improved fingerprint reagents and detection procedures.
Raymond, JJ, Roux, CP, Du Pasquier, E, Sutton, J & Lennard, CJ 2004, 'The effect of common fingerprint detection techniques on the DNA typing of fingerprints deposited on different surfaces', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 22-44.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
DNA and fingerprints are two of the most important forms of evidence in terms o their ability to individualize person. This study investigated the effect of common fingerprint detection techniques of the recovery of DNA from fingerprints.It was found that the recovery of DNA is possible after fingerprint development using certain techniques, and that the recovery is more dependent on the surface type rather than the enhancement technique used. Fingerprints placed on plastic bags, glass microscope slides, and adhesive tape returned DNA profiles before and after treatment, which consisted of while light, UV, dactyloscopic powders, Stickyside Powder, and cyanoacrylate plus rhodamine 6G stain or VMD treatment.The profiles that were obtained from these surfaces were often found to contain contamination peaks, and at this stage, trace DNA analysis of this type may be more useful as an intelligence tool, rather than being relied upon in court for identification purposes. No DNA profiles were obatined from treated or untreated prints on paper an aluminium foil substrates.
Bojko, KL, Maynard, PJ, Du Pasquier, E, Lennard, CJ, Stoilovic, M & Roux, CP 2004, 'Evaluation of iodine-benzoflavone and Ruthenium Tetroxide spray reagents for the detection of latent fingermarks at the crime scene', Journal of Forensic Science, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Flynn, K, Maynard, P, Du Pasquier, E, Lennard, C, Stoilovic, M & Roux, C 2004, 'Evaluation of iodine-benzoflavone and ruthenium tetroxide spray reagents for the detection of latent fingermarks at the crime scene', JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 707-715.
Raymond, JJ, Walsh, SJ, Van Oorschot, R, Gunn, PR & Roux, CP 2004, 'Trace DNA: an underutilised resource or Pandora's Box? A review of the use of trace DNA analysis in the investigation of volume crime', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 668-686.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Spectacular advanctes in DNA technology have greatly expanded its applicability to forensic science. As the processes become sufficiently sensitive to detect trace DNA, a vast number of crime scene samples not previously considered for analysis are now able to be tested. However, in spite of these obvious benefits, trace DNA analysis raises problems not often considered by investigators and forensic scientists. This paper discusses the history and development of trace DNA analysis. It suggests a trend of underutilisation and discusses issues surrounding its application and alternative uses for the results gained. The approach in the past has been that DNA evidence was solely employed as an absolute form of evidence and consequently, research focused primarily on increasing sensitivity and discrimination power. We are suggesting that DNA evidence should be treated as any other trace evidence. Research to provide data for basic trace evidence properties of deposit, presence, transfer and persisitence may allow trace DNA analysis to be more effectivly utilised in the investigation of crime. Together with recent developments in forensic intelligence, this research could facilitate the progressive applications of trace DNA analysis to volume crime investigations, an outcome wuth the potential to reduce the rate of volume crime and contribute to crime prevention strategies.
Paull, B, Roux, C, Dawson, M & Doble, P 2004, 'Rapid screening of selected organic explosives by high performance liquid chromatography using reversed-phase monolithic columns', JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1181-1186.
Paull, B, Roux, CP, Dawson, M & Doble, PA 2004, 'Rapid screening of selected organic explosives by high performance liquid chromatography using reversed-phase monolithic columns', Journal of Forensic Science, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Exline, DL, Wallace, Kunkel, CS, Roux, CP, Lennard, CJ, Nelson, MP & Treado, P 2003, 'Forensic applications of chemical imaging: Latent fingerprint detection using visible absorption and luminescence', Journal Of Forensic Sciences, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 1047-1053.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Thomas, J, Buzzini, P, Massonnet, G & Roux, CP 2003, 'Raman Spectroscopy Vs. Current Fibre Examination Techniques', Forensic Science International, vol. 136, pp. 118-118.
Massonnet, G, Buzzini, P, Jochem, G, Staube, M, Coyle, T, Roux, CP, Thomas, J & Leijenhorst, H 2003, 'Evaluation Of Raman Spectroscopy For The Analysis Of Coloured Fibres: A Collaborative Study', Forensic Science International, vol. 136, pp. 124-124.
Payne, GL, Roux, CP, Lennard, CJ, Comber, B & Exline, DL 2003, 'Applications Of Chemical Imaging To The Detection Of Latent Fingerprints', Forensic Science International, vol. 136, pp. 131-131.
Jones, N, Kelly, M, Stoilovic, M, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2003, 'The development of latent fingerprints on polymer banknotes', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 50-77.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Polymer (plastic) banknotes have completely replaced traditional paper banknotes in Australia and New Zealand. They are also used in many other countries to varying extents. These banknotes, especially older ones and ones with aged prints, present challenges for latent fingerprint development. A preliminary study examined the effectiveness of a wide range of development techniques but none of the routine detection techniques employed were able to develop prints older than 7 days. In the present study, further research was conducted to optimize a particular development sequence. Australian polymer banknote samples were obtained from the Reserve Bank of Australia. Visual examination of the degree of wear of the printed inks was used to classify the banknotes into five wear categories. Category 1 notes were those with the least wear and category 5 notes were those notes with the most wear. The vacuum metal deposition (VMD) unit used in this research was designed and manufactured specifically for latent fingerprint development. Results show that the recommended procedure for the development of latent prints on polymer banknotes incorporates a particular sequence. The sequence involves optical examination, immediate treatment with cyanoacrylate fuming, examination of the banknote, treatment by VMD, examination and recording of developed prints using diffused reflected light, further treatment by VMD (gold and zinc), luminescent staining, and examination and recording of developed prints. The success of the procedure is affected by the wear of the individual notes. The more worn a note is the less likely good quality prints will be developed.
Langdon, SM, Maynard, PJ, Robertson, J & Roux, CP 2003, 'An evaluation of the Maxcan fibre finder version 3.3 on cotton fibres', Forensic Science International, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 137-145.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The Maxcan fibre finder system is a product of Cox Analytical Systems, Sweden, and has been developed for the primary purpose of searching for fibres on tape lifts. This paper evaluates the ability of the Maxcan system to search for different fibre types and colours under varying conditions. The system performed effectively in most situations, although it did have problems with some search combinations that a human operator would also find difficult in a manual search. The Maxcan system has the added advantages of being objective, consistent and able to do large batch searches unattended. These attributes make it very useful where a large number of tapes need to be searched in casework and also in research where large quantities of data need to be gathered within a reasonable time.
Burger, FJ, Doble, PA & Roux, CP 2003, 'Forensic Analysis Of Condom And Personal Lubricants Found In Sexual Assault Cases By Capillary Electrophoresis', Forensic Science International, vol. 136, pp. 247-247.
Casamento, SG, Kwok, BK, Roux, CP, Dawson, M & Doble, PA 2003, 'Optimization of the separation of organic explosives by capillary electrophoresis with artificial neural networks', Journal Of Forensic Sciences, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 1075-1083.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Doble, PA, Sandercock, PM, Du Pasquier, E, Petocz, P, Roux, CP & Dawson, M 2003, 'Classification of premium and regular gasoline by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, principal component analysis and artificial neural networks', Forensic Science International, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 26-39.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Detection and correct classification of gasoline is important for both arson and fuel spill investigation. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to classify premium and regular gasolines from gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GCMS) spectral data obtained from gasoline sold in Canada over one calendar year. Depending upon the dataset used for training and tests, around 8093% of the samples were correctly classified as either premium or regular gasoline using the Mahalanobis distances calculated from the principal components scores. Only 4862% of the samples were correctly classified when the premium and regular gasoline samples were divided further into their winter/summer sub-groups. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were trained to recognise premium and regular gasolines from the same GCMS data. The best-performing ANN correctly identified all samples as either a premium or regular grade. Approximately 97% of the premium and regular samples were correctly classified according to their winter or summer sub-group.
Armitage, S, Saywell, S, Roux, CP, Lennard, CJ & Greenwood, PF 2001, 'The Analysis of Forensic Samples Using Laser micro-Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 1043-1052.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Laser micropyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is used for the analysis of paint, photocopier toner, and synthetic fiber materials to test the forensic potential of this emerging technology. It uses a laser microprobe to selectively target very small parts of the materials for GC-MS analysis. Whereas the paint and the toner samples were amenable to direct laser pyrolysis, the synthetic fibers proved transparent to the 1064 nm laser radiation. The difficulty with the fibers demonstrates that a specific laser wavelength may not be appropriate for all types of materials. Nevertheless, the fibers were able to be indirectly pyrolyzed by impregnation in a strongly absorbing graphite matrix. A vast array of hydrocarbon pyrolysates was detected from the different materials studied. Unique product distributions were detected from each sample and in sufficient detail to facilitate individual molecular characterization (i.e., molecular fingerprinting). The integrity of the laser data were confirmed by comparison to data obtained from the same samples by the more conventional pyroprobe pyrolysis GC-MS method. The high spatial resolution and selectivity of the laser method may be advantageous for specific forensic applications, however, further work may be required to improve the reproducibility of the data.
Conn, C, Ramsay, G, Roux, CP & Lennard, CJ 2001, 'The Effect of Metal Salt Treatment on the Photoluminescence of DFO-Treated Fingerprints', Forensic Science International, vol. 116, pp. 117-123.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ninhydrin developed ®ngerprints can be enhanced by treatment with a zinc or cadmium salt. The resulting ®ngerprint luminescence has been attributed to the induced coplanarity of the bicyclic indanedione rings of Ruhemann's purple due to complexation with the metal ions. This paper explores whether this effect also occurs in the 1,8-diaza-9-¯uorenone (DFO)- amino acid adduct (1), formed from the reaction of DFO with amino acids. Molecular modeling studies of (1) indicate a relatively small out-of-plane angle of 248. 1H NMR studies indicate (1) is asymmetric about the C2 axis in contrast to what has been previously reported. Little, if any, enhancement of luminescence was observed with Zn, Cd, Ru or Eu treated DFO developed latent ®ngerprints. This lack of enhancement was also borne out by solution luminescence studies. Given this lack of enhancement of luminescence, solutions of (1) and the four metal ions above were analyzed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS). This indicated the formation of predominantly 1:1 complexes of (1) with both Zn and Cd, and the 2:1 complex with ruthenium. No evidence of a Eu complex was found by ESMS.
Jones, N, Stoilovic, M, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2001, 'Vacuum Metal Deposition: Developing Latent Fingerprints on Polyethylene Substrates After th Deposition of Excess Gold', Forensic Science International, vol. 123, pp. 5-12.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Jones, N, Stoilovic, M, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2001, 'Vacuum Metal Deposition: Factors Affecting Normal and Reverse Development of Latent Fingerprints on Polyethylene Substrates', Forensic Science International, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 73-88.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Vacuum metal deposition (VMD) is an established technique for the development of latent fingerprints on non-porous surfaces. VMD has advantages over cyanoacrylate fuming, especially in circumstances where prints are old, have been exposed to adverse environmental conditions, or are present on semi-porous surfaces. Under normal circumstances, VMD produces `negative prints as zinc deposits onto the background substrate and not the print ridges themselves. A phenomenon of `reverse development, when zinc deposits onto the print ridges and not the background, has been reported by many authors but its causes have not been conclusively identified. Four plastic substrates were used in this study and these could be easily divided into two groups based on the types of development observed as the amount of deposited gold was increased. On group I plastics, identified as low-density polyethylene (LDPE), normal development then reverse development and finally no development resulted with increasing gold. On group II plastics, identified as high-density polyethylene (HDPE), normal development then over-development and finally poor-quality normal development resulted with increasing gold. Our results suggest that the difference between these plastic types causes variations in the gold film structure which in turn dictates the nature of the zinc deposition. On group I plastics, the structure and thickness of the gold film has been identified as the critical factor in the occurrence of normal or reverse development. Thin gold films on plastic substrates form small `clusters (or agglomerates) rather than the atoms being uniformly spread over the surface. The size and shape of these clusters is critical. Once the clusters reach a certain morphology, they no longer act as nucleation sites for zinc, and hence, zinc will not deposit onto the substrate.
Roux, CP, Kirk, R, Benson, SJ, Van Haren, T & Petterd, C 2001, 'Glass Particles in Footwear of members of the Public in South Eastern Australia - A Survey', Forensic Science International, vol. 116, pp. 149-156.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A total of 776 pairs of shoes collected from random members of the public in south-eastern Australia were examined for the presence of glass fragments. From the samples collected a total of 110 fragments were recovered from 57 pairs of shoes (7.3% of the pairs examined). This study shows that the prevalence of glass fragments in footwear is dependent upon the area of the shoe from which the fragments were recovered. A much higher percentage of shoes were found to have fragments embedded in the sole (5.9%) than in the upper area of the shoe (1.9%). These shoes were also more likely to have multiple fragments from multiple sources of glass. Only a very small percentage of shoes contained fragments in both the upper and the sole (0.3%). These ®ndings and their signi®cance for the interpretation of glass evidence involving footwear are discussed in this study.
Jones, N, Mansour, D, Stoilovic, M, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2001, 'The Influence of Polymer Type Print Donor and Age on the Quality of Fingerprints Developed on Plastic Substrate Using Vacuum Metal Deposition', Forensic Science International, vol. 124, pp. 167-177.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study investigated fingerprint development on five different polymer substrates using vacuum metal deposition (VMD). The conditions required for optimum development are shown to depend on a number of factors. No one set of conditions will result in good development in all situations. Polymer type has been confirmed as a major factor in determining the types of development that will occur and the optimum VMD conditions required. For more consistently successful VMD development, polymer type should be determined before selecting conditions. While polymer type is a key factor in determining optimum development conditions, there may be variation of the optimum conditions within a polymer type, most likely due to the presence of additives in the plastic. The heaviness of a latent print, i.e. amount of residue that constitutes the print, also affects the VMD conditions required. The donor, manner of deposition, and age of a print affect the heaviness of the deposit. The heavier the print, the higher the gold count necessary for successful VMD development. The occurrence of empty prints (i.e. zinc deposition on the general background but not on or between the print ridges) was found to be related to polymer type and print heaviness. Heavy prints on PVC and PET are the most likely to be empty after VMD treatment. The development of empty prints may be due to the diffusion of print residue into the print valleys. Pre-treatment with cyanoacrylate fuming was also found to affect VMD development. In particular, it was shown that cyanoacrylate pre-treatment was beneficial for print development on PET and PVC. The results of this study were used to formulate guidelines for use as an aid by laboratories using VMD in casework.
Roux, CP, Huttunen, JE, Rampling, K & Robertson, J 2001, 'Factors Affecting the potential for the Fibre Contamination in Purpose-Designed Forensic Search Rooms', Science & Justice, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 135-144.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Cantrell, S, Roux, CP, Maynard, PJ & Robertson, J 2001, 'A Textile Fibre Survey as an Aid to the Interpretation of Fibre Evidence in the Sydney Region', Forensic Science International, vol. 123, pp. 48-53.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Frequency figures of the fibre population on textile cinema seats were measured in Sydney, Australia, in winter. Sixteen seats were analysed from a very popular cinema complex, with 3025 fibres classified according to colour, generic class and fluorescence properties (100 greyblack cotton fibres only). The recovered fibres were mostly natural fibres (84%) with cotton the most common generic type (70%). On the contrary, man made fibres were relatively rare (15%) with rayon constituting the majority of these (51%). The most common colour/generic class combinations were greyblack cotton (33%) and blue cotton (30%) accounting for 63% of the total population. All other frequencies were below 5%, most below 1% using only the two properties of colour and generic class. Fluorescence properties were found to be very discriminating as far as greyblack cotton fibres were concerned. These features are considered and discussed and in particular, to emphasise the significance of fibres as evidence of contact.
Maynard, PJ, Allwell, K, Roux, CP, Dawson, M & Royds, D 2001, 'A Protocol for the Forensic Analysis of Condom and Personal Lubricants Found in Sexual Assault Cases', Forensic Science International, vol. 124, pp. 140-156.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Maynard, PJ, Gates, K, Roux, CP & Lennard, CJ 2001, 'Adhesive Tape Analysis: Establishing the Evidential Value of Specific Techniques', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 280-287.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This study investigated the evidential value of specific methods of analysis for packaging tapes and clear adhesive tapes available in Australia. Fifty-eight adhesive tapes were analyzed using a wide range of optical, physical, and chemical techniques. The results were collated for the purpose of creating an Australian database of adhesive tapes, which would be of assistance in criminal investigation. Each technique was evaluated for its discriminating power, both for comparative purposes and for the identification of adhesive tapes by comparing unknown samples with the database. The combined discriminating power of the techniques applied is very high. It is possible to individually identify the source of an unknown adhesive tape sample in many instances by searching the database. It is also possible to form an opinion on the significance of a failure-to-discriminate result in comparative casework. Further work is still needed to expand and update the database, as well as compiling data on the relative market share of various products.
Roux, CP, Bull, S, Goulding, J & Lennard, CJ 2000, 'Tracing the Source of Illicit Drugs Through Plastic Packaging - a Database', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 99-114.
Common plastic drug packaging material available in Australia and in Asia was analyzed using a standard protocol including optical examination, UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The aims were to determine whether there are significant differences between different sources, to establish the evidential value of these examinations, and to build a database of common packaging material. Visual examination was the most effective means for discriminating samples. Thickness and weight measurements provided useful information. Visualization of machining marks using crossed polarized light was found to be useful in the comparison process. UV-visible spectrophotometry has some value for distinguishing samples. Fourier transform infrared analysis was a good technique for determination of the polymer composition of the packaging. Significant differences were observed between Australian and overseas samples. The "Australian Database of Drug Packaging Materials" was created to systematically collate all of the collected data for application on personal computers. It is concluded that the properties of plastic packaging materials can be excellent indicators for identifying the specfic brand or origin of the packaging.
Roux, CP, Kirk, R, Benson, SJ, Van Haran, T & Petterd, C 2000, 'Glass Particles in Footwear of Members of the Public in South-Eastern Australia - A Survey', Forensic Science International, vol. 116, no. 0, pp. 149-156.
Roux, CP, Jones, N, Lennard, CJ & Stoilovic, M 2000, 'Evaluation of 1,2-Indanedione and 5,6-Dimethoxy-1,2-Indanedione for the Detection of Latent Fingerprints on Porous Surfaces', Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 761-769.
Roux, CP, Langdon, SM, Waight, D & Robertson, J 1999, 'The Transfer And Persistence Of Automotive Carpet Fibres On Shoe Soles', Science & Justice, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 239-251.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The transfer and persistence of automotive carpet fibres to shoe soles was investigated. It was found that fibres were transferred with the normal activity of a car passenger. Carpet type and shoe sole parameters were significant determinants in the numb
Roux, CP, Gill, K, Sutton, J & Lennard, CJ 1999, 'A further study to investigate the effect of fingerprint enhancement techniques on the DNA analysis of bloodstains', Journal of Forensic Identification, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 357-376.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This study investigated the effect of common and well established fingerprint enhancement techniques on the subsequent DNA analysis of items potentially bearing both fingerprints and biological evidence. Bloodstains of varying ages were prepared on different surfaces and various fingerprint enhancement techniques were applied to the samples. DNA typing was performed using PCR amplification (D1S80 and CTT system). The results showed that magnetic powder, multimetal deposition (MMD) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation are not recommended for use in a sequence of analyses involving DNA typing. Strong white light, white and aluminum fingerprint powders, physical developer (PD) after 1,8-diaza-9-fluorenone (DFO), PD after ninhydrin with cadmium (Cd) salt treatment, and cyanoacrylate with gentian violet or Ardrox stains may be used successfully in a sequence of analyses involving DNA typing. Ninhydrin with secondary metal salt treatment, DFO, amido black, diaminobenzidine (DAB), black powder, Stickyside Powder, cyanoacrylate with rhodamine stain, and luminol may be used before DNA analysis but care must be taken to ensure that sufficient DNA is extracted and analyzed.
Roux, CP, Novotny, M, Evans, I & Lennard, CJ 1999, 'A Study To Investigate The Evidential Value Of Blue And Black Ballpoint Pen Inks In Australia', Forensic Science International, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 167-176.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The aim of this project was to investigate the evidential value of blue and black ballpoint pen inks in Australia. For this purpose, 49 blue and 42 black ballpoint pen inks, of different brands, models and batches, representative of those ballpoint pens
Petterd, C, Hamshere, J, Stewart, SC, Brinch, KM, Masi, T & Roux, CP 1999, 'Glass Particles In The Clothing Of Members Of The Public In South-eastern Australia - A Survey', Forensic Science International, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 193-198.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study was undertaken to test the validity of the proposal that there is a natural background level of glass particles on the surface of clothing of members of the community. A total of 2008 upper outer garments collected from random members of the p
To evaluate the occurrence of background and crime-related fibre groups on car seats under controlled conditions, the usage of 22 selected car seats was recorded over a one-month period before fibre transfer experiments were performed using a known donor
Cartier, J, Roux, CP & Grieve, M 1997, 'A Study To Investigate The Feasibility Of Using X-ray Fluorescence Microanalysis To Improve Discrimination Between Colorless Synthetic Fibers', Journal Of Forensic Sciences, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1019-1026.
The use of X-ray fluorescence microanalysis was investigated to determine if it would allow further discrimination between samples of colorless acrylic and polyester fibers which were indistinguishable using brightfield, fluorescence and FTIR-microscopy.
Frequency figures of the fibre population on car seats were measured during February and March 1994 in the region of Lausanne, Switzerland on 50 seats; 5299 fibres were analyzed and classified according to their generic class, colour, length and delustra
Experiments on the transfer of textile fibres involving various garments, car seats, drivers and driving times were carried out in order to study their influence on the transfer of fibres to the seat of a car after it had been driven. Many fibres were tr
The number of counterfeiting and forgery cases involving colour photocopiers has increased significantly over the last few years. Colour photocopies, produced on 45 different models available on the European market, were therefore studied in order to isolate corresponding identification elements that could be exploited by the document examiner. The photocopied-documents were subjected to a series of optical examinations, at different magnifications and under different illumination conditions. In addition, toner samples were extracted from each photocopy and analysed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The results obtained permitted the construction of a computerized database that can be used to identify a particular model (or group of models) that may have been used to produce a forged or counterfeit document.
Chable, J, Roux, CP & Lennard, CJ 1994, 'Collection Of Fiber Evidence Using Water-soluble Cellophane Tape', Journal Of Forensic Sciences, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1520-1527.
The collection and preservation of microtraces, such as fibers, using cellophane tape is generally accepted as being very practical and efficient. At the scene of a crime, for example, this means of sample collection is both easy and rapid, which explain
ROUX, C, CHAMPOD, C, MAZZELLA, WD & LENNARD, CJ 1993, 'SOME APPLICATION OF FOURIER-TRANSFORM INFRARED MICROSPECTROMETRY IN FORENSIC ANALYSIS', ANALUSIS, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. M27-M30.
Crispino, F & Roux, C 2018, 'Forensic-led regulation strategies: Are they fit for security problem-solving purposes?' in The Routledge International Handbook of Forensic Intelligence and Criminology, pp. 65-76.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 selection and editorial matter, Quentin Rossy, David Décary-Hétu, Olivier Delémont and Massimiliano Mulone; individual chapters, the contributors. The dominant conception of forensic sciences is as a patchwork of disciplines assisting the criminal justice system, but the 2009 NAS report questioned the robustness of the scientific foundations of essentially all the forensic science disciplines. Yet, solutions intended to counter this disturbing assessment have mainly focused on methodology upgrades epitomized by quality management strategies that are crowned by accreditation of laboratories and certification of individual forensic scientists.While a forensic science world without quality management is senseless, its reported and observed implementation begs the question whether it has developed from a necessary tool to a constraint contributing to frame a mistaken view of experimental sciences dedicated to responding to criminal and litigation matters. This article questions the adequacy of forensic-led regulation strategies for security problem-solving, calling fora better understanding of its original link with criminological concerns.
Roux, C, Maynard, PJ & Morison, R 2018, 'Other instrumental approaches to fibre examination' in Roux, C, Robertson, J & Wiggins, K (eds), Forensic Examination of Fibres, Third Edition, CRC Press, USA, pp. 309-344.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The objectives of a typical forensic analysis of fibres are (1) to identify the fibre type and (2) to compare one or several fibres of an unknown origin to fibres from a known source to determine if they could share a common origin. Collectively, the pool of techniques employed should fulfil the needs for accurate identification and a high degree of discrimination
between similar fibres. In a particular case, choosing appropriate techniques from the wide range available will depend on several factors including the quantity of material available, the exact circumstances of the case under investigation and the instrumental techniques available to the laboratory. As described earlier, a number of techniques are well established and commonly used in forensic science laboratories worldwide. Examples include microscopic (Chapter 5) and microspectrometric (Chapter 6) examinations, infrared (IR) spectroscopy (Chapter 7) and Raman spectroscopy (Chapter 8). While these techniques meet the requirements expressed above in general casework, the context of the case, the nature of the fibre specimens and the questions being asked sometimes justify the application of other techniques. In parallel, new potential techniques are constantly being developed by the broad analytical scientific field and ought to be presented to the forensic
fibre examiner. This chapter discusses instrumental approaches that are not presented elsewhere. It is not meant to be comprehensive and does not include all 'exotic' techniques, but the discussion will focus on the techniques that have been shown to have practical value or the ones
with the best potential to add value to a typical forensic examination of fibres. For the ease of presentation, they will be classified as follows:
Techniques primarily focusing on the fibre:
* Pyrolysis techniques
* Elemental and micro-structural analysis
* Isotope ratio mass spectrometry
Techniques primarily focusing on the fibre dyes:
* High-performance liquid chromat...
Grieve, M, Roux, C, Wiggins, KG, Champod, C & Taroni, F 2017, 'Interpretation of fibre evidence' in Forensic Examination of Fibres: Third Edition, Taylor and Francis, 3rd, pp. 345-425.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
nterpreting the value and significance of the analytical findings in a fibres case and expressing them concisely in a written report so that it can be understood, without the risk of ambiguity, by scientists, lawyers and lay persons alike is one of the most difficult tasks facing the forensic scientist. In recent years, this important step of the forensic science process has become increasingly important, to the point that it is argued that a large part of the future of trace evidence, including fibres, depends on how this challenge can be resourced and addressed. As explained by Roux et al. (2015), failing to do so means that 'Overall, more often than not, the value of trace evidence will remain unclear to the non-specialist and of relatively poor cost–benefit to the manager'
The forensic examination of fibers requires an understanding of many facets of the forensic process from the crime scene to the laboratory and, ultimately, the courts. Fiber examination has the potential to contribute forensic intelligence at the investigative stage, especially in helping to answer the `what happened question. The role of the crime scene examiner in recognizing the potential of fiber evidence is stressed in this article, as `evidence not recovered is evidence lost. The technical and scientific examination of fibers as well as the interpretation of recovered fibers in the forensic context is considered.
Roux, CP, Robertson, J & Palmer, R 2013, 'Persistence and Recovery' in Siegel, JA & Saukko, PJ (eds), Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Academic Press, Waltham, pp. 117-123.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Fibers are easily transferred according to the Locard's exchange principle and, as a result, are commonly found in criminal cases. This article provides an overview of fiber persistence and the significance of this topic in the interpretation of fiber evidence. It also presents a critical review of common methods used to recover fibers
Roux, CP & Robertson, J 2013, 'Interpretation of Fiber Evidence' in Siegel, JA & Saukko, PJ (eds), Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Academic Press, Waltham, pp. 155-160.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Because of their size and their particular nature, fibers probably constitute the ultimate example of trace evidence. Although fibers are easily transferred during a criminal event and a large pool of techniques can be applied for their characterization, the interpretation of an apparent `fiber match remains one of the most difficult challenges in the forensic examination of trace evidence. However, knowledge in this area has significantly improved over the past 25 years. Nowadays, a wealth of empirical data can be used by forensic scientists to determine the value of fiber evidence in the context of a case. In addition, logical and statistical frameworks can also assist them in this endeavor. This article reviews the state of the art in this topic
Fibers are easily transferred according to the Locard's exchange principle and, as a result, are commonly found in criminal cases. This article reviews the factors that have an effect on fiber transfer and explains fiber transfer mechanisms. This topic is pivotal to the interpretation of fiber evidence.
Robertson, J & Roux, CP 2013, 'Fiber: Protocols for Examination' in Siegel, JA & Saukko, PJ (eds), Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Academic Press, Waltham, pp. 124-128.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Fiber: Protocols for Examination
Roux, CL, Taudte, RV & Lennard, C 2013, 'X-Ray Fluorescence in Forensic Science' in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry Applications, Theory, and Instrumentation, Wiley-Blackwell.
The highly acclaimed Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry provides a much needed professional level reference work for the 21st Century.
The forensic examination of trace evidence requires an understanding of the many facets of the forensic process from the crime scene to the laboratory and, ultimately, the courts. Trace evidence examination has the potential to contribute forensic intelligence at the investigative stage, especially in helping to answer the `what happened question. The role of the crime scene examiner in recognizing the potential value of trace evidence is stressed in this article as `evidence not recovered is evidence lost. The technical and scientific examination of trace evidence as well as the interpretation of recovered trace evidence in the forensic context is considered.
Roux, CP, Hales, S, Morelato, M & Olinder, S 2013, 'Plastic Bag Striations' in Siegel, JA & Saukko, PJ (eds), Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Academic Press, Waltham, pp. 8-15.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article presents and reviews the examination of plastic bags in forensic science, and more specifically, the use and value of some of their physical features often known as `plastic bag striations. This is also presented with a view to exploit such information from an intelligence perspective.
Blanes, L, Tomazelli Coltro, WK, Saito, RM, do Lago, CL, Roux, CP & Doble, PA 2013, 'Practical considerations for the design and implementation of High Voltage Power Supplies for Capillary and Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis' in Carlos, DGA, Karin, YCT & Emanuel, C (eds), Capillary Electrophoresis and Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis: Principles, Applications, and Lim, Wiley, Chichester, pp. 67-76.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) are powerful analytical techniques used to analyze chemical and biological samples. For both techniques sample injection and separation are two crucial steps that depend on a reliable high-voltage power supply (HVPS) to ensure reproducible separations. Therefore, the source of high voltage (HV) is considered to be the heart for these instruments. Separation of the analytes occurs due to the influence of an applied potential difference between electrodes placed at the ends of the capillary or channel. As a consequence, the components present in the plug of injection are driven toward the detector. This book chapter is a comprehensive source of information of HVPS for CE and MCE. This chapter covers topics as such as fundamentals of HV, electroosmotic flow control, construction of bipolar HVPS from unipolar HVPS, commercially available HVPS and DC/DC converters, alternative sources of HV, HVPS controllers for MCE, and strategies to measure HV. The chapter also includes practical and safety considerations that can be helpful for development of new CE and MCE instrumentation
Abraham, J, Kwan, P, Champod, C, Lennard, CJ & Roux, CP 2012, 'An AFIS candidate list centric fingerprint likelihood ratio model based on morphometric and spatial analyses (MSA)' in Yang, J & Xie, SJ (eds), New Trends and Developments in Biometrics, In-Tech, Rijeka, pp. 221-250.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The use of fingerprints for identification purposes boasts worldwide adoption for a large variety of applications, from governance centric applications such as border control to personalised uses such as electronic device authentication. In addition to being an inexpensive and widely used form of biometric for authentication systems, fingerprints are also recognised as an invaluable biometric for forensic identification purposes such as law enforcement and disaster victim identification. Since the very first forensic applications, fingerprints have been utilised as one of the most commonly used form of forensic evidence worldwide.
Roux, CP & Robertson, J 2009, 'The Development and Enhancement of Forensic Expertise: Higher Education and In-Service Training' in Fraser, J & Williams, R (eds), Handbook of Forensic Science, Willan, Cullompton, pp. 572-600.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Robertson, J & Roux, CP 2000, 'Fibres: Transfer and Persistence' in Siegel, JA, Knupfer, G & Saukko, P (eds), Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, ACADEMIC PRESS, pp. 834-838.
Roux, CP & Robertson, J 2000, 'Fibres: Significance' in Siegel, J, Knupfer, G & Saukko, P (eds), Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, ACADEMIC PRESS, pp. 829-834.
Roux, CP & Robertson, J 2000, 'Fibres: Types' in Siegel, J, Knupfer, G & Saukko, P (eds), Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, ACADEMIC PRESS, pp. 838-854.
Agius, A, Morelato, M, Moret, S, Chadwick, S, Jones, K, Epple, R & Roux, C 2017, 'USING HANDWRITING TO INFER A WRITER'S COUNTRY OF ORIGIN FOR FORENSIC INTELLIGENCE PURPOSES', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 160-160.
Chadwick, S, Moret, S, Jayashanka, N, Lennard, C, Spindler, X & Roux, C 2017, 'INSIDE KNOWLEDGE OF THE FACTORS INFLUENCING FINGERMARK DETECTION', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 59-60.
Michelot, H, Morelato, M, Chadwick, S, Roux, C & Tahtouh, M 2017, 'CHEMOMETRICS APPLIED TO CHEMICAL PROFILES OF COCAINE SEIZURES: A FORENSIC INTELLIGENCE APPROACH', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 229-230.
Bannwarth, A, Morelato, M, Benaglia, L, Esseiva, P, Del, OM & Roux, C 2017, 'THE ANALYSIS OF ILLICIT DRUGS IN SYDNEY WASTEWATER', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 225-225.
Morelato, M, Broseus, J, Rhumorbarbe, D, Staehli, L, Roux, C & Rossy, Q 2017, 'A GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF TRAFFICKING ON EVOLUTION, A POPULAR DARKNET MARKETPLACE', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 246-246.
Khuu, A, Chadwick, S, Spindler, X, Moret, S, Gunn, P & Roux, C 2017, 'Impact of one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate treatment on subsequent DNA analysis', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences, ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 246-246.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Fingermarks can be exploited for both their ridge detail and touch DNA. One-step luminescent cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming techniques used for fingermark enhancement, such as PolyCyano UV (Foster+Freeman Ltd) and Lumicyano™ (Crime Science Technology), claim to be compatible with DNA analysis as they reduce the need for post‐staining to increase contrast of the developed fingermark. The aim of this study was to determine the impact that these one-step luminescent cyanoacrylates have on DNA analysis and how they compare to conventional CA techniques. Four donors each deposited five sets of natural fingermarks, to which a known amount of washed saliva cells was dispensed onto half of each set of fingermarks. Each set was treated with either a conventional CA technique or a one‐step luminescent CA technique prior to collection and processing of DNA, with one set left as a non-fumed control. It was found that DNA was still recoverable and detectable following each of the treatments. Lumicyano™ had a similar impact on DNA profiles as conventional CA fuming and with post‐stain, however, the degradation effect of PolyCyano UV on DNA was greater than the conventional treatments. For quantities of DNA such as that from touch DNA, the use of PolyCyano UV to enhance fingermarks may impact subsequent DNA analysis by causing allele drop out at larger fragment sizes.
Lam, R, Barone, A, Morrell, W, Malone, A, Moret, S, Roux, C, Spikmans, V & Lennard, C 2017, 'EXCESSIVE FUMING WITH CYANOACRYLATE FOR THE DETECTION OF LATENT FINGERMARKS ON POLYMER BANKNOTES', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 62-62.
Moret, S, Lee, PL, Spindler, X, Lennard, C & Roux, C 2017, 'LUMINESCENT SILICON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES FOR FINGERMARK DETECTION', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 232-232.
Blanes, L, Dos Santos, RO, Diplock, M, Benson, N, Doble, P & Roux, C 2017, 'DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELECTRONIC EXPLOSIVE DETECTOR USING MICROFLUIDIC PAPER-BASED ANALYTICAL DEVICES', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 199-200.
Spindler, X, Lau, V & Roux, C 2017, 'WHEN ARE FIBRES RELEVANT: DAILY ACTIVITY AND BACKGROUND EXTRANEOUS FIBRES ON T-SHIRTS', Forensic Science International, 21st Triennial Meeting of the International-Association-of-Forensic-Sciences (IAFS), Elsevier, Toronto, CANADA, pp. 58-58.
Grimwood, K, Tahtouh, M & Roux, C 2015, 'Time until flashover as a function of polyurethane content in a cell or structure', Fire and Materials 2015 - 14th International Conference and Exhibition, Proceedings, pp. 1031-1045.
© Interscience Communications Limited, 2015. The work presented here investigated whether the time until flashover is proportional to the amount of polyurethane (PU) foam in a cell. Eighteen large scale burns that represented three different scenarios which were repeated six times each were conducted at a purpose built facility in Queensland (QLD), Australia. The burns were fuelled with PU containing furniture, which was of the same or similar design, from the same manufacturer, were approximately the same age and had been subjected to the same use and environmental conditions over time. The time until flashover, proportional to the amount of PU in the cell was found, in some scenarios, to be statistically similar.
Blanes, L, Taudte, RV, Roux, C & Doble, P 2014, 'Using paper-based microfluidics and lab on a chip techonologies for the rapid analysis of trinitro aromatic explosives', 18th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2014, 18th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, pp. 1581-1582.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
© 14CBMS. We report a new microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) containing potassium hydroxide to create a color change reaction when in contact with trinitro aromatic explosives, followed by extraction and lab on a chip analysis. The procedure allowed the detection and identification of 1 μg of the target explosives distributed on a 100 cm < sup > 2 < /sup > surface.
Chan, JH, Lennard, CJ, Roux, CP, Shimmon, R & Stuart, BH 2012, 'Synthesis of novel anthraquinones and their application as fingermark detection reagents for porous surfaces', 21st International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences Abstracts, 21st International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences.
Chan, JH, Lennard, CJ, Roux, CP, Shimmon, R & Stuart, BH 2012, 'Synthesis of novel anthraquinones and their application as fingermark detection reagents on porous surfaces', 6th European Academy of Forensic Science Conference Abstracts, 6th European Academy of Forensic Science Conference.
Chan, JH, Stuart, BH, Roux, CP, Shimmon, R, Lennard, CJ & Spindler, X 2010, 'The synthesis of 1,4-anthraquinones and their application as fingermark detection reagents on porous surfaces', 20th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences Abstract Book, 20th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Sydney.
Chan, JH, Shimmon, R, Spindler, X, Maynard, PJ, Lennard, CJ, Roux, CP & Stuart, BH 2009, 'Investigation into isatin and 1,4-anthraquinones as fingerprint detection reagents on porous surfaces', UTS Faculty of Science Research Day Book of Abstracts, UTS Faculty of Science Research Day, pp. 1-1.
Wuhrer, R, Phillips, M, Mason, K, Roux, CP, Maniago, J & Hales, S 2004, 'GSR analysis in the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope', Proceedings Microscopy and Microanalysis 2004, Microscopy & Microanalysis, Cambridge University Press, Savannah, USA, pp. 1362-1363.View/Download from: Publisher's site
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CONSULTING EXPERTISE AND EXPERIENCE
23 years of experience in providing forensic services in the areas of criminalistics, trace evidence (fibres, paint, glass, etc) and marks/impressions.
Provision of short courses in the areas of expertise, including interpretation of forensic evidence, shoe mark comparisons, forensic document examoination, forensic intelligence.