Razavy, S, Gadau, M, Zhang, SP, Wang, FC, Bangrazi, S, Berle, C, Li, T, Li, WH & Zaslawski, C 2018, 'Anxiety related to De Qi psychophysical responses as measured by MASS: A sub-study embedded in a multisite randomised clinical trial.', Complementary therapies in medicine, vol. 39, pp. 24-35.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Acupuncture has been broadly applied in the management of many diseases and conditions; however, its mechanism of action has been partially elucidated. Additionally, assessment of psychophysical responses in the acupuncture therapy is not common regarding anxiety disorder studies. Taken together, the therapeutic effect of acupuncture appears when De Qi psychophysical response is experienced following stimulation of the afferent sensory nerves. The present study investigates the level of anxiety perceived at different occasions in acupuncture and mock laser group. Furthermore, it examines the relationship between perceived De Qi psychophysical response and the level of anxiety experienced during administration of each intervention. The study was embedded in a two-arm parallel design multi-center, randomized clinical trial, the Tennis Elbow Acupuncture-International Study-China, Hong Kong, Australia, Italy. Participants' level of anxiety was measured using a validated instrument, the Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Mood Scale. Ninety-six participants with Lateral Elbow Pain were randomly allocated into two groups; the acupuncture treatment group (n = 47) and the inactive mock laser control group (n = 49). Data were collected immediately following the interventions at the first and the ninth session within the clinical trial. Acupuncture with De Qi did not induce higher level of anxiety compared to prior administration of acupuncture. In fact, participants were more relaxed after receiving acupuncture than those who received mock laser. There was also a weak association between participants' perception of anxiety during acupuncture and the MASS De Qi Index in session nine only (p < 0.01). Further investigation of the result revealed weak positive correlation between anxiety perceived during administration of acupuncture and the following De Qi characteristics; 'soreness' (p < 0.01), 'Deep pressure' (p < 0.05), 'Heaviness' (p < 0.05), and 'Fullne...
Razavy, S, Gadau, M, Zhang, SP, Wang, FC, Bangrazi, S, Berle, C, Harahap, M, Li, T, Li, WH & Zaslawski, C 2017, 'Investigation of the Phenomenon of Propagated Sensation along the Channels in the Upper Limb Following Administration of Acupuncture and Mock Laser', JAMS Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 307-316.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Background Similar to De Qi psychophysical responses, propagated sensation along the channels (PSC) is considered an important phenomenon in traditional Chinese acupuncture. In acupuncture clinical trials, different acupuncture manipulation techniques are used to enhance the propagation of sensation along the channels to facilitate an optimum therapeutic result. Aim To examine and compare the PSC reported by participants in a clinical trial following the administration of acupuncture and inactive mock laser. Methods The study was embedded in a two-arm parallel design multicenter, randomized clinical trial, the Tennis Elbow Acupuncture—International Study—China, Hong Kong, Australia, Italy (TEA IS CHAI). Needle sensations were measured using a validated instrument, the Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Spreading Scale. Ninety-six participants with lateral elbow pain were randomly allocated into two groups in a 1:1 ratio; the acupuncture treatment group (n = 47) and the mock laser control group (n = 49). Participants in both groups received the intervention at two acupoints, LI10 and LI11, consisting of 2 minutes of either standardized needle manipulation or mock laser at each acupoint with a rest period between each intervention period. Data were collected immediately following the interventions at the first and the ninth session within the clinical trial. Results Although participants in both groups perceived PSC radiating to similar sites along the upper limb, the frequency of the reported radiation sites among the two intervention groups for both radiation up the limb (p < 0.05) and radiation down the limb (p < 0.001) were statistically significantly different. Among the radiating sensation sites recorded within the two study groups, the sensations were reported as radiating a greater distance down the forearm to the wrist compared to up the arm. Evaluation of PSC across the four study sites revealed a statistically significant differe...
Razavy, S, Gadau, M, Zhang, SP, Wang, FC, Bangrazi, S, Berle, C, Harahap, M, Li, T, Li, WH & Zaslawski, C 2017, 'Psychophysical responses in patients receiving a mock laser within context of an acupuncture clinical trial: an interoceptive perspective', BMC COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE, vol. 17.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liu, Y-S, Gadau, M, Zhang, G-X, Liu, H, Wang, F-C, Zaslawski, C, Li, T, Tan, Y-S, Berle, C, Li, W-H, Bangrazi, S, Liguori, S & Zhang, S-P 2016, 'Acupuncture Treatment of Lateral Elbow Pain: A Nonrandomized Pilot Study', EVIDENCE-BASED COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zaslawski, C, Berle, C, Gadau, M, Li, WH, Li, T, Wang, FC, Bangrazi, S, Li, L, Ligouri, S, Liu, YS, Tan, YS & Zhang, SP 2016, 'Protocol for Acupuncture Treatment of Lateral Elbow Pain: A Multisite Randomised Controlled Trial in China, Hong Kong, Australia, and Italy', Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2016, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background. Lateral elbow pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal pains associated with the upper limb and has an estimated population incidence of 1–3%. Methods/Design. This study protocol is for a multisite randomised controlled study and is designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic (over three months' duration) lateral elbow pain. Four study sites, in the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, Italy, and Australia, will recruit 24 participants each. A total of 96 participants will be randomised to either an acupuncture group or a sham laser control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire with secondary outcome measures of Pain-Free Grip Strength Test, Muscle Tension Test, and a pain visual analogue scale. Discussion. Key features for conducting a multisite international acupuncture randomised clinical trial have been detailed in this protocol. Trial Registration. This trial is registered at Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12613001138774 on 11 October, 2013.
Berle, CA, Cobbin, DM, Smith, NF & Zaslawski, CJ 2011, 'An innovative method to accommodate Chinese medicine pattern diagnosis within the framework of evidence-based medical research', Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 824-833.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Pattern diagnosis is an integral aspect of Chinese medicine (CM). CM differentiates biomedical diseases into patterns, based upon the patients symptoms and signs. Pattern identification (PI) is used to diagnose, direct the treatment principle and determine the treatment protocol. Most CM research has used fixed formula treatments for Western-defined diseases with outcomes measured using objective biomedical markers. This article presents an innovative method used in a randomised controlled pilot study using acupuncture for participants with hepatitis C virus. Each participants CM patterns were identified and quantified at baseline which directed the treatment protocol for the treatment group. Data identified that while each participant expressed different patterns at baseline all participants displayed multiple patterns. Six patterns showed some expression by all 16 participants; Liver (Gan) yin vacuity expressing a group aggregate mean percentage of 47.2, binding depression of Liver qi 46.9, and Liver Kidney (Shen) yin vacuity 45.1. Further sub category gender grouping revealed that pattern ranking changed with gender; Liver yin vacuity (male 53.4%, female 51.93%), binding depression of Liver qi (male 50.0%, female 42.86%) and Liver Kidney yin vacuity (male 42.9%, female 47.96%). The quantification of CM patterns described in this article permitted statistical evaluation of presenting CM patterns. Although this methodology is in its infancy it may have potential use in the integration of PI with rigorous evidence based clinical research. Biomedical markers often do not relate to symptom/signs and therefore this innovative measure may offer an additional CM evaluation methodology and further CM PI understanding.
Berle, CA, Cobbin, DM, Smith, NF & Zaslawski, CJ 2010, 'A Novel Approach to Evaluate Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment Outcomes Using Pattern Identification', Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 357-367.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), a modem interpretation of Chinese medicine, developed in the 1950s. It differentiates biomedical diseases into patterns. Each pattern comprises symptom/signs that have their own unique treatment protocol. Most TCM research has used fixed formula treatments for Western-defined diseases with outcomes often measured using objective biomedical markers. More recently, a number of trials have attempted to accommodate TCM clinical practice within the framework of rigorous evidence-based medical research. The aim of this article is to describe a novel outcome measure based on TCM patterns that was used in a pilot study for people with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Methods: Sixteen (16) participants with HCV were enrolled in a randomized, controlled pilot study and allocated to a treatment or control group. TCM pattern diagnosis was obtained at baseline and used to guide acupuncture treatment for the treatment group. Each individual's primary, secondary, and tertiary TCM patterns were identified, which involved the systematic evaluation of the participant's infonnation against the TCM patterns and conversion of the pattern to a percentage. Baseline and postintervention percentages for the three rCM patterns for the two groups were compared to assess change.