Chris Earley became Dean of UTS Business School in November 2017 after serving as the Dean of the Tasmanian School of Business and Economics since July 2015. Chris comes to University of Technology Sydney with over 25 years of teaching and research experience at top business schools around the globe and over 12 years of administrative experience as a dean across three continents.
Prior to this he was the Dean of the Krannert School of Management and the James Brooke Henderson Chair in Management at Purdue University. Before arriving at Purdue, Chris was Dean and Auran J. Fox Chair in Business at the University of Connecticut as well as the Dean and Cycle and Carriage Chair at the Business School at the National University of Singapore.
Previously, he held chairs at London Business School and the Kelley School of Business at Indiana University. He also held professorships at Sasin Institute of Business Administration in Thailand, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, the University of Minnesota and the Graduate School of the University of California, Irvine, among others.
© 1993 by Oxford University Press, Inc. All rights reserved. The focus of this book is the development and application of a middle-range theory of culture, self-identity, and work behaviour. According to the authors' self-representative theory, three components are relevant to an individual's work behaviour: cultural and situational characteristics, cognitive representation of the self, and managerial practices and techniques used in an organisation. Culture is viewed as a shared knowledge structure that results in decreased variability in individual interpretation of stimuli. The self is viewed as a dynamic interpretive structure that shapes an individual's interpretation of social milieu. Managerial practices influence work behaviour, and in this book the focus is on how these practices relate to the components of culture and the self. A final chapter provides a number of specific recommendations for how organisations might consider structuring their environment and managerial practices in order to match culture-self interaction.
Earley, PC, Ang, S & Tan, J-S 2006, CQ Developing Cultural Intelligence at Work, Stanford University Press.
This book helps a manager understand and assess personal cultural intelligence and how to leverage this capability in diverse work environments. This book is an immensely useful guide to the use of cultural intelligence at work.
Earley, PC & Ang, S 2003, Cultural Intelligence Individual Interactions Across Cultures, Stanford University Press.
In this book, the authors develop the idea of cultural intelligence and examine its three essential facets: cognition, the ability to develop patterns from cultural cues; motivation, the desire and ability to engage others; and behavior, ...
Earley, PC & Gibson, CB 2002, Multinational Work Teams A New Perspective, Routledge.
This authored book's purpose is to extend and consolidate the evolving literature on multinational work teams by developing a comprehensive theory that incorporates a dynamic, multilevel view of such teams.
Cooper, CA, Cartwright, S & Earley, PC 2001, Handbook of Organizational Culture, Blackwell Publishers, London.
Earley, PC & Singh, H 2000, Innovations in International and Cross-Cultural Management, SAGE.
Presenting cross-cultural research on a wide range of organizational topics, this book ranges from the individual to the macro level.
Earley, PC 1997, Face, Harmony, and Social Structure An Analysis of Organizational Behavior Across Cultures, Oxford University Press.
In this work, he develops a mid-range theory of individual behavior, self-concept, and interpersonal process in an effort to explain cultural differences in organizational settings.
Earley, PC & Erez, M 1997, New Perspectives on International Industrial/Organizational Psychology, Pfeiffer.
Discover the important roles cultural and national origin plays in the relationship between an organization and its employees.
Earley, PC & Erez, M 1997, The Transplanted Executive Why You Need to Understand How Workers in Other Countries See the World Differently, Oxford University Press.
Why You Need to Understand How Workers in Other Countries See the World
Differently P. Christopher Earley, Miriam Erez. THE TRANSPLANTED
EXECUTIVE This page intentionally left blank THE TRANSPLANTED
EXECUTIVE Why You.
Mosakowski, E, Calic, G & Earley, PC 2013, 'Cultures as learning laboratories: What makes some more effective than others', Academy of Management Learning and Education, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 512-526.View/Download from: Publisher's site
With a mandate to globalize, business school educators have increasingly embraced global service learning as an important technique for creating global mind-sets and enhancing cultural understanding in students. While we applaud this movement from the domestic to the global and from the classroom to the field in business education, we raise a fundamental question that is seldom asked when global service-learning projects are chosen: ''Are some cultural contexts better suited for effective cultural learning and the creation of a global mind-set?'' To respond to this question, we present an exploratory study of culturally inexperienced non-U.S. business students at a U.S. university engaging in a service-learning project for U.S. military veterans. In this project, the veterans with disabilities were choosing entrepreneurship and self-employment as a way to rebuild their lives. From the qualitative data collected, we observed increases in the cultural intelligence of non-U.S. students, particularly in their development of metacognitive/cognitive strategies and the enhancement of their affective/motivational resources for learning across cultures. We examined characteristics of the cultural setting of U.S. military veterans with disabilities, and proposed that four characteristics facilitated the crosscultural learning achieved by the non-U.S. students. These include a moderate level of cultural distance, a tight culture, low context, and high moral desirability. While we hesitate to generalize beyond this cultural context and beyond culturally inexperienced students, we argue for further discussion about, consideration of, and research on the idea that cultural contexts may differ in their ability to stimulate cultural learning and global mind-set development. © Academy of Management Learning & Education, 2013.
Haynie, M, Mosakowski, E, Shepherd, D & Earley, PC 2010, 'The Entrepreneur as Motivated Tactician: Motivation, Context, and Metacognition.', Journal of Business Venturing.
Randel, AE & Earley, PC 2009, 'Organizational culture and similarity among team members' salience of multiple diversity characteristics', Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 804-833.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Research often has focused on the presence of individuals' demographic differences, rather than the perception of such differences. We examined how organizational culture relates to similarity among individuals' salience of their team members' diversity characteristics. Moreover, we introduced a new approach to studying multiple diversity characteristics simultaneously. Team members who perceive their organizational culture as emphasizing respect for people were found to be unlikely to hold convergent views of their team members' demographics. Also, high-performing team members were found to view the salience of demographic characteristics similarly to other team members. Our findings suggest that an organizational culture emphasizing respect for people may be associated with unexpected barriers among team members that pose a threat to effective team functioning. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gibson, CB & Earley, PC 2007, 'Collective cognition in action: Accumulation, interaction, examination, and accommodation in the development and operation of group efficacy beliefs in the workplace', Academy of Management Review, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 438-458.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Group efficacy has emerged as an important and significant predictor of group effectiveness. However, most conceptual work on group efficacy fails to capture its complexity. In this article we extend extant theory and develop a more in-depth model of how group efficacy develops and operates within existing groups, including complex moderating factors. We conclude with a discussion of implications and future research concerning motivation in collaborative efforts. Copyright of the Academy of Management, all rights reserved.
Earley, PC 2006, 'Leading cultural research in the future: A matter of paradigms and taste', Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 922-931.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The styles and approaches used in cross-cultural organizational research are nearly as varied as the cultures under study. We see two variations of one dominant style in the work of Hofstede and the GLOBE research consortium. In this commentary, I shall place these approaches in context and discuss alternatives that seem to be highly promising but largely overlooked. Based on this analysis, I conclude that it may well be time that this form of large-scale, multi-country survey be set aside for the development of alternative mid-range theories having a more direct application and explanation for organizational phenomena in a cultural and national context. © 2006 Academy of International Business. All rights reserved.
Earley, PC & Peterson, RS 2004, 'The Elusive Cultural Chameleon: Cultural Intelligence as a New Approach to Intercultural Training for the Global Manager', Academy of Management Learning & Education, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 100-115.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Earley, PC & Mosakowski, E 2004, 'Toward culture intelligence: Turning cultural differences into a workplace advantage', Academy of Management Executive, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 151-157.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Earley, PC & Mosakowski, E 2000, 'Creating hybrid team cultures: An empirical test of transnational team functioning', Academy of Management Journal, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 26-49.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Focusing on hybrid team culture within transnational teams as a facilitator of group interaction, we hypothesized a curvilinear relationship between team heterogeneity on nationality and effective performance. Through a qualitative field study, we developed a mediation model of the effects of transnational team dynamics. Two confirmatory laboratory studies followed. The hypothesized curvilinear relationship was confirmed, with homogeneous and highly heterogeneous teams outperforming moderately heterogeneous ones in the long run. Drawing from conceptual work on status hierarchies, group "faultlines," and group membership, we discuss implications for team structures in transnational settings.
Concepts of time vary dramatically across individuals and cultures. We draw from work in anthropology, psychology, sociology, and management to identify five time dimensions that guide our review and discussion of dynamic strategic management research. Although strategy researchers incorporate time in many ways, they generally ignore a subjective view of time and the temporal perceptions of actors in their models. We conclude by suggesting how strategy researchers and practitioners can incorporate an unambiguous and multifaceted view of time explicitly into their work.
Earley, PC 1999, 'Playing Follow the Leader: Status-Determining Traits in Relation to Collective Efficacy across Cultures', Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 192-212.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Increasing pressure on managing international teams has created a need for further understanding culturally relevant group processes. In this study, the cultural context of power distance is examined in relation to the status characteristics possessed by group members and their influence on group efficacy estimations and performance. Data obtained from 288 senior managers coming from England, France, Thailand, and the United States were used to test the hypothesis that power distance would moderate the influence of member status on collective decisions made by a group. Results demonstrate that in high power distance cultures, collective judgments of group capability are more strongly tied to higher rather than to lower status group members' personal judgments. In low power distance cultures, members appear to contribute comparably to collective efficacy judgments. The implications of the study are discussed in terms of status differentials and group decision making across cultures. © 1999 Academic Press.
Earley, PC, Gibson, CB & Chen, CC 1999, '"How did I do?" versus "how did we do?": Cultural contrasts of performance feedback use and self-efficacy', Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 594-619.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Research shows that feedback concerning a person's prior performance is an important determinant of self-efficacy and subsequent work activity. In addition, several recent cultural models posit that people use different aspects of their environment in assessing their self-concepts. In this article, the authors explore Triandis's sampling-probability hypothesis of cultural influence by examining the relationship of an individual's cultural values and performance feedback referents to an individual's self-efficacy. A laboratory experiment is used to test hypotheses concerning the nature of self-efficacy and feedback referent (self vs. group) in relation to individualism-collectivism. The results show that, depending on cultural values held, participants relied on different combinations of individual-and group-based feedback. The results are discussed with regard to a general model of self-efficacy and culture in an organizational environment.
Earley, PC & Gibson, CB 1998, 'Taking stock in our progress on individualism-collectivism: 100 years of solidarity and community', Journal of Management, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 265-304.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The tension existing between an inherent desire for companionship and personal identity forms the basis for one of the most highly researched cultural and personal dimensions in the field of management. This dichotomy, commonly called individualism-collectivism, is the focus of our review. Although much attention has been drawn toward this construct, its operationalization and measure have been problematic. In our review, we examine the theoretical and empirical bases for individualism and collectivism and its application in the field of organizational studies.
Farh, JL, Earley, PC & Lin, SC 1997, 'Impetus for action: A cultural analysis of justice and organizational citizenship behavior in Chinese society', Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 421-444.View/Download from: Publisher's site
To understand variations in citizenship behavior within a culture, we examine the relationship between citizenship behaviors and organizational justice in two studies in a Chinese context, using two cultural characteristics (traditionality and modernity) and one individual (gender) characteristic. In Study 1, we develop an indigenous measure of organizational citizenship behavior and explore the similarities and differences of this measure with its Western counterpart. In Study 2, we use this citizenship behavior measure to test its relationship to justice. Results demonstrate that organizational justice (distributive and procedural) is most strongly related to citizenship behavior for individuals who endorse less traditional, or high modernity, values. In addition, we found the relationship between justice and citizenship behavior to be stronger for men than for women. The studies are discussed in terms of the generality of citizenship behavior and its relation to organizational justice and cultural characteristics.
Ang, S, Cummings, LL, Straub, DW & Earley, PC 1993, 'The effects of information technology and the perceived mood of the feedback giver on feedback seeking', Information Systems Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 240-261.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A major tenet in organizational behavior literature is that feedback improves performance. If feedback is thought to improve performance, then individuals should actively seek feedback in their work. Yet, surprisingly, individuals seldom seek feedback perhaps because of face-loss costs of obtaining feedback face-to-face. Furthermore, in cases where the giver is perceived to be in a bad mood, individuals may be even more reluctant to seek feedback if they believe seeking feedback risks the giver's wrath and a negative evaluation. In this paper, we explain how information technology can be designed to mediate feedback communication and deliver feedback that promotes feedback seeking. In a laboratory experiment, the effects of information technology and the perceived mood of the feedback giver on the behavior of feedback seekers are examined. The results showed that individuals in both the computer-mediated feedback environment and the computer-generated feedback environment sought feedback more frequently than individuals in the face-to-face feedback environment. In addition, individuals sought feedback more frequently from a giver who was perceived to be in a good mood than from a giver who was perceived to be in a bad mood. Copyright © 1993. The Institute of Management Sciences.
Earley, PC 1993, 'EAST MEETS WEST MEETS MIDEAST: FURTHER EXPLORATIONS OF COLLECTIVISTIC AND INDIVIDUALISTIC WORK GROUPS.', Academy of Management Journal, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 319-348.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study proposed a model of work group performance based on the consequences of complex interdependence (CI), which is defined as the interactive effects of task, goal, and feedback combinations. The study consisted of a 4 (task interdependence: pooled, sequential, reciprocal, or team) × 2 (goal interdependence: individual or group) × 2 (feedback interdependence: individual or group) completely crossed factorial design using 118 three-person groups working in a laboratory setting on a performance appraisal task. The results of group-level analyses demonstrated the impact of CI on the perceived effectiveness of group task strategy. In turn, task strategy and intragroup conflict partially mediated the effects of CI on group performance quantity and quality. Design applications for group work are presented and discussed.
The past fifteen years have seen the development of a considerable research literature on the social psychology of procedural justice (see Lind & Tyler, 1988, for a review). Procedural justice research reveals some serious shortcomings in the exchange theories that have traditionally dominated Western analyses of the social psychology of groups, and in so doing, the procedural justice literature has important ramifications for cross‐cultural psychology. Results from a number of studies conducted in the United States and Western Europe show that individualistic, self‐interest based models of human behaviour are insufficient to explain procedural justice phenomena. Instead, procedural justice effects frequently reveal strong group‐oriented concerns and motivations even in cultural contexts generally thought to be characterized by individualistic orientations. The research literature also shows that if a group's procedures are judged to be fair, people are more likely to show group‐oriented behaviour and to hold more favourable attitudes toward the group and its leaders. These findings have led to the development of a theory of justice judgments—the Lind and Tyler group‐value theory—which is based on group norms and relations rather than on social exchange theory. We describe a general model of social behaviour that integrates group‐ and individually‐oriented behaviour, and we discuss the implications of the model for social and cross‐cultural psychology. © 1992 International Union of Psychological Science
Goal setting is thought to serve a directive function in individuals' estimates of their capacity to perform in their work environment. A series of studies were conducted in which college students performed mathematics problems (n = 100) or worked on a complex game simulation (n = 100) under conditions of easy or challenging goals. In addition, a field study was conducted with junior and senior business students (n = 127) in a management course during a normal semester. Three alternative models combining self-efficacy expectations, performance valence, and personal goals were tested with LISREL VI and hierarchical regression analyses. The results support various aspects of the models and, in general, favor the causal sequencing suggested by Locke and Latham (1990) and Eden (1988) over the model proposed by Garland (1985).
Lee, C, Earley, PC, Lituchy, TR & Wagner, M 1991, 'Relation of Goal Setting and Goal Sharing to Performance and Conflict for Interdependent Tasks', British Journal of Management, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 33-39.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Despite the prevalence of goal setting in organizations, researchers have not thoroughly examined the implications of goal setting to work outcomes in interdependent work settings. A field survey (n= 442) assessed the relation of goal setting and goal sharing, the extent to which others are aware of an individual's work goal, to performance and conflict across varying levels of task interdependence. The results of moderated regression analyses demonstrate that in highly interdependent tasks, the use of goal setting resulted in lower performance levels. Moreover, goal setting and goal sharing in highly interdependent tasks resulted in individuals' reporting more somatic symptoms. The results are discussed in terms of clarifying the role of goal setting for interdependent tasks. Copyright © 1991, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved
Earley, PC, Lee, C & Hanson, LA 1990, 'Joint moderating effects of job experience and task component complexity: Relations among goal setting, task strategies, and performance', Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 3-15.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Research in goal setting has demonstrated moderating roles of job experience and task complexity in the relation of goals to performance. Goal setting appears to have its strongest effect on an individual's performance and task strategy quality for jobs having low task complexity. A field study (n = 347) was conducted to assess the moderating role of job experience and task component complexity, or the number of distinct and independent actions an individual must process, using respondents from several organizations across a variety of job levels. The results of moderated regression analyses demonstrate support for the hypothesis that task component complexity would moderate the effect of goal setting on performance. In addition, experience moderated the relation of goal setting to task strategy quality and performance for jobs having a great deal of task component complexity. The results are discussed as further evidence of the largged beneficial effect of goals on task performance for a job high in task component complexity. Copyright © 1990 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Earley, PC, Northcraft, GB, Lee, C & Lituchy, TR 1990, 'IMPACT OF PROCESS AND OUTCOME FEEDBACK ON THE RELATION OF GOAL SETTING TO TASK PERFORMANCE.', Academy of Management Journal, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 87-105.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lind, EA, Kanfer, R & Earley, PC 1990, 'Voice, Control, and Procedural Justice: Instrumental and Noninstrumental Concerns in Fairness Judgments', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 952-959.View/Download from: Publisher's site
One hundred seventy-nine undergraduate Ss took part in a study of the effects of instrumental and noninstrumental participation on distributive and procedural fairness judgments. In a goal-setting procedure, Ss were allowed voice before the goal was set, after the goal was set, or not at all. Ss received information relevant to the task, irrelevant information, or no information. Both pre- and postdecision voice led to higher fairness judgments than no voice, with predecision voice leading to higher fairness judgments than postdecision voice. Relevant information also increased perceived fairness. Mediation analyses showed that perceptions of control account for some, but not all, of the voice-based enhancement of procedural justice. The results show that both instrumental and noninstrumental concerns are involved in voice effects.
Earley, PC 1989, 'Social Loafing and Collectivism: A Comparison of the United States and the People's Republic of China', Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 565-565.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Earley, PC, Connolly, T & Ekegren, G 1989, 'Goals, Strategy Development, and Task Performance: Some Limits on the Efficacy of Goal Setting', Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 24-33.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Specific, difficult goals enhance performance in many tasks. We hypothesize, however, that this effect disappears or reverses for novel tasks that allow multiple alternative strategies. We report findings from three laboratory experiments using a stock market prediction task with these characteristics. In the first study, 34 students made predictions concerning the value of 100 companies' stock based on three manipulated cues after receiving either a "do your best" or a specific, difficult goal (come within $10 of the actual stock price) concerning the accuracy of their predictions. In the second study, 88 students making stock market predictions received one of the following goals: do your best, specific-easy (come within $30), specific-moderate (come within $20), specific-hard (come within $10), or a tapering, specific goal (decreasing from $30 to $10 in $5 increments every 20 predictions). Finally, the third study (n = 30) replicated the first study by using a different prediction algorithm for the stock market simulation. The results of repeated measures multivariate analyses of variance conducted on indexes of prediction accuracy and predictor weightings supported the hypothesis that specific, difficult goals (prediction accuracy) increase an individual's strategy search activity and reduce prediction accuracy for the stock predictions.
Earley, PC, Connolly, T & Lee, C 1989, 'Task Strategy Interventions in Goal Setting: The Importance of Search in Strategy Development', Journal of Management, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 589-602.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In contrast to a large body of goal-setting research, recent findings suggest that challenging goals may not be beneficial when effective task strategies are not readily identifiable. In such settings goals may stimulate excessive strategy search, degrading overall performance. Two alternative aids to developing effective task strategies (restricting search or providing training in search methods) were examined in a laboratory study. Ninety-four subjects performed a stock prediction task under conditions of specific, challenging, or “do your best” goals and different task strategy interventions. The results of analyses demonstrated that the benefits of the strategy interventions were realized only if subjects were given also a specific challenging goal. Implications for goal setting theory and research are discussed. © 1989, Sage Publications. All rights reserved.
This paper extends the literature of feedback use through an empirical examination of two central issues in the use of feedback: feedback credibility and technology as a feedback source. In a laboratory study, 55 subjects received performance feedback from one of four sources (organization, supervisor, and self-generated with or without the aid of a computer) while participating in a stock market simulation. The results of repeated-measures MANOVAs demonstrated that self-generated feedback (with or without the use of a computer) significantly influenced credibility of feedback, strategy acquisition, and performance. There was no support for the contention that technology-based feedback sources foster "technomindlessness.". © 1989.
Earley, PC 1988, 'Computer-generated performance feedback in the magazine-subscription industry', Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 50-64.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Despite the demonstrated importance of feedback for the successful implementation of many organizational systems, few research studies have examined the influence of computer-generated feedback on an individual. A field experiment was conducted to assess the relation of computer-generated feedback to an individual's task performance. Sixty male and female magazine subscription processors working with assigned goals received either specific or general feedback from a computer monitoring system. This feedback was presented to the worker by a supervisor or self-generated by the worker using the computer system. The results demonstrate that feedback source (self versus supervisor) and specificity (general versus specific) were directly related to performance. In addition, task planning mediated the effect of feedback specificity on performance; trust in the feedback predicted an individual's level of performance. The findings are presented as an elaboration of the role of computer-achieved feedback in an organization. © 1988.
Earley, PC 1987, 'INTERCULTURAL TRAINING FOR MANAGERS: A COMPARISON OF DOCUMENTARY AND INTERPERSONAL METHODS.', Academy of Management Journal, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 685-698.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Earley, PC & Perry, BC 1987, 'Work plan availability and performance: An assessment of task strategy priming on subsequent task completion', Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 279-302.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The relation of task strategy planning to task performance was explored using a series of laboratory investigations. The first study examined the influence of providing a subject a work strategy and a specific work goal on his or her subsequent performance. A total of 72 subjects participated in a 2 (goal) × 2 (task strategy priming) × 3 (performance period) × 3 (task type) repeated measures, factorial design study. The results demonstrate that task strategy priming and goal setting increase the amount of an individual's planning and directs the type of plan developed. A second study was conducted (n = 90) to further explore the effect of task strategy priming on planning and performance. Taken together, the results of the studies demonstrate that (a) goal setting increases strategic planning, (b) priming influences the amount and type of planning engaged in by an individual, and (c) task performance varies as the result of the type of plan an individual develops. The results are discussed as a means of expanding the use of cognitive constructs in theories of work motivation. © 1987.
Earley, PC, Wojnaroski, P & Prest, W 1987, 'Task Planning and Energy Expended: Exploration of How Goals Influence Performance', Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 107-114.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Although many studies demonstrate the effectiveness of goal setting in organizations, it is unclear how goals actually influence performance. In present studies we examined the effect of assigned goals and task information on performance, energy expended, and task planning or organizing. In Study 1, a 2 × 2 (Information × Goal) design was used. Subjects were 72 undergraduates working on a business simulation. In Study 2, 129 male and female workers from a service organization and a moving company responded to a survey assessing an individual's goal setting, job training, energy expended during a typical task performance, and task planning undertaken prior to performance. The results of both studies demonstrated that goal setting and task training influenced the dependent variables. In addition to influencing an individual's energy expended (effort and persistence), having a specific goal led an individual to plan and organize more than an individual given a general goal (i.e., "do your best"). The results of both studies suggest that goal setting and task-relevant information influence performance, in part, through their influence on energy expended and planning. © 1987 American Psychological Association.
Only a few studies that have examined the effects of participation on an individual's goal acceptance and performance have been conducted within a cross-cultural context. In the present study, we tested for the contingency between the effectiveness of goal-setting strategies and cultural values. We examined three goal-setting strategies within three different cultural groups-assigned goals, goals participatively set by a group representative and the experimenter, and goals participatively set by a group. The three cultural groups studied were U.S. students (n = 60), individualistic and having a high power distance; Israeli students from urban areas (n = 60), collectivistic and having a low power distance; and Israeli students from kibbutzim (n = 60), highly coUectivistic and having a low power distance. Results indicated that participative strategies led to higher levels of goal acceptance and performance than the assigned strategy. Culture did not moderate the effect of goal-setting strategies on goal acceptance, but it appeared to moderate the effect of strategy on performance for extremely difficult goals. © 1987 American Psychological Association.
Earley, PC 1986, 'Supervisors and Shop Stewards as Sources of Contextual Information in Goal Setting. A Comparison of the United States With England', Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 111-117.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The purpose of the present study was to examine how different sources (information given by a supervisor versus a shop steward) and types of information (work strategy versus work rationale) influence goal setting and performance in the United States and England. It was hypothesized that workers receiving information from their shop stewards would outperform those workers receiving information from their supervisors. It was also hypothesized that people receiving a job rationale would not as effectively perform or have as high a level of goal acceptance as workers who were provided task training. To test these hypotheses, two field experiments were conducted at comparable tire-production factories, with 60 tire-tread layers participating from each country. The results demonstrate that the goal setting method worked in England as it did in the United States, except that a supervisor was not as effective a source of information as a shop steward in England. © 1986 American Psychological Association.
Earley, PC 1986, 'Trust, Perceived Importance of Praise and Criticism, and Work Performance: An Examination of Feedback in the United States and England', Journal of Management, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 457-473.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article describes two studies which examined the usefulness of performance feedback in shaping American and English workers’ behaviors. In thefirst study, an in-basket task was used to assess the importance of praise or criticism concerning work performance for 36 American and 36 English workers from a traditional, heavy-manufacturing industry in the United States and England. A second study was conducted (n = 86 for the U.S., n = 74 for England) to examine the relations among a worker's trust in a supervisor, perceived importance of praise and criticism, a worker's perceived amount of praise and criticism received, and performance. Results suggest that American and English workers valued and responded to praise and criticism differently, and that the influence of the feedback was partially mediated by a worker's trust in thefeedback source and perceived importance of the feedback. © 1986, Sage Publications. All rights reserved.
Earley, PC & Kanfer, R 1985, 'The influence of component participation and role models on goal acceptance, goal satisfaction, and performance', Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 378-390.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The present investigation examined the effects of different types of participation (choice) and role models in goal setting on goal acceptance, goal satisfaction, and performance. It was hypothesized that choice in setting a goal and a strategy to achieve the goal would positively benefit goal acceptance, performance, and goal satisfaction. In addition, it was predicted that a role model would differentially influence an individual's goal acceptance, goal satisfaction, and performance. One hundred twenty male college students working on a class scheduling task were exposed to either a high- or low-performing role model and given various amounts of choice in the goal-setting process. The results of two-way analyses of variance demonstrated that goal acceptance, goal satisfaction, and performance were highest for individuals given choice over their goal and their strategy to achieve the goal. In addition, the results demonstrated that an individual exposed to a high-performing role model outperformed and had higher goal acceptance and satisfaction than an individual exposed to a low-performing model. The results are discussed as a means for clarifying the effects of different types of choice in the goal-setting process and the importance of role-provided information in influencing an individual's performance. © 1985.
Laughlin, PR & Earley, PC 1982, 'Social combination models, persuasive arguments theory, social comparison theory, and choice shift', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 273-280.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Individuals and 5-person groups responded 3 successive times to 4 standard choice-dilemma items in the order of either individual-group-individual or individual-individual-individual; 288 male undergraduates served as Ss. Decisions were made for oneself, for a friend, and for a stranger (the hypothetical protagonist of the standard choice-dilemma instructions). Decisions for the stranger were more risky than decisions for a friend, and decisions for a friend were more risky than decisions for oneself. As predicted from persuasive arguments theory, the best fitting social combination model on the most risky item was risk-supported wins; the best fitting model on the most conservative item was conservative-supported wins; and the best fitting model on 2 less extreme items was majority wins. It is emphasized that social combination models and theories of group-interaction processes, such as persuasive arguments theory or social comparison theory, are complementary rather than rival explanations of collective decision making. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). © 1982 American Psychological Association.