Dr Cherie Lucas is a registered pharmacist, Accredited Mental Health First Aid Instructor (MHFA), trained pharmacist immuniser and clinical educator with > 19 years of academic pharmacy teaching experience from The University of Sydney (16 years) and the UTS (approx 4 years). She has lectured, tutored, examined students and written examination papers for both the undergraduate and Masters of Pharmacy degrees at The University of Sydney. She has also mentored students and facilitated in the Intern Training Program. Her professional work includes many years as a clinical hospital pharmacist in various areas including: HIV/AIDS, haematology, respiratory, oncology, cardiology, ophthalmology, dermatology and clinical drug trials. Furthermore, attaining a Grade 2 specialist clinical pharmacist position in the area of HIV/AIDS from Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney. During her time as a specialist clinical pharmacist Cherie participated as part of a multidisciplinary team delivering direct pharmaceutical care to patients and providing education to medical, allied health and nursing staff. Other areas of pharmacy practice in which Cherie has been involved include: community pharmacy, industry (clinical research for national and international drug trials), broadcast pharmacy, drug information services, research and academia. Additional postgrad qualification: Graduate Certificate in Educational Studies (Higher Education) at USyd.
Her extensive experience in clinical pharmacy and teaching undergraduate and Masters of pharmacy students led to her PhD research focusing on reflective practices in the areas of pharmacy practice and education. This research has led to curriculum innovations. More specifically, Cherie has pioneered the integration into an undergraduate curriculum, a novel reliable assessment strategy, namely, the RACA (Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment) to enhance students’ reflective thinking ability, counseling and decision-making skills. Also pioneered and integrated a novel collaborative teaching and learning model: RIPE (Reflective Interprofessional Education) model to enhance interprofessional collaboration with the use of high fidelity manikins in simulation labs. Awarded 2018 UTS Learning and Teaching Citation honour; and an individual category Citation: 2019 Australian Award for University Teaching Citation: Outstanding Contribution to Student Learning.
Cherie’s research involves both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, with expertise in ANCOVA, ANOVA, and multiple regression procedures.
Dr Cherie Lucas currently serves on the Editorial Board: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning (CPTL), is one of 10 Editors for Pulses, Scholarly Blog and is an internationally published researcher (36 publications) with more than 24 first-author publications in peer-reviewed journals, co-authored a pharmacy book chapter with international collaborators; continues collaborative published research with Cardiff Univeristy, UK; University of Toronto, Canada; Long Island University, NY, USA and has presented her research at national and international meetings including Boston, USA (2014), Italy (2015; 2017, 2019), Aberdeen, Scotland (2016), Leuven, Belgium (2018).
Cherie is currently a Senior Lecturer and Manager, Clinical Education and placements for the Master of Pharmacy and Master of Pharmacy (International) degrees at UTS and has supervised or co-supervised the following research students
Supervision of PhD Students:
Mariyam Aly (UTS) 2019-Expected 2021
Co-Supervision of PhD Students:
Helen Benson (UTS) (Pharmacists integrated in GP settings)- Awarded PhD 2019
Zhaleh Madhaji (University of Notre Dame, Western Australia): (Simulation and Practice)
Supervision of Research Elective Students:
Jeannette Le (UTS) (Reflective Practice in Clincial Environments)
Anna Groen (UTS) (GP pharmacists )
Stephen Zhang (UTS) (Reflective Practice - Interdisciplinary)
Ream Sabbah (UTS) (Interprofessional Education and Reflective Practices)
Any HDR (PhD and/or Masters by research) student who is interested in research with Cherie as an Supervisor, should complete the following Formal Expression of Interest Form
SELECTED CONFERENCE AND INVITED PRESENTATIONS
1. Lucas et al. (2018). Development, Implementation and Evaluation of the RIPE Model for interprofessional collaboration utilizing high fidelity manikins. Proceedings of the ISPW International Pharmacy Conference, Leuven, Belgium, 23-26 July 2018)
2. Lucas et al. (2018) Preceptor Perceptions: Standardizing evaluation and feedback processes for experiential placements. Proceedings of the ISPW International Pharmacy Conference, Leuven, Belgium, 23-26 July 2018)
3.Tsingos-Lucas C, Aitken A, Gibson A, Buckingham Shum S. (2017). Utilisation of a Novel Online Educational Tool to Assist Pharmacy Students to Self-Critique Reflective Writing Tasks. (Teaching Innovation Poster Presentation, Proceedings of the 9th Pharmacy Education Symposium, Prato, Italy 9th-12th July 2017- Awarded the Teaching Innovation Prize)
4. Tsingos-Lucas C, Williams KA, Smith L, Lonie JM, Woulfe J.(2017). Development and Utilisation of a Structured ePortfolio to Support Attainment of Pharmacy Practice Competencies. (Educational Research Poster Presentation and Oral Snap Shot, Proceedings of the 9th Pharmacy Educational Symposium, Prato, Italy 9th-12th July 2017).
5.Tsingos-Lucas C, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Smith L. (2016). Students' and Pharmacy Educators' Perceptions of Integrating The Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA) into an Undergraduate Curriculum. (Oral presentation, The University of Sydney, Proceedings of the Australasian Pharmaceutical Science Association (APSA) Conference, 2nd-5th Dec 2016.
6. Tsingos-Lucas C, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Schneider CR, Bartimote-Aufflick K, McEntee MF, Smith L. (2016). Inter-rater reliability using a reflective rubric to assess pharmacy students' reflective thinking. (Oral presentation, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, proceedings of the 19th ISPW Pharmacy Conference, 19th-22nd July 2016).
7. Gibson A, Aitken A, Buckingham Shum S, Knight S, Ryan P, Jarvis W, Nikolova N, Tsingos-Lucas C, Parr A, White A, Sutton A. (2016) Using Writing Analytics for Formative Feedback. (Oral presentation, University of Technology, UTS Teaching and Learning Forum, 22nd Nov 2016).
8.Tsingos-Lucas C, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Schneider CR, Bartimote-Aufflick K, McEntee MF, Smith L. (2015) The reliability of a rubric to assess reflective thinking. (Oral presentation, Higher Degree Annual Research Conference, The University of Sydney, 19th-20th Nov, 2015).
9.Tsingos C, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Schneider CR, Smith L. (2015) Development and Integration of the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA) into an undergraduate pharmacy curriculum to enhance reflective capacity. (Abstract Accepted for publication in Pharmacy Education; International oral presentation, proceedings of the 8th Pharmacy Education Symposium, Prato Italy, 5-8 July 2015.
10.Tsingos C, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Schneider CR, Smith L. (2015) Do reflective thinking skills improve when reflective activities are integrated into an undergraduate pharmacy curriculum? A cross-over repeated measures design. (Abstract Accepted for publication in Pharmacy Education, proceedings of the 8th Pharmacy Education Symposium, Prato, Italy 5-8 July, 2015.
11.Tsingos C, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Smith L. Do pharmacy students who prefer reflective learning achieve greater academic results? (Oral Presentation, Higher Degree Annual Research Conference, University of Sydney, Old Geology Lecture Theatre, 24th Nov, 2014)
12.Tsingos C, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Smith L. Are Australian undergraduate pharmacy students reflective learners and does this contribute to greater academic success? (International Oral Presentation, proceedings of the 18th ISPW Pharmacy Conference, Northeastern University, Boston, MA (7th August 2014)
13.Tsingos C, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Schneider C, Smith L. Implementation of the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (R.A.C.A.) into pharmacy curriculum to enhance reflective capacity: a pioneering assessment strategy. (Invited Oral presentation for the Institute for Teaching and Learning Research Seminar, Fischer Library, University of Sydney, 28th Oct, 2014)
14.Tsingos C, Nguyen K, Rudrawar S, Ghalayini M. Student generated examination questions in a case-based learning environment: a process to enhance student engagement, feedback and learning. (Presented at the Graduate Certificate in Educational Studies forum, Fischer Library, University of Sydney, 24th Oct, 2014)
15.Tsingos C. An Experimental Crossover Design study in Pharmacy. (Presented at the Graduate Certificate in Educational Studies forum, Fischer Library, Room 218, University of Sydney, 22nd August, 2014)
16.Tsingos C, Morrsion K, Nguyen K, Rudrawar S. Peer Observation of teaching in pharmacy. (Presented at the Graduate Certificate of Educational Studies forum, Carslaw, Room 354, University of Sydney. 9th May, 2014)
17.Lucas C. Do you want to swap jobs? (Proceedings of the SHPA 21st Federal Conference, Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, Darling Harbour, Sydney 19th-22nd November, 1993)
18.Lucas C. Will our HIV/AIDS Budget Blow Out? (Proceedings of the 5th National Conference on AIDS, Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, Darling Harbour, Sydney 11/1992)
Can supervise: YES
- Curriculum Instruction, design and assessment:pharmacy teaching and learning: reflective practice; learning styles; student engagement; innovative teaching practices; writing analytics (reflective writing)
- Reflective Practice- Interprofessional, Multidisciplinary,Transdisciplinary Education and Simulation Hospital Interdisciplinary Education
- Clinical reasoning and competency in pharmacy/health education and clinical practice
- Pharmacy Practice: Health Coaching
- Clinical Practice: Interprofessional Education: Pharmacists integrated in GP settings; Nursing students working with pharmacy students in simulation rooms; Interprofessional education with reflective practice
*Pharmacy practice - Clinical pharmacy practice *Glaucoma *HIV/AIDS *Reflective practice *Reflective Writing, Interprofessional Collaboration and Education Using Simulation Techniques, Instructor for Mental Health First Aid
Lucas, C, Schindel, TJ, Saini, B & Paslawski, T 2020, 'Game changer: Pharmacy students' perceptions of an educational “Party Hat” game to enhance communication and collaboration skills', Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Background and purpose: Educational games can be utilized as a tool to enhance communication and collaboration skill development and to bridge the gap between classroom learning and the practice environment. This study explores pharmacy students' perceptions of a game to enhance communication and collaboration. Educational activity and setting: Pre-licenced pharmacy students from an Australian metropolitan university engaged in a “Party Hat” game, where the goal was to communicate and collaborate with their peers to provide a discharge plan for a patient. “Party hats” with different instructions (e.g., agree with everything they say) were randomly provided to all students. Students were not privy to the instruction on their own party hat. The other students in the group were required to adhere to the instruction on their peers' hats while communicating. To gauge barriers to effective communication and collaboration, a debriefing session was conducted and written feedback was obtained. The debriefing session was transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted. Findings: Forty-nine students participated in the game. All students provided written feedback, and 15 students participated in the debriefing session. Emergent themes included: (1) inherent biases affecting communication and patient outcomes, (2) importance for an effective group leader, (3) importance for respect for other opinions, and (4) words can affect people. Effective communication and collaboration between healthcare professionals is an important skill. Using educational games to engage students is one of the ways in which educators can teach students the importance of delivering effective communication and of engaging in collaboration with their peers for better patient outcomes.
Nguyen, K-A, Lucas, C & Leadbeatter, D 2020, 'Student generation and peer review of examination questions in the dental curriculum: Enhancing student engagement and learning', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DENTAL EDUCATION.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Benson, H, Lucas, C & Williams, KA 2020, 'Establishing consensus for general practice pharmacist education: A Delphi study', Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 8-13.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Introduction: An evolving area of pharmacist professional practice is performing as team members in general practice teams. To date, there is a paucity of literature to guide schools and colleges of pharmacy regarding the educational needs of pharmacists training for this area of practice. Methods: This study employed a three-round e-Delphi method with the aim of establishing a consensus position on educational needs of pharmacists intending to work in the general practice setting. Educators from all Australian universities with a pharmacy school were invited to participate as part of the expert panel. Delphi panellists completed two e-survey rounds. A panel videoconference was then completed with results of the discussion confirmed in a final third e-survey. This study defined a proportion of experts rating agree or strongly agree at ≥75% to determine consensus and disagree or strongly disagree at ≥75% to determine non-consensus. Results: Ten of the 18 invited panellists agreed to participate in the study and completed both survey rounds; nine panellists completed the third-round survey. Twenty-six general practice pharmacist activities were identified as educational needs. Seventeen general practice pharmacist activities required no additional training. Five general practice pharmacist activities did not reach consensus. Conclusions: This study is one of the first investigations of educational needs of pharmacists wishing to practice in the general practice setting. The panel differentiated between activities that could be performed by less experienced pharmacists operating at a general level and those that would require further training.
Lucas, C, Power, T, Ferguson, C & Hayes, C 2020, 'Enhancing pre-licenced pharmacists’ communication and interprofessional collaboration utilizing the RIPE model of interprofessional learning: A qualitative study', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020 Elsevier Inc. Background: Interacting and engaging with other health care professionals can enhance communication and collaboration within the multidisciplinary healthcare team, contributing to improved patient safety and patient outcomes. Objective: To explore the student learning experience utilizing the Reflective Interprofessional Education Model (RIPE) model of interprofessional learning. Methods: Qualitative study utilizing data from seven (7) focus groups sessions. Data were transcribed verbatim using a transcribing service; and analyzed using Braun and Clarke's 6-phase process for thematic analysis. Results: Fifty-five Master of Pharmacy pre-licenced students (male n = 25; female: n = 30) participated in the study. The 7 focus groups consisted of 6–8 participants ranging between 18 and 28 min in duration. Thematic analysis generated four key themes: (i) Time management: managing interruptions in a time pressured acute care environment is challenging but necessary; (ii) Learning the Lingo: patient-centered communicating and engaging patients and family in care; (iii) Communication: developing interprofessional communication as a vital skill for healthcare professionals; and (iv) Teamwork: recognizing the importance of teamwork, relationships and respect. Conclusions: Students found the simulated, acute care setting challenging for effective communication and collaboration with other health professional team members. It was also perceived that critical patient information can be lost or misinterpreted if there is poor interprofessional communication and collaboration, contributing to iatrogenesis and poor patient outcomes. Effective collaboration was perceived to be beneficial to enhancing confidence with engagement and communication, appreciation and respect for the expertise of other healthcare professions.
Lucas, C, Power, T, Hayes, C & Ferguson, C 2020, '"Two heads are better than one"- pharmacy and nursing students' perspectives on interprofessional collaboration utilizing the RIPE model of learning', RESEARCH IN SOCIAL & ADMINISTRATIVE PHARMACY, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 25-32.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lucas, C, Smith, L, Lonie, JM, Hough, M, Rogers, K & Mantzourani, E 2019, 'Can a reflective rubric be applied consistently with raters globally? A study across three countries.', Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 987-994.View/Download from: Publisher's site
INTRODUCTION:Reflection is a powerful tool for assisting students to develop the skills to make better informed decisions. As a pharmacy competency standard, reliable and fair assessment strategies are required to measure reflective skills and support students in developing their reflective capacity. The aim of this research was to explore whether we can extend the applicability of a previously tested rubric to a range of educational settings, to account for diversity of pharmacy educators and curricula internationally. METHODS:Four raters from three countries applied a reflective rubric to assess a sample (n = 43) of reflective accounts, representing 41% of a cohort of 105 second-year undergraduate pharmacy students. The interrater reliability (IRR) was measured utilizing the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), using a two-way random effects model with absolute agreement, to determine the level of agreement between the raters' absolute scores. Generalizability Theory analysis was used to estimate generalizability of raters and stages. RESULTS:Results indicated agreement of raters for (i) each of the seven stages of reflection and (ii) overall score for the reflective account, with moderate to substantial agreement (ICC = 0.55-0.69, p < 0.001); and high agreement for all raters for the overall score (ICC = 0.96, p < 0.001), respectively. The G-Study estimated a relative error coefficient of 0.78. CONCLUSION:This additional analysis further confirms the reliability and applicability of the rubric to a range of rater academic backgrounds.
Chowdhary, A, Zlotnikova, V, Lucas, C & Lonie, JM 2019, 'How do mental health first aid ™ interventions influence patient help-seeking behaviours? A dilemma for pharmacist mental health first aid responders.', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 106-108.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In any given year approximately 34% of the 130 million adults in the United States suffer from a mental health condition or disorder. Anxiety and depressive disorders are the most common followed by substance use disorder. Many people who suffer from a mental illness do not seek help. Studies have shown that the stigma of being perceived as having a mental illness prevents many adults from seeking help. Mental Health First Aid ™ (MHFA) is an educational program geared towards educating MHFA responders to assist those who may be experiencing a mental health condition or disorder. Pharmacists are the most accessible healthcare professionals, and many are trained in delivering MHFA. The literature on MHFA suggests that it is an effective educational program for those that take the training course. What is lacking is evidence that MHFA interventions positively affect help-seeking behaviours after an intervention has occurred between a mental health first air responder and an individual requiring MHFA. This paper highlights this issue and provides suggestions for future research.
Mantzourani, E, Desselle, S, Le, J, Lonie, JM & Lucas, C 2019, 'The role of reflective practice in healthcare professions: Next steps for pharmacy education and practice.', Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1476-1479.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Reflective practice strategies can enable healthcare practitioners to draw on previous experiences to render more effective judgment in clinical situations. The central argument presented in this commentary is that education programs and structures for continuing professional development (CPD) and revalidation of professionals sharpen their focus regarding self-assessment to identify gaps in skills and attitudes rather than merely as a means of on-going monitoring. Pharmacy undergraduate and professional education need to promote reflective practice strategies that foster self-evaluation to promote pharmacists' readiness for practice change and advance patient care within rapidly expanding roles and scope of practice.
Saba, M, Metry, I, Lucas, C & Saini, B 2019, 'Evaluation of a Flipped Examination Model Implemented in a Final-Year Undergraduate Pharmacotherapeutics Course.', American journal of pharmaceutical education, vol. 83, no. 3.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Objective. To assess final-year pharmacy students' performance on and evaluate their experience with a "flipped examination" vs a traditional examination for an advanced clinical pharmacy course. Methods. Students devised multiple-choice questions for the flipped examination. The Biggs revised 2-factor Study Process Questionnaire was administered before and after the examination to assess any possible changes in the students' perceptions of their level of engagement in the learning process. Focus group discussions also were conducted to further gauge the students' feedback and insights into the flipped examination experience. Results. Changes in mean total study process scores at the deep and surface levels of learning were significant. The flipped examination experience was enjoyable, facilitated a less-stressful learning environment, and improved the students' learning satisfaction, knowledge, and assessment grades. Conclusion. The flipped examination model is an innovative instructional approach that can bring about significant educational gains if designed well pedagogically.
Benson, H, Lucas, C, Benrimoj, SI & Williams, KA 2019, 'The development of a role description and competency map for pharmacists in an interprofessional care setting.', International journal of clinical pharmacy, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 391-407.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background Pharmacists are increasingly being included as members of general practice primary care teams. To date, there have been few published studies describing the competencies of general practice (GP) pharmacists and establishing their subsequent educational needs. Aim of the review The aim of this literature review is to establish the activities of pharmacists in general practice to inform the development of a comprehensive role description and competency map. Method A systematic literature search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, international pharmaceutical abstracts and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews was conducted from the start of the databases to August 2018. The search focused on studies investigating the roles performed by GP pharmacists. Full text peer-reviewed English language articles were included. A qualitative content analysis of included studies was performed. Two researchers reviewed studies to identify pharmacist roles. Subcategories of roles were then agreed by the research team and used to present the data. GP pharmacist's activities were mapped by two researchers to associated competencies. Any discrepancies between role descriptions and competency maps were resolved in consultation with a third member of the research team. Results The search conducted resulted in 5370 potential articles. Two hundred and twenty-seven full text articles were selected for review resulting in 34 articles that were included for analysis. Seven GP pharmacist role sub-categories and 48 GP pharmacist individual roles were identified. The seven GP pharmacist role sub-categories included medication management, patient examination and screening, chronic disease management, drug information and education, collaboration and liaison, audit and quality assurance and research. All FIP competency domains were included in the GP pharmacist competency map. Competencies related to compounding, dispensing and packaging of medications were not found relevant to the GP Pharmaci...
Lucas, C, Williams, K & Bajorek, B 2019, 'Virtual Pharmacy Programs to Prepare Pharmacy Students for Community and Hospital Placements.', Am J Pharm Educ, vol. 83, no. 10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Objective. To explore and evaluate pharmacy students' perceptions of the value and relevance of virtual community and virtual hospital on-campus placement programs. Methods. Students enrolled in a Master of Pharmacy program completed the required Virtual Community Placement (VCP) program and/or the Virtual Hospital Placement (VHP) program. A six-item questionnaire was administered to students after completion of each of the virtual programs to elicit students' perceptions of the value and relevance of the virtual programs. Additional data related to the relevance of specific workshops were collected, including students' self-reported confidence levels to undertake placement in a real-world setting following completion of the virtual programs. Results. Surveys were completed by 61 students in the VCP program and 50 students in the VHP program. Students perceived the virtual programs to be beneficial, with the majority (84% of the VCP students and 98% of the VHP students) reporting that the programs should be an essential component of any pharmacy degree. The majority of students (72%) self-reported an increase in their confidence levels in undertaking a real-world experiential placement after they completed their virtual hospital placement. Conclusion. Completing virtual placement programs prior to pharmacy students beginning their first "real world" pharmacy placements had a positive effect on student learning and confidence levels. Pharmacy students' feedback from this study regarding the relevance of specific learning modules and laboratory sessions will inform future curriculum development of the virtual placement programs.
© 2019 FIP. All rights reserved. Aims: To investigate perceptions of an ePortfolio structure, its utility to support pharmacy student learning, development of reflective capacity, and attainment of professional competencies. Methods: Mixed-methods two-phase study: Phase 1 (Quantitative): pre- and post-use, 6-item student survey; Phase 2 (Qualitative): 45-minute student focus group. Survey (n=49, RR 82%) and focus group respondents (n=12) provided their perceptions of ePortfolios. Statistically significant findings between Week 1 and Week 14 indicated that in addition to a time consuming exercise, students perceived that the current structure of the ePortfolio did not fully support their learning; development of their reflective capacity; self-directed learning skills; and professional practice. Conclusions: Pharmacy students perceived the ePortfolio needed improvements to reach its full potential. Students indicated that maintaining an ePortfolio is a useful tool to track professional competencies, linking digital evidence and reflections. Proposed suggestions were identified for improvement that would enable them to meet curricular competencies.
Lucas, C, Power, T, Hayes, C & Ferguson, C 2019, 'Development of the RIPE model (Reflective Interprofessional Education Model) to enhance interprofessional collaboration.', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, vol. 15, pp. 459-464.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper describes a novel model to providing interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) within a simulated healthcare environment, in the higher education setting. The RIPE Model (Reflective Interprofessional Education Model) was developed for the purpose of enhancing IPE and IPC, clinical judgement, and decision-making between health professional students (pharmacy and nursing students) at the patient's simulated hospital bedside. A foundation 'unfolding' case utilizing the RIPE model was piloted with first year Master of pharmacy students and postgraduate nursing students at an Australian university and included a pharmacy practitioner acting as a resident medical officer (RMO) for the purpose of the teaching module. The RIPE model rotated students through 10 stations (including 2 reflection stations) to unpack an unfolding case. The development of the RIPE model, processes, and future directions are included in this article. The RIPE Model provides the flexibility to adapt and tailor different cases and scenarios to include other health professional students to enhance educational outcomes, with the feedback of the learning to potentially improve future patient outcomes. Furthermore, the model has the potential to be tailored and utilized for the purpose of upskilling practicing pharmacists for Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and changing scopes of practice.
Lucas, C, Gibson, A & Shum, SB 2019, 'Pharmacy Students' Utilization of an Online Tool for Immediate Formative Feedback on Reflective Writing Tasks.', American journal of pharmaceutical education, vol. 83, no. 6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Objective. To assess pharmacy students' perceptions of the benefits and utility of a novel online reflective-writing tool. Methods. After completing a required Academic Writing Analytics (AWA) workshop, Master of Pharmacy students submitted a reflective writing assignment in the AWA web application. A six-item survey was administered to students prior to and immediately after using AWA. Results. Sixty students volunteered to participate in the study; however, only 39 students provided a pseudonym that allowed their pretest and posttest to be matched. A comparison of students' responses on the pretest with those on the posttest, which was administered four weeks after the workshop, suggest a noticeable increase in agreement with AWA's benefits as an effective, online tool for improving their reflective learning skills. Conclusion. This novel online tool has the potential to assist pharmacy students with self-critiquing and improving their reflective writing assignments prior to submission. Furthermore, as the elements of reflection are transferable, this tool has the potential to be used in other educational contexts.
Deslandes, R, Lucas, C, Hughes, ML & Mantzourani, E 2018, 'Development of a template to facilitate reflection among student pharmacists.', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1058-1063.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Reflective practice activities utilizing appropriate tools enhance learning during and after experiential placements. Reflective tools described in the literature, used to support students on traditional placements of a duration of at least two weeks, sit at the unstructured end of a continuum (completely unstructured to just minimal structure). Additionally, non-traditional settings in role-emerging placements are of value as an alternative for experiential education. There were no reflective tools in the literature to provide a means of supporting pharmacy students as novice reflectors in non-traditional settings.To develop one fit-for-purpose tool that students could utilize across their experiences, regardless of type or duration of experiential placement.A multi-phased approach was adopted, including a mix of methodologies: interviews, focus groups, informal feedback from stakeholders, and grading reflective accounts utilizing Mezirow's categories of reflection. A range of stakeholders were involved at each stage to ensure the reflective tool was fit-for-purpose. These included students, placement preceptors, and academic staff acting as graders of student reflective accounts.A total of 24 students participated in focus groups, 13 supervisors/preceptors engaged in interviews and informal feedback, and 853 student reflective accounts were graded, over 3 years. The final tool that has been developed and evaluated in this research supported students to develop to critical reflectors (6% - Phase 2 increased to 62.9% - Phase 3).This novel and innovative approach supports novice reflectors, encourages reflection on action and enhances professional development. It is a structured yet flexible tool, for which there was a gap in the published literature. It can be utilized in varied placements in pharmacy curricula internationally.
Lucas, C 2018, 'More than I expected: Reflections on being observed and reviewed as a pharmacy teacher.', Currents in pharmacy teaching & learning, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 803-806.View/Download from: Publisher's site
PURPOSE:Reflection is an important skill development for teachers in order for their improvement in teaching style and practice. One of the ways in which teachers can reflect on their teaching is through peer observation and review. DESCRIPTION:The article describes the process of peer observation and review by three academic teachers from three different disciplines at an Australian university. This process was utilized to assist and enhance the teaching practice of a pharmacy educator, whom has been teaching for > 15 years. Using Brookfield's reflective model through the "eyes" of the four "lenses," the pharmacy educator describes what she has learned and wisdom gained through this reflective practice process. ANALYSIS:The peer observation and review process involved elements including (i) a group verbal feedback and (ii) a written report outlining some strategies that could be utilized to improve teaching practice. Both were considered valuable and the method for providing "sandwiched" feedback utilized verbal and non-verbal cues. CONCLUSIONS:Peer observation is a time consuming exercise that requires valuable time. However, the value that generates from such practices and the insights gained through this process far outweighs time spent. Providing feedback in a safe learning environment and "sandwiching" the positive and negative comments can be an effective process. IMPLICATIONS:The value of reflecting on one's teaching practice can allow teachers to develop and improve their teaching style. Universities and colleges that support this type of reflective practice are likely to generate better teachers who will engage students to enhance their learning.
Lucas, C 2018, 'The need for standardization of evaluation and feedback processes for experiential placements worldwide', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 116-117.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lucas, C & Mantzourani, E 2018, 'Role-Emerging placements (REPs) -An evolving alternative for student pharmacist experiential education', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 211-212.
Benson, H, Lucas, C, Benrimoj, SI, Kmet, W & Williams, KA 2018, 'Pharmacists in general practice: Recommendations resulting from team-based collaborative care', Australian Journal of Primary Health, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 448-454.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 La Trobe University. The Western Sydney Primary Health Network (PHN), WentWest, has been working to improve patient and health system outcomes by commissioning projects that enhance patient-focussed, team-based care. One such project is the WentWest General Practice Pharmacist Project, involving the integration of pharmacists within general practice sites. The aim of this study is to describe, classify and analyse recommendations made by pharmacists to GPs, resulting from patient consultations between pharmacists and patients in a general practice setting. This study was a multi-centre prospective observational study (April 2017-September 2017) investigating recommendations made by pharmacists integrated in a general practice setting. Thirteen general practice sites located in Western Sydney, NSW, Australia were involved in the study. The main outcome measures of this study include the classification of pharmacist recommendations and the percentage of those recommendations accepted by GPs. The pharmacists recorded the results from 618 patient consultations. These consultations resulted in 1601 recommendations of which 1404 (88%) were recorded as accepted. This study demonstrated that the recommendations made by pharmacists in general practice are well accepted by GPs and may lead to improvements in medication management and patient care.
Benson, H, Lucas, C, Kmet, W, Benrimoj, SI & Williams, K 2018, 'Pharmacists in general practice: a focus on drug-related problems.', International journal of clinical pharmacy, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 566-572.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background Team based care has been used internationally to improve the delivery of best practice primary health care. The WentWest General Practice Pharmacist Project, involving the integration of pharmacists within general practice teams, was commissioned to improve medication management of general practice patients. A particular focus of the project was the performance of medication review to allow the detection and resolution of drug related problems (DRPs). Objective The objectives of this 6-month study (October 2016-March 2017) were to: (1) identify and classify the DRPs detected as a result of pharmacist activities within a general practice primary care setting. (2) compare the number of pharmacist recommendations and GP acceptance rates as a result of pharmacist patient consultations across multiple general practice sites. Setting 15 general practice primary care sites in Western Sydney NSW Australia. A multi-centre prospective observational study conducted over a 6-month period from October 2016 to March 2017. Main outcome measure Drug-related problems (DRPs). Results Six pharmacists recorded the results from 493 patient consultations. The pharmacists identified 1124 DRPs and made 984 recommendations, of which 685 (70%) were recorded as accepted by the GP. Conclusion Pharmacists have a valuable role to play in the detection and resolution of DRP as part of the general practice team.
Lucas, C, Williams, K, Tudball, J & Walpola, RL 2018, 'Community, hospital and industry preceptor perceptions of their role in experiential placements- the need for standardization of preceptor responsibilities and evaluations on students', Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1447-1455.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Introduction: Appropriate evaluation processes are important in experiential placements. With the growing diversity between placements, consideration for standardization of some of these processes would be beneficial, particularly for those skills that are transferable regardless of the placement type. The objectives of this study was: (1) to explore the experiences, evaluation strategies, and feedback processes of Australian preceptor pharmacists from three primary experiential areas (community, hospital, and industry) in providing student placements; and (2) to inform the future development of the current local experiential program and future extended international experiential programs. Methods: A qualitative, exploratory study with three preceptor focus groups (community, hospital, and industry) were conducted, recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using Bazeley's “describe – compare – relate” method for thematic analysis. Results: There were a total of 16 participants. Four themes emerged: (1) motivation and purpose of being a preceptor; (2) expectations of students and the university; (3) organizational planning and conduct of experiential placements; and (4) importance of appropriate evaluation and feedback processes to include evaluation of interpersonal skills, which were considered by all focus group members as highly desirable for future employability. Conclusions: The need for standardized processes across different experiential placements, although difficult given the diversity, is important particularly with respect to evaluation and feedback. As interpersonal attributes are transferable and desirable for all types of experiential settings including rural and international environments, standardizing the evaluation of students to include these could be beneficial and applicable for students on local experiential placements and/or cross globally on international experiential placements.
Lucas, C, Williams, KA, McAloon, J & Walpola, R 2018, 'From expectations to experience: Pharmacy students' perceptions on experiential placements', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. e45-e45.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lonie, JM & Tsingos-Lucas, C 2017, 'The use of Eriksonian Hypnosis to improve patient outcomes in pharmacy practice: A novel communication skill for pharmacists.', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1181-1183.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Motivational Interviewing, pharmacist-based health coaching and traditional patient counseling techniques all show merit in improving communication between patients and health care providers. However, in order to effectively utilize these techniques one should have the ability to draw upon internal cognitive and psychological resources. Some patients have difficulty obtaining optimal health outcomes due to an unconscious inability to learn and connect with psychological resources. When this is the case, other methods of communication may need to be considered. With the appropriate training, Eriksonian Hypnosis or the use of techniques such as hypnotic language patterns (HLP) have the potential to be implemented into pharmacy practice settings and assist those patients who have previously failed to make positive behavior changes and act upon their health issues.
Lonie, JM, Austin, Z, Nguyen, R, Gill, I & Tsingos-Lucas, C 2017, 'Pharmacist-based health coaching: A new model of pharmacist-patient care', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 644-652.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper describes a provider-patient communication process, which although not new to health care in general, is new to the pharmacy profession. Health coaching is a technique that empowers patients to make lasting health behavior changes that improve overall well-being. It provides patients with health care implementation options that better suit their lifestyle and abilities. Health coaching programs have the potential to foster better health outcomes, especially with patients who are chronically ill or represent an at risk population for medication non-adherence (e.g. elderly, patients on psychotropic medications). Other health professions (e.g. nursing and medicine) have had success with the implementation of health coaching models. For example, nurse coaching is recognized by the American Nurse Association and recent statistics show 3.1 million nurses in the U.S.A are also trained in nurse coaching. The pharmacy profession has yet to tap the patient-related benefits of health coaching. This commentary will discuss (i) The theoretical foundations of health coaching (ii) Distinctions between health coaching, motivational interviewing and traditional medication therapy counseling (iii) Training necessary for health coaching; and (iv) How pharmacists can use health coaching in practice.
Lucas, C, Bosnic-Anticevich, S & Smith, L 2017, 'Students' and pharmacy educators' perceptions of integrating the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA) into an undergraduate curriculum', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, vol. 13(4):e28, JUL 2017.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lucas, C, Bosnic-Anticevich, S, Schneider, CR & Smith, L 2017, 'Using Reflective Writing: a Predictor of Academic Success in Different Assessment Formats', American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Objectives. To investigate whether reflective-writing skills are associated with academic success.
Methods. Two hundred sixty-four students enrolled in a pharmacy practice course completed reflective
statements. Regression procedures were conducted to determine whether reflective-writing skills were
associated with academic success in different assessment formats: written, oral, and video tasks.
Results. Reflective-writing skills were found to be a predictor of academic performance in some
formats of assessment: written examination; oral assessment task and overall score for the Unit of
Study (UoS). Reflective writing skills were not found to predict academic success in the video assessment
Conclusions. Possessing good reflective-writing skills was associated with improved academic performance.
Further research is recommended investigating the impact of reflective skill development on
academic performance measures in other health education.
Keywords: reflective writing, reflection, academic performance, different formats of assessment, pharmacy
Tsingos-Lucas, C, Bosnic-Anticevich, S & Smith, L 2017, 'Students' and pharmacy educators' perceptions of integrating the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA) into an undergraduate curriculum', vol. 13(4) e28-e28.
Lonie, JM & Tsingos-Lucas, C 2016, 'Cognitive and emotional considerations for pharmacists as they deliver care in new models of pharmacy practice: New directions in social pharmacy research', RESEARCH IN SOCIAL & ADMINISTRATIVE PHARMACY, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 366-367.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Tsingos-Lucas, C, Bosnia-Anticevich, S, Schneider R, C & Smith, L 2016, 'The Effect of Reflective Activities on Reflective Thinking Ability in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Curriculum', American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 1-12.
Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a secondyear
undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability.
Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective
modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year
pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA),
was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection.
Assessment. Student responses (n5214) to the adapted Kember et al1 Reflective Thinking Questionnaire
(RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement
in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective
Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective
thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better
informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice
Tsingos-Lucas, C, Bosnic-Anticevich, S & Smith, L 2016, 'A Retrospective Study on Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment', American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 1-10.
Tsingos, C, Bosnic-Anticevich, S & Smith, L 2015, 'Does a learning style preference for processing information through reflection impact on the academic performance of a cohort of undergraduate pharmacy students?', PHARMACY EDUCATION, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 233-240.
Tsingos, C, Bosnic-Anticevich, S & Smith, L 2015, 'Learning styles and approaches: Can reflective strategies encourage deep learning?', CURRENTS IN PHARMACY TEACHING AND LEARNING, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 492-504.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Tsingos, C, Bosnic-Anticevich, S, Lonie, JM & Smith, L 2015, 'A Model for Assessing Reflective Practices in Pharmacy Education', AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION, vol. 79, no. 8.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Tsingos, C, Bosnic-Anticevich, S & Smith, L 2014, 'Reflective practice and its implications for pharmacy education.', American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 1-10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Pharmacy students require critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to integrate theory learned in the classroom with the complexities of practice, yet many pharmacy students fall short of acquiring these skills.(1-2) Reflective practice activities encourage learning from the student's own experiences and those of others, and offer a possible solution for the integration of knowledge-based curricula with the ambiguities of practice, as well as enhance communication and collaboration within a multidisciplinary team. Although reflective practices have been embraced elsewhere in health professions education, their strengths and shortcomings need to be considered when implementing such practices into pharmacy curricula. This review provides an overview of the evolution of theories related to reflective practice, critically examines the use of reflective tools (such as portfolios and blogs), and discusses the implications of implementing reflective practices in pharmacy education.
Tsingos, C 2013, 'Learning styles: Should they be considered?', Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, vol. 43, no. 4, p. 334.
Tsingos, C 2013, 'Reflective practice: Learning from experience', Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 249-250.
Bryant, L, Hemsley, B, Bailey, B, Bluff, A, Nguyen, V, Stubbs, P, Barnett, D, Jacobs, C, Lucas, C & Power, E 2020, 'Opportunities for the Implementation of Immersive Virtual Reality in Rehabilitation', Wailea, Maui, HI.
Liu, M, Shum, SB, Mantzourani, E & Lucas, C 2019, 'Evaluating machine learning approaches to classify pharmacy students' reflective statements', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 20th International Conference, Artificial Intelligence in Education, Chicago, IL, USA, pp. 220-230.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019. Reflective writing is widely acknowledged to be one of the most effective learning activities for promoting students' self-reflection and critical thinking. However, manually assessing and giving feedback on reflective writing is time consuming, and known to be challenging for educators. There is little work investigating the potential of automated analysis of reflective writing, and even less on machine learning approaches which offer potential advantages over rule-based approaches. This study reports progress in developing a machine learning approach for the binary classification of pharmacy students' reflective statements about their work placements. Four common statistical classifiers were trained on a corpus of 301 statements, using emotional, cognitive and linguistic features from the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) analysis, in combination with affective and rhetorical features from the Academic Writing Analytics (AWA) platform. The results showed that the Random-forest algorithm performed well (F-score = 0.799) and that AWA features, such as emotional and reflective rhetorical moves, improved performance.
Lucas, C, Janke, K, Harpe, S & Zavod, R 2018, 'I need to tell my story ! New publication options for educational scholarship', 12th International Lifelong learning in Pharmacy Conference, Pharmacy Education, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Mantzourani, E, Lucas, C, Hughes, L & Deslandes, R 2018, 'A reflective tool to enable student personal development during and after experiential placement', Pharmacy Education, 12th International Lifelong Learning Conference in pharmacy, Taylor & Francis, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Lucas, C, Bosnic-Anticevich, S, Schneider, CR, Bartimote-Aufflick, K, McEntee, M & Smith, L 2017, 'Inter-rater reliability of a reflective rubric to assess pharmacy students’ reflective thinking', Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, pp. 989-995.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Inc. Introduction Many health education programs aspire to foster reflective practices to enhance the reflective thinking of students during their study years and throughout their professional careers. Given the increasing attention paid to incorporating reflective practice activities into health education and evidence attributed to rater variability, it is important for educators to carefully consider the assessment criteria and reliability of assessment tools. A reflective rubric was developed to assess pharmacy students’ levels of reflection from a reflective writing task. This study investigates the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of a rubric as a tool to assess the levels of reflective thinking apparent in students’ written statements. Methods The research involved four raters from different disciplines utilizing a rubric to assess a random sample of the same forty-three reflective statements from a cohort of two hundred and sixty-four students. The IRR was measured using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), using a two-way random effects model (ANOVA) with absolute agreement, to determine reliability of the assessment tool among the raters. Results Results showed measures between the raters for (i) overall reflective statement scores, and (ii) average scores for stages of reflection with an “almost perfect” agreement, ICC = 0.81 (95% CI 0.61–0.90), (F(42, 126) = 7.83, p < 0.01); and ICC = 0.89 (95% CI 0.83–0.93), (F(42, 840) = 12.49, p < 0.01) respectively. Discussion and conclusions The proposed rubric utilized by four raters showed high agreement with each other's scores, and is a tool for academic assessment of pharmacy students’ reflective thinking processes.
Benson, H, Lucas, C, Benrimoj, S & Williams, KA 2017, 'Integrating Pharmacists in General Practice: Drug Related Problems in the Patient Centred Medical Home', Pharmaceutical Society of Australia National Conference (PSA17), Sydney.
Gibson, A, Shum, SB, Aitken, A, Tsingos-Lucas, C, Sándor, Á & Knight, S 2017, 'Reflective writing analytics for actionable feedback', Proceedings of the Seventh International Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference, International Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference, ACM, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, pp. 153-162.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 ACM. Reflective writing can provide a powerful way for students to integrate professional experience and academic learning. However, writing reflectively requires high quality actionable feedback, which is time-consuming to provide at scale. This paper reports progress on the design, implementation, and validation of a Reflective Writing Analytics platform to provide actionable feedback within a tertiary authentic assessment context. The contributions are: (1) a new conceptual framework for reflective writing; (2) a computational approach to modelling reflective writing, deriving analytics, and providing feedback; (3) the pedagogical and user experience rationale for platform design decisions; and (4) a pilot in a student learning context, with preliminary data on educator and student acceptance, and the extent to which we can evidence that the software provided actionable feedback for reflective writing.
Tsingos, C, Bosnic-Anticevich, S, Schneider, CR & Smith, L 2015, 'Development and Integration of the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA) into an undergrdauate pharmacy curriculum to enhance reflective capacity', 8th Pharmacy Education Symposium, Pharmacy Education, Prato, Italy.
Tsingos-Lucas, C, Bosnic-Anticevich, S & Smith, L 2016, 'Students’ and Pharmacy Educators’ Perceptions of Integrating The Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA) into an Undergraduate Curriculum', Australasian Pharmaceutical Science Association (APSA) 2016 Conference, The University of Sydney.
Tsingos-Lucas, C, Bosnic-Anticevich, S, Schneider, CR, Bartimote-Aufflick, K, McEntee, MF & Smith, L 2016, 'Inter-rater reliability using a reflective rubric to assess pharmacy students' reflective thinking', 19th ISPW Conference, Aberdeen University, Scotland.
Tsingos, C, Bosnic-Anticevich, S, Schneider, CR & Smith, L 2015, 'Do reflective thinking skills improve when reflective activities are integrated into an undergraduate pharmacy curriculum? A cross-over repeated measures design', 8th Pharmacy Education Symposium, Pharmacy Education, Prato, Italy.
Tsingos, C, Bosnic-Anticevich, S & Smith, L 2014, 'Are Australian undergraduate pharmacy students reflective learners and does this contribute to greater academic success?', 18th ISPW International Pharmacy Conference, International Social Pharmacy Workshop (ISPW), Boston, MA, USA.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Lucas, C 2016, 'The Relationship between Reflective Practice, Learning Styles and Academic Performance in Pharmacy Education.'.