Cathy Lockhart is an industrial designer and an academic. She studied and worked in Australia and is a full member of the Design Institute of Australia (DIA). As design director of her own consultancy her design career focused on the development of retail merchandising systems for cosmetics, telecommunication, jewelry and computer peripherals. Pioneering the branded store within a store for a first generation video gaming company. Cathy maintains good industry contact. Exceptional alumni connections have led to graduate job placement and the establishment of an on-going award for graduating students.
Her research explores the implications of the changing gender mix of the student population in industrial design education toward a notable increase in women graduates. In particular she is interested in students’ educational experience and transition into the profession. Her PhD thesis at Queensland University of Technology (2016) Where are the Women? Women industrial designers from university to work place contains both an analysis of in-depth interviews with 19 female graduates from the industrial design course at UTS and a public exhibition of both their work and their reflections on being female designers.
Cathy lectures on design process and methods to first-year students in interdisciplinary design, in a subject shared across six design disciplines. Further lecturing into process focused subjects in the Integrated Product Design course of first year. In later years of the course supervising industry-derived projects to assist students in the transition to practice.
Cathy has taken leadership roles at the UTS School of Design through academic course management positions. She has held roles as Coordinator of Design 1, Director of the Interdisciplinary Studies Unit and Course Director of Industrial Design. In these positions, she steered reaccreditations and refocused courses to address the global readiness of graduates.
Lee, T.M., Walden, R., Lie, S., Pandolfo, B. & Lockhart, C. 2018, 'Design Research Units and Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs): An Approach for Advancing Technology and Competitive Strength in Australia', The Design Journal.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
ABSTRACT This paper makes the case that small to medium enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector have the potential to benefit from connections with design research units operating within universities. It points out some of the challenges associated with research and development for SMEs, and argues design research units can allow SMEs to better meet
these challenges. Additive Manufacturing is used as an exemplary emerging technology that makes explicit the new possibilities and instability of the contemporarymanufacturing landscape. A case study is used to articulate
the potentials and limitations of industry and university partnerships in design. In conclusion, two alternative models are analysed in order to highlight different ends to which the practitioner-based research can be put.
Lockhart, C.A. & Miller, E. 2016, 'Destined to Design? How and why Australian women choose to study industrial design', The International Journal of Art & Design Education, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 213-228.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Despite over three decades of legislation and initiatives designed to tackle the traditional gender divide in the science, technology and design fields, only a quarter of the registered architects in Australia are women. There are no statistics available for other design disciplines, with little known about why women choose design as a career path and who or what influences this decision. This qualitative research addresses this knowledge gap, through semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with 19 Australian women who completed an industrial (product) design degree. Thematic analysis revealed three key themes: childhood aptitude and exposure; significant experiences and people; and design as a serendipitous choice. The findings emphasise the importance of early exposure to design as a potential career choice, highlighting the critical role played by parents, teachers, professionals and social networks.
Lockhart, C.A. & Miller, E. 2014, 'Women's experience of industrial design education: What worked, what didn't and where to in the future', Proceedings of the ACUADS CONFERENCE 2014: THE FUTURE OF THE DISCIPLINE, Australian Council of University Art and Design Schools Conference, ACUADS, Victorian College of the Arts and RMIT University Melbourne.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper addresses an acknowledged but seldom discussed concern: the participation and representation (or not) of women in design courses and the wider industry. Over the past decade, the proportion of women engaging in design tertiary education has increased significantly, rising in an environment that has historically been inundated with male students. For example, university enrolment statistics show that women now typically compromise approximately a third to half of the design student population. Yet despite these positive gains, women are not represented more widely in the profession. In Australia, anecdotal evidence suggests
that women remain underrepresented in both senior leadership roles and in local, state or distinguished national design awards (Anthony 2001; Fowler & Wilson 2004). This gender distinction in terms of career progression and visibility is evident in the architecture professional accreditation process: recent statistics show women comprised 43% of architecture students in Australia, yet registered architects in each
state varied from 12-18%, with only one per cent of directors at architectural firms (Whitman 2005). Similar statistics have been documented overseas, including the United Kingdom where women comprise 38% of students yet comprise only 13% of practising architects and 22% of teaching staff (de Graft-Johnson, Manley & Greed 2003). Whilst professional registration is not the only indicator of career success, and is not a requirement for other design disciplines, it highlights a gendered difference between educational training and career opportunities for female designers. The unanswered question that remains is where are these women? Are they working in other industries? Is our education system failing female designers? Is it the workplace? Or is the underlying culture of design, building and manufacturing not
alluring or inviting to women? This paper begins to address these questions, focussing on exploring the educational ex...
Walden, R., Lie, S., Pandolfo, B. & Lockhart, C. 2015, 'A design research strategy for advancing the technological and competitive strength of Australian manufacturing Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs)', Design for Business: Research Conference, Melbourne, Australia.
This paper will propose a design research strategy to support collaboration of SMEs and University Research Units on projects intended to advance the competitive strength of SMEs in Australia through the utilisation of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT). Review of literature identifies that a predominant driver for enterprises to remain competitive, is investment in Research and Development (R&D) strategies; and that while manufacturing SMEs have the potential to be innovation leaders, they are often not able to fund the high cost associated with in-house R&D. This presents SMEs with a challenge that needs to be addressed. The Australian Government, Industry Innovation and Competitive Agenda (2014) outlines a funding program that supports collaboration between university research units with Australian manufacturing SMEs under its Advanced Manufacturing category, with a view to implementing AMT into the manufacturing sector. A form of Advanced Manufacturing Technology - Additive Manufacturing (AM) has been the subject of significant and ongoing inquiry by the research sector and manufacturing sector alike. Background research and further literature research indicates that there maybe significant advantages to the implementation of AM into more mainstream production. While SMEs have the flexibility to innovate with the technology on one hand, they are also bound by financial constraints that limits their ability to conduct the necessary experimentation required to identify ways of utilising the technology. Review of similar programs in Korea and the UK, finds that government funded university-industry projects to improve the competitiveness of SMEs, requires that knowledge transfer yield short-term implementable outcomes for the company in terms of new products and processes. However, to strategically coordinate the implementation of AM into a SMEs production system requires experimentation, innovation and long-term vision. Resolving the combination of these...
Walden, R., Lockhart, C., Lie, S. & Pandolfo, B. 2015, 'Imperfect Aesthetic: How the changing use of plastic in objects has changed our perception of it.', Provocative Plastics, Arts University Bournemouth.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
From its very beginning, plastic has been a material valued for its high aesthetic qualities, in fact, early plastics were developed as substitutes for materials such as ivory and tortoise shell, materials highly sought after and prized for their unique visual and tactile qualities. With the arrival of synthetic plastics in the 1900's, plastic is used in objects not only for their decorative value but as a substitute for more traditional materials such as
ceramic, wood and metal. In the 1950's processing and material innovations allows plastic to be moulded with high gloss surface finish and in a wider variety of colours, features embraced by the Pop Art movement of the 1960's. Further developments towards the end of the 20th century see high performance plastics emerge, continuing the erosion into the domains of more traditional materials.
Today plastic is ubiquitous. The widespread use of plastic is in part due to it being available in a variety of formats; rigid, flexible, transparent, opaque, solid or liquid. This variability is also applicable to the possible processing methods available for plastic materials, examples include; injection, extrusion, blow and rotational moulding. One of the most recent advances in material processing technology is the advent of 3D printing.
Although today 3D printing is able to accommodate a wide variety of materials including metal and foods such as chocolate and pastry dough, it is the 3D printing of plastic that is having the most significant impact in the field of object design.
3D printing first emerged in the 1990's and today it is challenging existing manufacturing paradigms. Many of 3D printing's initial problems relating to structural integrity, dimensional stability and material selection have now been resolved and current solutions produce parts equal to or better than conventionally processed plastic. The one area that 3D printing continues to struggle with, with respect to conventional manufacturing, is the abi...
This paper inquires into how creative practice-led projects can generate dynamic connections between the tools of research and the tools of design practice through case studies of individual academic design practitioner projects to provide unique contributions to industry and society. Each case study represents a different approach to academic design practice that enables recognition and reflection of potential shifts in industry-based design practice, based on the advent of advanced manufacturing technologies, innovation opportunity in small batch production and rationalising the complexities of commercialising 3D printed products. Comparing the case studies primarily addresses the themes of knowing how to engage a practice-based research project and the set-up of projects that can offer academic and industry relevant contributions. Evaluation of the case studies identifies core attributes of the academic design practitioner and how practice-based design research operating outside of the constraints of commercial design projects can advance knowledge uniquely beneficial to industry development. Significantly, the conclusions of the paper suggest that the academic design practitioner may be defined as a researcher with up-to-date competency in industry-based design practice, enabling them to adapt practice-led research projects that can strategically develop multi-tiered outcomes that supply academic and industry relevant outcomes concurrently.
Hilton, K., Lockhart, C., Rodell, A. & Rodell, B. 2004, 'Using Music to Influence Creative and Critical Thinking', Design Research Society (UK) International Conference - Futureground, Design Research Society (UK) International Conference, Monash University, Faculty of Art and Design, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-16.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Lockhart, C.A., 'Where are the women? Women industrial designers from university to workplace'.
This thesis explores the experience of being a woman industrial designer, from her circumstances and motivations to study industrial design (simply defined as the creative activity of designing objects, processes or services), through graduation from university and to professional life. It comprises an analysis of in-depth interviews with 19 female graduates from the industrial design course at the University of Technology Sydney (Australia), and a public exhibition of both their work and their reflections on being female designers. Conceptually, this thesis draws on a theoretical model developed specifically with designers; namely, Bruce and Lewis's (1990) model which identifies three hurdles: the completion of a design degree, getting a design job and obtaining success. As this model was developed over two decades ago, this thesis explores whether these (or any other) barriers were still relevant for female Australian industrial designers. The central research question is: how do Australian women experience their design education and career paths?
The first three papers focus on women's experience of the first of Bruce and Lewis's hurdles: the completion of a design degree. Paper 1 (Chapter 4) documents why these women chose to enrol in an industrial design degree, with all describing a strong desire to design and 'make things' from early childhood. Typically, their parents worked in design-orientated careers (as architects, builders and designers) and supported their childhood aptitude for and interest in design. Industrial design was often a serendipitous choice, with half identifying the university's admission guide as the main information source.
Papers 2 (Chapter 5) and 3 (Chapter 6) highlight how, overall, design education at university was generally a positive experience. As the primary learning environment, the design studio fostered skills and confidence in design thinking, creative problem solving and communication. The workshop, for the making of ...