Can supervise: YES
Past areas of research interest: priority populations, public and policy research, reproductive health of women in low-income countries, girls and women with female genital mutilation, male involvement in GBV progamming, adolescents and women with HIV/AIDS, health system strengthening and policy analysis
Current research interests: Social justice issues, priority populations, improving the outcomes for vulnerable women and infants particularly in the area of maternal and child health, refugee and migrant health and teenage parenthood.
Global Public Health
Sexual and Reproductive Health and rights (SRHR)
Project/Program Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)
Njue, C, Karumbi, J, Esho, T, Varol, N & Dawson, A 2019, 'Preventing female genital mutilation in high income countries: a systematic review of the evidence.', Reproductive health, vol. 16, no. 1.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
BACKGROUND:Female genital mutilation (FGM) is prevalent in communities of migration. Given the harmful effects of the practice and its illegal status in many countries, there have been concerted primary, secondary and tertiary prevention efforts to protect girls from FGM. However, there is paucity of evidence concerning useful strategies and approaches to prevent FGM and improve the health and social outcomes of affected women and girls. METHODS:We analysed peer-reviewed and grey literature to extract the evidence for FGM prevention interventions from a public health perspective in high income countries by a systematic search of bibliographic databases and websites using appropriate keywords. Identified publications were screened against selection criteria, following the PRISMA guidelines. We examined the characteristics of prevention interventions, including their programmatic approaches and strategies, target audiences and evaluation findings using an apriori template. FINDINGS:Eleven documents included in this review described primary and secondary prevention activities. High income countries have given attention to legislative action, bureaucratic interventions to address social injustice and protect those at risk of FGM, alongside prevention activities that favour health persuasion, foster engagement with the local community through outreach and the involvement of community champions, healthcare professional training and capacity strengthening. Study types are largely process evaluations that include measures of short-term outcomes (pre- and post-changes in attitude, knowledge and confidence or audits of practices). There is a dearth of evaluative research focused on empowerment-oriented preventative activities that involve individual women and girls who are affected by FGM. Beattie's framework provides a useful way of articulating negotiated and authoritative prevention actions required to address FGM at national and local levels. CONCLUSION:FGM is a comple...
Shell-Duncan, B, Njue, C & Muteshi-Stratchan, J 2017, 'Medicalization of female genital mutilation/cutting: What do the data reveal? (Meeting abstract)', BMC Reproductive Health, vol. 14, no. suppl.2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Njue, C, Voeten, HACM, Ohuma, E, Looman, C, Habbema, DF & Askew, I 2015, 'Findings of an evaluation of community and school-based reproductive health and HIV prevention programs in Kenya', Etude de la Population Africaine, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 1934-1953.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015, Union for African Population Studies. All rights reserved. Improving knowledge, attitudes, delaying onset of sexual activity and decreasing high-risk of sexual behaviour of young people are central components in strategic planning for RH programming. This paper presents findings of an evaluation of a public multi-sectoral adolescent reproductive health and HIV prevention program in rural Kenya. Study design was a community-randomized controlled trial. Crosssectional baseline and endline surveys were conducted to evaluate the impact of the interventions with regard to knowledge, attitude and practices. Results in intervention sites A and B as compared to the control site showed large impact on knowledge of sexual and reproductive health issues, a less significant impact regarding attitude, and a small but significant impact on sexual behaviour. The community-based intervention had a significant impact on knowledge and sexual behaviour. Adding a school-based intervention component didn't have a sustained improvement across board as anticipated. These findings underscore the need to strengthen capacities of public sector staff and enhance the robustness of strategy implementation.
Njue, C, Voeten, HACM, Ohuma, E, Habbema, DF & Askew, I 2014, 'Njue C., Voeten HACM, Ohuma E., Looman C., HAbbema D.F, & I. Askew. Findings of an evaluation of community and school-based reproductive health and HIV prevention programs in Kenya. African Population Studies 29(2), 2014,1934-1953.'.
Njue, C, Ahlberg, BM & Voeten, HACM 2011, 'Njue C., Ahlberg BM, Voeten HACM. 'Youth in a void': Sexuality, HIV/AIDS and communication in Kenyan public schools.' Sex Education: Sexuality, Society and Learning. 2011; 11(4)'.
Njue, C, Voeten, HACM & Remes, P 2011, 'Njue C, Voeten HACM, Remes P. Porn video shows, local brew and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya. BMC Public Health 2011; 11:635doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-635'.
Njue, C, Voeten, H & Ahlberg, BM 2011, ''Youth in a void': Sexuality, HIV/AIDS and communication in Kenyan public schools', Sex Education, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 459-470.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The disappearance of traditional sex education during rites of passage in African societies has left many youth uncertain of where to look for information. Against this backcloth, the objectives of this study were to identify knowledge gaps amongst adolescents in Kenya regarding sexuality, HIV/AIDS and reproductive health. A thematic analysis was conducted of questions posed by 735 school youth aged 12-18 years from Meru and Kajiado Districts. Results show that many questions showed curiosity and anxiousness. Knowledge appeared to be fragmented and sometimes revealed misconceptions, which may put youth at risk. The raised themes differed by gender and age. Questions on saying no to sex, sexual violence and female circumcision were a great concern for girls. Boys were more concerned with managing boy-girl relationships, preventing STI/HIV infection, and condoms. Concern about transition to adulthood, sexuality, STI and HIV/AIDS, myths and misconceptions, and intergenerational communication cut across both genders. Older teens were more concerned with questions on boy-girl relationships, norms and values regarding sexuality, and STI. Younger teens (< 15 years) wanted to know about reproduction, saying no to sex, HIV/AIDS, condoms, sexual violence and female circumcision. Compounding these challenges was the lack of intergenerational communication. The study identified important knowledge and communication gaps in sexual and reproductive health among in-school adolescents in Kenya. There is a need for sex education interventions for different age groups and genders. These interventions should work with parents, teachers and health professionals. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Background: Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya. Methods. We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results: Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often show pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens. For many sexually active girls, their vulnerability to STI/HIV infection is enhanced due to financial inequality, gender-related power difference and cultural norms. The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners. These partners had a stronger socio-economic position than young women, enabling them to use money/gifts as leverage for sex. Condom use was irregular during all types of sexual encounters. Conclusions: In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic. Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships. Girls should be empowered how t...
Njue, C, Voeten, HA & Remes, P 2009, 'Njue C, Voeten HA, Remes P. Disco funerals: a risk situation for HIV infection among youth in Kisumu, Kenya. AIDS. 2009; 23;505-9'.
Njue, C, Nzioka, C, Ahlberg, BM, Pertet, AM & Voeten, HACM 2009, 'Njue C, Nzioka C, Ahlberg BM, Pertet AM, Voeten HACM. 'If you don't abstain, you will die of AIDS': AIDS education in Kenyan public schools. AIDS Educ.Prev. 2009; 21(2):156-167.'.
Objective: We investigated the so-called 'disco funeral' phenomenon in Kisumu, Kenya, whereby community members including adolescents congregate at the home of the deceased for several days, accompanied by music and dancing. We explored whether disco funerals are a risk situation for HIV/sexually transmitted infection infection among youth. Design: Cross-sectional qualitative study. Methods: We conducted 44 in-depth interviews with male and female adolescents aged 15-20 years in Kisumu municipality in Nyanza Province, Kenya. We also made observations during six disco funerals. Results: Disco funerals were an important place for young people to hang out; they increased the opportunities to meet and engage in (risky) sexual activities. Many adolescents reported having casual sex on these occasions, sometimes with multiple partners, and mostly without condoms. Some girls were forced into sex, and there were several accounts of gang rape. Sex in exchange for money was reported frequently. Drugs and alcohol seemed to facilitate unprotected, multiple-partner, coerced, and transactional sex. Conclusion: In Kisumu, a town with a generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic, the high AIDS mortality leads to frequent disco funerals. Because many adolescents are having unprotected, transactional, or coerced sex at these occasions, disco funerals might contribute to the high HIV prevalence among youth, especially among adolescent girls. HIV interventions urgently need to include outreach actions to youth who hang out at disco funerals and link up with parents and funeral organizers to reduce risk situations. © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health|Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Njue, C, Nzioka, C, Ahlberg, BM, Pertet, AM & Voeten, HACM 2009, '"If you don't abstain, you will die of aids": Aids education in Kenyan public schools', AIDS Education and Prevention, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 169-179.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We explored constraints of implementing AIDS education in public schools in Kenya. Sixty interviews with teachers and 60 focus group discussions with students were conducted in 21 primary and nine secondary schools. System/school-level constraints included lack of time in the curriculum, limited reach of secondary-school students (because AIDS education is embedded in biology, which is not compulsory), and disapproval of openness about sex and condoms by the Ministry of Education and parents. Alternative strategies to teach about AIDS had their own constraints. Teachers lacked training and support and felt uncomfortable with the topic. They were not used to interactive teaching methods and sometimes breached confidentiality. Teachers' negative attitudes constrained students from seeking information. Training interventions should be provided to teachers to increase their self-confidence, foster more positive attitudes, and stimulate interactive teaching methods. The Ministry of Education needs to have a clear policy toward the promotion of condoms. © 2009 The Guilford Press.
Njue, C & Golaz, V 2005, 'Golaz, Valérie and Njue C. 2005. Population policy in Kenya, in Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin and Guillaume Wunsch (Eds.) Demography: Analysis and Synthesis. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, chapter115. Publishers: Academic Press, CA' in Demography: Analysis and Synthesis., Academic Press, CA.
Njue, C, Askew, I & Chege, J 2005, 'Njue, C, I. Askew & J. Chege. 2005. 'Non-consensual sexual experiences of young people in Kenya: boys as perpetrators and victims', in Jejeebhoy, S, I. Shah & S. Thapa (editors) Sex Without Consent: Young People in Developing Countries Zed Books, New York'.
Njue, C, Esho, T & Karumbi, J 2017, Esho T., Karumbi J., and Njue C. January 2017. 'Rapid Evidence Assessment: Quality of Studies Assessing Interventions to Support FGM/C Abandonment.' Evidence to End FGM/C Programme: Research to Help Girls and Women Thrive. New York: Population Council. March 2017, Report.
Njue, C, Shell-Duncan, B & Moore, Z 2017, Bettina Shell-Duncan, Carolyne Njue and Zhuzhi Moore' The Medicalisation of Female Genital Mutilation /Cutting: What do the Data Reveal?' February 2017,' Evidence to End FGM/C: Research to Help Women Thrive. New York: Population Council. March 2017., Report.
Njue, C, Muteshi, J & Kimani, S 2016, Kimani S., Muteshi J., and Njue C. Health Impact of FGM/C: A Synthesis of the Evidence and implication for health system strengthening. Evidence to End FGM/C Programme: Research to Help Girls and Women Thrive. New York: Population Council. October, 2016., Report.
Njue, C, Evelia, H, Sheikh, M & Askew, I 2007, Evelia H., M. Sheikh, C. Njue, I. Askew. 2007. Contributing to efforts towards the abandonment of FGM/C in Kenya: A situation analysis. Population Council, GOK/UNFPA: Nairobi, Kenya, Report.
Njue, C & Askew, I 2006, Njue C., and I. Askew. 2006. Assessment of the Community-Based Distributors (FP) and Youth Counselors Projects of the Kenya/German Reproductive Health Programme. Deutsche Gesellscaft Fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GTZ: Nairobi, Kenya, Report.
Njue, C, Jaldesa, G, Askew, I & Wanjiru, M 2006, Jaldesa, G., I. Askew, C. Njue, and M. Wanjiru. 2005. Female Genital Cutting among the Somali of Kenya and Management of its Complications, Population Council: Nairobi, Kenya, Report.
Njue, C & Askew, I 2004, Njue, C. and I. Askew. 2004. Medicalization of Female Genital Cutting among the Abagusii in Nyanza Province, Kenya, Population Council: Nairobi, Kenya, Report.
Njue, C, Askew, I, Chege, C & Radeny, S 2004, Askew, I., J. Chege, C. Njue, and S. Radeny. 2004. A Multi-Sectoral Approach to Providing Reproductive Health Information and Services to Young People in Western Kenya: The Kenya Adolescent Reproductive Health Project, Population Council: Nairobi, Kenya, Report.