Carolyn is a registered nurse with clinical experience and post graduate certificates in Spinal Injuries and Emergency Nursing. She has also worked in general practice and as a medical researcher and advisor in the television industry. She joined the University of Technology in 2007 to begin working as a clinical facilitator. In 2010 she combined hospital based clinical facilitation with working in the university clinical simulation environment. Carolyn was intimately involved in the design and development of two clinical laboratory and simulation facility building upgrade projects. During this time, the UTS Faculty of Health clinical laboratories were transformed into state of the art facilities that are able to provide cutting edge technology with unrivaled authentic learning experiences within 17 discrete clinical laboratory spaces.
Carolyn worked as the Manager, Simulation and Laboratories in a combined role where she provided leadership, coordination and support to the Faculty of Health for the range of undergraduate and post graduate simulations offered by UTS Health, requiring the provision of advice on the development, delivery, assessment and evaluation of best practice scenario-based learning activities. In October 2018 Carolyn moved into a full time role as a Lecturer in Nursing.
Carolyn’s interfaculty partnerships include the Faculty of Science, Faculty of Engineering and IT, and the Connected Intelligence Centre to provide simulated learning experiences for their student cohorts and to produce quality learning and teaching focused research.
2018 Lucas C., Power T., Hayes C. & Ferguson C. UTS Learning and Teaching citaiton: two heads are better than one' - Development, Implementation and Sustainability of a Novel Teaching and Learning Model (RIPE: Reflective lnterprofessional Education Model) to enhance Collaboration. ($1000)
2017 Hayes C. HSP Research Student Development Award ($3,000)
2016 Power T., Virdun C., Hayes C. & White H. UTS 2016 Inaugural Learning and Teaching Citation: Plastic with Personality – inspiring and motivating undergraduate nurses’ engagement with manikins and flipped learning through the introduction of online audio-visual vignettes in Medical-Surgical Nursing ($1000)
2016 Hayes C. UTS Vice Chancellors Career and Professional Development award, for ‘outstanding individual performance and making an exceptional contribution to the work of the university’. ($3000).
2016 Power T., Virdun C., Hayes C. & White H. Best Paper: Plastic with personality: increasing student engagement with manikins. NETNEP 2016. 6th International Nurse Education Conference.
2014 Chen H., Kelly M. & Hayes C. UTS Learning and teaching Citation: Bringing pathophysiology to life on the lab – collaborative simulations with interactive ‘patients’ which motivate and inspire undergraduate science students to learn ($1000).
2011 Hayes C. Trailblazer finalist - Portable Pregnancy Palpation Simulator - a part task trainer used in midwifery clinical teaching.
Society for Simulation in Healthcare
Registered - Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia
Carolyn’s completed her PhD thesis in July 2019 - entitled ‘Investigating undergraduate nurse responses to simulated interruptions during medication administration: a qualitative multi-method study process’.
Other areas of research include evaluating stress in healthcare simulation, inter-professional education, development of simulated authentic medical equipment and devices to increase fidelity of experience.
2018 Vice Chancellors Learning and Teaching Grant Chen, H., Huber, E., Oliver, B. & Hayes, C. Using 'animated' case to engage the study of human disease. ($1,926.80)
2017 UTS Learning Experience Design Grant Award Lucas C., Ferguson C., Hayes C., Williams K.A., & Power T. ($2000)
2017 Simulation Research Grant Lucas C., Levett-Jones T., Ferguson C., Hayes C., Power T., & Williams K.A. ($2537)
2016 Vice Chancellors Learning and Teaching Grant Power T, Pizzica J; Hayes C; & A Doab: Engaging first year nursing students with digital stories of diversity ($3,934.50)
2016 Vice Chancellors Learning and Teaching Grant Power T, Hayes C; & Doab A: Targeted mindfulness and cultural safety: Increasing acceptance of diversity in first year nursing students ($4,000.00)
2013 Vice Chancellors Learning and Teaching Grant Matiuk S & Hayes C: Supported practice in Nursing labs ($2375.00)
2012 Vice Chancellors Teaching and Learning Grant: Power T, Disler R, Virdun C, Stanton R, Kelly M, Hayes C, White H, Keller J & Van Houten J: Flipped onto their Feet: Online audio-visual resources to facilitate student engagement with simulation and optimise the time they spend in the new Faculty of health laboratory learning spaces ($6000)
2012 Vice Chancellors Learning and Teaching Grant: Catling-Paull, C., White, H, Hayes C, Van Houten J., Power T., Hogan, R., & Cummins, A. The Virtual Tutor: Improving Clinical Practice Skills for Nursing and Midwifery students in the clinical laboratories ($5,000)
Teaching areas of interest include: undergraduate nursing, post graduate nursing, simulation.
Hayes, C, Power, T, Davidson, PM, Daly, J & Jackson, D 2019, 'Corrigendum to "Nurse interrupted: Development of a realistic medication administration simulation for undergraduate nurses" [Nurse Educ. Today 35 (99), September 2015, 981-986].', Nurse education today, vol. 78, pp. 58-58.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Hayes, C, Power, T, Davidson, PM, Daly, J & Jackson, D 2019, 'Learning to liaise: using medication administration role-play to develop teamwork in undergraduate nurses.', Contemporary Nurse, pp. 1-10.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
To describe undergraduate nursing students' situational awareness and understanding of effective liaison and collaboration within the nursing team during interrupted medication administration.Medication errors related to interruptions are a major problem in health care, impacting on patient morbidity and mortality and increasing the burden of related costs. Effective liaison, teamwork and situation awareness are requisite skills for nurses to facilitate the safe management of interruptions during medication administration.A role-play simulation was offered to 528 second-year undergraduate Bachelor of Nursing students. Qualitative written reflective responses were subsequently collected and subject to thematic analysis to derive themes.Participants (451:528) reported an improved understanding of an unfamiliar and challenging situation that required cooperation and collaboration amongst the nursing team to improve outcomes.This simulation exposed undergraduate nurses with limited clinical experience to a situation otherwise unavailable to them. The skills required to engage in effective liaison and teamwork in dynamic situations are vital elements in achieving quality care and must begin to be taught at an undergraduate level.
Lucas, C, Power, T, Hayes, C & Ferguson, C 2019, ''Two heads are better than one'- pharmacy and nursing students' perspectives on interprofessional collaboration utilizing the RIPE model of learning', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Background: Simulation is an effective strategy for enhancing interprofessional education (IPE) and collaboration (IPC). Objectives: A novel interprofessional learning model, The RIPE Model (Reflective Interprofessional Education Model) was applied for a pilot study during a simulation laboratory aimed to (i) enhance pharmacy and nursing students' understanding of the roles and responsibilities of professions within the multidisciplinary healthcare team; and (ii) enhance the importance of working collaboratively in team-based care. Methods: The pilot study using a mixed-methods approach, including the administration of a 6-item student survey on a 6-point Likert-type scale as a pre-test (prior to participation in the simulation laboratory) and post-test (after participation in the simulation laboratory), and a debriefing session eliciting a follow up written reflective statement. Results: Sixty-four students (n = 56 pharmacy; n = 8 nursing) participated in the study which resulted n = 52 pharmacy students and n = 8 nursing students matched data to a pre-test and post-test survey, analyzed via paired t-tests. Statistically significant results (p < 0.05) reported a positive increase in pharmacy students' perceptions from the pre-test and post-test survey for all six items indicating the extent of agreement of IPC; and for one item on the nursing student survey. Qualitative analysis of reflective statements (n = 62) was conducted via thematic analysis utilizing Braun and Clarke's 6-phase process. Thematic analysis generated one overarching theme: IPC: Developing appreciation and respect for healthcare team members to improve patient outcomes; and three subthemes: (i) Enhanced decision-making; (ii) Communication and collaboration; (iii) New understandings of roles and responsibilities. Conclusions: Students perceived that utilizing the RIPE Model of learning involving simulation to enhance interprofessional collaboration assisted their understand...
Lucas, C, Power, T, Hayes, C & Ferguson, C 2019, 'Development of the RIPE model (Reflective Interprofessional Education Model) to enhance interprofessional collaboration.', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, vol. 15, pp. 459-464.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper describes a novel model to providing interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) within a simulated healthcare environment, in the higher education setting. The RIPE Model (Reflective Interprofessional Education Model) was developed for the purpose of enhancing IPE and IPC, clinical judgement, and decision-making between health professional students (pharmacy and nursing students) at the patient's simulated hospital bedside. A foundation 'unfolding' case utilizing the RIPE model was piloted with first year Master of pharmacy students and postgraduate nursing students at an Australian university and included a pharmacy practitioner acting as a resident medical officer (RMO) for the purpose of the teaching module. The RIPE model rotated students through 10 stations (including 2 reflection stations) to unpack an unfolding case. The development of the RIPE model, processes, and future directions are included in this article. The RIPE Model provides the flexibility to adapt and tailor different cases and scenarios to include other health professional students to enhance educational outcomes, with the feedback of the learning to potentially improve future patient outcomes. Furthermore, the model has the potential to be tailored and utilized for the purpose of upskilling practicing pharmacists for Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and changing scopes of practice.
Andersen, P, Baron, S, Bassett, J, Govind, N, Hayes, C, Lapkin, S, Lasater, K, Levett-Jones, T, McAllister, M, Pich, J, Power, T, Reid-Searl, K, Ryan, C, Shearer, K & Simes, T 2018, 'Snapshots of Simulation: Innovative Strategies Used by International Educators to Enhance Simulation Learning Experiences for Health Care Students', Clinical Simulation in Nursing, vol. 16, pp. 8-14.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning Background Innovations in simulation in nursing and health care continue to be developed as creative and committed educators respond to challenges of providing pedagogically sound, engaging and effective learning experiences for large student cohorts. Time-pressed educators may find it difficult to network with others working in simulation-based learning, and thus, it is useful to provide summaries or snapshots to provide a brief overview of activities in various countries using simulation in a variety of ways. Method The purpose of this paper is to profile a diverse range of innovative, cost-effective, and tested simulation approaches that have been implemented in healthcare programs by nursing educators from a range of countries to spark creativity. Each strategy was designed to address contemporary and critical practice issues. Results They facilitate immersion in authentic clinical scenarios, increase students' awareness of cues in the environment that may compromise health and safety. Conclusion These snapshots of simulation prepare students for cultural or clinical realities that they may not routinely encounter because of the inherent restrictions associated with clinical placements.
Hayes, CJ, Jackson, D, Davidson, PM, Daly, J & Power, T 2018, 'Pondering practice: Enhancing the art of reflection', Journal of Clinical Nursing, vol. 27, no. 1-2, pp. 345-353.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Aims and objectives
The aim of this study was to describe the effect that immersive simulation experiences and guided reflection can have on the undergraduate nurses' understanding of how stressful environments impact their emotions, performance and ability to implement safe administration of medications.
Patient safety can be jeopardised if nurses are unsure of how to appropriately manage and respond to interruptions. Medication administration errors are a major patient safety issue and often occur as a consequence of ineffective interruption management. The skills associated with medication administration are most often taught to, and performed by, undergraduate nurses in a controlled environment. However, the clinical environment in which nurses are expected to administer medications is often highly stressed and nurses are frequently interrupted.
This study used role-play simulation and written reflections to facilitate deeper levels of student self-awareness. A qualitative approach was taken to explore students' understanding of the effects of interruptions on their ability to undertake safe medication administration. Convenience sampling of second-year undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a medical–surgical subject was used in this study. Data were obtained from 451:528 (85.42%) of those students and analysed using thematic analysis.
Students reported increasing consciousness and the importance of reflection for evaluating performance and gaining self-awareness. They described self-awareness, effective communication, compassion and empathy as significant factors in facilitating self-efficacy and improved patient care outcomes.
Following a role-play simulation experience, student nurses reported new knowledge and skill acquisition related to patient safety, and new awareness of the need for empathetic and compassionate care during medication administration. Practicing medication administration in realis...
Hayes, C, Jackson, D, Davidson, PM, Daly, J & Power, T 2017, 'Calm to chaos: Engaging undergraduate nursing students with the complex nature of interruptions during medication administration.', Journal of Clinical Nursing.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe undergraduate student nurse responses to a simulated role-play experience focussing on managing interruptions during medication administration. BACKGROUND: Improving patient safety requires that we find creative and innovative methods of teaching medication administration to undergraduate nurses in real-world conditions. Nurses are responsible for the majority of medication administrations in health care. Incidents and errors associated with medications are a significant patient safety issue and often occur as a result of interruptions. Undergraduate nursing students are generally taught medication administration skills in a calm and uninterrupted simulated environment. However, in the clinical environment medication administration is challenged by multiple interruptions. DESIGN/METHODS: A qualitative study using convenience sampling was used to examine student perceptions of a simulated role-play experience. Data were collected from 451 of a possible 528 student written reflective responses and subject to thematic analysis. RESULTS: Students reported an increased understanding of the impacts of interruptions while administering medications and an improved awareness of how to manage disruptions. This study reports on one of three emergent themes: "Calm to chaos: engaging with the complex nature of clinical practice." CONCLUSIONS: Interrupting medication administration in realistic and safe settings facilitates awareness, allows for students to begin to develop management strategies in relation to interruption and increases their confidence. Students were given the opportunity to consolidate and integrate prior and new knowledge and skills through this role-play simulation.
Kelly, MA, Hayes, C & Abdipranoto, A 2017, 'Need a Simulation Technician? Try Your University's Engineering Internship Program', Clinical Simulation in Nursing, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 245-248.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning Supporting the initiation and uptake of simulation-based learning in university or hospital settings requires strategising for human as well as equipment resources. If activities require use of highly technical simulation and audiovisual equipment, faculty may be reticent to engage with the learning strategies that rely on managing 'complex' equipment. Sourcing technical support can be an expensive component of simulation business plans. An alternate source of technical support can be realised from undergraduate engineering students. Insights are shared about the initiation and current status of a symbiotic partnership between two university faculties to meet respective needs for workplace experience and simulation technical support.
Power, T, Virdun, C, White, H, Hayes, C, Parker, N, Kelly, M, Disler, R & Cottle, A 2016, 'Plastic with personality: Increasing student engagement with manikins.', Nurse education today, vol. 38, pp. 126-131.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Simulation allows students to practice key psychomotor skills and gain technical proficiency, fostering the development of clinical reasoning and student confidence in a low risk environment. Manikins are a valuable learning tool; yet there is a distinct lack of empirical research investigating how to enhance engagement between nursing students and manikins.To describe student perspectives of a layered, technology enhanced approach to improve the simulation learning experience.Tanner's Model of Clinical Judgment underpins the entire curriculum. This study additionally drew on the principles of narrative pedagogy.Across ten teaching weeks, five separate case studies were introduced to students through short vignettes. Students viewed the vignettes prior to their laboratory class. In the labs, manikins were dressed in the props used in the vignettes.The innovation was trialed in a second year core subject of a Bachelor of Nursing program in a large urban university in the autumn semester of 2014.Following ethics approval, students were emailed a participant information sheet. A focus group of nine students was held. The discussion was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim prior to being subject to thematic analysis. Students' comments (143) about the vignettes in their standard subject specific student feedback surveys were also considered as data.Four themes were identified: Getting past the plastic; knowing what to say; connecting and caring; and, embracing diversity. The feedback indicated that these measures increased students ability to suspend disbelief, feel connected to, and approach the manikins in a more understanding and empathetic fashion.In addition to achieving increased engagement with manikins, other advantages such as students reflecting on their own values and pre-conceived notions of people from diverse backgrounds were realized.
Chen, H, Kelly, M, Hayes, C, van Reyk, D & Herok, G 2016, 'The use of simulation as a novel experiential learning module in undergraduate science pathophysiology education', ADVANCES IN PHYSIOLOGY EDUCATION, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 335-341.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Hayes, C, Jackson, D, Davidson, PM & Power, T 2015, 'Medication errors in hospitals: a literature review of disruptions to nursing practice during medication administration', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, vol. 24, no. 21-22, pp. 3063-3076.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Hayes, C, Power, T, Davidson, PM, Daly, J & Jackson, D 2015, 'Nurse interrupted: Development of a realistic medication administration simulation for undergraduate nurses.', Nurse education today, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 981-986.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
BACKGROUND: Medication errors are a global phenomenon. Each year Australia-wide there are up to 96,000 preventable medication errors and in the United States there are approximately 450,000 preventable medication errors. One of the leading causes of errors is interruption yet some interruptions are unavoidable. In the interest of patient safety, nurses need to not only understand the impact of interruptions, but also be empowered with the knowledge and skills required to develop effective interruption management strategies. Well-planned simulation experiences have the potential to expose students to authentic clinical cases, otherwise unavailable to them, building critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills and preparing them for practice. AIM: This paper describes a simulated role-play experience that was developed to enable undergraduate nurses to experience, reflect on and analyse their responses to interruptions during medication administration. METHODS: The simulation design presented in this paper was underpinned by both nursing and educational theorists, in combination with established simulation frameworks. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Embedded within a clinical subject in 2013, the simulation experience was run over two campuses within a large Australian University. Participants included 528 second year undergraduate nursing students and 8 academic teaching staff. OUTCOME MAPPING: To stimulate reflective learning debriefing immediately followed the simulation experience. Written reflections were completed and submitted over the following 4weeks to extend the reflective learning process and review the impact of the experience from the student perspective. CONCLUSIONS: Undergraduate student nurses often have limited experiential background from which to draw knowledge and develop sound clinical judgements. Through exposure to clinical experiences in a safe environment, simulation technologies have been shown to create positive learning experiences and imp...
Echeverria, V, Martinez-Maldonado, R, Power, T, Hayes, C & Shum, SB 2018, 'Where is the Nurse? Towards automatically visualising meaningful team movement in healthcare education', 19th International Conference, AIED 2018, London, UK, June 27–30, 2018, Proceedings, Part II (LNCS), International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Springer, London, United Kingdom, pp. 74-78.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018. Providing immediate, effective feedback on team and individual performance in healthcare simulations is a challenging task for educators, such is their complexity. Focusing on emergency procedures on patient manikins, our prior work has demonstrated the feasibility of using multimodal data capture and analysis to generate visualisations of student movement, talk and treatment actions. The limitation to date has been the need for manual steps in the analytic workflow. This paper documents how we have automated several key steps, using new technologies, which were piloted during a nursing simulation. Combining role-based nurses' movement data with high fidelity manikin logs, we have implemented a zone-based classification model, and are able to automatically visualise movements within an emergency response team, providing the data needed to design near real-time feedback for both educators and students.
Martinez-Maldonado, R, Buckingham-Shum, S, Pechenizkiy, M, Power, T, Hayes, C & Axisa, C 2017, 'Modelling embodied mobility teamwork strategies in a simulation-based healthcare classroom', UMAP 2017 - Proceedings of the 25th Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization, Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization, ACM, Bratislava, Slovakia, pp. 308-312.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
©2017 ACM. In many situations, it remains critical for team members to develop strategies to effectively use the space and tools available to complete demanding tasks. However, despite the availability of sensors and analytics for instrumenting physical space, relatively little progress has been made in modelling the embodied dimensions of co-located teamwork. This paper explores an in-The-wild pilot study through which we explore a methodology to model embodied mobility teamwork strategies in the context of healthcare education. We developed the means for tracking, clustering and processing student-nurses' mobility data around a patient manikin. We illustrate the feasibility of our approach by discussing ways to make sense of these data to uncover meaningful trends, and the inherent challenges of applying physical space analytics in authentic settings.
Martinez-Maldonado, R, Power, T, Hayes, C, Abdiprano, A, Vo, T, Axisa, C & Shum, SB 2017, 'Analytics meet patient manikins: Challenges in an authentic small-group healthcare simulation classroom', LAK '17: Proceedings of the Seventh International Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference, International Learning Analytics and Knowledge Conference, ACM, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, pp. 90-94.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 ACM. Healthcare simulations are hands-on learning experiences aimed at allowing students to practice essential skills that they may need when working with real patients in clinical workplaces. Some clinical classrooms are equipped with patient manikins that can respond to actions or that can be programmed to deteriorate over time. Students can perform assessments and interventions, and enhance their critical thinking and communication skills. There is an opportunity to exploit the students' digital traces that these manikins can pervasively capture to make key aspects of the learning process visible. The setting can be augmented with sensors to capture traces of group interaction. These multimodal data can be used to generate visualisations or feedback for students or teachers. This paper reports on an authentic classroom study using analytics to integrate multimodal data of students' interactions with the manikins and their peers in simulation scenarios. We report on the challenges encountered in deploying such analytics 'in the wild', using an analysis framework that considers the social, epistemic and physical dimensions of collocated group activity.
University of Ontario Institute of Technology
Western Sydney University