Carolyn Cartier is Professor of Human Geography and China Studies. She was a founding member of the UTS China Research Centre in 2009 when she joined the Austrailian academy. She is the chief investigator of the Austalian Research Council Discovery Project ‘Governing the City in China: The Territorial Imperative’ (2017-2020) and 'The Geography of Power in China: Urban Expansion and Administrative Empire (2012-2015). Her work in progress is a monograph 'City Space: Theory, Reality and the Administrative Divisions in China', and an edited collection 'The Urban Process in China: State Power, Territorial Economy, and the Future of the City'.
INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH PROJECTS
2017-20 ‘Governing the City in China: The Territorial Imperative’, Australian Research Council, DP170100871, with East China Normal University, Shanghai and Xi’an-Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou
2012-15 ‘The Geography of Power in China: Urban Expansion and Administrative Empire’, Australian Research Council, DP120101901 with East China Normal University, Shanghai
2019 ‘Exemplary Cities in China: The Capitalist Aesthetic and the Loss of Space’, Eurasian Geography and Economics 60(4): 376–99.
2018 ‘Zone Analog: The State-Market Problematic and Territorial Economies in China’, Critical Sociology 44(3): 455–470.
2016 ‘Model Hong Kong Malls and their Development in Mainland China: Consumer Iconicity and the Trans/national Capitalist Class’, Global Networks 16(4): 425–436.
2016 'A Political Economy of Rank: The Territorial Administrative Hierarchy and Leadership Mobility in Urban China', Jounral of Contemporary China 25, no. 100: 529–546.
2015 ‘Territorial Urbanization and the Party-state in China’, Territory, Politics, Governance, 3 (3): 294–320.
Fellowships and Visiting Appointments
2011- 2018 Adjunct Research Director, Centre for China and the World, The Australian National University
2016 Visiting Professor, Institute of East Asian Studies, University of Duisburg-Essen
2012 Visiting Professor, ‘Self-strengthening’ Distinguished Professor, Shanghai University
2009 Salzburg Global Fellow, Schloss Leopoldskron, Salzburg
2008-09 Visiting Professor, China Research Centre, University of Technology Sydney
2005-06 Fulbright Scholar, CIES-Fulbright Fellowship, Hong Kong Baptist University
2004-05 Fellow, Center for Interdisciplinary Research, University of Southern California
2000 Fellow, University of California Humanities Research Institute, University of California, Irvine
Institutional Service Appointments and External Engagement
2012-21 Member, Standing Review Board for the Social Sciences and Humanities, Research Grants Council, Hong Kong
2015-16 Editor, Urban Geography
2014-16 Associate Editor, Eurasian Geography and Economics
2008-10 Member, Fulbright-Hays National Committee, Institute of International Education, New York
2008 Co-Chair, International Dissertation Research Fellowship Final Selection Committee, Social Sciences Research Council, New York
2006-08 Member, International Dissertation Research Fellowship Final Selection Committee, Social Sciences Research Council, New York
Can supervise: YES
2012 The China Story Yearbook 2012: Red Rising, Red Eclipse, edited by G. R. Barmé and J. Goldkorn with C. Cartier and G. Davies, Canberra: Australian Centre on China in the World, The Australian National University
2005 Seductions of Place: Geographical Perspectives on Globalization and Touristed Landscapes, London and New York: Routledge, edited with Alan A. Lew
2003 The Chinese Diaspora: Space, Place, Mobility, and Identity, Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield, edited with Laurence J.C. Ma
2001, 2011 Globalizing South China, Oxford: Blackwell and Oxford: Wiley
Articles and Chapters
2016 ‘Governmentality and the Urban Economy: Consumption, Excess and the “Civilized City” in China’ in E. Jeffreys and D. Bray, eds., New Mentalities of Governance in China, London: Routledge
2013 ‘Building Civilised Cities’ in G. R. Barmé and J. Goldkorn, eds., China Story Yearbook 2013: Civilising China, Canberra: The Australian National University, pp. 256-285
2012 ‘Image, Precariousness and the Logic of Cultural Production in Hong Kong', PORTAL: Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies, 9(3): 1-19
2010 'Power Plays: Performance Art, Political Life and Social Documentation', in Kam Louie, ed., Hong Kong Culture: Word and Image, Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong Press, pp. 25-40
2009 'Production/Consumption and the Chinese City/Region: Cultural Political Economy and the Feminist Diamond Ring', Urban Geography, 30(4): 368-390
2008 'Hong Kong and the Production of Art in the Post/colonial City,' China Information, 22(2): 195-225
2008 'Culture and the City: Hong Kong, 1997-2007', The China Review, 8(1): 59-83
2005 Carolyn Cartier, Manuel Castells, and Jack Linchuan Qiu 'The Information Have-Less: Inequality, Mobility, and Translocal Networks in Chinese Cities', Studies in Comparative International Development, 40(2): 9-34
2005 'City-Space: Scale Relations and China’s Spatial Administrative Hierarchy', in Laurence J.C. Ma and Fulong Wu, eds., Restructuring the Chinese City: Changing Society, Economy and Space, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 21-38
2002 'Transnational Urbanism in the Reform Era Chinese City: Landscapes from Shenzhen,” Urban Studies, 39(9): 1513-1532
2002 “Origins and Evolution of a Geographical Idea: The ‘Macroregion’ in China', Modern China, 28(1): 79-143
2001 '"Zone Fever", the Arable Land Debate, and Real Estate Speculation: China’s Evolving Land Use Regime and its Geographical Contradictions', Journal of Contemporary China, 10(28): 445-69
- Urban administrative divisions in contemporary China
- The role of the state in China's urban and regional development
- Territory, political economy and comparative urban theory
- Urban restructuring and globalization of consumer society
- Cityscapes, alternative art and the politics of aesthetics
- Hong Kong - PRC relations
- China in the World
I advise PhD student who are interested in original research on cities, urban theory, comparative urbanism, urban and regional restructuring, and especially the role of the state in urban development in China.
Cartier, C 2012, The China Story Yearbook 2012: Red Rising, Red Eclipse, ANU Press, Canberra.
Cartier, C 2011, Globalizing South China, 2011, John Wiley.
© 2005 Carolyn Cartier and Alan A. Lew Individual chapters © 2005 the contributors. All rights reserved. The seductiveness of touristed landscapes is simultaneously local and global, as travelled places are formed and reworked by the activities of diverse, mobile people, in their desires to experience situated, sensuous qualities of difference. Cartier and Lew's interesting and informative book explores contemporary issues in travel and tourism and human geography, and the complex cultural, political, and economic activities at stake in touristed landscapes as a result of globalization. This book assesses travel and tourism as simultaneously cultural and economic processes, through ideas about place seduction and the formation of landscapes. Throughout, examples are given from urban and environmental touristed landscapes, from major world cities to tropical islands, and chapter contributions include: an analysis of the representational character of landscape and the built environment; historic constructions of place seduction; the importance of class, racial, and gender dimensions of place; how mobility and the seduction of place orient identity formation; the environmental impacts of tourism economies. Broad in scope, this book is ideal for social scientists and humanists who are interested in contemporary debates about place studies, mobility, and the located realities of globalization.
Ma, LJC & Cartier, CL 2003, The Chinese Diaspora Space, Place, Mobility, and Identity, Rowman & Littlefield.
Leading scholars in the field consider the profound importance of meanings of place and the spatial processes of mobility and settlement for the Chinese overseas. Visit our website for sample chapters!
Cartier, C 2001, Globalizing South China, 1, Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
Cartier, C 2020, 'Commentary 2: Chinatown, Geographical Thought, Trans/nationalism', Progress in Human Geography: an international review of geographical work in the social sciences and humanities, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 401-404.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This four-page essay is a scholarly analysis of research on 'Chinatowns' and interrelated advances in scholarship on the Overseas Chinese through spatial thought and transnationalism. It reflects on a new book about Sydney Chinatown.
© 2017, © The Author(s) 2017. The subject of economic zones has proliferated in scholarship on Asia and beyond as a relational approach to social and economic geographies linked to the world economy. Signifying co-locations and mobile capacities of labor and capital, ‘zone’ has circulated as a concept whose ‘exceptional’ conditions deterritorialize from national landscapes. This article contends that ‘zone’ and the territorial processes it represents have receded from critical analysis, and develops a state–market problematic to examine how analog circulation of ‘zone’ and ‘zoning technologies’ reproduces notional space of neoliberal marketization even where state capitalism defines territorial economies. The fundamental aporia emerges in the People’s Republic of China where a ‘zone’ is one and every type of subnational territory: the party-state guides economic development by changing the system of administrative territory to produce multiple types of jurisdictional units with varied state-defined rationales including the emblematic Shenzhen ‘zone’. Zone analog, drawing on models from spatial science, paradoxically reveals ‘zoning technologies’ to be not a general argument for neoliberalism as incremental marketization but rather state territorialization of the economy in general.
Cartier, C & Hu, D 2018, ''Building Relationships between Cities and Towns in China: The Emerging City System in Chongqing'', RSA Regions e-Zine, vol. 2018, no. 2: Engaging, Exchanging and Impacting: Regional Research for All, pp. 1-10.
Cartier, C 2017, 'Contextual Urban Theory and the ‘Appeal’ of Gentrification: Lost in Transposition?', International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 466-477.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Urban Research Publications Limited The significance of practising theory in context reflects current debates in urban studies as well as the history of poststructural thought whose scholarship, informed by postcolonial critique and understandings of ethics and responsibility in international research collaboration, continues to give evident substance to the nature of epistemological violence. This essay takes up the challenge of contextual theory and empirical research through a critical comparative approach that ultimately finds how the expansive gentrification balloon pops as a consequence of assumptions and misassumptions that leave consequential data hiding in plain sight. The contributions of this essay include treatment of the transposition of ideas as a theoretical, methodological and ethical problem, and an original comparative summary of the frequency of ‘gentrification’ in the news media of ten major cities in addition to the print and online media of Hong Kong. The analysis demonstrates not only how context matters in research design, but also how distinction in the articulation of theoretical argument will be upheld or deflated by knowledge of, and acquired in, context. The essay summarizes the arguments for the larger Interventions forum, and concludes that a critical-theoretical comparative international urban studies generates and builds through refinement of theory in iterative dialogue with historical processes.
Cartier, C 2017, 'Preface to an Interventions Forum on Contextual Urban Theory and The ‘Appeal’ of Gentrification', International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 464-465.
Hidalgo Martinez, M & Cartier, C 2017, 'City as province in China: the territorial urbanization of Chongqing', Eurasian Geography and Economics, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 201-230.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Chongqing is a province-level city region in China’s interior with a land area larger than many small countries. Limited scholarship tends to treat Chongqing as a new jurisdiction formed in relation to development of the Three Gorges Dam and reform of historic state-planned industry from the Mao era. This analysis turns to the complex process of land redistricting in a process of “territorial urbanization” that has also simultaneously reshaped the economy of Chongqing. By conceptualizing Chongqing as a dynamic administrative territory, this analysis defines changes in the relational configuration of its administrative divisions (xingzheng quhua) as a multi-faceted state strategy of governing land use change and the fiscal regime to realize infrastructure development. Especially by establishing districts in Chongqing, territorial urbanization works to enhance the funding capacity of the Chongqing government to develop larger, expansive infrastructure projects. This urban transformation of Chongqing demonstrates how processes of land use change and government funding, materializing in the built environment, are directly related to changes in state territorial configuration.
Cartier, C 2016, 'A Political Economy of Rank: the territorial administrative hierarchy and leadership mobility in urban China', Journal of Contemporary China, vol. 25, no. 100, pp. 529-546.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 Taylor & Francis The level or rank of an administrative division (行区等级 or 政区级别) in China—a structural condition of the sub-national territorial administrative system—is a correlate of administrative rank (行政级别). State reterritorialization of the administrative divisions (行政区划), through establishment and expansion of hundreds of cities, introduces a political economy of differentiation and change by which city governments take the measure of their administrative reach and economic capacity. How do changes to the administrative divisions involve administrative rank, economic status and territorial governing power? In Suzhou, a prefecture-level city, incommensurability between the economic status of the city and its administrative rank reveals how ‘unfair’ rank in the administrative hierarchy becomes implicated in negotiations over territorial adjustments and cadre appointments, leading to creative forms of rank adjustment. Dynamics of the administrative divisions reflect rank consciousness, influence official positions and structure urban transformation in contemporary China.
Cartier, C 2016, 'Model Hong Kong malls and their development in mainland China: consumer iconicity and the trans/national capitalist class', GLOBAL NETWORKS-A JOURNAL OF TRANSNATIONAL AFFAIRS, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 415-436.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article develops the concept of territorial urbanization in China through the historical conditions and research design problems of the Chinese administrative divisions in relation to comparative territorial thought. Subnational territories are not constitutionally guaranteed in China and the state maintains powers to establish new cities and enlarge and merge existing ones, and even eliminate others, with significant implications for geographically targeted economic development and governing powers. These territorial strategies, which administer urban expansion, rationalize government administration, and organize capital investment through continuing economic growth, are negotiated within the political system of the Chinese party-state and decided through non-transparent processes by the Chinese central government. Yet literature on urbanization in China often subsumes party-state territorialization practices under internationally recognizable epistemologies such as urban and regional planning and simplifies and contains their urban-economic transformations to fixed spaces in zone development. This analysis examines cities within the system of administrative divisions and pursues the question of the reproduction of state power through territorial urbanization in the Shanghai Pudong New Area, where a territorial merger doubled its size and central government policy imagines the future of China's international financial centre.
Cartier, C 2013, 'Beijing Record: A Physical and Political History of Planning Modern Beijing, by Wang Jun', The China Journal, vol. 1998, no. 69, pp. 216-217.
Cartier, C 2013, 'What's territorial about China?--from geopolitical narratives to the 'administrative economy'', Eurasian Geography and Economics, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 57-77.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A human geographer and China specialist introduces perspectives on territory in China from the vantage of guowai (outside the country) and guonei (inside the country). This relational comparison extends analysis of Chinese geopolitical narratives to current questions about state power in China, and opens up the geopolitical perspective to recalibrate analysis of territory and territorial boundary formation inside the nation-state. Territorial change is particularly significant in China because subnational territories are not constitutionally guaranteed and state development strategies regularly depend on strategic boundary changes to form new governing spaces. The article introduces the concept of the administrative area economy from the Chinese literature to explain how the Chinese political economy crucially depends on reterritorialization to establish and promote contemporary urbanization and achieve political and economic goals. This analytical approach, based on the international scholarship and the Chinese-language literature, also reflects Agnews incorporation of methodological advances from new area studies in political geographical analysis.
Cartier, C 2011, 'Neoliberalism And The Neoauthoritarian City In China-contexts And Research Directions: Commentary In Conversation With Jennifer Robinson's Urban Geography Plenary Lecture', Urban Geography, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1110-1121.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Emerging research on comparative neoliberalism at the urban scale seeks to trace its diffusions and document its contours and trajectories in regions beyond the trans-Atlantic corridor. Discovering geographical variation in neoliberal policy should produ
Cartier, C 2011, 'Shanghai rising: State power and local transformations in a global megacity. Xiangming Chen, editor', Urban Geography, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 606-607.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cartier, C 2011, 'State Formation and Comparative Area Studies :Between Globalization and Territorialization', Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 965-970.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cartier, C 2011, 'Urban Growth, Rescaling and the Spatial Administrative Hierarchy', Provincial China, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-25.
After thirty years of scholarship on transformations in China under reform, accumulated research capacity demonstrates potential for increased interdisciplinary research and research questions at the interstices of fields. This paper examines one such possibility by assessing urbanization in relation to the dynamics of financial policy and rescaling through the spatial administrative hierarchy. From the perspective of the administrative hierarchy, the discussion observes the conjunctures of de/recentralization in the economy with urbanization through the establishment of new cities. Based on the work of Victor Shih on inflationary cycles, the paper demonstrates coordination of monetary policy with designation of new cities, and ultimately argues that the central government has orchestrated decentralization of economic power in association with planned urbanization as a basis of domestic growth.
Shih, M & Cartier, C 2011, 'Particularities and Complexities: Unpacking State Policy in Local China', Provincial China, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-8.
In this issue, Provincial China features work by UTS China Research Centre scholars and associates. The four articles together problematize another assumption about political economy in China the idea that state policy is top-down, unidirectional, and omnipresent. Working on different topics and from different disciplinary perspectives, each author analyzes a specific state policy to reveal how, rather than supporting a monolithic state structure, policy dynamics demonstrate regional particularity, temporal variability, and institutional complexity. The spatial conditions of policy dynamics vary regionally as well as in relations of scale, i.e., between national interests and their relations with provincial, urban, and local governments. Since Chinas developmental model had depended on a strong state, how should we understand conditions of particularity and complexity in state policy? How should we potentially reconsider understanding the state in light of policy variation? These articles generate insightful outcomes.
Cartier, C 2009, 'Production/Consumption And The Chinese City/Region: Cultural Political Economy And The Feminist Diamond Ring', Urban Geography, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 368-390.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The "consumer revolution" in the People's Republic of China emerged after 1992 when the state deepened growth-oriented reform and justified individual consumption as a pillar of economic development. This examination of cultural-economic practices in urban China makes an argument for conceptualizing consumption in relation to production through a modified cultural political economy. It identifies a regional regime in the zone between Shanghai and Hong Kong, with the latter as China's main center of trade in precious metals and gemstones, and citizen-consumer subject formation with "Chinese characteristics." The argument builds on Chinese feminist theory to explain contrasts between PRC state ideology on women's roles in the household and contemporary alternatives in the marketplace. Empirical analysis focuses on the large market for fine jewelry, its disassociation from heteronormative gifting, and its connection with leisure/tourism sites. Conclusions affirm the importance of a cultural political economy for theorizing production/consumption relations in the city, and query evolving consumerism in the PRC.
Cartier, C 2008, 'Culture and the City: Hong Kong 1997-2007', The China Review, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 59-83.
After 1997, sustained public debate emerged in Hong Kong over a suite of cultural issues, yet international analyses of the handover predictably continue to emphasize economic forecasts as if disconnected from cultural politics. This examination problematizes what is culture in Hong Kong, beginning with the idea of the trope of the cultural desert as a placism, to train analysis on cultural processes in political economic and local contexts. The place-based treatment takes a postcolonial perspective on contemporary cultural political economy through the West Kowloon Cultural District, the role of the municipal state in cultural policy, the rise of studio and contemporary arts in the city, and the heritage conservation movement, to demonstrate how Hong Kongs cultural turn reflects the tensions of the postcolonial era in the unprecedented time-space of the Hong Kong Special administrative Region.
Cartier, C 2008, 'Hong Kong and the Production of Art in the Post/colonial City', China Information, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 245-275.
Contemporary and alternative art in Hong Kong has strong local roots and translocal connections, and while it reflects cultural politics in the city it lacks substantial international recognition. This interdisciplinary analysis focuses on the contexts of production of contemporary art by women in Hong Kong and their centrality in the city's arts community. The narrative contrasts the presence of contemporary and alternative arts and its absence from art criticism discourses through the disjuncture between the geopolitics of contemporary Asian art and the making of Hong Kong into an unprecedented territorial formation. Reading local art through alternative spacetime concepts and intersubjective arts practice is proposed through the exhibit-event, "If Hong Kong, A Woman/Traveller."
Cartier, C 2007, 'Making space for art: The culture debat and the studio arts movement in Hong Kong', Travaux de l'Institut de Geographie de Reims, vol. 33, no. 129-130, pp. 113-121.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In Hong Kong, the recent emergence of studio arts districts is taking place in the context of public debate over state visions of cultural facilities and creative industries. While government invests in a planned culture district, artists struggle for working space in an environment of volatile rents. To contribute to a critical geography of art, this discussion engages the struggle to produce contemporary and alternative art in Hong Kong after 1997 at the theoretical intersection of the production of space, cultural political economy and the Deleuzian idea of art as sensation.
Cartier, C 2007, 'Making Space For Art: the culture debate and the studio arts movement in Hong Kong', Universite de Reims. Institut de Geographie. Travaux, vol. 129, no. 130, pp. 101-120.
In Hong Kong, the recent emergence of studio arts districts is taking place in the context of public debate over state visions of cultural facilities and creative industries. While government invests in a planned culture district, artists struggle for working space in an environment of volatile rents. To contribute to a critical geography of art, this discussion ,engages the struggle to produce contemporary and alternative art in Hong Kong after 1997 at the theoretical intersection of the production of space, cultural political economy and the Deleuzian idea of art as sensation.
Cartier, C, Castells, M & Qiu, JL 2005, 'The Information Have-Less: Inequality, Mobility, and Translocal Networks in Chinese Cities', Studies in Comparative International Development, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 9-34.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The 'information have-less' is a social, economic, and political category for millions of rural-to-urban migrants and laid-off workers, who populate the vast gray zone of China's digital divide. Disengaged from institutions of agricultural and industrial production, the information have-less make use of such inexpensive ICT services as Internet cafés, prepaid phone cards, and Little Smart mobile phones. These low-end digital technologies are critical to enhancing labor mobility (both physical and social) and to the formation of translocal networks. In this paper, we conduct a preliminary assessment of ICT usage in, key city-regions in China and consider the consequences of translocal network formations for evolving information inequality in China. These networks raise key theoretical issues related to regionalism, mobility, and state-firm relationships that impinge on low-end service provision, and stratified patterns of information access and utilization within the have-less populations. We view translocal networks an important socio-economic asset of the information have-less and an arena for the articulation of labor mobility in Chinas industrialization process and latest wave of urbanization.
Cartier, C 2003, 'From home to hospital and back again: Economic restructuring, end of life, and the gendered problems of place-switching health services', Social Science and Medicine, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 2289-2301.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Economic restructuring in the health services industry in the USA exemplifies general patterns of economic change propelled by neoliberalism, especially industry privatization, diminished social services, and dependence on "flexible" labor and management regimes. Combined with the widespread entry of women into the labor force, an aging population, and minimal assistance for high quality long-term care at the end of life, these economic and social conditions raise a set of difficult policy questions for health services planning. Set in these broad contexts, this paper situates access to and experience of health services in the home, the hospital, and nursing facility, to demonstrate how economic changes have relocated and redefined health services in ways that distinctively impact how people experience the places where they receive care. This place switching of health services externalizes costs of subacute and "daily life care" (the so-called custodial care) to the sphere of the individual, their family, and communities. The theoretical analysis uses current geographical and philosophical approaches to place and space, and considers the tensions between institutionally managed health care space, and the patient's experience of receiving health services in place. The place/space dilemma of health services provision is examined through several interrelated subjects: long-term care at the end of life, gendered characteristics of care giving, the limitations of Medicare and Medicaid, historical changes in hospital length of stay, the restructuring of nursing practices, and the "no-care zone". The analysis is based on examples of stroke and incontinence care to demonstrate the importance of considering place and space issues in health care planning. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cartier, C 2002, 'Origins and evolution of a geographical idea: The macroregion in China', Modern China, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 79-142.
This article examines the production in China area studies of one paradigm, the macroregion, to demonstrate the importance of overcoming some of these epistemological problems. Its focus is on the disciplinary origins of the theoretical material on which the idea of the macroregion is based--geography. Here a paradigm, both represents communities of scholars and acts as a shared example--a "group-licensed way of seeing"--from which subsequent studies evolve, studies that are simultaneously suggested and limited by the theoretical assumptions of the paradigm. To establish a basis for careful discussion, I first compare traditional approaches in regional geography and economic geography with disciplinary debates about those fields in the second half of the twentieth century. Debates concerning regional geography reflected and in part led the contemporary "spatial turn" that is, the trend in the academy to use social theory engaged with the themes of space and place. I next explain the origins and evolution of the macroregion, as the concept emerged as the dominant paradigm in Chinese historiography for the study of regions. My analysis uses examples from the literature of the south China coast because the "southeast coast" macroregion was subjected to a focused historical study on which a final elaboration of the macroregion model was based. I conclude not only that the macroregion analysis of the southeast coast did not, pace Paul Cohen (1984), "discover" local history but also that this application foregrounded the significance of the treaty ports and the dualisms of tradition and modernity characteristic of what Esherick (1972) has labeled the "impact-response" approach to Chinese historiography. While the macroregion model served to shift attention from the imperial to the local level and to regional history, and while it provided some alternatives to research perspectives dominated by modernization theory, promoted as the sole approach to studying regional his...
While the conventions of area studies scholarship have historically limited landscape analysis in China, the globalisation of scholarship and the new built environments of the reform-era Chinese city invite contemporary assessment. In Shenzhen, China's leading Special Economic Zone, the planning and construction of a new city centre complex are designed to symbolise the city's transformation from a manufacturing zone to a 'world city' and to function as its service-sector core. This landscape analysis applies the perspective of transnational urbanism to assess how the effort to instantiate 'world city' status in the built environment works through plans, ideologies and representations of domestic and transnational élites to establish legitimacy. The continuing strong role of the state in China makes the production of a new city centre a state-dominated enterprise; contesting meanings of these new landscapes takes place indirectly and symbolically in the arena of the state's spiritual civilisation campaign.
Cartier, C 2001, ''Zone fever', the arable land debate, and real estate speculation: China's evolving land use regime and its geographical contradictions', Journal of Contemporary China, vol. 10, no. 28, pp. 445-469.View/Download from: Publisher's site
State promotion of export-oriented development in China through a system of special development zones contributed to both rapid economic growth and indiscriminate reproduction of special zones. Land use transformations have resulted in significant losses of arable land, and new state policies to conserve land and control land use through the revised Land Administration Law. Critical comparison of industrial development in the special zone phenomenon and the evolving land use disposition system demonstrates contradictory domestic political and economic policies of land development, land management, and land conservation. This analysis assesses land development trends in the south China coastal zone and adopts a geographical approach to examine the spatialities of the land use regime, across the administrative hierarchy, in the nature of the distinct rural and urban land use markets, and in land monitoring problems. Problems revealed in the land disposition system demonstrate how the state's land use regime has promoted land development. New controls over land use coincided with the need to restrict service sector development in real estate and related industries at the onset of the regional economic downturn in 1997.
Cartier, C 1999, 'Cosmopolitics and the maritime world city', Geographical Review, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 278-289.
Cosmopolitanism has emerged as a humanistic perspective to express globalizing societal experiences. What are its geographies? World cities are centers of globalizing processes, and their populations and institutions may share elements of cosmopolitical worldviews. Most world cities have also been ports, yet in the contemporary global imaginary, many world cities are not readily understood as places of maritime activity, historic or contemporary. Disjunctures in perceptions of the coastal city-region reflect changes in the world economy and human experiences in modes of travel. This analysis recovers geographical processes of maritime urban areas as a basis for understanding transhistorical and geographical factors of cosmopolitics in globalizing regions and contemporary intellectual thought.
The symbolic landscape of high-rise Hong Kong is examined through the development of four major buildings in order to assess real and symbolic relations between the state and private property developers in the production of the built environment. The theoretical perspective combines understanding of symbolic landscape as the production of geographically constituted social relations, especially in the evolution of Hong Kong producer services industries, with the concept of the 'exhibitionary complex', in which the state and elites deploy 'object lessons in power' to engender popular identification with state interests. By the 1990s local land development consortia increasingly capitalized high-rise construction, and projects for harbourfront land reclamations enlarged in scale and scope. The International Finance Centre, Hong Kong's future tallest building, is designed to instantiate Hong Kong's place in the regional and international financial services industry, but had also challenged public acceptance. New landscape conservation legislation seeks to limit further harbour reclamation and protect viewscapes.
Cartier, C & Rothenberg-Aalami, J 1999, 'Empowering the “victim”? gender, development, and women in china under reform', Journal of Geography, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 283-294.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article examines debates in the global feminist movement through the “Victim debate” to explain why it fractured into First World and Third World constituencies. The analysis compares the two major development platforms concerning women—women in development, initiated in the U.S., and gender analysis in development, which originated with feminist leaders from the developing world—to demonstrate the evolution of priorities in gender and development planning. Assessment of the changing status of women in contemporary China reveals the importance of conducting gender and development analysis in geographically and historically specific contexts, using approaches that account for dynamic global and national political economic forces that create new labor regimes and impact women's work. © 1999 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Cartier, C 1998, 'Megadevelopment in Malaysia: From heritage landscapes to 'leisurescapes' in Melaka's tourism sector', Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 151-176.
In Malaysia, state promotion of tourism as a main component of service sector expansion and foreign exchange earnings has compelled government at all levels to facilitate leisure industry development. Even in the relatively small state of Melaka, where its historic landscapes constitute significant heritage tourism resources, development projects for theme parks and golf resorts have proliferated. This analysis examines Malaysian tourism development through an evaluation of the diverse tourism sectors in Melaka town and state - heritage, theme park, golf resort, and ecotourism - to demonstrate how the developmental contexts of national and international economic restructuring, combined with regional tourism demand for activity-oriented leisure, have rationalised large-scale, high-cost, environmentally-sensitive real estate development projects. In the process, authentic natural and historic landscapes have been rapidly forsaken for ersatz 'leisurescapes' where both domestic and foreign tourists consume representations of diverse symbolic worlds.
Cartier, CL 1997, 'The dead, place/space, and social activism: Constructing the nationscape in historic Melaka', Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 555-586.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In Malaysia under state-led economic restructuring, government interventions in cultural heritage landscapes reflect divergent priorities between local place-based conservation interests and forces of political and economic restructuring at broader spatial scales. I examine a major land-use conflict, between economic development interests and a grass-roots preservation movement with links to the national opposition party, to assess how preservation activists mobilised place-based constructions of cultural identity and representations of state nationalism to halt development plans for a historic landscape. These issues are examined by negotiating the relationship between locally based cultures of place, and political and economic forces seeking to appropriate space, in a piece of historic land in Melaka, Malaysia. I work through two lines of approach. The theoretical framework applies Lefebvre's work on spatial processes and spatial categories to conceptualise the significance of the historic landscape, and utilises Merrifield's reading of Lefebvre to write between the place-space dualism. A social construction approach is adopted to demonstrate how people actively create meaning about place in space, and work out the dialectic of preservationist intervention between local and state-level land-use goals. The social construction approach shows how cultural identity may be place based, and therefore the basis of a powerful localised social movement. Through the movement generated by this debate, a monumental traditional Chinese burial ground became local park and 'nationscape', a site-specific distillation of half a millenium of Malaysian history.
Cartier, CL 1996, 'Conserving the built environment and generating heritage tourism in Peninsular Malaysia', Tourism Recreation Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 45-53.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© Tourism Recreation Research. Malaysia’s recent historic conservation goals, promoted by local interests and focused in Kuala Lumpur, Melaka, and Penang, are receiving political and financial support from the state based on the potential of historic buildings to attract tourists. Geographical landscape analysis of the places of conservation in the context of local and national social structures shows how tourism planning acts as a frame for other dialogue about national culture. In this case the historic built environment reflects Malaysia’s population groups unevenly, and the state is at odds over enhancement of particular ethnic representations in the cultural landscape. Heritage tourism studies are used to compare the evolution of historic conservation based tourism in Malaysia.
The preservation of Bukit China, a traditional Chinese cemetery in Melaka, Malaysia, demonstrates how dynamic geographical concepts of landscape and place can be used to diffuse knowledge of landscape culture and history in efforts to preserve land from urban development. In Bukit China people perceived a historical microcosm of common identity and community that symbolized contemporary nationalism. The quest to preserve Bukit China successfully combined the significance of a historic landscape and the need for open space. -Author
Cartier, C 2020, 'China’s “New” Socialist City: From Red Aesthetics to Standard Urban Governance' in Drummond, L & Young, D (eds), Socialist and Post-socialist Urbanisms: Critical Reflections from a Global Perspective, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, pp. 206-226.
Cartier, C 2019, '‘From “Special Zones” to Cities and City-Regions in China' in Doucette, J & Park, BG (eds), Developmentalist Cities? Interrogating Urban Developmentalism in East Asia, Brill, Leiden, pp. 196-218.
Cartier, C 2019, 'The Anthropomorphic City—Power and Planning' in Golley, J, Jaivin, L, Farrelly, P & Strange, S (eds), Power, The ANU Press, Canberra, pp. 256-269.
THE NOTION THAT A CITY is powerful relies on some kind of anthropomorphism. A city is not a thing itself that constitutes and wields power. It lies on a map, inert and lifeless, staring back at us and rhetorically imploring, am I important? How big is my dot? Capital cities are always more important on the map: they get the star, like Beijing. Yet in a recent Party announcement about leading places in China, Beijing did not feature at all. Only three appeared — Shenzhen, Shanghai Pudong, and Xiongan 雄安 — and one of these, Xiongan, in Hebei province, is only just planned. (See the China Story Yearbook 2017: Prosperity, Chapter 6 ‘Magic Cities, Future Dreams — Urban Contradictions’, pp.188–205.) Nevertheless, in April 2018 the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) Central Committee and State Council issued a joint announcement ‘in the name of Comrade Xi Jinping as the core’ to confirm its leading importance, affirming that ‘Xi Jinping has personally planned, personally decided, and personal promoted’ the construction of Xiongan as ‘a national model for
promoting high-quality development’
Cartier, C 2018, ''Magic Cities, Future Dreams—Urban Contradictions'' in Golley, J & Jaivin, L (eds), Prosperity—China Story Yearbook 2017, ANU Press, Canberra, pp. 188-205.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Three seemingly separate events in 2016
demonstrated China’s territorial strategies for
control and governance over people and places.
One was an unruly vote over supplementary
funding for an Express Rail Link between Hong
Kong and Shenzhen that brought chaos to the
Hong Kong Legislative Council. Another was the
revelation by one of a group of detained Hong Kong
booksellers (see the China Story Yearbook 2015:
Pollution, Information Window ‘The Causeway
Books Incident’, p.xxiii) of the real facts of his
detention. Finally, there was the overturning of a
thirty-year ban on Hong Kong democrats entering
the mainland. Together, these events illustrate
how the Party-state tailors its governing strategies
to suit local conditions in sub-national territories
— including provinces and cities as well as Special
Administrative Regions such as Hong Kong and
Cartier, C 2016, 'Governmentality and the urban economy: Consumption, excess, and the 'civilized city' in China' in Jeffreys, E & Bray, D (eds), New Mentalities of Government in China, Taylor & Francis, USA, pp. 56-73.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cartier, C 2015, 'Urban, Mobile and Global'.
Cartier, C 2015, 'Urban, Mobile and Global' in Barmé, GR, Jaivin, L & Goldkorn, J (eds), China Story Yearbook 2014: Shared Destiny, The Australian National University Press, Australia, pp. 204-224.
PEOPLE IN URBAN China travel, move house
and commute longer distances than ever before.
They also enjoy greater opportunities to change
their lifestyles or move up the social ladder. The
gradual removal of historical bans imposed by the
Communist Party on unauthorised movement between
cities (or from the countryside to the city)
as well as owning property and travelling abroad
make the ease of movement — mobility — novel
Over the past year and a half, the anticorruption
campaign has identified ‘excessive
mobility’, as defined by all forms of ‘extravagance’
铺张 or 奢靡 on the part of party and government
officials, as being a danger to the wellbeing of
the party-state. New prohibitions and regulations
have put pressure on party and government
officials to change their habits, alter their lifestyles
and abandon any plans to establish a residential
base overseas — in effect, to retreat from the
Zeitgeist of mobility. This chapter considers the
implications for the Shared Destiny of the Chinese
in the context of movement between China and
the world, particularly in relation to the Party’s
seemingly stringent anti-waste regulations.
Cartier, C & Hu, D 2015, 'Administrative Territory' in Goodman, D (ed), Handbook of the Politics of China, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, pp. 147-164.
The Handbook of the Politics of China is a comprehensive resource introducing readers to the very latest in research on Chinese politics.
Cartier, C 2013, 'Building civilised cities' in Barmé, G & Goldkorn, J (eds), China Story Yearbook 2013 Civilising China, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, pp. 256-285.
Cartier, C 2013, 'Class, consumption and the economic restructuring of consumer space' in Chen, M & Goodman, DSG (eds), Middle Class China: Identity and Behaviour, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK, pp. 34-53.
Cartier, C 2013, 'Uneven development and the time/space economy' in Sun, W & Guo, Y (eds), Unequal China: Political Economy and the Cultural Politics of Inequality, Routledge, UK, pp. 77-90.
After three decades of rapid industrialization, the problems of inequality in the PRC reflect the geographical trajectory of the planned reform economy. From south to north and coast to interior, the uneven geography of reform has contributed to generating uneven development between regions and inequality between urban and rural areas (cf. Fan 1995; Findlay et al. 1995; Wang and Hu 1999; Goodman 2008b; Frazier 2010). While the major gaps are between the coast and interior and cities and the countryside, profound disparities also exist between registered urban residents and internal migrants, and between women and men (United Nations Development Program 2008). Economic inequality in China has challenged the social legitimacy of the I'RC's platform of rapid economic growth as the basis of societal development.
Cartier, C 2013, 'With other worlds - Jaffa Lam and the artist's residency' in Yeung Yang (ed), Away from the Crowd - The Art of Jaffa Lam, YEUNG Yang, Hong Kong, pp. 128-139.
Cartier, C 2012, 'Contemporary art and mediatization in Brand PRD' in Sun, W & Chio, J (eds), Mapping Media In China: Region, Province, Locality, Routledge, UK, pp. 126-142.
The transformati on of cultural production and con sumption in th e era of the information economy has also radically transfo rmed the world of contemporary art. The information techn ologies of globalization have effec ti vely opened up the borders of trad itional art studies' national boundari es. The new mobility of ar1 needs places to go and contemporary art biennales/biennials. have proli fe rated, especially in Asia (Clark 2007). In the context of the neoliberal world economy - the marketization of everyth ing - the new 'world art system' of mutually in fl uential art schools, galleries, aI1 fairs, art magazines, biennalesl biennials, museums and auction houses has led to rapid commodification of contemporary art (Holmes 2004).
Cartier, C 2012, 'Neoliberalization at a Crossroads? Transcolonial Hong Kong' in Kenkel, J & Mayer, M (eds), Neoliberal Urbanism and Its Contestations: Crossing Theoretical Boundaries, Palgrave Macmillan, United Kingdom, pp. 137-154.
Cartier, C & Tomba, L 2012, 'Symbolic Cities and the 'Cake Debate'' in Barme, G, Goldkorn, J, Cartier, C & Davies, G (eds), Red Rising Red Eclipse: China Story Yearbook 2012, The Australian National University, Australia, pp. 25-52.
Cities provide the most spectacular evidence of China's transformation. New urban landscapes punctuated by landmark skyscrapers proclaim the country's rapid development and modernisation. Since 1978, over 500 new cities have been built and constructing them has been a major social and political achievement as well as a major driver of economic growth. The process has also dispossessed millions of rural landholders without due or sufficient compensation, resulting in tens of thousands of protests in recent years. In historic cities, displacement of long-established residents and the replacement of socialist-era housing and factories by sleek office buildings and shopping malls also demonstrate the changing economic functions of the city and throw up new social and economic issues.
Cartier, C 2011, 'World Cities - Part I' in Agnew, J & Duncan, JS (eds), Human Geography, Wiley-Blackwell, UK, pp. 313-324.
Since its popularisation in the 1980's, the idea of the world city has travelled widely through the literatures of urban geography, international planning and interdisciplinary urban studies into diverse public spheres, including urban governance and applied urban and regional planning.
Cartier, C 2010, 'Power Plays: Alternative Performance Art and Urban Space in the Political Life of the City' in Kam Louie (ed), Hong Kong Culture: Word and Image, Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong, pp. 25-40.
Cartier, C 2009, 'Cultural Spaces/ Hong Kong: Relational Urban Studies and the Epochal State' in Wong Siu-lun (ed), Rethinking Hong Kong: New Paradigms, New Perspectives, Centre of Asian Studies, Hong Kong, pp. 225-243.
Cartier, C 2006, 'Symbolic City/Regions and Gendered Identity Formation in South China' in Oakes, T & Schein, L (eds), Translocal China: Linkages, Identities and the Re-imagining of Space, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 138-154.
In China under reform, mobility has become a leitmotif of social and economic change. Rural migrants have surged into cities, hukou-for-investment policies have fueled sales of upscaleprivate housing, tourism has become a major leisure time activity, and seeking a passport is becoming an urban trend. Geographical mobility, social mobility, travel, and imaginaries about these possibilities-all in relation to the pace of industrialization, at least for some of China's cities and regions, the fastest in world history-have made movement a central processural theme of transformation and identification in contemporary China. These new mobilities reflect dynamic economic transformations under reform, and, most basically, renewed opportunity to travel and relocate. Socio-economic mobility wrought by reform is symbolized by millions of rural migrants, and the new ties formed by migrants between small towns and large cities. Moving up this urban hierarchy and the economic ladder are widely held goals if not imaginations, as representations of the new rich-typically residing in China's major citiescirculate in media and society. International linkages are also increasingly evolving between regions and cities of rapid growth in coastal provinces and major source countries of foreign direct investment in China. As Wanning Sun (2002) has discussed, China's new media technologies, especially television, have brought images of not only Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong to the village, but also those of New York, London and Tokyo.
Cartier, C 2005, 'City-space: scale relations and China's spatial administrative hierarchy' in Ma, L & Wu, F (eds), Restructuring the Chinese City: Changing society, economy and space, Routledge, New York, USA, pp. 21-38.
In a review of television specials set in San Francisco, cultural critic and college professor Stephen McCauley (1998) writes about the city as a place of myth and legend. His students claim having spent past lives there, a mode of orientation he finds otherwise reserved for places like "ancient Egypt, Machu Picchu, Petra; rose-red city half as old as time." He observes, "San Francisco has achieved mythic status among the disillusioned and disenfranchised from all over. Surrounded by water and frequently shrouded in fog, it has become, in our collective imaginations, a kind of real-world Oz"-a fantastical place where people actually live. Continuing the metaphors, he evaluates the public television documentary "The Castro" as a neighborhood history of a marginalized group whose community has become so successful that many of its businesses cater to tourists; the whole neighborhood "has taken on something like a theme-park atmosphere: Gayworld." Perhaps what disorients McCauley is the sight of people at leisure on these streets-just as likely they're not tourists.
Cartier, C 2004, 'City-space: Scale relations and China's spatial administrative hierarchy' in Restructuring the Chinese City: Changing Society, Economy and Space, pp. 19-33.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2004 Taylor & Francis. China’s program of economic reform is a set of national modernization and development strategies in the broadest sense. The nature of the reform program encompasses both domestic perspectives and internationalized development strategies, especially in the arena of macroeconomic policy. This chapter examines the geographical characteristics of major reforms to show how, as development strategies, the reforms have borne gendered values and produced gendered results. While this survey focuses on the reform period, many gendered characteristics of reform policies and impacts cannot be simply attributed to the Deng Xiaoping and Jiang Zemin eras. The gendered characteristics of the contemporary reform program carry amalgamated histories of gendered social structures and gender-specific policy perspectives from earlier periods. It is the complex interaction of combined contemporary forces and historic social and economic conditions that creates gendered geographies in China under reform.
Cartier, C 2011, 'Developmental Logistics and (Leninist) Governmentality in China', Development, Logistics, and Governance, Fourth Critical Studies Conference, Mahanirban Calcutta Research Group, Calcutta, pp. 1-24.
Cartier, C 2010, 'Regional Governmentalities or Territorializaton with/out Boundaries', How Asia Became Territorial, Conference on Inter-Asian Connections II - Workshop: How Asia Became Territorial, Social Sciences Research Council, Singapore, pp. 1-13.