Caroline has extensive experience teaching academic literacies at undergraduate and postgraduate levels and working collaboratively with academics to integrate academic and professional language and literacy into the curriculum. She has particular expertise in working with students and staff in the disciplines of nursing, midwifery and health.Her research interests include communication for clinical practice settings, embedding academic language and literacy into undergraduate degrees and research writing practices for doctoral candidates working across academic and professional contexts. Publications related to these areas have appeared in both academic language journals and nursing journals.She was a joint recipient with Fran Rogan (Faculty of Nursing Midwifery and Health) of a Carrick citation (now ALTC award) for an outstanding contribution to student learning for developing and teaching a spoken language programme to prepare students for clinical practice.
Can supervise: YES
Havery, C & Johnson, A 2020, 'Assessing and developing students' English language proficiency prior to clinical placements: a pilot study', Journal of Academic Language and Learning, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 42-53.
As universities cater for increasing numbers of students from linguistically diverse backgrounds, there is a need to develop effective post-enrolment spo- ken language assessment and development programs to ensure students have adequate English language levels for clinical placements. This paper presents an evaluation of a pilot project that embedded a clinical communication strat- egy into the first year of a nursing degree to ensure students had a level of English language considered safe for clinical placement. The strategy con- sisted of an initial language screening task to identify students in need of de- velopment, a follow-up compulsory language program for those identified, and a post program language assessment task, in which students needed to achieve a threshold level, in order to proceed to clinical placements. The study was conducted in a large metropolitan university in Australia. Data collected included pre- and post-assessment results, survey data on students' evalua- tions, and student results from two clinical placements following the commu- nication strategy. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to an- alyse data. The study found: the communication strategy was effective in iden- tifying students in need of language development; the majority of students improved their communication skills during the language development pro- gram; and the threshold level of language used to determine whether students were ready to proceed to clinical placement seemed appropriate. The study suggests that combining initial and post-assessment with an intervention, all of which are systemically integrated into a degree program, results in a strat- egy with high educational impact.
Havery, C 2019, 'The effects of clinical facilitators' pedagogic practices on learning opportunities for students who speak English as an additional language: An ethnographic study.', Nurse education today, vol. 74, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
BACKGROUND:Increasing numbers of undergraduate nursing students speak English as an additional language. Clinical placements can be difficult for many of these students and their clinical facilitators. The causes of challenges are often reported to be students' lack of English language ability or, for some students, learning styles that are not suited to Western style education. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this research was to investigate how clinical facilitators' pedagogic practices in hospital settings enabled or constrained the learning of students for whom English was an additional language. METHOD:This research used an ethnographic design to observe the interactions of twenty-one first year students for whom English is an additional language, and their three facilitators. Observations occurred during three two-week clinical placement blocks, in three large metropolitan hospitals in Australia. Written ethnographic field notes were made during the observations. Field notes were analysed in two stages: firstly, to identify major themes, and secondly, to map the spaces and activities where facilitators and students interacted. RESULTS:The study found that there were multiple learning spaces in the hospitals, each of which was associated with particular learning activities between facilitators and students. These activities provided access to opportunities for learning core nursing skills, as well as for socialisation into the language of nursing. However, not all students had access to these opportunities. The pedagogic practices facilitators used created or constrained learning opportunities for students. CONCLUSION:This paper proposes a new way of thinking about the supervision of students for whom English is an additional language in clinical settings. Rather than focusing on a lack of English language proficiency or cultural heritage factors, it proposes that a guided approach to using spaces and activities can maximise students' opportunities for learning.
Havery, C, Townsend, L, Johnson, A & Doab, A 2019, 'Professional development for teachers of nursing students for whom English is an additional language: A reflection on practices.', Nurse education in practice, vol. 38, pp. 52-58.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The increasing linguistically and culturally diverse cohort of university students in nursing degree programmes has resulted in a plethora of approaches to address issues related to English language, academic writing and professional communication. Approaches that integrate language development within core nursing subjects are usually regarded as effective, as they offer students opportunities to be socialised into the language of their specific discipline areas. However, developing and implementing an integrated model can be challenging and many discipline academics feel unprepared to address language issues within the curriculum. This paper discusses a pilot project where we, a language academic and a group of nursing academics, adopted a clinical supervision model to problematise subject content and pedagogic practices. The aim was to enable English as additional language students better transition to Australian university studies by integrating an explicit focus on language development within the subject content. The paper outlines the model and draws on our reflections to discuss outcomes. These included changes to subject content and pedagogic practices, as well as increased confidence of nursing academics to teach in ways that have been found to be effective for English as additional language students.
San Miguel, C & Rogan, F 2015, 'Assessing students' English language proficiency during clinical placement: A qualitative evaluation of a language framework', NURSE EDUCATION TODAY, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 771-776.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Rogan, F & San Miguel, CL 2013, 'Improving clinical communication of students with English as a second language (ESL) using online technology: a small scale evaluation study', Nurse Education in Practice, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 400-406.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Increasingly, students with English as a second language (ESL) are enrolled in nursing degrees in English speaking countries (Wang et al., 2008). However, they may be at risk of clinical practice failure due to communication difficulties associated with unfamiliar linguistic and cultural factors (Guhde, 2003). This paper describes and evaluates an innovation to assist ESL nursing students at an Australian university develop their clinical communication skills and practice readiness by providing online learning resources, using podcast and vodcast technology, that blend with classroom activities and facilitate flexible and independent learning.
Increased enrolments of Bachelor of Nursing (BN) students who speak English as a second language (ESL) can help create a multilingual and culturally diverse workforce that is better prepared to meet the needs of increasingly diverse health populations. However, although ESL enrolments are increasing, attrition rates for ESL students tend to be higher than those of native speakers of English, partly due to academic failure.
San Miguel, CL & Rogan, F 2012, 'Clinical expectations: what facilitators expect from ESL students on clinical placement', Nurse Education in Practice, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 115-119.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Many nursing students for whom English is a second language (ESL) face challenges related to communication on clinical placement and although clinical facilitators are not usually trained language assessors, they are often in a position of needing to assess ESL students' clinical language performance. Little is known, however, about the particular areas of clinical performance facilitators focus on when they are assessing ESL students. This paper discusses the results of a study of facilitators' written assessment comments about the clinical performance of a small group of ESL nursing students over a two and a half year period. These comments were documented on students' clinical assessment forms at the end of each placement. The results provide a more detailed insight into facilitators' expectations of students' language performance and the particular challenges faced by ESL students and indicate that facilitators have clear expectations of ESL students regarding communication, learning styles and professional demeanour. These findings may help both ESL students and their facilitators better prepare for clinical placement.
San Miguel, CL & Rogan, F 2009, 'A good beginning: the long term effects of a clinical communication programme', Contemporary Nurse, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 179-190.
Nursing students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds play a valuable role in meeting the health care needs of multi-ethnic and multi-lingual societies. However, such students may not succeed during clinical placements due to difficulties with spoken communication. This paper presents the long-term effects of a language programme that aimed to improve students' spoken communication on clinical placements. Final year students who had completed the programme in the first year of their undergraduate degree were interviewed about their experiences of clinical placements and their perceptions of any long-term effects of the programme. The results suggest that early intervention language programmes may contribute to greater confidence and success for students. However, ongoing language programmes and institutional changes are required to improve students' clinical learning experiences.
San Miguel, CL & Nelson, C 2007, 'Key writing challenges of practice-based doctorates', Journal of English for Academic Purposes, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 71-86.
Building on the increasing interest within English for Academic Purposes (EAP) in postgraduate literacy development, this article examines the complexities of writing research at the academic/professional interface. It analyses two literature reviews by professional doctorate students at an Australian university who were writing research in their first language, English, about issues arising from their areas of professional practice. One of the student texts received a mostly negative evaluation from the disciplinary marker while the other received a mostly positive evaluation. Our analysis of the two texts identifies some key challenges of writing practice-based research, namely, framing a real-world problem as a research issue; incorporating ones own (and others) professional knowledge; and using the literature to contextualise and theorise the issue under investigation. We propose that EAP-style pedagogies involving guided analysis of issues like these within research texts may benefit not only students writing in an L2 but also those struggling to write in their L1, and that more nuanced understandings of the textual expectations of practice-based research are needed so that student writers can learn to produce knowledge that will count within the academy.
Rogan, F, San Miguel, CL, Brown, DM & Milton-Wildey, KK 2006, ''You find yourself': Perceptions of nursing students from non-English-speaking backgrounds of the effect of an intensive language support program on their oral clinical communication skills', Contemporary Nurse, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 72-86.
San Miguel, CL, Rogan, F, Milton-Wildey, KK & Brown, DM 2006, 'Clinically speaking: A communication skills program for students from non-English speaking backgrounds', Nurse Education in Practice, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 268-274.
This paper reports on the design, delivery and evaluation of an innovative oral communication skills program for first year students in a Bachelor of Nursing degree at an Australian university. This program was introduced in 2004 to meet the needs of first year undergraduate students from non-English speaking backgrounds who had experienced difficulties with spoken English while on clinical placement. The program consisted of early identification of students in need of communication development, a series of classes incorporated into the degree program to address students' needs, followed by a clinical placement block. This paper describes the structure of the program, discusses some of the major problems encountered by students in the clinical setting and presents some of the teaching strategies used to address these problems. Evaluations of the program suggest that students' communication skills and confidence improved, resulting in a more positive clinical experience for the majority of students.
Nelson, C & San Miguel, CL 2003, 'Designing doctoral writing workshops that problematise textual practices', Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics (Special Issue: Thesis and Dissertation Writing at Postgraduate Level), vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 116-136.
San Miguel, CL 1996, 'Cultural influences on academic literacy: A case study', Open letter, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 31-43.
San Miguel, CL 2014, 'Pedagogies 'on the move': responding to linguistic diversity in workplace practicums', Society for Research in Higher Education: Newer Researchers Conference, Newport, Wales.
A global increase in student mobility has been widely documented over the last decade and healthcare degrees are one of the major growth areas. In Australia, from 2002 to 2011, the number of international nursing students increased more than 500% (Health Workforce Australia 2013). Like other healthcare professions, nursing students must undertake clinical placements where they work, learn and are assessed in a clinical setting, under the guidance of a clinical educator. Students for whom English is an additional language (EAL) often find placements challenging, as do their supervisors (Jeong et al. 2010), which is often attributed to English language proficiency and cultural differences. This presentation discusses pedagogical practices of clinical educators as they go about their daily supervision of EAL nursing students in hospital settings students and the role of language and culture in these practices.
Drawing on my doctoral research, I will use excerpts from field notes and audio recordings from one hospital site to discuss one of the practices I observed, 'supervision on the move'. I will consider in what ways, and to what extent, this practice helps students engage in peripheral participation (Lave and Wenger 1991) and move from a novice status towards a more expert status (Le Maistre, Boudreau & Pare 2006; Spouse 1998). I will suggest that, while 'supervision on the move' may offer some EAL students opportunities for learning and language socialization into the hospital discourses, it restricts learning opportunities for others. Whereas previous studies often focus on the role of the 'expert' in scaffolding learning for novice practitioners, this paper also considers the role of the novice in engaging in these pedagogic interactions.
Health Workforce Australia 2013, Australia's health workforce series- nurses in focus, Adelaide.
Jeong, S.Y.-S., Hickey, N., Levett-Jones, T., Pitt, V., Hoffman, K., Norton, C.A. & Ohr, S.O. 2011, 'Underst...
San Miguel, CL 2009, 'Embedding literacies: developing effective models of practice through disciplinary collaboration', European Association for the Teaching of Academic Writing, Coventry, England.
San Miguel, CL & Rogan, F 2009, 'Going the distance: maintaining effective integrated programmes through collaboration', Ninth biennial conference of the association for academic language and learning, Brisbane.
Waters, CD, Rochester, SF, Pizzica, J, San Miguel, CL, Wyllie, AM & McMillan, M 2009, 'Renewed Bachelor of Nursing: Developing an abilities-based conceptual framework', UTS Teaching and Learning Forum, University of Technology, Sydney.
Rogan, F, San Miguel, CL & Pizzica, J 2008, 'Learning communication skills in a practice based degree: incorporating new technologies', 2008 UTS Teaching and Learning Forum, Institute for Interactive Media and Learning (IML), University of Technology, Sydney.
San Miguel, CL & Rogan, F 2008, 'Clinical commmunication for first year nursing students: timely, contextual and relevant', Intercultural clinical communication in health professional education, The University of Melbourne.
an e-poster presentation
San Miguel, CL & Rogan, F 2007, 'Addressing diversity in degrees. A longitudinal evaluation of a spoken language program to improve student outcomes in a practice based degree', LED 2007. 2nd international conference on language, education and diveristy, The University of Waikato.
San Miguel, CL, Milton-Wildey, KK, Rogan, F & Brown, D 2004, 'Developing the communication skills of students from non-English speaking backgrounds in practice-based degrees', The UTS Teaching and Learning Forum, University of Technology, Sydney.
San Miguel, CL 2002, 'Writing workshops for doctoral candidates', Quality in Postgraduate Research Conference, Adelaide.
Hicks, M, Chanock, K, San Miguel, CL & Skillen, J 2001, 'Colloquium: 'Dealing with the outside from the inside': current issues related to the work of language and academic skills advisers', the Language and Academic Skills Conference, Univeristy of Wollongong.
Nelson, C & San Miguel, CL 2001, 'A text-based approach to teaching doctoral writing workshops', Changing identities: Language and academic skills conference, Wollongong, Australia.
Nelson, C & San Miguel, CL 2000, 'Writing a professional doctorate', The Professional Doctorates 3rd Biennial International Conference, University of New England, Armidale.
Baynham, M, Beck, D, Gordon, KM, Lee, A & San Miguel, CL 2004, 'Constructing a discourse position: quoting, referencing and attribution in academic writing', Proceedings of the language and academic skills conference: Integrating the teaching of academic discourse into courses in the disciplines., Language and Academic Skills Unit, La Trobe University, La Trobe University, Melbourne, pp. 163-168.
Lee, A, Baynham, M, Beck, D, Gordon, KM & San Miguel, CL 1995, 'Researching discipline-specific academic literacy practices: some methodological issues', Research and Development in Higher Education, Vol 18, Higher education: Blending tradition and technology, HERDSA, Rockhampton, pp. 464-482.
As academic literacy lecturers at an Australian university, we recently designed and implemented a new cross-university blended learning module for academics on teaching in linguistically diverse classrooms. Given the multilingual student cohort in Australia (as in the UK and elsewhere), it is important that university educators from all disciplines develop a knowledge-base around linguistically diverse teaching, but also that they acquire tools for exploring and refining their teaching practice, in collaboration with their students. In this poster presentation, we outline the module design and our experiences to date of working with academics to develop action research projects. We found that using action research as a framework resonated with academics, who were keen to integrate research into their teaching, and to find ways of embedding academic language and literacy support. We also present our plans for extending this innovation, such as ways of encouraging discipline-specific action research networks within the university.
Edwards, E, Goldsmith, R, Havery, C & Nixon, D 2019, 'How can we enhance commencing university students' L2 motivation through discipline-specific, embedded English language tutorials? Insights from a new initiative.'.
Havery, C 2018, 'Educating EAL nursing students : the clinical experience'.
Havery, C 2016, 'Corridor learning during clinical placement: Effective strategies for teaching critically thinking.'.