Crespo Gonzalez, C, Fernandez-Llimos, F, Rotta, I, Correr, CJ, Benrimoj, SI & Garcia Cardenas, MV 2018, 'Characterization of pharmacists' interventions on asthma management: a systematic review', Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 210-219.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Pharmacists have adopted an active role in asthma management. This review aimed to analyze the intervention dose, understood as the 'amount of program delivered,' and core components of the intervention provided by pharmacists in asthma management.
A literature search was conducted in December 2016 using PubMed.
A 2-stage approach was used. At the first stage, systematic reviews of pharmacists' interventions in asthma management were identified. At the second stage, primary studies included in the systematic reviews were selected.
The DEPICT-2 (Descriptive Elements of Pharmacist Intervention Characterization Tool) was used for data extraction. In addition GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma) guidelines were used as a reference to classify the interventions' core components.
Thirty-one studies were included. In most of the studies, the pharmacist–patient intervention occurred at the community pharmacy setting (n = 22). The most common core components used in pharmacists' interventions were the provision of drug information and patient counseling (n = 27). Pharmacists' interventions frequently were targeted at assessing and improving the use of patient's inhaler technique (n = 27). Educational materials and written action plans were the materials most commonly used in the interventions (n = 20). The duration (n = 13) and the frequency (n = 16) of the intervention were the most frequent information about the intervention dose measure reported.
Pharmacists' interventions in asthma management are complex. Structured educational programs and patient counseling appear to be the most frequent core components of pharmacists' interventions. Interventions were focused on providing information about the condition and on inhaler technique assessment and training. However, most studies failed to report the intervention dose sufficiently to be reproduced. The reporting of this indicator is crucial to ...
Crespo-Gonzalez, C, Garcia-Cardenas, V & Benrimoj, SI 2017, 'The next phase in professional services research: From implementation to sustainability.', Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 896-901.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The provision of professional pharmacy services has been heralded as the professional and the economic future of pharmacy. There are different phases involved in a service creation including service design, impact evaluation, implementation and sustainability. The two first phases have been subject to extensive research. In the last years the principles of Implementation science have been applied in pharmacy to study the initial uptake and integration of evidence-based services into routine practice. However, little attention has been paid to the sustainability of those services, during which there is a continued use of the service previously implemented to achieve and sustain long-term outcomes. The objective of this commentary is to describe the differences and common characteristics between the implementation and the sustainability phase and to propose a definition for pharmacy. A literature search was performed. Four critical elements were identified: 1. The aim of the implementation phase is to incorporate new services into practice, the sustainability phase's aim is to make the services routine to achieve and sustain long-term benefits 2. At the implementation phase planned activities are used as a process to integrate the new service, at the sustainability phase there is a continuous improvement of the service 3. The implementation phase occurs during the period of time between the adoption of a service and its integration. Some authors suggest the sustainability phase is a concomitant phase with the implementation phase and others suggest it is independent 4. There is a lack of consensus regarding the duration of each phase. The following definition of sustainability for pharmacy services is proposed: "Sustainability is a phase in the process of a professional pharmacy service, in which the service previously integrated into practice during the implementation phase is routinized and institutionalized over time to achieve and sustain the expected service o...