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Associate Professor Carmel Foley

Biography

Dr Carmel Foley is an Associate Professor in the Management Discipline Group at the UTS Business School.  She is a Research Associate of the Australian Centre for Event Management (ACEM) and a core member of Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Research Centre.  Carmel’s recent projects have included triple bottom line event evaluation for the Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre, evaluation of the Parkes Elvis Festival for Parkes Shire Council, Beyond Tourism Benefits study for Business Events Sydney, economic and social value of live music venues for Sydney Entertainment Centre, expenditure study for Business Events Sydney, and conference legacies projects for Seoul Convention Bureau, Tourism Toronto and Durban KwaZulu-Natal. Carmel's achievements and awards include the inaugural Insearch PhD Scholarship, finalist in the Vice-Chancellor’s Awards for Research Excellence, Graduate Certificate in Higher Education Teaching and a UTS Teaching and Learning Citation, and she has twice been awarded UniJobs lecturer of the Year top ten at UTS. Carmel supervises PhD, Masters and Honours students and her students have received numerous awards.

Image of Carmel Foley
Associate Professor, Management Discipline Group
Member, ACEM Australian Centre for Event Management
Core Member, CCS - Cosmopolitan Civil Societies
PhD (UTS)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 5102

Research Interests

Event management, event evaluation, event legacy, diversity management, leisure history, leisure theory, socio-cultural aspects of leisure social capital, community and sustainability, tourism and sport.

Can supervise: Yes

Masters               Jacinta Ledlin

PhD                     Hazel Maxwell

PhD                     Mingming Cheng

PhD                     Jacqueline Gorrick

PhD                     Adriana McCaskie

PhD                     Veronica Lo Pesti

PhD                     Anjana Regmi

Event Creation Lab (Capstone)

Management Research Project (Capstone)

Management Research Skills

Event and Entertainment Contexts

Industry Project

Professional Internships for Graduates

Diversity Management

Socio-cultural Concepts for Leisure, Sport and Tourism

Chapters

Wearing, S.L., Small, J. & Foley, C. 2017, 'Leisure and Gender Relations' in Mansfield, Caudwell, Watson & Wheaton (eds), The Handbook of Feminisms in Sport, Leisure and Physical Education, Palgrave MacMillan.
Schlenker, K., Foley, C.T. & Carroll-Dwyer, E. 2016, 'The Parkes Elvis Festival: Attendee and host community perspectives' in Newbold, C. & Jordan, J. (eds), Focus on World Festivals Contemporary Case Studies and Perspectives, Goodfellow, Oxford, pp. 299-308.
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Each year, up to 20,000 people descend upon the rural town of Parkes, 365km west of Sydney, to attend the Parkes Elvis Festival. Initiated in 1993 by a group of locals who were Elvis Presley fans, the annual festival has grown from the humble beginnings of a one-day event with a few hundred attendees to a five day festival. In a bid to assist the festival organisers to understand the impacts of the Parkes Elvis Festival on both attendees and the host community, researchers designed a set of survey instruments to deliver a comprehensive evaluation of the social and economic impacts of the festival. Research was carried out in 2010 and separate surveys were conducted for festival organisers, attendees and local residents. After a brief explanation of the festival, and the man it is inspired by, this chapter explores the methods used to collect data before outlining the results. The results are divided into two key sections, attendees' perceptions, and host community perceptions. First we profile the demographics, motivations and experience of festival attendees. Second, we profile the perceptions of the host community with respect to both the economic and social impacts of the festival. The surveys demonstrate the overwhelming goodwill and enthusiasm for the festival, by both the host community and attendees. Results show that the festival attracts a mix of first time and repeat visitors, and that many of the returning attendees do so to catch up with friends made at previous festivals. For residents, regardless of whether they attend or not, the large majority understand the economic, tourism and community benefits generated by the festival.
Edwards, D. & Foley, C. 2012, 'Australian war memorial, Australian museum, and the art gallery of New South Wales: Mutually satisfying relationships: The secrets of successful volunteer programs in Australian museums' in Managing Volunteers in Tourism: Attractions, Destinations and Events, pp. 161-174.
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Foley, C.T., Taylor, T.L. & Maxwell, H. 2011, 'Gender and cultural diversity in Australian sport' in Long, J. & Spracklen, K. (eds), Sport and challenges to racism, Palgrave MacMillan, UK, pp. 167-182.
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Maxwell, H., Taylor, T.L. & Foley, C.T. 2011, 'Social inclusion of muslim women in Australian community sport' in Long, J., Fitzergerald, H. & Millward, P. (eds), Delivering Equality in Sport and Leisure, Leisure Studies Association, Eastbourne UK, pp. 15-33.
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The social and community building potential of sport has been highlighted by social policy makers and academics both in Australia and overseas (Australian Sports Commission, 2006; Coalter, 2007; Collins and Kay. 2003; Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, 2007; Jarvie, 2003; Nicholson and Hoye, 2008; Rojek, 2005). There is a "presumption that sport can help to address the multifaceted aspects of social exclusion (e.g. reduce crime, increase employability, improve health) and contribute to community development and social cohesion" (Coalter. 2007: p. 19). In ethno culturally diverse societies such as Australia, with a vast array of ancestral identities. languages, and religions, sport has been strategically deployed to overcome the challenges of social exclusion and marginalisation among minority ethnic groups.
Foley, C.T., Schlenker, K. & Schweinsberg, S.C. 2011, 'Case Study: Triple Bottom Line Event Evaluation and the 2010 CountryLink Parkes Elvis Festival' in Allen, J., O'Toole, W., Harris, R. & McDonnell, I. (eds), Festival and Special Event Management, John Wiley and Sons Australia, Australia, pp. 511-515.
Edwards, D.C. & Foley, C.T. 2009, 'Australian War Memorial, Australian Museum and the Art Gallery of New South Wales' in Holmes, K. & Smith, K. (eds), Managing Volunteers in Tourism, Elsevier, London, UK, pp. 159-173.
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This case study tells the story of how three large museums in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory in Australia manage their volunteers. Each museum operates a successful volunteer program for which there is a waiting list of volunteers. The volunteers at each museum are well managed, happy, and doing a valuable job for their respective organizations. We can learn something from their success. The volunteer coordinators from each organization have also identified areas in which their volunteers could be better managed in terms of the volunteer programs' integration into the larger organization and the ongoing support and training of the managers and coordinators who supervise volunteers. These are significant insights from practitioners in the field, which provide valuable learning opportunities. The case study provides an overview of the three organizations and their successful volunteer programs, and identifies key issues and a model for successful volunteer management. Three prominent Australian museums are the center of this case study: The Australian War Memorial (the Memorial), located in Canberra, the capital city of Australia, in the Australian Capital Territory; the Australian Museum (the Museum), located next to Hyde Park in the center of Sydney, New South Wales; and, also in central Sydney, the Art Gallery of New South Wales (the Gallery), located in The Domain.
Foley, C.T. & Hayllar, B.R. 2009, 'Freedom to be: friendship and community at holiday parks' in Fleming, S., Andrews, H., Hackett, P., Meadows, M. & Selby, M. (eds), Leisure and Tourism: International Perspectives on Cultural Practice, Leisure Studies Association, United Kingdom, pp. 33-52.
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Conferences

Scerri, M., Edwards, D. & Foley, C. 2016, 'The Economic Impact of Architecture to Tourism', The Chaning Landscapre of Tourism and Hospitality: The impact of emerging markets and emerging destinations, CAUTHE 26th Annual Conference, Blue Mountains Hotel Management School, Sydney, pp. 436-457.
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Iconic architecture assists in the identification of a place, city or precinct. Structural, functional and aesthetic aspects of architecture, particularly those that represent unique features, attract tourists. The aim of this study is to explore the value of iconic buildings to tourism with particular focus on the recently opened University of Technology Sydney Business School's Gehry designed Dr Chau Chak Wing (CCW) building. Five case studies which estimate the economic and social value of buildings to tourism are examined and the benefits transfer method is used to estimate the value of the CCW to tourism.
Schlenker, K. & Foley, C.T. 2014, 'The Parkes Elvis Festival: a tourist attraction or a community festival?', Tourism Research Cluster Symposium `Events, Festivals and Communities, Tourism Research Cluster Symposium - Events, Festivals and Communities, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
Schlenker, K., Foley, C.T., Edwards, D.C. & Veal, A.J. 2014, 'Bums on Seats: Attendance trends in culture and sport', Liveability & Loveability Taskforce Meeting, Committee for Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
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Schlenker, K., Foley, C.T. & Edwards, D.C. 2013, 'Events at the Sydney Entertainment Centre: economic and social contributions', Making Waves, ICE 2013 - International Conference on Events, Bournemouth, United Kingdom.
Foley, C.T., Schlenker, K. & Edwards, D.C. 2013, 'Beyond Tourism Benefits - Measuring the social legacies of business events', Making Waves, ICE 2013 - International Conference on Events, Bournemouth, United Kingdom.
Edwards, D.C., Foley, C.T. & Schlenker, K. 2013, 'Measuring the holistic value of business events.', Business Events Sydney International Advisory Board (IAB) Meeting, Sydney.
Edwards, D.C., Foley, C.T. & Schlenker, K. 2013, 'Global Talent Hub Report', Advisory Board Meeting, Committee for Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
Edwards, D.C., Foley, C.T. & Schlenker, K. 2013, 'Legacy of Business Events', Meetings and Events Australia (MEA) National Conference, Sydney.
Edwards, D.C., Foley, C.T. & Schlenker, K. 2012, 'The Sydney Entertainment Centre: Measuring the inscope expenditure into Chinatown, Darling Harbour and the City of Sydney.', Sydney Entertainment Centre Leadership Team, Sydney.
Harris, R., Schlenker, K., Foley, C.T. & Edwards, D.C. 2012, 'Australian Event Symposium 2012', Academic Paper Proceedings, Australian Centre for Event Management, University of Technology, Sydney, Sydney.
Edwards, D.C., Foley, C.T. & Schlenker, K. 2012, 'The Sydney Entertainment Centre: Measuring the inscope expenditure into Chinatown, Darling Harbour and the City of Sydney.', Darling Harbour Convention and Exhibition (DHCE) Executive Committee, Sydney, Australia.
Foley, C.T., Edwards, D.C. & Schlenker, K. 2011, 'Event legacies: Beyond the tourism spend', Proceedings from the 2011 Leisure Studies Association (LSA) Leisure in Transition: People, Policy and Places., Leisure Studies Association, Southampton, England, UK.
Foley, C.T., Schlenker, K. & Edwards, D.C. 2011, 'The sociable aspects of conferences: Lessons for associations and business event organisers', Challenging Leisure: Australia and New Zealand Association of Leisure Studies 10th Biennial Conference, Australian and New Zealand Association for Leisure Studies, Dunedin, New Zealand, pp. 56-57.
Schlenker, K. & Foley, C.T. 2011, 'Beyond Tourism and Economic Benefits', Local Government and Shires Association (LGSA), Engadine, Sydney.
Foley, C.T. & Schlenker, K. 2009, 'Progressing event evaluation: global trends and indicators for triple bottom line reporting', Sustainable Development and Events - Proceedings of ACEM 5th International Event Management Summit, Australian Centre for Event Management, Gold Coast, Australia, pp. 1-1.
Foley, C.T. & Hayllar, B.R. 2007, 'Tourism and community: reflections on caravan holiday experiences', CAUTHE, Proceedings of the 17th annual conference, Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education annual conference, University of Technology Sydney, Manly Pacific, Manly, Australia, pp. 1-13.
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Journal articles

Foley, C. 2017, 'The art of wasting time: sociability, friendship, community and holidays', Leisure Studies, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 1-20.
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© 2015 Taylor & Francis Slow tourism is motivated by the desire for personal and communal well-being. It emerged as an antidote to the fast-paced imperatives of global capitalism that urge the entrepreneurial self to speed up and work harder to achieve and demonstrate desired social status. The entrepreneurial self can be understood in the contexts of neoliberalism and the class- and gender-based histories of time-thrift and rational recreation; the entrepreneurial self uses leisure time purposively in the pursuit of status, avoids idle pursuits and has restricted capacity to experience leisurely social relationships. In this article, it is argued that leisurely social relations can be reclaimed by letting go, even temporarily, of time-thrift and the compulsion to use leisure time purposively. Data drawn from in-depth interviews with repeat visitors at two Australian caravan parks revealed that for the period of their holiday the tourists relax, refuse to be driven by schedules, socialise with other tourists and feel no compulsion to use time purposively. The key reasons the tourists return to the parks each year were for the friendships and the sense of community they experience as part of the holiday. Slow tourism by its very nature rejects time-thrift, however, as the movement is harnessed by global capitalism, slow tourism risks becoming a source of conspicuous consumption. The findings of this study suggest that friendship and community thrive more readily in conditions where the need to achieve and demonstrate social status is discarded along with time-thrift.
Foley, C., Faulkner, S., Small, J. & Wearing, S.L. 2017, 'Women of the Kokoda: From Poverty to Empowerment in Sustainable Tourism Development', Tourism, Culture and Communication.
Porter, D., wearing, S., McCauley, B., Wearing, M. & Foley, C.T. 2017, 'Exploring Male Adolescent Video Gaming as Leisure Consumption: It's not as simple as 'Bang Bang: You're dead!'', Leisure Studies.
Wearing, S.L., Edwards, D. & Foley, C. 2016, 'Understanding the Tourist Experience of Cities and Urban Places', Annals of Tourism Research.
Maxwell, H., Foley, C., Taylor, T. & Burton, C. 2015, 'The development of female Muslim life-savers', SPORT MANAGEMENT REVIEW, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 139-151.
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Jonson, P.T., Small, J., Foley, C. & Schlenker, K. 2015, '"All Shook Up" at the parkes elvis festival: The role of play in events', Event Management, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 479-493.
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© 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp. Leisure in the postmodern environment is often regarded as superficial, depthless, and meaningless, dominated by simulation and hyperreality. Many aspects of the Parkes Elvis Festival fall clearly into the category of simulation and hyperreality as attendees imitate Elvis Presley (and other associated characters) and are willing to accept the fake and contrived as real. However, the simulation does not, in the case of the Parkes Elvis Festival, lead to a depthless, meaningless, or inauthentic experience. Using Huizinga's ideas of play and Bateson's play frame we present the Elvis Festival as a liminal social space that invites playfulness and creativity. The theory of Georg Simmel is explored to show how sociability is created at the event to facilitate play. Finally, Csikszentmihalyi's theory of flow is used to demonstrate ways in which the enjoyment of the playful event experience is maximized for participants. We argue that play provides the substance that makes the Parkes Elvis Festival memorable and meaningful. An understanding of play theory may assist event managers to increase social facilitation at festivals and events, ensuring an enjoyable, sociable, creative, and authentic experience for attendees.
Foley, C.T., Edwards, D.C. & Schlenker, K. 2014, 'Business Events and Friendship: Leveraging the Sociable Legacies', Event Management: an international journal, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 53-64.
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Business events are celebrated for their contributions to community and industry. They are understood to be shared social contexts in which people meet to advance knowledge, sell products, and network. Less celebrated and, arguably, less understood is that business events provide a context for the development of friendships. In 2011 an online survey was conducted with the delegates of five international business events held in Sydney, Australia in the period 2009–2011. The survey was designed to investigate business legacies of the events (such as investment opportunities, research collaborations) rather than sociable legacies. however, a surprising number of references to friendship were made in the 'additional comments sections of the questionnaire. reflecting on this finding, this article argues that friendships forged at business events contribute to, respectively: the well-being of delegates, association membership levels, conference attendance, retention of personnel in the profession, successful research and professional collaborations, and creativity and innovation in the sector. Business event planners can maximize opportunities for sociable outcomes among delegates by designing warm and inviting event spaces that facilitate interaction, and by providing social space for the development of relationships, optimal conditions for sociability, and opportunities for play to stimulate creativity and build community.
Edwards, D.C., Foley, C.T., Dwyer, A., Schlenker, K. & Hergesell, A. 2014, 'Evaluating the economic contribution of a large indoor entertainment venues: an inscope expenditure study', Event Management: an international journal.
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Foley, C.T., Schlenker, K., Edwards, D.C. & Lewis-Smith, L. 2013, 'Determining business event legacies beyond the tourism spend: an Australian case study approach', Event Management: an international journal, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 311-322.
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Government and industry are aware that the full value of the business event sector needs to be established. To date, the sector has been evaluated on the economic contribution it makes to host destination tourism. The tourism contributions have been impressive in themselves; however, this narrow focus has failed to account for a more extensive set of contributions to economies and communities. Impacts from business events in areas such as innovation, education, networking, trade, research, and practice are generally considered to outweigh the financial returns of the tourism spend. Although anecdotal evidence of the value of business events beyond the tourism dimension has been evident for some time, empirical research in this area is limited. This article has four objectives: first, to highlight the research need for understanding the broader impacts of business events beyond the tourism spend; second, to identify the range and impact of contributions made by business events to host communities beyond the tourism spend; third, to examine five Australian business events utilizing a grounded theory approach and present a range of identified legacies in the categories of knowledge expansion; networking, relationships, and collaboration; educational outcomes; raising awareness and profiling; and showcasing and destination reputation. Finally, the article discusses the implications of these findings for the business events sector.
Maxwell, H., Foley, C.T., Taylor, T.L. & Burton, C. 2013, 'Social Inclusion in Community Sport: A Case Study of Muslim Women in Australia', Journal of Sport Management, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 467-481.
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This paper considers how organizational practices facilitate and inhibit the social inclusion of Muslim women in a community sport setting. A case study of social inclusion practices in an Australian community sport organization (CSO) was built through interviews, focus groups, secondary data, and documentary evidence. Drawing on the work of Bailey (2005, 2008) the analysis employed a social inclusion framework comprised of spatial, functional, relational, and power dimensions. Findings indicated that there are a range of practices which facilitate social inclusion. Paradoxically, some of the practices that contributed to social inclusion at the club for Muslim women resulted in social exclusion for non-Muslim women. Examining each practice from multiple perspectives provided by the social inclusion framework allowed a thorough analysis to be made of the significance of each practice to the social inclusion of Muslim women at the club. Implications for social inclusion research and sport management practice are discussed
Foley, C.T., Holzman, C. & Wearing, S.L. 2007, 'Moving Beyond Conspicuous Leisure Consumption: adolescent women, mobile phones and public space', Leisure Studies, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 179-192.
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In this paper we explore mobile phones as a form of fashion accessory for young women in contemporary culture and the possible value of such fashionable items as a source of identity and self-worth. Despite reliance on the usual stultifying stereotypes produced by marketeers to promote mobile phones, we explore the possibility that increased access to public space generates for adolescent girls alternative choices of leisure experiences and possibilities of multiple enriching identities. The findings suggest that mobile phone use can impart a sense of self-confidence, sexuality and autonomy which defies the male gaze in public spaces and may allow adolescent women to reject traditional images of femininity at a formative stage in the life course and take steps to a further array of leisure choices. It may only be a temporary image that assists a sense of self at a vulnerable time in life, or it may infiltrate other aspects of subjectivity and assist an ongoing sense of self-confidence. However, this particular leisure activity can be seen as enabling, allowing entry to an arena, that of public space, that has hitherto been limited by the male gaze and other stereotypes of adolescent women. Through in-depth interviews with teenage mobile phone users and a review of the literature we have examined the success that this form of technology has had with this social group.
Foley, C.T. & Hayllar, B.R. 2007, 'A tale of two caravan parks: friendship, community and the freedom thing', Tourism Today, vol. 7, pp. 7-28.
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This paper presents the findings of a research project that explored notions of friendship and community in the context of caravan park holidays for repeat visitors to two caravan parks. The study was conducted by way of in-depth interview with 22 visitors to a caravan park on the south coast of News South Wales (Australia) in 2006 and 20 visitors to a caravan park in far north Queensland (Australia) in 2007. For both parks the findings indicate that the major attractions of caravan park holidays for long term repeat visitors are the friendships that build up over years of repeat visitation, and the relaxing lifestyle that the holiday affords. For the older and smaller of the parks the respondents also reported that a strong sense of community existed among the visitors and that this was a very satisfying feature of their holiday experience. There was less mention of a sense of community from respondents at the larger and more recently established park. Theoretical implications: there is an emerging literature documenting the possibilities of serious leisure and focal leisure activities as significant investment channels in the accumulation of social capital. This paper supports the theory that focal leisure activities can foster the development of a sense of community, however, our findings indicate that factors influencing this growth may include the age of the group and also the size of the group. Management and marketing implications: caravan park (and other tourist service) organisations may benefit from including notions of friendship and community in their marketing campaigns rather than the usual narrow focus upon facilities From a management perspective it may be useful to consider programming activities and providing amenities that facilitate social engagement and communal activity.
Foley, C.T. 2005, 'Subversive possibilities: An exploration of women's leisure resistance using historical case studies', Annals of Leisure Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 220-241.
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Foley, C.T. 2005, 'Women's leisure? What leisure?: Has it always been like this?', Annals of Leisure Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 199-219.
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Sloggett, G.J., McKenzie, D.R., Cockayne, D., Smith, G., Jenkins, B., Foley, C.T., Takano, Y. & Studer, A. 1994, 'In-situ Deposition Of High-tc Materials Using Vacuum-arc Ablation With Macroparticle Filter', Physica B: Condensed Matter, vol. 194, pp. 2353-2354.
Vacuum arc ablation is shown to be a new deposition technique for depositing YBCO thin films in situ with zero resistance below 85 K. A high deposition rate was achieved from small specimens. The size of macroparticles is larger than for laser ablation f

Other

Foley, C.T., Edwards, D., Schlenker, K. & Harris, R. 2014, 'Introduction: Special Issue on the Australian Event Symposium'.
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Reports

Burke, A.J., Reinmuth, G., Horton, T., Edwards, D., Foley, C., Scerri, M. & Horn, Z. 2016, Measuring Up: Innovation and the Value-Add of Architecture.
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Edwards, D., Foley, C.T. & Hergesell, A. 2016, Conferences: catalysts for thriving economies.
Edwards, D.C., Foley, C. & Hegesell, A. University of Technology Sydney 2015, Asian incentive events in New South Wales: expenditure and retail impact, pp. 2-26, Sydney.
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The purpose of this study is to provide BESydney with an improved understanding of the characteristics of incentive delegates inclusive of expenditure on shopping, attractions and food and beverage; satisfaction with Sydney; and a comparison of Sydney to other destinations; with a focus on the Asian incentive market.
Foley, C.T., Edwards, D.C., Schlenker, K. & Hergesell, A. UTS 2014, Beyond Tourism Benefits: Building an International Profile, Future Convention Cities Initiative, pp. 1-81, Australia.
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Foley, C.T., Edwards, D.C., Schlenker, K. & Hergesell, A. UTS 2014, Estimating inscope expenditure attributed to business events held in New South Wales, Business Events Sydney, pp. 1-65, Australia.
Edwards, D.C., Foley, C.T. & Schlenker, K. UTS 2012, The Sydney Entertainment Centre: Measuring the inscope expenditure into Chinatown, Darling Harbour and the City of Sydney, The Sydney Entertainment Centre, pp. 1-50, Australia.
Edwards, D.C., Foley, C.T. & Schlenker, K. Business Events Sydney 2011, Beyond Tourism Benefits: Measuring the social legacies of business events, pp. 1-73, Australia.
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Foley, C.T., Schlenker, K., Edwards, D.C. & Hayllar, B.R. Business Events Sydney 2010, A Scoping Study of Business Events: Beyond Tourism Benefits, pp. 1-41, Australia.
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The purpose of this study is to provide an empirically-based assessment of the range and impact of contributions made by business events to host communities beyond the tourism dimension. This project is classified as a scoping study, delivering baseline data on which future stages of research could be built. Future stages of the project could be designed to deliver quantitative data on the contributions made by business events to complement the more qualitative focus of this study. It is well established that business events make a substantial contribution to the Australian economy from a tourism perspective. However, the Business Events Council of Australia (2009a) argues that impacts from business events in areas such as innovation, education, networking, trade, research and practice are likely to far outweigh the financial returns of the tourism spend. They have called for evidence-based research to be undertaken in this area (Business Events Council of Australia 2009b)
Schlenker, K., Foley, C.T. & Edwards, D.C. UTS 2010, Elvis Visitor Survey, Parkes Shire Council, pp. 1-36, Australia.
Schlenker, K. & Foley, C.T. UTS 2010, Parkes Elvis Community Survey, Parkes Shire Council, pp. 1-43, Australia.
Schlenker, K., Foley, C.T. & Getz, D. Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre 2010, Encore Festival and Event Evaluation Kit: Review and Redevelopment, pp. 1-56, Australia.
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Foley, C.T. & Hayllar, B.R. UTS 2006, Research and management report: Easts Narooma Shores holiday park, Sydney, australia.

Business Events Sydney

Sydney Entertainment Centre

Seoul Convention Bureau

Tourism Toronto

Durban KwaZulu-Natal

London & Partners

San Francisco Travel