Brooke is a Research Associate within the Graduate School of Health at UTS. At UTS, Brooke's research is focused predominately on the psychological impacts of Multiple Sclerosis. Prior to her work at UTS, Brooke completed her PhD at the Institute for Positive Psychology and Education in 2018. Her thesis examined the psychosocial factors leading to gender disparities in young people's attitudes and enrolments in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.
Brooke has recently completed her Masters in Clinical Psychology at the University of Wollongong. Brooke has worked with adolescents and young adults experiencing depression, anxiety, and emerging eating disorders, as well as adults with a diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder, and adults experiencing difficulties with sexual intimacy.
Provisional Registration - Psychology Board of Australia
University Medal (2014) - Western Sydney University
Mental health and multiple sclerosis; gender disparities in self-concept; women's reproductive health and wellbeing.
Marsh, HW, Parker, PD, Guo, J, Basarkod, G, Niepel, C & Van Zanden, B 2020, 'Illusory gender-equality paradox, math self-concept, and frame-of-reference effects: New integrative explanations for multiple paradoxes.', Journal of personality and social psychology.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Gender-equality paradoxes (GEPs) posit that gender gaps in math self-concepts (MSCs) are larger-not smaller-in countries with greater gender equality. These paradoxical results suggest that efforts to improve gender equality might be counterproductive. However, we show that this currently popular explanation of gender differences is an illusory, epi-phenomenon (485,490 students, 18,292 schools, 68 countries/regions). Between-country (absolute) measures of gender equality are confounded with achievement and socioeconomic-status; tiny GEPs disappear when controlling achievement and socioeconomic-status. Critically, even without controls GEPs are not supported when using true gender-gap measures-within-country (relative) female-male differences, that hold many confounds constant. This absolute/relative-gap distinction is more important than the composite/domain-specific distinction for understanding why even tiny GEPs are illusory. Recent developments in academic self-concept theory are relevant to GEPs and gender differences, but also explain other, related paradoxes. The big-fish little pond effect posits that attending schools with high school-average math achievements leads to lower MSCs. Extending this theoretical model to the country-level, we show that countries with high country-average math achievements also have lower MSCs. Dimensional comparison theory predicts that MSCs are positively predicted by math achievements but negatively predicted by verbal achievements. Extending this theoretical model, we show that girls' low MSCs are due more to girls' high verbal achievements that detract from their MSCs than to their low math achievements. In support of the pan-human wide generalizability of our findings, our cross-national results generalize over 68 country/regions as well as multiple math self-belief constructs (self-efficacy, anxiety, interest, utility, future plans) and multiple gender-equality measures. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all right...
Parker, PD, Van Zanden, B, Marsh, HW, Owen, K, Duineveld, JJ & Noetel, M 2020, 'The Intersection of Gender, Social Class, and Cultural Context: a Meta-Analysis', Educational Psychology Review.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. Expectancy value theory is often evoked by educational psychologists to explain gender differences in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) variables. Yet gender does not operate in isolation. Nor are gender effects likely to be context free. In the current meta-analysis, we explore gender differences in STEM-related expectancy for success, and the task values of intrinsic, utility, attainment, and cost. We find that gender differences were generally small in size. Invoking the concept of intersectionality, we find that heterogeneity in gender effect sizes are large and gender differences are moderated, primarily, by socioeconomic status, ethnic diversity, and somewhat by national gender equality.
Donald, JN, Sahdra, BK, Van Zanden, B, Duineveld, JJ, Atkins, PWB, Marshall, SL & Ciarrochi, J 2019, 'Does your mindfulness benefit others? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the link between mindfulness and prosocial behaviour.', British journal of psychology (London, England : 1953), vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 101-125.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mindfulness-based meditation practices have received substantial scientific attention in recent years. Mindfulness has been shown to bring many psychological benefits to the individual, but much less is known about whether these benefits extend to others. This meta-analysis reviewed the link between mindfulness - as both a personality variable and an intervention - and prosocial behaviour. A literature search produced 31 eligible studies (N = 17,241) and 73 effect sizes. Meta-analyses were conducted using mixed-effects structural equation models to examine pooled effects and potential moderators of these effects. We found a positive pooled effect between mindfulness and prosocial behaviour for both correlational (d = .73 CI 95% [0.51 to 0.96]) and intervention studies (d = .51 CI 95% [0.37 to 0.66]). For the latter, medium-sized effects were obtained across varying meditation types and intensities, and across gender and age categories. Preliminary evidence is presented regarding potential mediators of these effects. Although we found that mindfulness is positively related to prosociality, further research is needed to examine the mediators of this link and the contexts in which it is most pronounced.
Guo, J, Marsh, HW, Parker, PD, Dicke, T & Van Zanden, B 2019, 'Countries, parental occupation, and girls' interest in science', LANCET, vol. 393, no. 10171, pp. E6-E8.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Marsh, HW, Van Zanden, B, Parker, PD, Guo, J, Conigrave, J & Seaton, M 2019, 'Young Women Face Disadvantage to Enrollment in University STEM Coursework Regardless of Prior Achievement and Attitudes', American Educational Research Journal, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1629-1680.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 AERA. We evaluated STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) coursework selection by women and men (representative longitudinal sample, 10,370 Australians) in senior high school and university, controlling achievement and expectancy-value variables. A near-zero total effect of gender on high school STEM enrollment reflected pathways favoring boys through achievement and expectancy-value variables, but a counteracting direct effect of gender favoring girls. In contrast, subsequent university STEM enrollment favored boys. In both high school and university, enrollments favored girls in life sciences and boys in physical sciences, but at university there was a leaky pipeline in which girls who qualified to pursue physical sciences opted for non-STEM subjects. Qualitative analysis not only supported quantitative results but also highlighted alternative mechanisms of STEM engagement/disengagement, and mostly supported gender similarities rather than differences.
Noetel, M, Ciarrochi, J, Van Zanden, B & Lonsdale, C 2019, 'Mindfulness and acceptance approaches to sporting performance enhancement: a systematic review', International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 139-175.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017, © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Background: Mindfulness and experiential acceptance approaches have been suggested as a method of promoting athletic performance by optimally managing the interplay among attention, cognition, and emotion. Our aim was to systematically review the evidence for these approaches in the sporting domain. Method: Studies of any design exploring mindfulness and acceptance in athletic populations were eligible for inclusion. We completed searches of PsycINFO, Scopus, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus in May 2016. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool, and we synthesised the evidence using the GRADE criteria. Results: Sixty-six studies (n = 3908) met inclusion criteria. None of the included studies were rated as having a low risk of bias. Compared to no treatment in randomised trials, large effect sizes were found for improving mindfulness, flow, and performance, and lower competitive anxiety. Evidence was graded to be low quality, meaning further research is very likely to have an important impact on confidence in these effects. Conclusions: A number of studies found positive effects for mindfulness and acceptance interventions; however, with limited internal validity across studies, it is difficult to make strong causal claims about the benefits these strategies offer for athletes.
Parker, PD, Van Zanden, B & Parker, RB 2018, 'Girls get smart, boys get smug: Historical changes in gender differences in math, literacy, and academic social comparison and achievement', LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION, vol. 54, pp. 125-137.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Van Zanden, B, Marsh, HW, Seaton, M, Parker, PD, Guo, J & Duineveld, JJ 2017, 'How well do parents know their adolescent children? Parent inferences of student self-concepts reflect dimensional comparison processes', LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION, vol. 47, pp. 25-32.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Owen, KB, Parker, PD, Van Zanden, B, MacMillan, F, Astell-Burt, T & Lonsdale, C 2016, 'Physical Activity and School Engagement in Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis', EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 129-145.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Parker, PD, Marsh, HW, Morin, AJS, Seaton, M & Van Zanden, B 2015, 'If one goes up the other must come down: Examining ipsative relationships between math and English self-concept trajectories across high school', BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 172-191.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Van Zanden, B, Marsh, HW, Seaton, M & Parker, P 2015, 'Self-Concept: From Unidimensional to Multidimensional and Beyond' in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition, pp. 460-468.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Self-concept is one of the oldest and most important constructs in the social sciences. It is also at the heart of the positive psychology revolution focusing on how healthy, normal, and exceptional individuals can get the most from life. We begin by distinguishing between an historical unidimensional perspective that focuses on self-esteem and a more recent multidimensional, hierarchical perspective that distinguishes between specific facets of self (e.g., academic, social, physical, and emotional). In this article we review developmental, educational, and personality perspectives of self-concept, gender differences, theoretical models, and empirical research on the reciprocal effects relating self-concept and performance, frame of reference effects based on social and dimensional comparisons that influence the formation of self-concept, and the juxtaposition between multidimensional perspectives of personality and self-concept.