Bronwen is the Director of the Masters of Not-for-Profit and Community Management Program at the University of Technology, Sydney. In 2015 she was the Co-Director of the UTS Centre for Cosmopolitan Civil Societies and in 2012 she was also the National Manager, Research at Mission Australia. Bronwen completed her PhD at the University of Oxford, where she was awarded the Oxford University Larkinson Award for Social Studies and was the recipient of the British Vice-Chancellors Committee Overseas Research Scholarship and the Korea Foundation Scholarship. Bronwen also has a BA from the Australian National University and a MA from Yonsei University, Korea. She is on the Boards of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs’ Australia Korea Foundation; the National Volunteering Research Advisory Group; Volunteering NSW and the editorial board of the journal Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. She is also Regional Vice-President, Oceania of the International Council of Voluntarism and Civil Society.
Bronwen has conducted extensive research in the field of Not-for-Profit sector studies and authored book chapters and journal articles on NFP childcare, NFP business venturing, social enterprises and advocacy. She has also published studies on international NGOs and recently co-authored a book on the role of NGOs in combatting Sex Trafficking. From 2003-2011 Bronwen was Director, Centre for Australian Community Organisations and Management. In 2007-8 Bronwen was an investigator on an Australian Research Council Linkage grant which examined the National Compact, an agreement finalised between the NFP sector and the Australian Federal Government. Bronwen was an expert adviser on the evaluation of the Commonwealth Department of Family and Community Services’ Stronger Families and Communities Strategy. Bronwen has also worked closely with the NSW community sector as part of her work in social policy at the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) and the NSW Attorney General’s Department.
Bronwen has a long association with Korea and speaks Korean. She was a Director of the National Korean Studies Centre (NKSC) (1993 - 1996) a consortium of La Trobe University, Monash University, Swinburne University of Technology and the University of Melbourne. Bronwen has focused her interests on North Korea. In 2013-2016 Bronwen is Chief Investigator on an ARC Discovery grant titled “North Korea's Quiet Transformation: Women in the Rise of the Informal Market - DP130101700”. This is the first major research project to investigate the role played by women in the emergence of a nascent capitalist economy in North Korea.
Can supervise: YES
Social enterprise, NFP sector; political economy, public administration and policy, community management, social capital, Korean studies.
Not for Profit management, CSR; Measuring Social Impact; Social enterprise and entrepreneurship, human resource management, business intelligence; fundraising; Strategic planning; Research Methods; Korean Language (University of Melbourne); Korean Politics (Swinburne)
The experience of women working in the sex and entertainment industry is an issue central to feminism and to social and human rights movements. Although now an area of scholarly research the clandestine nature of this industry makes research challenging and means many aspects remain unknown. It is therefore important to document the experiences of these female sex workers. In this book we highlight the experience of Korean sex industry workers in Australia. We report on recent trends in migration and draw attention to the fact that increasing numbers utilise ?working holiday? visas to work in the sex and entertainment industry and that under Australian law this practice is essentially legal. We examine factors involved in their coming to Australia and whether they were trafficked or coerced into service; the nature of their service and details regarding the conditions of their work. We also track how the respondents use (or fail to use) various social and health services and ask about their key concerns, hopes and plans for the future. Findings from this study aim to inform recommendations to policy makers in relevant government and nongovernment community service organisations
Dalton, B & Jung, K 2019, 'Becoming Cosmopolitan Women while negotiating structurally limited choices: The case of Korean migrant sex workers in Australia', Organization, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 355-370.View/Download from: Publisher's site
International labor mobility holds the promise that one can become a cosmopolitan citizen of the world. But this interpretation of mobility rarely features in research and media focused on Asian women who travel and engage in sex work. In both arenas, the dominant narrative is that migrant sex workers are poor, the victims of sex trafficking, and pose a risk to public health. This narrative is laced with Orientalist overtones of the Asian sex worker as the alluringly exotic 'other', passive and particularly vulnerable, and in need of rescue. However, the interviews of 11 Korean women sex workers based in Sydney, Australia, challenge this narrative. These women engaged in a transnational quest to become cosmopolitan citizens of the world, albeit making logical choices from structurally limited options shaped by their multiple identities as women, sex workers, and Korean, and their relative precarious position in the Australian labor market. Their stories highlight how migration and work can be an agentic process of self-expression and self-actualization of identity. This identity has emerged against the backdrop of shifting meanings and practices of social reproduction in Korea, a country that has experienced a highly compressed transition from developing, to modern capitalist state. Theoretically, the article draws on post-colonial feminist theory to shed light into the conflicting views on migrant sex workers in existing research, by focusing on the women's voices, which have been neglected or silenced.
Davis, ER, Wilson, R & Dalton, BM 2019, 'Another slice of PISA: an interrogation of educational cross-national attraction in Australia, Finland, Japan and South Korea', Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, vol. Published online: 26 Sep 2018.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cross-national attraction is the first stage in international policy borrowing and analysis of its indicators provides insight into shifts in educational policies. We analyse cross-national attraction within the media discourse on the OECD's PISA in four countries: Australia, Finland, Japan and South Korea. Using the largest circulation English language newspapers in each of these countries (2001–2015), we analyse references to the other three countries, then expand the focus to tally all international references and map emerging patterns. Finland is the predominantly referenced country, with media attention that eclipses all other countries. The attraction to Finnish educational culture is focused on aspects beyond what is measured in PISA; and flourishes despite Finnish performance in PISA, which although strong is deteriorating. Although limited to English language media, this study finds complex, sometimes inconsistent and paradoxical, patterns of cross-national attraction that deserve further research.
Dalton, B 2018, 'Book Review: Regulatory waves: Comparative perspectives on state regulation and self-regulation policies in the nonprofit sector by Breen, O. B., Dunn, A., & Sidel, M.', Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 228-232.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Jung, K, Dalton, B & Willis, J 2018, 'From patriarchal socialism to grassroots capitalism: The role of female entrepreneurs in the transition of North Korea', Women's Studies International Forum, vol. 68, no. May -June, pp. 19-27.
In this paper we argue that North Korea's socioeconomic transformation has had a
profound and yet under-appreciated impact on the social construction of femininity. Drawing
on forty-five in-depth interviews with North Korean refugees, interviews with regular visitors
to North Korea and NGO workers, as well as our own field notes from trips to North Korea, we
analyse changes over three discernible (yet overlapping) economic periods: the 1960s-1990s
pre-famine period; the mid-1990s to late 2000s grassroots capitalism era; and the current Kim
Jong Un period of quasi-capitalism. As dress is a discursive daily practice of gender, we focus
on the practice of femininity as shown through North Korean women's fashion choices. We
argue that images of women in state propaganda have been shaped primarily by male leaders,
but norms of femininity have shaped, and also been shaped by, women themselves. That is, the
recent trend for North Korean women to dress in hyper-feminine styles can be explained in
terms of women remaking themselves and planning their future lives.
Jung, K, Dalton, B & Willis, J 2017, 'The Onward Migration of North Korean refugees to Australia: In Search of Cosmopolitan Habitus', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 41-60.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Based on assumed common ethnicity, language and culture, South Korea is believed to be the best country for North Korean defectors to restart their lives. This is, however, not necessarily the case. Since the mid-2000s, 2000 to 3000 North Koreans have allegedly settled in the UK, Canada, the US, Australia and EU countries. Despite this trend and its broader implications, the onward migration process of North Korean refugees, together with their motivations and lived experiences, remain poorly addressed in academic research. Drawing from the unique experience of North Korean refugees' onward movement to Australia, the paper suggests that discarding a North Korean identity and habitus and gaining cosmopolitan habitus are the main reasons behind North Korean defectors' onward migration. The paper is the first empirical study on North Korean refugees resettled in Australia to adopt habitus as a theoretical framework, and thus provides new insight into migration studies.
Important changes are taking place inside North Korea. The collapse of the command economy, and the emergence of capitalism in its place, is ongoing. A burgeoning moneyed elite and increasing exposure to foreign pop culture are transforming how North Korean femininity is conceived. These changes are reaching far beyond Pyongyang to affect many, if not most, women in the country.
Officially, North Korea's founding juche (self-reliance) ideology supports gender equality. In practice the leadership cult that was entrenched under Kim Il-sung, who led the country from 1948 to 1994, gave patriarchal relations a significant boost. Under Kim Il-sung, the nation was recast in line with traditional, largely Confucian, male-dominated family structures — a considerable backslide from the progressive gender norms promoted by the early Korean socialist movement. Despite its rhetoric, Kim Il-sung's juche ideology directly perpetuated gender subordination.
Dalton, B, Jung, K, Willis, J & Bell, M 2016, 'Framing and dominant metaphors in the coverage of North Korea in the Australian media', The Pacific Review, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 523-547.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Green, JM & Dalton, BM 2016, 'Out of the Shadows: Using Value Pluralism to Make Explicit Economic Values in Not-for-Profit Business Strategies', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. Volume 139, no. Issue 2, pp. 299-312.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In the last decade, Australian federal and state governments' commitment to the economic rationalist imperatives of performance measures, accountability for outcomes, and value-for-money has driven significant change in the Australian not-for-profit community services sector. In an environment shaped by neoliberal-inspired government policies and a renewed government commitment to austerity, Australian not-for-profit community service organizations are now, more than ever, actively engaged in a variety of income-generating strategies to achieve and/or maintain economic sustainability. Central to this process is meeting the dual challenge of succeeding financially in a competitive environment and simultaneously serving mission. In this context, it is time to more closely examine the impact of these challenges, in particular the implications for the organizational values of not-for- profit community service providers themselves. This paper reports on a qualitative study of fourteen not-for-profit community service organizations, their core purposes, and their strategies for economic sustainability. In addition to the new data presented here, this paper contributes to the broader theoretical framework—the lens of value pluralism, which, we argue, provides a sharper focus on the relationship between mission and margin.
Jung, K, Jang, H & Dalton, B 2016, 'Broken global explorations: The lived experience of Korean women working in the entertainment and sex industries in Sydney', Asian Journal of Women's Studies,, vol. 2016 Vol. 22,, no. No. 3,, pp. 208-227.View/Download from: Publisher's site
There has been limited discursive space for Korean women in the sex and entertainment industries, particularly for those working overseas in countries including Australia, to narrate their experience. Bringing out the voices of these women to the forefront, this paper offers a nuanced understanding of their migration trajectories and working and living conditions. Neither the abolitionist nor the decriminalization approach fully understands how women in these industries fare. The former neglects the agency of women who voluntarily choose this work, while the latter tends to silence the women trafficked into the industry. These views fail to encompass women's complicated lived experience, often falling outside this binary. The 22 women interviewed here described their involvement in the industry as a short-lived and auxiliary part of their global exploration. Although they voluntarily chose such work, and despite its legal status, they still suffer from the stigma associated with it, while their working conditions are often deceptive, abusive and exploitative. The paper suggests that we need to transcend the dichotomy between the "free" and the "trafficked" assumed by both global and national policies regarding the sex trade, in order to develop policies and programs to support and protect these migrant women better.
There has been a large growth in nonprofits in Australia over the past 30 years. This paper will chart some of the key current policy trends that have helped shape the sector. The huge investment in the nonprofit sector by government, particularly since the mid 1990's coincided with a strong ideological shift to a neoliberal economic agenda. There was a concerted effort to bring nonprofits under the control of government policy. This has lead to greater competition among nonprofits, the growth of large charities at the expense of small local organisations, and a greater emphasis on adopting business models. Those nonprofit organisations that provide a community development role have been particularly under threat. However while much of the nonprofit world in Australia is increasingly driven by neoliberal, business oriented demands, another alternative phenomenon is emerging, particularly among young people and largely out of the gaze of public scrutiny. As fast as the state finds a way of controlling the productive energy of the nonprofit sector, the sector itself finds a way of curtailing that control, or of creating new ways of operating that go beyond existing structures and rules of operating.
Dalton, B & dela Rama, M 2016, 'Understanding the rise and decline of shareholder activism in South Korea: the explanatory advantages of the theory of Modes of Exchange', ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS REVIEW, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 468-486.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Dalton, BM, Wilson, R, Evans, JR & Cochrane, S 2015, 'Australian Indigenous youth's participation in sport and associated health outcomes: Empirical analysis and implications', Sport Management Review, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 57-68.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Analysis of the 2012 Mission Australia Youth Survey (MAYS) finds that among Indigenous youth aged 15–19 years there is a positive relationship between self-reported participation in sport and two health outcomes: rating of overall health and risk of mental health disorder. We find that Indigenous youth who participate in sport are 3.5 times more likely to report good general health and 1.6 times more likely to have no probable serious mental illness. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to potential future research and policy. In terms of research, the analysis illustrates the utility of brief and cost-effective measures of health outcomes that could be used in future evaluations of specific programs targeting Indigenous youth participation in sport. We also discuss the potential ramifications, for practitioners and management professionals, of the particular policy paths needed to address the current gaps in service delivery to Indigenous communities, and for the development of grassroots, evidence-based, well resourced, culturally sensitive, inclusive and community-led programs. This can, in part, be achieved by ensuring youth sport development programs are shaped by Indigenous youth themselves.
Evans, JR, Wilson, R, Dalton, B & Georgakis, S 2015, 'Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport: The Perils of the 'Panacea' Proposition', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: an interdisciplinary journal, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 53-53.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The argument that participation in sport among disadvantaged populations can produce positive outcomes in
wide range of areas has been a consistent theme in academic literature. It is argued that sport participation can
promote women's empowerment, sexuality, lifestyle, peacemaking, youth development, poverty reduction and
conflict resolution. Similarly, in Australia, participation in sport among Indigenous Australians has been
proffered as a 'panacea' for many Indigenous problems; from promoting better health and education outcomes,
to encouraging community building, good citizenship and entrepreneurship. Parallel to this has been a focus on
documenting and analysing sport participation among Indigenous Australians in elite sport which often
concludes that Indigenous Australians have an innate and 'natural ability' in sports. These two assumptions, first,
that sport participation can help realise a wide range of positive social outcomes; and second, that Indigenous
Australians are natural athletes, have driven significant public investment in numerous sport focused programs.
This paper questions these assumptions and outlines some of the challenges inherent with an emphasis on sport
as a solution to Indigenous disadvantage. We highlight how participation in sport has often been tied to
ambitious, ill-defined and, in terms of evaluation, often elusive social outcome goals. Second, we also argue that
there is limited research to indicate that participation in either elite or grassroots level sport has led to any
discernible social progress in addressing inequality. We contrast historical Indigenous participation in a range of
sporting codes to demonstrate the influence of factors beyond the 'natural ability' and 'born to play'
propositions. Finally, we outline six 'perils' associated with viewing sport as a panacea; including how
privileging sport can not only perpetuate disadvantage by reinforcing stereotypes and also contribute to a
diversion of attention and re...
Malcolm, M-J, Onyx, J, Dalton, B & Penetito, K 2015, 'Nonprofit Management Education Down Under: Challenges and Opportunities', Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 219-243.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In this article, we will explore the context within which two significant nonprofit management education programs developed in Australia and New Zealand. These tertiary education programs grew with relatively little reference to each other, yet both responded to nonprofit sector needs with similarities of vision and adult education philosophy and practice. Over time, the Australian program, based in a university business school, has been focused more on postgraduate programs, research, and more recently, social entrepreneurship and measuring social impact. The New Zealand program, with roots in a community development school, has grown with wide geographic coverage, alongside customized delivery for MÄori and Pacific communities. Nonprofit sector, cultural, institutional, and wider contextual factors have played a part in shaping their current forms of delivery. Just as the nonprofit sector is characterized by a high degree of diversity in terms of organizational form, industry, and organizations, these programs have responded in different ways to multiple and diverse stakeholder influences. Given the size, significance, and growth of the sector, the uptake across all programs is smaller than expected in either country. Why is this so? In this article, we will examine the growth of the first accredited tertiary education programs in Australia and New Zealand and highlight the challenges and opportunities of delivering nonprofit management education in this region.
Butcher, J & Dalton, BM 2014, 'Cross-sector partnership and human services in Australian states and territories: Reflections on a mutable relationship', Policy & Society, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 141-153.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Under Australia's federal system subnational governments fund the delivery of a wide range of public services. In particular, state and territory governments have increasingly looked to the non-profit sector to deliver human services under contract. Over time, the contracting regimes employed by public sector commissioners have taken on more `relational characteristics, accompanied by a gradual softening of public sector resistance to non-profit sector input into policy development. Nevertheless, the Australian non-profit sector is fragmented and, although policy capacity within the sector has undoubtedly matured, it is also unevenly distributed. Almost two decades of contracting has left its mark on organisational culture. There are fears within the non-profit sector that it is organisations with the largest `market share that gain a seat at the policy table.
The social sciences are bedeviled by terminological promiscuity. Terms and phrases are used at one time in a certain context and later borrowed and applied in different circumstances to somewhat different phenomena. Sometimes different groups of actors or researchers simultaneously use the same term with somewhat different meanings. Such is the use of the term civil society. In this 5th Anniversary of the Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, it is timely to trace the evolution of the idea of civil society to its multiple guises in the present. The paper reviews the term's 18th and 19th century roots, its recent resurrection and the opposing views of civil society, including views that question its applicability to non-western settings. It then discusses prospects for developing agreed approaches to the study of civil society. To guide our thinking the paper presents a brief overview of different approaches to defining civil society taken by some of the major so-called centres for civil society in Australia and internationally. The paper concludes by reflecting on these definitional challenges as it has played out at one particular cross faculty research centre, the University of Technology, Sydney's Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Research Centre.
In his study on pathways to economic development, John Lie
(1992) developed the concept of modes of exchange and identified
four typologies: market, manorial, mercantile and entrepreneurial.
We discuss the relevance of these typologies to Korea's post-war
economic development and focus specifically on how modes of
market exchange may affect wider interpretations of business
ethics. In the post-war period, we argue that there was no linear or clearly-staged trajectory from one mode of exchange to another
and, in this context of uncertainty, elites used this as an opportunity
to rationalize and justify certain practices. However, the 1997 Asian
financial crisis unleashed forces that drove a significant shift
towards the establishment of a more open and globalized market
environment. This has created new challenges for the chaebol and
its attempts to hold on to structures of the past, in particular to
maintain family ownership through succession from father to son.
Bisen, A, Dalton, BM & Wilson, R 2012, 'The Social Construction of the Microfinance Industry: a comparison of donor and recipient perspectives', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 62-83.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Microfinance has been one of the fastest growing 'industries' of the new millennium, with the sector now containing over 10,000 microfinance institutions (MFIs) with over $60 billion in assets (Microfinance Information Exchange 2011). This expansion has stimulated interest from both scholars and the mainstream media. There is a growing volume of academic research which broadly centres on two approaches: an âinstitutionalist perspectiveâ that highlights microfinance as an innovation in applying market solutions to social problems; and the other approach, often described as welfarist, that questions the capacity of an increasingly commericalised sector to realize a mission of poverty reduction. But do these themes and concerns permeate academic boundaries? Specifically, does media coverage in key donor and recipient countries confirm or challenge or even engage with these debates? To date much of this academic literature has overlooked how âmicrofinanceâ has been socially constructed in the public sphere through the mass media. Through its interpretation of events, the media can influence the way an issue is discussed and evaluated and in this way influence individual perceptions (Gamson 1988). In this article we present an analysis of recent media coverage of microfinance in one key donor country, the United States and one major recipient country, India. By conducting a media content analysis of 100 newspaper articles (sorted by level of relevance) that appeared in the top 10 highest circulating English language newspapers in India and the US over a 12 month period January-December 2008 we discuss how media coverage in these two countries differed in significant ways. The Indian media sample tended to focus on operational issues and report on specific business activity within the microfinance industry, in general treating it as a âregularâ part of the financial and banking system. While the US media sample made broader generalizations about the indust
The Australian Labor Party (ALP) formed government under Prime Minister Kevin Rudd in 2007 promising to consult with the not-for-profit sector on the development of a national compact. It was the governmentâs aim to forge a new settlement with the sector after eleven years of Liberal/National Coalition government during which contractual governance rather than relational governance was the norm. The provenance of the National Compact, launched in March 2010, can be traced back to similar framework documents for inter-sectoral cooperation in the United Kingdom (principally, The Compact) and Canada (the Accord). The National Compact) cannot be explained solely in terms of policy diffusion or the predilection of centre-right political parties for policy instruments of this sort. Rather, explanation requires a more nuanced contextual analysis of the political and policy environment within which these frameworks emerged. In this article we compare the range of factors contributing to the development of The Compact (UK), the Accord) (Canada) and the National Compact (Australia). We apply a similar analysis to policy frameworks in selected Australian states. We conclude that compacts arrive on the policy agenda via the opening of policy windows and through the actions of policy entrepreneurs. Policy windows and the attention of policy entrepreneurs might be both contextual and therefore, time-limited. We consider the range of factors that appear to have a bearing on the impact and durability of inter-sectoral policy frameworks in each jurisdiction in order to draw tentative conclusions about the prospects for the Australian National Compact.
Dalton, BM 2012, 'The Third Sector and Issues in Civil Society', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 4, pp. 1-2.
The research explores the theme of third sector and community organisations and their engagement with notions of civil society. These organisations are at the heart of civil society, creating spaces for individuals to come together with others to work towards a shared vision for their community.
Dalton, BM & di Nicola, K 2012, 'A new model of engaged philanthropy: The Michael project and MISHA', Parity, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 17-17.
Effective philanthropy can have a profoundly positive impact on community organisationsâ practice and the people and communities they serve. A case study is presented of a donor and recipient organisation forming a close partnership to radically change the lives of homeless men in Sydney.
Governments around the world have sought to strengthen their relations with nonprofit organisations. In many jurisdictions this has led to the development of written framework agreements between government and the nonprofit sector, most commonly known as compacts. They have had widely differing impacts â some are seen as successful initiatives that have significantly strengthened relations between government and nonprofits, while others have had little effect and have been quickly discarded or ignored. This paper documents the recent evolution of such processes in the UK, Canada, Australia, the US, France, Estonia and Spain, and explores the parallels between them. The narratives from these countries illustrate an emerging common discourse, but also that the peculiarties of each polity have led to significantly different substantive outcomes.
Onyx, J, Armitage, LM, Dalton, BM, Melville, R, Casey, JP & Banks, R 2010, 'Advocacy with Gloves on: The 'Manners' of Strategy Used by Some Third Sector Organizations Undertaking Advocacy in NSW and Queensland', Voluntas - International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organisations, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 41-61.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This article examines the strategies used by some third sector organizations in Australia to advocate. The purpose of this article is to identify the kinds of activities that organizations in New South Wales and Queensland use to promote advocacy, the kinds of language that is used to describe these activities, and the reasons given for the particular strategies adopted. The extent to which the organizations adopt ï½softerï½ (that is more institutional forms of advocacy) rather than more openly challenging forms of activism is examined, particularly in light of a neo-liberal political and economic environment. In this analysis emergent strategies are identified that are not easily categorized as either ï½institutionalï½ or ï½radicalï½ advocacy. The article presents an exploratory analysis of some of the implications of the strategies adopted, in terms of their democratic effects and potential to strengthen the capacity of third sector organizations. The article is informed by the findings of a qualitative research project involving interviews with 24 organizations in the community services and environmental fields.
The Australian aged care industry was once dominated by non-profit organisations but recently ownership has changed significantly with the entry of for profit and in particular private equity investment vehicles. This paper provides an overview of the main players and the effects of private equity on the Australian aged care sector. The analysis is framed within the literature which examines the relationship between ownership type and the quality of community services. It also presents a series of case studies which suggest that a change of ownership from non-profit to private equity may have significant consequences for the quality of service provision.
Dalton, BM & Jung, K 2009, 'Feeding the dictator or making a difference? The experiences of international aid and development agencies in North Korea 1995-2005', The International Review of Korean Studies, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-28.
Since 2005 food aid to North Korea has been in steep decline, however, during the period 1995 to 2005 North Korea received more food aid from the UN World Food Programme (WFP) and US government than any other country. Similarly, private relief aid to North Korea significantly increased, with approximately 130 organisations worldwide providing over US$2 billion in aid between 1995 and 2005. This article revisits this period marked by the most extensive engagement of humanitarian organisations since the establishment of the Democratic Peopleâs Republic of Korea (DPRK) in 1948. In the context of this dependence on foreign aid the article examines the impact of International Aid Agencies or International Nongovernment Organisationsâ (INGOs) operations, not only in humanitarian terms but with regards to political, social and economic development. We argue that due to tight operating restrictions there was no discernable impact on North Korean society or the polity. However, it is argued that longer term and unanticipated effects are likely due to the extensive diversion of aid to the emerging informal market economy.
Dalton, BM, Wilson, R & Harvison, J 2009, 'Job satisfaction and HR issues for nurses in non-profit, non-hospital settings', Employment Relations Record, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-18.
High levels of nursing staff turnover have placed increasing pressure on the healthcare systems in many countries (Andrews & Dziegielewski 2005; Ruggiero 2005; Lynn & Redman 2005). The impact of high turnover in nursing staff and related nursing skills shortages has been wide-ranging, from reducing the effectiveness and productivity of health organisations to reducing access to services and the quality of patient care (Saratoga Institute & Kepner-Tregoe 1999, Hay Group 2001). Recognition of the severity of these impacts has encouraged professionals and researchers to identify new ways to attract and retain nursing staff with hundreds of articles and reports published about the issue in recent years.
Onyx, J, Dalton, BM, Melville, R, Casey, JP & Banks, R 2008, 'Implications of government funding of advocacy for third-sector independence and exploration of alternative advocacy funding models', Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 631-648.
This paper examines the effect of funding contracts on the capacity of third~sectororganizations to effectively advocate. The relationship is not simple or obvious, with some organizations reporting 'mature relationships' with particular (state) departments, and others reporting difficulty with state or federal government jurisdictions. The paper spells out the negative effects of conflating service funding and advocacy. The paper concludes by exploring alternative institutional arrangements for the resourcing of advocacy including the establishment of a Public Interest Fund administered independently of any government department, one not requiring specific service contracts but rather evidence that it is advocating for the broader public good.
Green, J & Dalton, BM 2007, 'Values and virtues or qualifications and experience? An analysis of non-profit recruitment advertising in Australia', Employment Relations Record, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1-14.
Casey, JP & Dalton, BM 2006, 'The best of times, the worst of times: community-sector advocacy in the age of 'compacts'', Australian Journal of Political Science, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 23-38.
The recent introduction of written compacts between government and community services organisations (CSOs) in Australia offers the promise of meaningful co-production of policy. However, recent research has highlighted that many in the community sector c
Casey, JP & Dalton, BM 2006, 'The best of times, the worst of times: Community-sector advocacy in the age of 'compacts'', Australian Journal Of Political Science, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 23-38.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The recent introduction of written 'compacts' between government and community services organisations (CSOs) in Australia offers the promise of meaningful co-production of policy. However, recent research has highlighted that many in the community sector continue to perceive that there are significant constraints on their capacity to engage in advocacy. This article examines the impact of the current governance regimes on the Australian community sector and explores the dimensions of these perceived constraints. The article argues that both government and community sectors must make concessions and adjustments. Governments must accept that the use of contracting monopolies to stifle advocacy has weakened their capacity to deliver responsive services, while community organisations must accept that new governance regimes require new modes of participation in the policy process.
Dalton, BM 2006, 'Third-sector development: Making up for the market', Public Management Review, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 600-602.
The role and status of women in North Korea have changed in recent years. Reports suggest that women, more than men, have become active players in emerging capitalist processes, particularly those centered on local markets, thus creating new opportunitie
Appreciating the many, varied and sometimes ambiguous elements within what may be called 'Korean culture' is crucial to a balanced assessment of its relationship to corruption. In particular, it is important to recognise its multivocality and thus its pa
Dalton, BM & Lyons, MJ 2005, 'Advocacy organisations in Australian politics: Governance and democratic effects', Third Sector Review, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 59-78.
Marceau, J, Cook, N, Dalton, BM & Wixted, B 2002, 'Selling solutions: Emerging patterns of product-service linkage in theAustralian economy', Australian expert group in industry studies. UOW Online Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers.
The focus of the study reported here is the different forms of service provision strategies appearing across the Australian economy. Specifically, the study looks at the various ways in which firms link products and services,
whether in single packages or other forms. What we found led us to question the common notion that
'manufacturing matters, but services succeed'. The data gathered show how many firms in both manufacturing
and service industries are putting together products and services into 'packages', suggesting the need for a
broader review of how a service-rich economy may work at firm level.
Dalton, BM 2001, 'Industry Policy in Taiwan and Korea in the 1980s by H. Smith', Economic and Industrial Democracy, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 433-438.
Dalton, BM & dela Rama, M 2016, 'Business Ethics in Korea: Chaebol Dynastic Practices and theUneven Transition From a Market to an Entrepreneurial Modeof Exchange' in Oh, I & Park, G (eds), The Political Economy of Business Ethics in East Asia, Chandos Publishing, Cambridge, MA, pp. 79-94.View/Download from: Publisher's site
For organisations and management the role of business ethics is of key importance, but to what extent business ethics are actually new or fashionable or universally applicable are interesting questions. Asia has been the site of contests between competing economic and ethical views of how economic norms and institutions are organized. This book examines the evolutionary similarities and differences of institutionalizing business ethics in Asia in a historical context and in comparison to better-explored business ethics literature, both empirically and theoretically.
Lyons, MJ & Dalton, BM 2011, 'Australia: a Continuing Love Affair with the New Public Management' in Phillips, SD & Smith, SR (eds), Governance and Regulation in the Third Sector: International Perspectives, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 238-259.
The purpose of this book is to explore the implications for nonprofit organizations of the transition from New Public Management.(NPM) to more collaborative forms of relational or distributed governance. The case of Australia, which is examined in this chapter, does not provide strong evidence for such a transition. It also shows the difficulty of generalizing about relations between governments and the third sector. During the 1980s Australian governments- both state and national, Labor and Liberal- gradually embraced the set of beliefs and practices that came to be known as NPM. This embrace was not without its critics, but it had powerful supporters and transformed the role of government and the practice of governing. It also had direct implications for the third sector.
Dalton, BM & Wilson, R 2009, 'Improving quality in Australian child care: the role of the media and non-profit providers' in King, D & Meagher, G (eds), Paid Care in Australia: Politics, Profits, Practices, Sydney University Press, Sydney, Australia, pp. 204-230.
It is widely acknowledged that the quality of cen tre-based care for young children is a critical determin ant of a range of positive social, education and health-related outcomes (Barnett & Ackerman 2006; Vandell et al, 1988; Schweinhar t et at. 1993). Yet in 2001, Australia ranked at near the bottom of an OECD league table measuring how much countries invest in children's earliest years (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2001). Further, Australia's quality assurance regime for child care has been criticised, particularly for its failure to make reliable or comparable information on th e quality of child care services readily available to parents (Radich 2002; Hill, Pocock & Elliott 2007; Rush 2006).
Dalton, BM & Casey, JP 2008, 'Money for mission or moral minefield? The opportunities and risks of not-for-profit business venturing' in Barraket, J (ed), Strategic Issues for the Not-for-profit Sector, UNSW Press, Sydney, Australia, pp. 163-186.
Exploration of issues relating to commercialisation within the nonprofit sector.
Dalton, BM & Cotton, J 1996, 'New Social Movements and the Changing Nature of Political Opposition in South Korea' in Rodan, G (ed), Political Oppositions in Industrialising Asia, Routledge, pp. 272-289.
Dalton, B & Boersma, M 2018, 'Inhabiting parallel universes: the differing world views of impact investors and nonprofits and implications for building impact investment markets', 47th ARNOVA Conference, Austin, Texas.
Dalton, BM, Darcy, S & Green, J 2014, 'Oligopoly in Monopsony: The rise of Australian Big Charity in the delivery of services to people with a disability', 28th ANZAM Conference 2014, Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, ANZAM, Sydney, Australia.
dela Rama, M & Dalton, BM 2014, 'The Visible Arm of Government - Corporate Governance of South Korean Chaebols', 28th ANZAM Conference 2014, Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, ANZAM, UTS, Sydney.
Private sector ownership in South Korea is dominated by chaebols. Chaebols are business groups and
are "collections of firms bound together in some formal and/or informal ways, characterized by an 'intermediate' level of binding." (Granovetter 2001: 69-70)
This paper discusses the corporate governance environment of South Korea and its chaebols. While chaebols are key actors in South Korea's development, this paper extensively discusses the very visible arm of government and how chaebols have had to navigate their relationship with the state in order to continue their operations. The might of the state will continue to dominate chaebol decision making and structure.
Dalton, BM, Green, J & Edwards, M 2012, 'Social enterprise: challenge or opportunity for university nonprofit management programs.', International Society for Third-Sector Research 10th International Conference - Siena, Italy - July 2012., ISTR, Siena, Italy.
What should be taught in nonprofit management programs? Is it a time to reposition and rebrand to embrace social entrepreneurship or do we risk challenging the academic legitimacy of distinct nonprofit programs? In 2005, Michael OâNeil described nonprofit management education (NME) as âlargely a phenomenon of the past two decades, [one that] has grown rapidly in the United States. The field was virtually nonexistent in 1980; by 2000 there were ninety-one masterâs degree programs with at least a concentration in NME... nearly one hundred undergraduate programs, and about fifty university based certificate programsâ (OâNeill, 2005, p. 5). In Australia, the status of the nonprofit education has also increased considerably; the number of academics with research and consulting experience in third-sector organizations has grown; new journals have emerged and the numbers of books sharply increased. By the mid-1990s, a small but visible presence of nonprofit sector management education had established itself. This rapid growth of these programs has been attributed to a number of trends. Foremost is the rapid professionalization and growth of the sector and a growing consensus that nonprofit management is distinct in a variety of ways that require suitably tailored university courses. In the last decade or so, however, rapid changes may have blurred sectoral boundaries. One major shift affecting the field has been the growing interest in social entrepreneurship and enterprise, a pattern that has already been observed in the US and UK (McKeown et al 2006; Eikenberry and Drapal Kluver 2004). This is mirrored at the university level, with interest in social enterprise perhaps stemming from the growing stature and prominence of entrepreneurship and business venturing in general within business schools (The number of colleges and universities that offer courses related to entrepreneurship in the US has grown from a handful in the 1970s to over 1,600 in Kuratko 2005). In ...
Dalton, BM & Jung, K 2011, 'North Korea's Informal Markets and the Increasing Role of Women.', Proceedings of the Korean Studies Association of Australasia, Korean Studies Association of Australasia Biennial Conference, University of New South Wales, University of New South Wales, pp. 2-34.
This paper focuses on the spread of markets in North Korea and the role of women in this process. It does this by presenting individual accounts of North Korean female defectors and contextualizing these with data drawn from in-depth interviews with representatives of transnational and South Korean NGOs, government officials and North Korean experts and analysis of a variety of English and Korean language materials. In so doing the paper seeks to provide a more nuanced understanding of North Korean society at a time of unprecedented economic and social change.
Shin, JS & Dalton, BM 2011, 'Harmonising International Development Efforts with Resource Diplomacy: Potential for the strategic use of ODA to Secure Lithium in South America', Proceedings of 7th Biennial Korean Studies Association of Australasia Conference, Korean Studies Association of Australasia Biennial Conference, University of NSW, Sydney, pp. 2-23.
Korea's current Green Growth strategy seeks to lessen the country's dependence on fossil fuel resources and promote significant investment into the development of alternative, environmentally-friendly energy sources. As part of this strategy Korea has been investing heavily in the development of various green energy industries in particular it has become one of the world's largest manufacturers of lithium based rechargeable-ion batteries to power electric or hybrid motor vehicles. The continued growth of this industry requires a secure and stable supply of lithium and to this end the Korean government has developed its so-called 'resource diplomacy' strategy which is designed promote relations with countries with significant lithium deposits such as Chile, Argentina and Bolivia. However, to date, resource diplomacy has been somewhat narrowly targeted at domestic policies that support Korean firms to invest directly in acquiring and developing lithium mines or to increasing the number of embassies in these countries. More recently the Korean government is considering broader diplomatic measures. The paper argues that resource diplomacy has the potential to be an effective means of achieving Korea's green growth objectives but that the success of this strategy must go beyond facilitating Korean direct foreign investment to become a more fully fledged cultural and foreign aid and development diplomacy strategy that promotes longer term, broader and deeper levels of engagement. This 'soft-power' approach is more likely to serve as an effective but subtle means to exert influence not only to promote specific Korean interests but to achieve longer term, mutually beneficial outcomes for both Korea and these South American nations.
Dalton, BM, Green, J & Pearce, S 2010, 'Structural factors behind attrition of ATSIC students in higher education: why ABSTUDY needs reform!', Dalton, Bronwen, Jenny Green, and Sonya Pearce. "Structural factors behind attrition of ATSIC students in higher education: why ABSTUDY needs reform!." The Third Sector as Civil Society in Australasia: Identity, Role and Influence in the New Century. 2010., ANZTSR: The Third Sector as Civil Society in Australasia: Identity, Role and Influence in the New Century, UTS.
Dalton, BM, Jang, H, Jung, K & Johns, RE 2009, 'Destination Australia: Working conditions of Korean women working in the entertainment and sex industry', Proceedings of the 9th PERA Conference - Workforce Planning in Times of Crisis and Change, Pacific Employment Relations Association Conference, Pacific Employment Relations Association, Adelaide Australia, pp. 32-54.
The experience of women working in the sex and entertainment industry is an issue central to feminism, social and human rights movements, and ongoing political debate. Although now an area of scholarly research the clandestine nature of this industry makes research challenging and means many aspects remain unknown. In this paper, the researchers examine the working conditions of Korean women working in the sex industry in Australia. The paper reports on recent trends in patterns of migration and draws attention to the fact that increasing numbers of Korean women are utilising =working holiday` visas to work in the sex and entertainment industry and that under Australian law this practice is essentially legal. The paper also examines the nature of their service in the sex industry and details the conditions of their employment. Findings from this study aim to inform recommendations to policy makers in relevant government and non-government community service organisations.
Dalton, BM & Jung, K 2009, 'The Humanitarian's Dilemma: The experience of international NGOs in North Korea', The Proceedings of the Sixth Biennial Korean Studies Association of Australasia (KSAA) Conference, Biennial Korean Studies Association of Australasia Conference, University of Sydney, University of Sydney, pp. 201-216.
Until the drastic reduction in the flow ofinternational aid precipitated by US sanctions in 2005, International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs) conducted significant operations in the Democratic People's Republic ofKorea (DPRK). The DPRK solicited assistance from the international community in 1995, after a major flood and subsequent chronic food shortage. Over subsequent years the country became increasingly dependant on international assistance. Given this dependence on foreign aid by one of the world's most isolated, repressive andpotentially dangerous regimes and the recent withdrawal of' many aid agencies, it is timely to examine the impact of NGO operations, not only in humanitarian terms but with regards to economic, political and social development. After discussion of the various theories relating to the role ofINGOs in economic, social and political development, including their potential to promote democratisation, the pdper examines the impact of the activities of international aid organisations participating directly or indirectly in the provision ofhumanitarian aid, assistance or development in the DPRK. Based on the findings of10 semi-structured telephone interviews with relevant INGO personnel, INGO documents and other economic and social data, the paper examines the impact of INGOs on three key areas: Humanitarian objectives, economic development andpolitical/ social development.
Jang, H, Jung, K & Dalton, BM 2009, 'Factors influencing labour migration of Korean women into the entertainment and sex industry in Australia', Global Korea: Proceedings of the Sixth Biennial Conference Korean Studies Association of Australa, KSAA, KSAA, University of Sydney, Australia, pp. 254-265.
dela Rama, MJ, Edwards, M & Dalton, BM 2008, 'Honourable Intentions? Analysing Private Equity's Interests in the Aged Care Sector', Australia and New Zealand Third Sector Review 9th Biennial Conference, Australia and New Zealand Third Sector Review 9th Biennial Conference, ANZTSR, Auckland University of Technology City Campus, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 1-27.
The abstract for the conference paper was accepted and currently appears on p.19 of the full list of abstracts for the conference. This paper was co-written with Melissa Edwards and Bronwen Dalton. This paper is currently under peer review for publication in a journal.
Dalton, BM & Teo, ST 2007, 'Experience of nonprofit business venturing in Australia, UK and USA', Proceedings of the Academy of Management: Doing Well by Doing Good, The Academy of Management: Doing Well by Doing Good, Academy of Management, Philadelphia.
Green, J & Dalton, BM 2007, ''Warm hearted, genuine, compassionate seeks...' An Exploration of Recruitment Advertising for Managers in Australian Nonprofit Social Services', International Employment Relations Association (IERA) 2007 'Working Lives, Working Choices' 15th Annual Conference, International Employment Relations Association Conference, International Employment Relations Association, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, UK, 8-13 July 2007, pp. 1-22.
Recruitment practices play a key role in organisational success (Cable & Judge, 1996). Designing an effective recruitment advertisement is critical in establishing the first link to appropriate potential employees (Backhaus, 2004). A consistent finding is that people join, succeed and stay with organisations where there is a strong alignment between the organisational culture and values and the individuals values and direction. People seek jobs with employers whose moral values match their own (Scott, 2000). It is a key in the perfect match.
Dalton, BM & Casey, JP 2006, 'Innovation or ill-gotten gains? Interpretations of nonprofit business venturing in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States', Navigating New Waters: Eighth Biennial Conference of Australia and New Zealand Third Sector Research, Conference of Australia and New Zealand Third Sector Research, ANZTSR Secretariat, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 1-32.
Dalton, BM, Casey, JP & Green, J 2006, 'Sweet charity and filthy lucre: the social construction of nonprofit business venturing in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States', Engagement and Change - Managing in a Free Trade Environment: Conference Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Contemporary Business, International Conference on Contemporary Business, Charles Sturt University, Leura, Australia, pp. 1-18.
Casey, JP & Dalton, BM 2005, 'The best of times, the worst of times: Community sector advocacy in the age of compacts', Beyond Fragmented Government: Governance in the Public Sector - Refereed Conference Papers and Proceedings, Beyond Fragmented Government: Governance in the Public Sector, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-21.
Casey, JP & Dalton, BM 2004, 'Ties that bind? The impact of contracting and project-based funding regimes on advocacy', Australasian Political Studies Association Conference 2004, Australasian Political Studies Association Conference, Australasian Political Studies Association, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 1-26.
Dalton, BM & Lyons, MJ 2004, 'Representing the disadvantaged in Australian politics: the role of advocacy organisations', ANZTSR 2004 Conference Proceedings, Australian New Zealand Third Sector Research Conference 2004, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
Hasan, AS, Dalton, BM & Lyons, MJ 2004, 'On parallel paths to democracy: civil society and political parties in Asia.', Proceedings of the 1st International Korean Studies Workshop: Civil Society and Consolidating Democracy in Comparative Perspective Workshop, The 1st International Korean Studies Workshop: Civil Society and Consolidating Democracy in Comparative Perspective Workshop, Yonsei Centre for International Studies, Seoul, Korea, pp. 161-189.
Veal, A, Adair, D, Darcy, S & Dalton, B Commonwealth Senate Inquiry 2020, Submission to the Senate Select Committee on Administration of Sport Grants Should there be a $100 million federal community sport grants program at all?, no. 27, Canberra, ACT.
It is questionable whether national funds designed to be allocated in small amounts paid directly to local community organisations have a part to play in a federal system. Apart from the clear temptation for pork-barrelling, they make no sense in terms of efficiency and rational policy, particularly when, as is the case with sport and recreation, there is already a system in place to assess local community needs.
dela Rama, MJ, Edwards, M & Dalton, BM Australian Parliament House 2008, Submission No. 14 to the Australian Senate Community Affairs Committee on the Inquiry into the the Aged Care Amendment (2008) Measures No. 2 Bill, pp. 1-12, Canberra, Australia.
With two other School of Management colleagues, Melissa Edwards and Bronwen Dalton, we made this submission into the following Community Affairs Committee Inquiry. This submission was later cited by Ian Verrender, a Sydney Morning Herald journalist in his business column "Profit Not Improvement", 29th November 2008 http://business.smh.com.au/business/profit-not-improvement-the-motive-f…
Dalton, BM Submission to House of Representatives Economics Committee Inquiry into the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission, Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission (Repeal) (No. 1) Bill 2014 Submissions, no. 50, pp. 1-5, Canberra.
This submission is on behalf of the Australian and New Zealand Third Sector Researchers (ANZTSR) and focuses on the role the ACNC has and can continue to play in promoting research. However, we wish to emphasise that, first and foremost, we believe that the ACNC should remain and continue its role because of the ACNC's track record and ongoing potential to support the needs of the NFP sector of Australia and by extension the Australian community. In particular, ANZTSR believes that the ACNC is critical to the realisation of the regulatory reforms and the establishment of the institutional architecture needed to allow the NFP sector to operate transparently and to achieve its collective mission to enrich and in other ways work for the benefit of the Australian community.
Dalton, BM 2003, 'Ties that bind? the impace of contracting and project-based futures'.