Blake is a Senior Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Science and the course coordinator for the Masters of High Performance Sport. For more than a decade, Blake has worked within high-performance departments in the AFL, NRL, NBA and USA collegiate sport. Blake is involved in a number of international industry research collaborations, aiming to develop best practice human performance models, to support evidence-led decision making in the pursuit of optimal health and performance for team sport athletes. Blake also serves as part of the Exercise & Sports Science Australia (ESSA) Sports Science Advisory Group and is a member of the Nike North American Sport Scientific Advisory Group.
Accredited High Performance Manager (AHPM) | Exercise and Sports Science Australia
Accredited Sports Scientist (ASpS2) | Exercise and Sports Science Australia
Exercise and Sports Science Australia Member (ESSAM) | Exercise and Sports Science Australia
Sports Science Advisory Group | Exercise and Sports Science Australia
Level 2 Strength & Conditioning Coach | Australian Strength & Conditioning Association
Certified Strength & Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) | National Strength & Conditioning Association
Can supervise: YES
- Quantifying the physcial demands in basketball
- Decision making models in high perfromance sport
- Hypoxia and exercise capcity
- Fatigue in team sport athletes
- High Performance Sport
- Strength and Conditioning
- Applied Sports Science
Fox, JL, Conte, D, Stanton, R, McLean, B & Scanlan, AT 2020, 'The Application of Accelerometer-Derived Moving Averages to Quantify Peak Demands in Basketball', Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. Publish Ahead of Print.View/Download from: Publisher's site
McLean, BD, White, K, Gore, CJ & Kemp, J 2020, 'Blood volumes following preseason heat versus altitude: A case study of australian footballers', International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 590-594.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020 Human Kinetics, Inc. Purpose: There is debate as to which environmental intervention produces the most benefit for team sport athletes, particularly comparing heat and altitude. This quasi-experimental study aimed to compare blood volume (BV) responses with heat and altitude training camps in Australian footballers. Methods: The BV of 7 professional Australian footballers (91.8 [10.5] kg, 191.8 [10.1] cm) was measured throughout 3 consecutive spring/summer preseasons. During each preseason, players participated in altitude (year 1 and year 2) and heat (year 3) environmental training camps. Year 1 and year 2 altitude camps were in November/ December in the United States, whereas the year 3 heat camp was in February/March in Australia after a full exposure to summer heat. BV, red cell volume, and plasma volume (PV) were measured at least 3 times during each preseason. Results: Red cell volume increased substantially following altitude in both year 1 (d = 0.67) and year 2 (d = 1.03), before returning to baseline 4 weeks postaltitude. Immediately following altitude, concurrent decreases in PV were observed during year 1 (d = -0.40) and year 2 (d = -0.98). With spring/summer training in year 3, BV and PV were substantially higher in January than temporally matched postaltitude measurements during year 1 (BV: d = -0.93, PV: d = -1.07) and year 2 (BV: d = -1.99, PV: d = -2.25), with year 3 total BV, red cell volume, and PV not changing further despite the 6-day heat intervention. Conclusions: We found greater BV after training throughout spring/summer conditions, compared with interrupting spring/summer exposure to train at altitude in the cold, with no additional benefits observed from a heat camp following spring/summer training.
McLean, BD, Strack, D, Russell, J & Coutts, AJ 2019, 'Quantifying Physical Demands in the National Basketball Association (NBA): Challenges in Developing Best-Practice Models for Athlete Care and Performance.', International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 414-420.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The National Basketball Association (NBA) has an extremely demanding competition schedule, requiring its athletes to compete in 82 regular-season games over a 6-mo period (~ 3.4 games/wk). Despite the demanding schedule and high value of athletes, there is little public information on the specific game and training demands required to compete in the NBA. While provisions in the NBA collective bargaining agreement allow for research designed to improve player health and broaden medical knowledge, such information is sparse in the available literature. In relation to the physical demands of the NBA, the current lack of information likely results from multiple factors including limited understanding of (basketball-related) emerging technologies, impact of specific league rules, and steps taken to protect players in the age of Big Data. This article explores current limitations in describing specific game/training demands in the NBA and provides perspectives on how some of these challenges may be overcome. The authors propose that future collaborations between league entities, NBA clubs, commercial partners, and outside research institutions will enhance understanding of the physical demands in the NBA (and other health- and performance-related areas). More detailed understanding of physical demands (eg, games, practices, travel) and other health-related areas can augment player-centered decision making, leading to enhanced player care, increased availability, and improved physical performance.
McLean, BD, Cummins, C, Conlan, G, Duthie, G & Coutts, AJ 2018, 'The Fit Matters: Influence of Accelerometer Fitting and Training Drill Demands on Load Measures in Rugby League Players.', International journal of sports physiology and performance, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1083-1089.View/Download from: Publisher's site
PURPOSE:To determine the relationship between drill type and accelerometer-derived loads during various team-sport activities and examine the influence of unit fitting on these loads. METHODS:Sixteen rugby league players were fitted with microtechnology devices in either manufacturer vests or playing jerseys before completing standardized running, agility, and tackling drills. Two-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) accelerometer loads (BodyLoad™) per kilometer were compared across drills and fittings (ie, vest and jersey). RESULTS:When fitted in a vest, 2D BodyLoad was higher during tackling (21.5 [14.8] AU/km) than during running (9.5 [2.5] AU/km) and agility (10.3 [2.7] AU/km). Jersey fitting resulted in more than 2-fold higher BodyLoad during running (2D = 9.5 [2.7] vs 29.3 [14.8] AU/km, 3D = 48.5 [14.8] vs 111.5 [45.4] AU/km) and agility (2D = 10.3 [2.7] vs 21.0 [8.1] AU/km, 3D = 40.4 [13.6] vs 77.7 [26.8] AU/km) compared with a vest fitting. Jersey fitting also produced higher BodyLoad during tackling drills (2D = 21.5 [14.8] vs 27.8 [18.6] AU/km, 3D = 42.0 [21.4] vs 63.2 [33.1] AU/km). CONCLUSIONS:This study provides evidence supporting the construct validity of 2D BodyLoad for assessing collision/tackling load in rugby league training drills. Conversely, the large values obtained from 3D BodyLoad (which includes the vertical load vector) appear to mask small increases in load during tackling drills, rendering 3D BodyLoad insensitive to changes in contact load. Unit fitting has a large influence on accumulated accelerometer loads during all drills, which is likely related to greater incidental unit movement when units are fitted in jerseys. Therefore, it is recommended that athletes wear microtechnology units in manufacturer-provided vests to provide valid and reliable information.
Cummins, C, McLean, B, Halaki, M & Orr, R 2017, 'Positional differences in external on-field load during specific drill classifications over a professional rugby league preseason', International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 764-776.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Human Kinetics, Inc. Purpose: To quantify the external training loads of positional groups in preseason training drills. Methods: Thirty-three elite rugby league players were categorized into 1 of 4 positional groups: outside backs (n = 9), adjustables (n = 9), wide-running forwards (n = 9), and hit-up forwards (n = 6). Data for 8 preseason weeks were collected using microtechnology devices. Training drills were classified based on drill focus: speed and agility, conditioning, and generic and positional skills. Results: Total, high-speed, and very-high-speed distance decreased across the preseason in speed and agility (moderate, small, and small, respectively), conditioning (large, large, and small) and generic skills (large, large, and large). The duration of speed and generic skills also decreased (77% and 48%, respectively). This was matched by a concomitant increase in total distance (small), high-speed running (small), very-high-speed running (moderate), and 2-dimensional (2D) BodyLoad (small) demands in positional skills. In positional skills, hit-up forwards (1240 ± 386 m) completed less very-high-speed running than outside backs (2570 ± 1331 m) and adjustables (2121 ± 1163 m). Hit-up forwards (674 ± 253 AU) experienced greater 2D BodyLoad demands than outside backs (432 ± 230 AU, P = .034). In positional drills, hit-up forwards experienced greater relative 2D BodyLoad demands than outside backs (P = .015). Conversely, outside backs experienced greater relative high- (P = .007) and very-high-speed-running (P < .001) demands than hit-up forwards. Conclusion: Significant differences were observed in training loads between positional groups during positional skills but not in speed and agility, conditioning, and generic skills. This work also highlights the importance of different external-load parameters to adequately quantify workload across different positional groups.
Black, GM, Gabbett, TJ, Naughton, GA & McLean, BD 2016, 'The effect of intense exercise periods on physical and technical performance during elite Australian Football match-play: A comparison of experienced and less experienced players', Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 596-602.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Objectives: The physical and technical responses of experienced (≥5 years) and less experienced (1-4 years) elite Australian Football (AF) players were compared following the most intense passages of match-play. Design: Descriptive cohort study. Methods: Time-motion analyses were performed using global positioning systems (MinimaxX S4, Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia) on one elite AF team during 13 matches. The global positioning data were categorised into total distance, low-speed activity (0-2.78 m s-1), moderate-speed running (2.79-4.14 m s-1) and high-speed running (≥4.15 m s-1) distances. A standardised 5-point technical coding criteria was used to rate the number and quality of skill involvements during match-play. Results: Following the most intense 3-min running period the experienced players covered greater distances at high-speeds in match quarters two (effect size, ES = 0.42 ± 0.30) and three (ES = 0.38 ± 0.33) than their less experienced counterparts. Compared with less experienced players, experienced players performed more skill involvements during the second quarter (ES = 0.42 ± 0.33) and fourth quarter peak 3-min bouts of exercise intensity (ES = 0.40 ± 0.30) and quarter one (ES = 0.49 ± 0.29) and three subsequent periods (ES = 0.33 ± 0.20). Conclusions: Less experienced players exhibited greater reductions in physical and technical performance following peak periods of match-play. These findings suggest that training may require a greater emphasis on developing the ability of less experienced players to maintain physical performance and gain possession of the football following intense periods of match-play.
Lee, JF, Christmas, KM, Machin, DR, Mclean, BD & Coyle, EF 2015, 'Warm skin alters cardiovascular responses to cycling after preheating and precooling', Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1168-1176.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2014 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Purpose Exercise in hot conditions increases core (TC) and skin temperature (TSK) and can lead to a progressive rise in HR and decline in stroke volume (SV) during prolonged exercise. Thermoregulatory-driven elevations in skin blood flow (SkBF) adds complexity to cardiovascular regulation during exercise in these conditions. Presently, the dominant, although debated, view is that raising TSK increases SkBF and reduces SV through diminished venous return; however, this scenario has not been rigorously investigated across core and skin temperatures. We tested the hypothesis that high TSK would raise HR and reduce SV during exercise after precooling (cold water bath) and preheating (hot water bath) and that no relationship would exist between SkBF and SV during exercise. Methods Non-endurance-trained individuals cycled for 20 min at 69% ± 1% V.O2peak on four occasions: cool skin-cool core (SkCCC), warm skin-cool core (SkWCC), cool skin-warm core (SkCCW), and warm skin-warm core (SkWCW) on separate days. Results After precooling of TC, the rise in HR was greater in SkWCC than in SkCCC (P < 0.001), yet SV was similar (P = 0.26), which resulted in higher QC at min 20 in SkWCC (P < 0.01). Throughout exercise after preheating of TC, HR was higher (P < 0.001), SV was reduced (P < 0.01), and QC was similar (P = 0.40) in SkWCW versus SkCCW. When all trials were compared, there was no relationship between SkBF and SV (r = -0.08, P = 0.70); however, there was an inverse relationship between HR and SV (r = -0.75, P < 0.001). Conclusions These data suggest that when TSK is elevated during exercise, HR and TC will rise but SV will only be reduced when TC is also elevated above 38°C. Furthermore, changes in SV are not related to changes in SkBF.
McLean, BD, Tofari, PJ, Gore, CJ & Kemp, JG 2015, 'Changes in running performance after four weeks of interval hypoxic training in Australian footballers: A single-blind placebo-controlled study', Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 3206-3215.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 National Strength and Conditioning Association. There is a paucity of data examining the impact of high-intensity interval hypoxic training (IHT) on intermittent running performance. This study assessed the effects of IHT on 17 amateur Australian Footballers, who completed 8 interval treadmill running sessions (IHT [F I O 2 15.1%] or PLACEBO) over 4 weeks, in addition to normoxic football (2 per week) and resistance (2 per week) training sessions. To match relative training intensity, absolute IHT intensity reduced by 6% of normoxic vVo 2 peak compared with PLACEBO. Before and after the intervention, performance was assessed by Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and a self-paced team sport running protocol. Standardized effect size statistics were calculated using Cohen's d to compare between the interventions. Compared with PLACEBO, IHT subjects experienced (a) smaller improvements in Yo-Yo IR2 performance (Cohen's d -0.42 [-0.82 to -0.02; 90% confidence interval]); (b) similar increases in high-intensity running distance during the team sport protocol (d 0.17 [-0.50 to 0.84]); and (c) greater improvements in total distance (d 0.72 [0.33-1.10]) and distance covered during low-intensity activity (d 0.59 [-0.07 to 1.11]) during the team sport protocol. The lower absolute training intensity of IHT may explain the smaller improvements in Yo-Yo IR2 performance in the hypoxic group. Conversely, the data from the self-paced protocol suggest that IHT may positively influence pacing strategies in team sport athletes. In conclusion, IHT alters pacing strategies in team sport athletes (i.e., increased distance covered during low-intensity activity). However, IHT leads to smaller improvements in externally paced high-intensity intermittent running performance (i.e., Yo-Yo IR2), which may be related to a reduced absolute training intensity during IHT sessions.
McLean, BD, Gore, CJ & Kemp, J 2014, 'Application of 'live low-train high' for enhancing normoxic exercise performance in team sport athletes', Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 1275-1287.View/Download from: Publisher's site
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hypoxic training techniques are increasingly used by athletes in an attempt to improve performance in normoxic environments. The 'live low-train high (LLTH)' model of hypoxic training may be of particular interest to athletes because LLTH protocols generally involve shorter hypoxic exposures (approximately two to five sessions per week of <3 h) than other traditional hypoxic training techniques (e.g., live high-train high or live high-train low). However, the methods employed in LLTH studies to date vary greatly with respect to exposure times, training intensities, training modalities, degrees of hypoxia and performance outcomes assessed. Whilst recent reviews provide some insight into how LLTH may be applied to enhance performance, little attention has been given to how training intensity/modality may specifically influence subsequent performance in normoxia. Therefore, this systematic review aims to evaluate the normoxic performance outcomes of the available LLTH literature, with a particular focus on training intensity and modality.DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: A systematic search was conducted to capture all LLTH studies with a matched normoxic (control) training group and the assessment of performance under normoxic conditions. Studies were excluded if no training was completed during the hypoxic exposures, or if these exposures exceeded 3 h per day. Four electronic databases were searched (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE and Web of Science) during August 2013, and these searches were supplemented by additional manual searches until December 2013.RESULTS: After the electronic and manual searches, 40 papers were deemed to meet the inclusion criteria, representing 31 separate studies. Within these 31 studies, four types of LLTH were identified: (1) continuous low-intensity training in hypoxia (CHT, n = 16), (2) interval hypoxic training (IHT, n = 4), (3) repeated sprint training in hypoxia (RSH, n = 3) and (4) resistance training in h...
Tofari, PJ, McLean, BD, Kemp, J & Cormack, S 2014, 'A self-paced intermittent protocol on a non-motorised treadmill: A reliable alternative to assessing team-sport running performance', Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 62-68.
© 2014, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. This study assessed the reliability of a 'self-paced' 30-min, team-sport running protocol on a Woodway Curve 3.0 non-motorised treadmill (NMT). Ten male team-sport athletes (20.3 ± 1.2 y, 74.4 ± 9.7 kg, VO2peak 57.1 ± 4.5 ml•kg−1•min−1) attended five sessions (VO2peak testing + familiarisation; four reliability trials). The 30-min protocol consisted of three identical 10-min activity blocks, with visual and audible commands directing locomotor activity; however, actual speeds were self-selected by participants. Reliability of variables was estimated using typical error ± 90% confidence limits expressed as a percentage [coefficient of variation (CV)] and intraclass correlation coefficient. The smallest worthwhile change (SWC) was calculated as 0.2 × between participant standard deviation. Peak/mean speed and distance variables assessed across the 30-min protocol exhibited a CV < 5%, and < 6% for each 10-min activity block. All power variables exhibited a CV < 7.5%, except walking (CV 8.3-10.1%). The most reliable variables were maximum and mean sprint speed (CV < 2%). All variables produced a CV% greater than the SWC. A self-paced, team-sport running protocol performed on a NMT produces reliable speed/distance and power data. Importantly, a single familiarisation session allowed for adequate test-retest reliability. The self-paced design provides an ecologically-valid alternative to externally-paced team-sport running simulations.
Gore, CJ, Sharpe, K, Garvican-Lewis, LA, Saunders, PU, Humberstone, CE, Robertson, EY, Wachsmuth, NB, Clark, SA, Mclean, BD, Friedmann-Bette, B, Neya, M, Pottgiesser, T, Schumacher, YO & Schmidt, WF 2013, 'Altitude training and haemoglobin mass from the optimised carbon monoxide rebreathing method determined by a meta-Analysis', British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 47, no. SUPPL. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Objective To characterise the time course of changes in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) in response to altitude exposure. Methods This meta-analysis uses raw data from 17 studies that used carbon monoxide rebreathing to determine Hbmass prealtitude, during altitude and postaltitude. Seven studies were classic altitude training, eight were live high train low (LHTL) and two mixed classic and LHTL. Separate linear-mixed models were fitted to the data from the 17 studies and the resultant estimates of the effects of altitude used in a random effects meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of altitude, with separate analyses during altitude and postaltitude. In addition, within-subject differences from the prealtitude phase for altitude participant and all the data on control participants were used to estimate the analytical SD. The 'true' between-subject response to altitude was estimated from the within-subject differences on altitude participants, between the prealtitude and during-altitude phases, together with the estimated analytical SD. Results During-altitude Hbmass was estimated to increase by ~1.1%/100 h for LHTL and classic altitude. Postaltitude Hbmass was estimated to be 3.3% higher than prealtitude values for up to 20 days. The withinsubject SD was constant at ~2% for up to 7 days between observations, indicative of analytical error. A 95% prediction interval for the 'true' response of an athlete exposed to 300 h of altitude was estimated to be 1.1-6%. Conclusions Camps as short as 2 weeks of classic and LHTL altitude will quite likely increase Hbmass and most athletes can expect benefit.
McLean, BD, Buttifant, D, Gore, CJ, White, K & Kemp, J 2013, 'Year-To-Year variability in haemoglobin mass response to two altitude training camps', British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 47, no. SUPPL. 1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Aim To quantify the year-to-year variability of altitudeinduced changes in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) in elite team-sport athletes. Methods 12 Australian-Footballers completed a 19-day (ALT1) and 18-day (ALT2) moderate altitude (~2100 m), training camp separated by 12 months. An additional 20 participants completed only one of the two training camps (ALT1 additional n=9, ALT2 additional n=11). Total Hbmass was assessed using carbon monoxide rebreathing before (PRE), after (POST1) and 4 weeks after each camp. The typical error of Hbmass for the pooled data of all 32 participants was 2.6%. A contemporary statistics analysis was used with the smallest worthwhile change set to 2% for Hbmass. Results POST1 Hbmass was very likely increased in ALT1 (3.6±1.6%, n=19; mean±~90 CL) as well as ALT2 (4.4±1.3%, n=23) with an individual responsiveness of 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. There was a small correlation between ALT1 and ALT2 (R=0.21, p=0.59) for a change in Hbmass, but a moderately inverse relationship between the change in Hbmass and initial relative Hbmass (g/kg (R=-0.51, p=0.04)). Conclusions Two preseason moderate altitude camps 1 year apart yielded a similar (4%) mean increase in Hbmass of elite footballers, with an individual responsiveness of approximately half the group mean effect, indicating that most players gained benefit. Nevertheless, the same individuals generally did not change their Hbmass consistently from year to year. Thus, a 'responder' or 'non-responder' to altitude for Hbmass does not appear to be a fixed trait.
McLean, BD, Buttifant, D, Gore, CJ, White, K, Liess, C & Kemp, J 2013, 'Physiological and performance responses to a preseason altitude-training camp in elite team-sport athletes', International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 391-399.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Purpose: Little research has been done on the physiological and performance effects of altitude training on team-sport athletes. Therefore, this study examined changes in 2000-m time-trial running performance (TT), hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), and intramuscular carnosine content of elite Australian Football (AF) players after a preseason altitude camp. Methods: Thirty elite AF players completed 19 days of living and training at either moderate altitude (∼2130 m; ALT, n = 21) or sea level (CON, n = 9). TT performance and Hb mass were assessed preintervention (PRE) and postintervention (POST1) in both groups and at 4 wk after returning to sea level (POST2) in ALT only. Results: Improvement in TT performance after altitude was likely 1.5% (± 4.8-90%CL) greater in ALT than in CON, with an individual responsiveness of 0.8%. Improvements in TT were maintained at POST2 in ALT. Hbmass after altitude was very likely increased in ALT compared with CON (2.8% ± 3.5%), with an individual responsiveness of 1.3%. Hbmass returned to baseline at POST2. Intramuscular carnosine did not change in either gastrocnemius or soleus from PRE to POST1. Conclusions: A preseason altitude camp improved TT performance and Hbmass in elite AF players to a magnitude similar to that demonstrated by elite endurance athletes undertaking altitude training. The individual responsiveness of both TT and Hb mass was approximately half the group mean effect, indicating that most players gained benefit. The maintenance of running performance for 4 wk, despite Hbmass returning to baseline, suggests that altitude training is a valuable preparation for AF players leading into the competitive season. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc.
McLean, BD, Petrucelli, C & Coyle, EF 2012, 'MAXIMAL POWER OUTPUT AND PERCEPTUAL FATIGUE RESPONSES DURING A DIVISION I FEMALE COLLEGIATE SOCCER SEASON', JOURNAL OF STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING RESEARCH, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 3189-3196.View/Download from: Publisher's site
McLean, BD, Coutts, AJ, Kelly, V, McGuigan, MR & Cormack, SJ 2010, 'Neuromuscular, endocrine, and perceptual fatigue responses during different length between-match microcycles in professional rugby league players', International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 367-383.
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in neuromuscular, perceptual and hormonal measures following professional rugby league matches during different length between-match microcycles. Methods: Twelve professional rugby league players from the same team were assessed for changes in countermovement jump (CMJ) performance (flight time and relative power), perceptual responses (fatigue, well-being and muscle soreness) and salivary hormone (testosterone [T] and cortisol [C]) levels during 5, 7 and 9 d between-match training microcycles. All training was prescribed by the club coaches and was monitored using the session-RPE method. Results: Lower mean daily training load was completed on the 5 d compared with the 7 and 9 d microcycles. CMJ flight time and relative power, perception of fatigue, overall well-being and muscle soreness were significantly reduced in the 48 h following the match in each microcycle (P < .05). Most CMJ variables returned to near baseline values following 4 d in each microcycle. Countermovement jump relative power was lower in the 7 d microcycle in comparison with the 9 d microcycle (P < .05). There was increased fatigue at 48 h in the 7 and 9 d microcycles (P < .05) but had returned to baseline in the 5 d microcycle. Salivary T and C did not change in response to the match. Discussion: Neuromuscular performance and perception of fatigue are reduced for at least 48 h following a rugby league match but can be recovered to baseline levels within 4 d. These findings show that with appropriate training, it is possible to recover neuromuscular and perceptual measures within 4 d after a rugby league match
Oklahoma City Thunder, National Basketball Association (NBA)
Nike Sport Research Lab