Zhu, H, Sun, HH, Jones, B, Ding, C & Guo, YJ 2019, 'Wideband Dual-Polarized Multiple Beam-Forming Antenna Arrays', IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
IEEE Wideband multi-beam antenna arrays based on three-beam Butler matrices are presented in this paper. The proposed beam-forming arrays are particularly suited to increasing the capacity of 4G long-term evolution (LTE) base stations. Although dual-polarized arrays are widely used in LTE base stations, analogue beam-forming arrays have not been realized before, due to the huge challenge of achieving wide operating bandwidth and stable array patterns. To tackle these problems, for the first time, we present a novel wideband multiple beam-forming antenna array based on Butler matrices. The described beam-forming networks produce three beams but the methods are applicable to larger networks. The essential part of the beam-forming array is a wideband three-beam Butler matrix, which comprises quadrature couplers and fixed wideband phase shifters. Wideband quadrature and phase shifters are developed using striplines, which provide the required power levels and phase differences at the outputs. To achieve the correct beamwidth and to obtain the required level of crossover between adjacent beams, beam-forming networks consisting of augmented three-beam Butler matrices using power dividers are presented to expand the number of output ports from three to five or six. Dual-polarized, three-beam antenna arrays with five and six elements covering LTE band are developed. Prototypes comprising beam-forming networks and arrays are tested according to LTE base station specification. The test results show close agreement with the simulation ones and compliance with LTE requirements. The designs presented are applicable to a wide range of wideband multi-beam arrays.
Ding, C, Jones, B, Guo, YJ & Qin, PY 2017, 'Wideband Matching of Full-Wavelength Dipole with Reflector for Base Station', IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 65, no. 10, pp. 5571-5576.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This communication introduces a wideband hybrid feeding method for full-wavelength dipole antennas with a reflector. A full-wavelength dipole is designed to cover the band from 698 to 960 MHz for cellular base station applications. Its matching circuit consists of a triple-tuned circuit and a quasi-quarter-wavelength impedance transformer. The proposed matching circuit can provide balanced feeding as a balun and has a compact size. The working mechanism and a complete design scheme of the proposed matching circuit are elaborated. The matching circuit is designed and optimized using a circuit theory model and then physically realized using microstrip lines based on full-wave simulation. The measured reflection coefficient |S11| is lesser than -14 dB across the entire band from 698 to 960 MHz, exhibiting a bandwidth of 32%. This is the first time that a wideband center-fed full-wavelength dipole is proposed.
Sun, H, Ding, C, Jones, B & Guo, YJ 2017, 'A Wideband Base Station Antenna Element with Stable Radiation Pattern and Reduced Beam Squint', IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 23022-23031.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 IEEE. This paper presents the design procedure, optimization strategy, theoretical analysis, and experimental results of a wideband dual-polarized base station antenna element with superior performance. The proposed antenna element consists of four electric folded dipoles arranged in an octagon shape that are excited simultaneously for each polarization. It provides ±45° slant-polarized radiation that meets all the requirements for base station antenna elements, including stable radiation patterns, low cross polarization level, high port-to-port isolation, and excellent matching across the wide band. The problem of beam squint for beam-tilted arrays is discussed and it is found that the geometry of this element serves to reduce beam squint. Experimental results show that this element has a wide bandwidth of 46.4% from 1.69 to 2.71 GHz with ≥15-dB return loss and 9.8 ± 0.9-dBi gain. Across this wide band, the variations of the half-power-beamwidths of the two polarizations are all within 66.5° ± 5.5°, the port-to-port isolation is >28 dB, the cross-polarization discrimination is >25 dB, and most importantly, the beam squint is <4° with a maximum 10° down-tilt.