Can supervise: YES
Various 2014, Advances in Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials, 1, Springer, Heidelberg.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Watson, M.P., Ben-Nissan, B. & West, S.T. 2009, It is Material - a practical guide to building materials and materials science for construction engineering and design, The Associates E-Press, Australia.
Duncan, G., Watson, M.P., West, S.T. & Ben-Nissan, B. 2008, OzBuild - A compendium of Australian domestic construction, The Associates E-Press, Australia.
OzBuild as a "Compendium of Australian Construction" as the anme implies is a comprehensive source of information for allt hose interested in Australian domestic construction. It is a valuable source of information for Building students of all levels, engineers, architects and designers.
Ozbek, B, Erdogan, B, Ekren, N, Oktar, FN, Akyol, S, Ben-Nissan, B, Sasmazel, HT, Kalkandelen, C, Mergen, A, Kuruca, SE, Ozen, G & Gunduz, O 2018, 'Production of the novel fibrous structure of poly(ε-caprolactone)/tri-calcium phosphate/hexagonal boron nitride composites for bone tissue engineering', Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 251-260.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017, Australian Ceramic Society. Nanofibrous composites of the poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) with different compositions were manufactured by using an economical and non-complicated method called electrospinning. Produced fibrous structures showed no bead formation and had a clean surface. Characterization of the composites showed that particles were successfully mixed with polymer phase. High cell activity of SaOS-2 cells on the composites was observed with SEM images. In addition, fibrous scaffolds are biocompatible with human bone tissue and are highly degradable.
Karacan, I, Gunduz, O, Ozyegin, LS, Gökce, H, Ben-Nissan, B, Akyol, S & Oktar, FN 2018, 'The natural nano-bioceramic powder production from organ pipe red coral (Tubipora musica) by a simple chemical conversion method', Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 317-329.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017, Australian Ceramic Society. The marine species are especially suited for the production of bioceramic nano-powders with natural methods for their use in the biomedical field. However, there are only very limited studies regarding the production and synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) nanomaterials from the marine structures. The structure of coral is very unique due to its similarity to bone because their structure consists of calcium carbonate that is the precursor for the synthesis of HAp. In this research, nano-bioceramic powders were produced from the organ pipe red coral (Tubipora musica) by two different simple chemical conversion methods under two different synthesis methods rather than the common hydrothermal method. The main advantages of these two methods are that they are simple and more economical in comparison to other methods used. All samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The size and shape of converted particles and structures were controlled by adjusting the calcination temperature and most importantly the agitation-mixing rate. According to XRD and SEM results, it can be concluded that the nano-scale monetite and other calcium phosphate powders were successfully obtained by these simple methods although retained calcium carbonate also observed due to the partial conversion.
Musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly have significantly increased due to the increase in an ageing population. The treatment of these diseases necessitates surgical procedures, including total joint replacements such as hip and knee joints. Over the years a number of treatment options have been specifically established which are either permanent or use temporary natural materials such as marine skeletons that possess unique architectural structure and chemical composition for the repair and regeneration of bone tissue. This review paper will give an overview of presently used materials and marine structures for hard tissue repair and regeneration, drugs of marine origin and other marine products which show potential for musculoskeletal treatment.
Green, DW, Ben-Nissan, B, Yoon, KS, Milthorpe, B & Jung, H-S 2017, 'Natural and Synthetic Coral Biomineralization for Human Bone Revitalization.', Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 43-54.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Coral skeletons can regenerate replacement human bone in nonload-bearing excavated skeletal locations. A combination of multiscale, interconnected pores and channels and highly bioactive surface chemistry has established corals as an important alternative to using healthy host bone replacements. Here, we highlight how coral skeletal systems are being remolded into new calcified structures or synthetic corals by biomimetic processes, as places for the organized permeation of bone tissue cells and blood vessels. Progressive technologies in coral aquaculture and self-organization inorganic chemistry are helping to modify natural corals and create synthetic coral architectures able to accelerate bone regeneration with proper host integration at more skeletal locations, adapted to recent surgical techniques and used to treat intrinsic skeletal deformities and metabolic conditions.
Ferrage, L, Bertrand, G, Lenormand, P, Grossin, D & Ben-Nissan, B 2017, 'A review of the additive manufacturing (3DP) of bioceramics: Alumina, zirconia (PSZ) and hydroxyapatite', Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 11-20.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The additive manufacturing of bioceramic parts has been investigated since the 1980s. This paper offers an overview of the present achievements in the production of alumina, zirconia and hydroxyapatite parts by means of selective laser sintering/melting of a powder bed or stereolithography. A focus is placed on these specific materials because of their widespread use in the biomedical field. It demonstrates that even though the manufacturing of parts with these processes is possible from pure bioceramics, the use of a binder (or another chemical adjuvant) is required in order to achieve good mechanical properties. Still, improvements in the raw material preparation and in the comprehension of the physical phenomena occurring during the processing remain necessary to be able to prevent the formation of cracks or to be able to control the porosity of the parts.
Pellegrino, G, Taraschi, V, Vercellotti, T, Ben-Nissan, B & Marchetti, C 2017, 'Three-dimensional implant positioning with a piezosurgery implant site preparation technique and an intraoral surgical navigation system: Case report', International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. e163-e165.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 by Quintessence Publishing Co Inc. This case report describes new implant site preparation techniques joining the benefits of using an intraoral navigation system to optimize three-dimensional implant site positioning in combination with an ultrasonic osteotomy. A report of five patients is presented, and the implant positions as planned in the navigation software with the postoperative scan image were compared. The preliminary results are useful, although further clinical studies with larger populations are needed to confirm these findings.
Rodriguez, GM, Bowen, J, Grossin, D, Ben-Nissan, B & Stamboulis, A 2017, 'Functionalisation of Ti6Al4V and hydroxyapatite surfaces with combined peptides based on KKLPDA and EEEEEEEE peptides.', Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 160, pp. 154-160.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Surface modifications are usually performed on titanium alloys to improve osteo-integration and surface bioactivity. Modifications such as alkaline and acid etching, or coating with bioactive materials such as hydroxyapatite, have previously been demonstrated. The aim of this work is to develop a peptide with combined titanium oxide and hydroxyapatite binders in order to achieve a biomimetic hydroxyapatite coating on titanium surfaces. The technology would also be applicable for the functionalisation of titanium and hydroxyapatite surfaces for selective protein adsorption, conjugation of antimicrobial peptides, and adsorption of specialised drugs for drug delivery. In this work, functionalisation of Ti6Al4V and hydroxyapatite surfaces was achieved using combined titanium-hydroxyapatite (Ti-Hap) peptides based on titanium peptide binder (KKLPDA) and hydroxyapatite peptide binder (EEEEEEEE). Homogeneous peptide coatings on Ti6Al4V surfaces were obtained after surface chemical treatments with a 30wt% aqueous solution of H2O2 for 24 and 48h. The treated titanium surfaces presented an average roughness of Sa=197nm (24h) and Sa=128nm (48h); an untreated mirror polished sample exhibited an Sa of 13nm. The advancing water contact angle of the titanium oxide layer after 1h of exposure to 30wt% aqueous solution of H2O2 was around 65°, decreasing gradually with time until it reached 35° after a 48h exposure, suggesting that the surface hydrophilicity increased over etching time. The presence of a lysine (L) amino acid in the sequence of the titanium binder resulted in fluorescence intensity roughly 16% higher compared with the arginine (R) amino acid analogue and therefore the lysine containing titanium peptide binder was used in this work. The Ti-Hap peptide KKLPDAEEEEEEEE (Ti-Hap1) was not adsorbed by the treated Ti6Al4V surfaces and therefore was modified. The modifications involved the inclusion of a glycine spacer between the binding terminals (Ti-Hap2) and the additio...
Karacan, I, Macha, I, Choi, G, Cazalbou, S & Ben-Nissan, B 2017, 'Antibiotic containing poly lactic acid/hydroxyapatite biocomposite coatings for dental implant applications', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 758 KEM, pp. 120-125.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. The biodegradable and biocompatible antibiotic containing thin film composites are very appropriate biomaterials as coating materials for dental implants because of their adjustable drug loading and release rates for the prevention of implant related infections. Coralline hydroxyapatite (HAp) was loaded with gentamicin antibiotics and combined with a biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) to form thin film composites. PLA-HAp, PLA-Gentamicin (GM) and PLA-HAp-GM composites were produced, and their dissolution studies were carried out in phosphate buffered saline under SINK conditions. It was observed that the coatings could be efficiently applied to titanium dental implants and the drug release rates can be efficiently controlled.
Macha, IJ, Ben-Nissan, B & Möller, W 2017, 'Kinetics and the theoretical aspects of drug release from PLA/HAp thin films', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 758 KEM, pp. 113-119.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. The theory of dissolution kinetics of gentamicin from polylactic acid-hydroxyapatite thin film composites is spotlighted with the combination of diffusion and polymer degradation modeling. The use of various mathematical models, characterizing diffusion, dissolution or/and erosion prevalence as well as a mix of dissolution-diffusion rate processes were employed in order to compare theory with experimental data. A number of factors influence the release kinetics of gentamicin from medical drug release systems and devices. It is difficult to have a single mathematical model that takes all these factors into account. It is shown that the degradation of the polymer matrix plays the biggest role in the release kinetics of polymer-ceramics thin film composites. It was also observed that multistage drug release form these devices depends also on the degradation kinetics of the polymer matrix. The effect of pH and device sizes were not studied but could also be of interest in future studies.
Macha, IJ, Cazalbou, S, Shimmon, R, Ben-Nissan, B & Milthorpe, B 2017, 'Development and dissolution studies of bisphosphonate (clodronate)-containing hydroxyapatite-polylactic acid biocomposites for slow drug delivery.', Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1723-1731.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
An increase in clinical demand on the controlled release of bisphosphonates (BPs) due to complications associated with systemic administration, has been the current driving force on the development of BP drug-release systems. Bisphosphonates have the ability to bind to divalent metal ions, such as Ca(2+) , in bone mineral and prevent bone resorption by influencing the apoptosis of osteoclasts. Localized delivery using biodegradable materials, such as polylactic acid (PLA) and hydroxyapatite (HAp), which are ideal in this approach, have been used in this study to investigate the dissolution of clodronate (non-nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate) in a new release system. The effects of coral structure-derived HAp and the release kinetics of the composites were evaluated. The release kinetics of clodronate from PLA-BP and PLA-HAp-BP systems seemed to follow the power law model described by Korsmeyer-Peppas. Drug release was quantified by (31) P-NMR with detection and quantification limits of 9.2 and 30.7 mM, respectively. The results suggest that these biocomposite systems could be tuned to release clodronate for both relatively short and prolonged period of time. In addition to drug delivery, the degradation of HAp supplies both Ca(2+) and phosphate ions that can help in bone mineralization. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Macha, IJ, Ben-Nissan, B, Santos, J, Cazalbou, S, Stamboulis, A, Grossin, D & Giordano, G 2017, 'Biocompatibility of a new biodegradable polymer-hydroxyapatite composite for biomedical applications', Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, vol. 38, pp. 72-77.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier B.V. The rise in the number of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) due to an increasingly aging population has led to a growing demand for medication to prevent and treat these diseases. An increased interest in the development of new drugs to allow treatment of these diseases in their very early stages is currently observed. The current approach on local direct delivery of medication and key minerals to support bone repair and regeneration at the defect site, from flexible degradable devices, seems to be an effective strategy. Polylactic acid (PLA) and microspheres of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (cHAp) were used to develop PLA thin film composites as drug delivery systems. The PLA provided flexibility and biodegradability of the systems, while coralline hydroxyapatite provided the required calcium and phosphate ions for bone regeneration. These coralline hydroxyapatite microspheres have a unique architecture of interconnected porosity, are bioactive in nature and suitable for drug loading and controlled slow drug release. The cell attachment and morphology of the PLA thin film composites were evaluated in vitro using cell cultures of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSC). It was shown that hADSC cells exhibited a strong attachment and proliferation on PLA thin film-cHAp composites, signifying high biocompatibility and a potential for osteointegration due to the presence of HAp.
Choi, G, Karacan, I, Cazalbou, S, Evans, L, Sinutok, S & Ben-Nissan, B 2017, 'Conversion of calcified algae (Halimeda sp) and hard coral (Porites sp) to Hydroxyapatite', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 758 KEM, pp. 157-161.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Calcium phosphate materials can be produced using a number of wet methods that are based on hydrothermal or co-precipitation methods that might use acidic or basic chemical environments. In our previously published works, we have investigated calcium phosphates such as monetite, hydroxyapatite, and whitlockite which were successfully produced by mechano-chemical methods and/or hydrothermal treatments from a range of marine shells and corals which were obtained from the Great Barrier Reef. The aim of the current work was to analyze and compare the mechanisms of conversion of one hard coral species and one calcified algae species from the Great Barrier Reef.
Macha, I, Grossin, D & Ben-Nissan, B 2016, 'Conversion of marine structures to calcium phosphate materials: Mechanisms of conversion using two different phosphate solutions', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 696, pp. 36-39.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Marine structure, coralline materials were converted to calcium phosphate using two different phosphate solutions. The aim was to study the conversion mechanisms under acidic and basic environment at moderate conditions of temperature. Crystal growth and morphology of converted corals were characterized by XRD and SEM respectively. The results suggested that under acidic conditions (H3PO4), dissolution and precipitation control and direct the crystal formation and morphology in which transition from plate like to rod like hydroxyapatite structure was favoured. Metastable phase such as monetite formed and transformed to HAp during reaction. During the first hour of the dissolution a monetite and hydroxyapatite mixture precipitates and then the full conversion to hydroxyapatite is observed. On the other hand, under basic conditions (NH4)2HPO4, just diffusional surface conversion of the calcium carbonate structure of coralline materials to hydroxyapatite and a very small amount of tri-calcium phosphate is observed. The mechanism can be classified as the solid-state topotactic ion-exchange reaction mechanism.
Ekren, N, Gunduz, O, Celik, S, Ayata, B, Sahin, YM, Chou, J, Ben-Nissan, B, Salman, S, Gokce, H & Oktar, FN 2016, 'Production of apatite from snail shells for biomedical engineering applications', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 696, pp. 51-56.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Bioceramics is very important application for dental and orthopedic procedures. Beside all these normal procedures traffic accidents are requiring increasing number of graft, prostheses and orthosis applications. Bioceramics can be produced from local and natural sources with various methods. Those can be produced from various bone structures through calcination (at high temperatures) or with diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl) application & freeze drying. Beside these methods calcite and aragonite structures like from sea shells and egg shells bioceramic production can be realized through mechanochemical processing via a simple hot-plate or ultrasonic equipment. A fresh water snail shell (Zebra Nerite Snail-Neritina natalensis) was prepared as bioceramic production source. The resulting hydroxyapatite (HA) powders were obtained without any impurities. At two varying temperature of 865 and 885 0C the snail shells was transformed to HA bioceramics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) were evaluated.
Inan, AT, Gunduz, O, Sahin, YM, Ekren, N, Salman, S, Chou, J, Ben-Nissan, B, Gokce, H & Oktar, FN 2016, 'Novel Bioceramic production via mechanochemical conversion from plate limpet (Tectura scutum)-Shells', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 696, pp. 45-50.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Calcium phosphates are very important biomaterials for orthopaedic and dental applications. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the important phases used for grafting. Those are produced from synthetic and natural sources with various methods. Especially nano-bioceramics can be produced through calcitic and aragonitic structures (i.e. mussel shells, sea snail shells, land snail shells and sea urchin shells). The plate limpet shells were used. The plate limpet is a gastropod, a soft-bodied invertebrate (an animal without a backbone) that is protected by a very hard, flattened conical shell. In this study the Plate Limpet (Tectura scutum) shells were obtained from a local gift store in Istanbul. The habitation of these limpets broadens from south Alaska down to California-Mexico. First the exact 97 % CaCO3 content was measured with thermal analysis (DTA/TGA). Here in this study agitation was preformed on a hot-plate. First the temperature was fixed at 80 °C for 15 min. Then equivalent amount to 1.92 mmol CaO H3PO4was added dropwise for affecting HA phase formation and the reaction was set on a hotplate for 8 hours. The dried sediments HA part was divided into 2 groups. One group was sintered to 835 °C and second group to 855 °C. Here x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses were performed. From the study various HA phases and TCP phases were obtained. A previous study done with Atlantic Deer Cowrie encourages nanobioceramic production from natural sources. This study proposes that mechanochemical agitation with very simple way for producing nano-sized calcium phosphates for future bioengineering scaffold applications.
Charoensuk, T, Sirisathitkul, C, Boonyang, U, Macha, IJ, Sirisathitkul, Y & Ben-Nissan, B 2016, 'Effects of phase additions on three dimensionally ordered macroporous structure of SiO2-CaO-P2O5 bioactive glasses', JOURNAL OF CERAMIC PROCESSING RESEARCH, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 742-746.
Chou, J, Ito, T, Otsuka, M, Ben-Nissan, B & Milthorpe, B 2016, 'The effectiveness of the controlled release of simvastatin from β-TCP macrosphere in the treatment of OVX mice.', Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. E195-E203.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Simvastatin, a cholesterol treatment drug, has been shown to stimulate bone regeneration. As such, there has been an increase interest in the development of suitable materials and systems for the delivery of simvastatin. Without the appropriate dosage of simvastatin, the therapeutic effects on bone growth will be significantly reduced. Furthermore, similar to many pharmaceutical compounds, at high concentration simvastatin can cause various adverse side-effects. Given the associated side-effects with the usage of simvastatin, the development of suitable controlled drug release system is pertinent. Calcium phosphate in particularly beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) has been extensively studied and used as a carrier material for drug delivery system. In this study, Foraminifera exoskeletons were used as calcium carbonate precursor materials, which were hydrothermally converted to β-TCP as a carrier material for simvastatin. Natural marine exoskeletons posses interconnected and uniformly porous network capable of improving drug loading and release rate. To prolong the release of simvastatin, an apatite coating was made around the β-TCP sample and in vitro release studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed a significant decrease in release rate. Osteoporotic mice were used to examine the compare therapeutic effectiveness of β-TCP, β-TCP with simvastatin, apatite-coated β-TCP with simvastatin and direct injection of simvastatin near the right femur of the mice. Localized and systemic effect were compared with the femur of the non-implanted side (left) and showed that β-TCP with or without simvastatin was able to induce significant bone formation over 6 weeks. Mechanical analysis showed that apatite-coated β-TCP with simvastatin produced significantly stronger bones compared with other experimental groups. This study shows that natural exoskeletons with the appropriate structure can be successfully used as a drug delivery system for simvastatin and can its release ca...
Chou, J, Komuro, M, Hao, J, Kuroda, S, Hattori, Y, Ben-Nissan, B, Milthorpe, B & Otsuka, M 2016, 'Bioresorbable zinc hydroxyapatite guided bone regeneration membrane for bone regeneration', Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 354-360.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Macha, IJ, Charvillat, C, Cazalbou, S, Grossin, D, Boonyang, U & Ben-Nissan, B 2016, 'Comparative study of coral conversion, Part 3: Intermediate products in the first half an hour', JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALIAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 177-182.
Green, DW, Ben-Nissan, B, Yoon, K-S, Milthorpe, B & Jung, H-S 2016, 'Bioinspired materials for regenerative medicine: going beyond the human archetypes', JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY B, vol. 4, no. 14, pp. 2396-2406.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ben-Nissan, B, Macha, I, Cazalbou, S & Choi, AH 2016, 'Calcium phosphate nanocoatings and nanocomposites, part 2: thin films for slow drug delivery and osteomyelitis', NANOMEDICINE, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 531-544.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Charoensuk, T, Sirisathitkul, C, Boonyang, U, Macha, IJ, Santos, J, Grossin, D & Ben-Nissan, B 2016, 'In vitro bioactivity and stem cells attachment of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous bioactive glass incorporating iron oxides', JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS, vol. 452, pp. 62-73.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Macha, IJ, Ben-Nissan, B, Santos, J, Cazalbou, S & Milthorpe, B 2016, 'Hydroxyapatite/PLA biocomposite thin films for slow drug delivery of antibiotics for the treatment of bone and implant-related infections', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 696, pp. 271-276.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Drug delivery systems were developed from coralline hydroxyapatite (HAp) and biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA). Gentamicin (GM) was loaded in either directly to PLA (PLAGM) or in HAp microspheres. Drug loaded HAp was used to make thin film composites (PLAHApGM). Dissolution studies were carried out in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The release profiles suggested that HAp particles improved drug stabilization and availability as well controlled the release rate. The release also displays a steady state release. In vitro studies in human Adipose Derived Stem Cells (hADSCs) showed substantial quantities of cells adhering to hydroxyapatite containing composites. The results suggested that the systems could be tailored to release different clinical active substances for a wide range of biomedical applications.
Macha, IJ, Cazalbou, S, Ben-Nissan, B, Harvey, KL & Milthorpe, B 2015, 'Marine Structure Derived Calcium Phosphate-Polymer Biocomposites for Local Antibiotic Delivery', MARINE DRUGS, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 666-680.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Macha, IJ, Ozyegin, LS, Oktar, FN & Ben-Nissan, B 2015, 'Conversion of Ostrich Eggshells (Struthio camelus) to Calcium Phosphates', JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALIAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 125-133.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Macha, IJ, Boonyang, U, Cazalbou, S, Ben-Nissan, B, Charvillat, C, Oktar, FN & Grossin, D 2015, 'Comparative study of Coral Conversion, Part 2: Microstructural evolution of calcium phosphate', Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 149-159.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Otsuka, Y, Takeuchi, M, Otsuka, M, Ben-Nissan, B, Grossin, D & Tanaka, H 2015, 'Effect of carbon dioxide on self-setting apatite cement formation from tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate; ATR-IR and chemoinformatics analysis', COLLOID AND POLYMER SCIENCE, vol. 293, no. 10, pp. 2781-2788.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ben-Nissan, B 2015, 'Instructions to authors for preparation of papers (in Times New Roman Size 18, Bold)', Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 171-172.
© 2015, The Australian Ceramic Society. The purpose of this document is to provide an example of how authors must format their manuscripts, which will be published in the Journal of Australian Ceramic Society. The abstract should be a self-contained and explicit overview of the paper with a clear statement of the principal conclusions reached. It should be at least 100 words, but must not exceed 150 words in length. It must be single spaced, even justified across the full width of the page and start two 10 point line spaces down from the author affiliation list. The entire paper must be prepared using 10 point Times New Roman font, with the exceptions of the title of the paper which must be Times New Roman 18 point in size and any superscripts which must be 12 point. The paper title and all section and sub-section headings, including the summary and keywords headings, must be bold.
Chou, J, Hao, J, Hatoyama, H, Ben-Nissan, B, Milthorpe, B & Otsuka, M 2015, 'Effect of biomimetic zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) on the growth and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells', Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 852-858.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Several studies have shown the effectiveness of zinc-tricalcium phosphate (Zn–TCP) for bone tissue engineering. In this study, marine calcareous foraminifera possessing uniform pore size distribution were hydrothermally converted to Zn–TCP. The ability of a scaffold to combine effectively with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a key tissue-engineering aim. In order to demonstrate the osteogenic ability of MSCs with Zn–TCP, the scaffolds were cultured in an osteogenic induction medium to elicit an osteoblastic response. The physicochemical properties of Zn–TCP were characterized by XRD, FT–IR and ICP–MS. MSCs were aspirated from rat femurs and cultured for 3 days before indirectly placing four samples into each respective well. After culture for 7, 10 and 14 days, osteoblastic differentiation was evaluated using alizarin red S stain, measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, cell numbers and cell viability. XRD and FT–IR patterns both showed the replacement of CO32– with PO43–. Chemical analysis showed zinc incorporation of 5 mol%. Significant increases in cell numbers were observed at 10 and 14 days in the Zn–TCP group, while maintaining high levels of cell viability (> 90%). ALP activity in the Zn–TCP group was statistically higher at 10 days. Alizarin red S staining also showed significantly higher levels of calcium mineralization in Zn–TCP compared with the control groups. This study showed that MSCs in the presence of biomimetically derived Zn–TCP can accelerate their differentiation to osteoblasts and could potentially be useful as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering.
Sahin, YM, Gunduz, O, Bulut, B, Ozyegin, LS, Gokce, H, Agaogullari, D, Chou, J, Kayali, ES, Ben-Nissan, B & Oktar, FN 2015, 'Nano-Bioceramic Synthesis from Tropical Sea Snail Shells (Tiger Cowrie - Cypraea Tigris) with Simple Chemical Treatment', ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 1055-1058.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Oktar, FN, Gokce, H, Gunduz, O, Sahin, YM, Agaogullari, D, Turner, IG, Ozyegin, LS & Ben-Nissan, B 2015, 'Bioceramic production from giant purple barnacle (Megabalanus tintinnabulum)', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 631, pp. 137-142.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In this study the structural and chemical properties of barnacle shell based bioceramic materials (i.e. hydroxyapatite, whitlockite, monetite and other phases) were produced by using mechano-chemical (hot-plate) conversion method. Cleaned barnacle shells were ball milled down to <75μm in diameter. Differential thermal and gravimetric analyses (DTA/TGA) were performed to determine the exact CaCO3 content. Sample batches of 2g were prepared from the fine powders produced. For each batch, the required volume of an aqueous H3PO4 solution was calculated in order to set the stoichiometric molar ratio of Ca/P equal to 1.5 for β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or to 1.667 for hydroxyapatite (HA). The temperature was set to 80°C for 15 minutes to complete the process. After the titration of the equivalent amount of H3PO4 into the prepared solution, agitation was carried out on a hot-plate (i.e. mechano-chemical processing) for 8 hours. The sediments formed were dried and the resulting TCP and HA powders were calcined at 400°C and 800°C respectively. For complete characterization of the bioceramics produced, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were carried out. The current study proposes a simple, economic and time efficient method for nano-bioceramic production.
Choi, AH & Ben-Nissan, B 2015, 'Calcium phosphate nanocoatings and nanocomposites, part I: recent developments and advancements in tissue engineering and bioimaging', NANOMEDICINE, vol. 10, no. 14, pp. 2249-2261.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Choi, AH, Conway, RC, Taraschi, V & Ben-Nissan, B 2015, 'Biomechanics and functional distortion of the human mandible.', Journal of investigative and clinical dentistry, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 241-251.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The reaction to the use of finite element analysis (FEA) in the study of the human body has been particularly enthusiastic. Of equal and challenging complexity is the investigation of load/stress distribution and morphological distortion of the human mandible under functional loads. Furthermore, the mandible also impacts directly on body function and esthetics, playing a vital role, such as mastication and speech. The application of FEA to the biomechanical investigation of the oral systems, such as human teeth and mandibular bone remodeling, began in the early 1970s. The clinical significance of jaw deformation is unknown. The primary concern is that deformation might result in an ill-fitting superstructure or the creation of harmful strains in the patient-implant complex. Although mandibular implant treatment has a high success rate, the possibility of failure caused by these dimensional changes and the related micromotion cannot be ignored.
Chou, J, Austin, C, Doble, P, Ben-Nissan, B & Milthorpe, B 2014, 'Trace elemental imaging of coralline hydroxyapatite by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy', JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 515-520.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Kohan, L, Field, C, Kerr, D & Ben-Nissan, B 2014, 'Femoral neck remodelling after hip resurfacing surgery: A radiological study', ANZ Journal of Surgery, vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 639-642.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Background: Narrowing of the femoral neck under the femoral component of the hip resurfacing has been noted previously and has raised concern. In this study we examined the X-rays of patients following Birmingham hip resurfacing surgery at 6-years follow-up. Methods: Bony changes proximally and distally were measured. Fifty-two patients were available for evaluation. Results: There were 40 (76.9%) men and 12 (23.1%) women, with a mean age of 52 years (25-64). The unoperated contralateral femoral neck was measured as a control. We found femoral neck narrowing proximally in 82.7% of patients and distally in 26.9% and on the contralateral side in 54.5%. The average narrowing was 3.6%. Widening was observed proximally in 17.3% and distally in 73.1% and on the contralateral side in 45.5%. The average widening was 3.9%. Four of the 52 patients had proximal narrowing exceeding 10% of the femoral neck diameter, and one of the 52 patients had inferior narrowing exceeding 10%. Conclusion: Gender, body mass index, component size and age did not affect remodelling. We conclude that the observed findings are likely to be a manifestation of a generalized remodelling response in the femoral neck rather than a localized and isolated narrowing at the junction of the component and the femoral neck. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Ben-Nissan, B 2014, 'Biomimetics and marine materials in drug delivery and tissue engineering: From natural role models to bone regeneration', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 587, pp. 229-232.View/Download from: Publisher's site
During the last two decades "learning from nature" has given us new directions for the use of natural organic and inorganic skeletons, drug delivery devices, new medical treatment methods initiating unique designs and devices ranging from nano to macro scale. These materials and designs have been instrumental to introduce the simplest remedies to vital problems in regenerative medicine, providing frameworks and highly accessible sources of osteopromotive analogues, naofibres, micro and macrospheres and mineralising proteins. This is exemplified by the biological effectiveness of marine structures such as corals and shells and sponge skeletons to house selfsustaining musculoskeletal tissues and to the promotion of bone formation by extracts of spongin and nacre seashells. Molecules pivotal to the regulation and guidance of bone morphogenesis and particularly the events in mineral metabolism and deposition similarly exist in the earliest marine organisms because they represent the first molecular components established for calcification, morphogenesis and wound healing. It emerges that bone morphogenic protein (BMP) moleculesthe main cluster of bone growth factors for human bone morphogenesis-are secreted by endodermal cells into the developing skeleton. Signalling proteins, TGF and Wnt-prime targets in bone therapeutics-are present in early marine sponge development. Furthermore, ready-made organic and inorganic marine skeletons possess a habitat suitable for proliferating added mesenchymal stem cell populations and promoting clinically acceptable bone formation. In this paper we review the nature, morphology and extent of this association and use of these structures for bone grafts, drug delivery and extracts such as proteins for regenerative medicine. As an example, in human biology a study of matrix vesicles will teach us valuable lessons on how proteins are captured and coated; and how the vesicle is able to dock and fuse with their target. We will describe si...
Gunduz, O, Sahin, YM, Agathopoulos, S, Ben-Nissan, B & Oktar, FN 2014, 'A New Method for Fabrication of Nanohydroxyapatite and TCP from the Sea Snail Cerithium vulgatum', JOURNAL OF NANOMATERIALS.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Macha, IJ, Ben-Nissan, B & Milthorpe, B 2014, 'Improvement of Elongation in Nanosurface Modified Bioglass/PLA Thin Film Composites', Current Nanoscience, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 200-204.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Chou, J, Valenzuela, S, Green, DW, Kohan, L, Milthorpe, B, Otsuka, M & Ben-Nissan, B 2014, 'Antibiotic delivery potential of nano and micro porous marine structures derived ß-TCP spheres for medical applications', Nanomedicine, vol. 1, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study gives a detailed evaluation of the antibiotic potential of a marine structure-based new
drug delivery system produced by hydrothermally converting foraminifera exoskeletons to b-tricalcium
phosphate (b-TCP) to treat clinical strain Staphylococcus aureus (MW2). Materials & methods: Foraminifera
precursor materials were hydrothermally converted at 250°C for 48 h to produce b-TCP and loaded with
gentamicin sulfate by adsorption for 24 h. The physicochemical properties of the material were characterized
by scanning electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction and for pore size distribution profiles. The
antibacterial efficacy of the system was tested for inhibition of S. aureus growth and in vitro cellular
behavior were tested with human osteoblast cells (MG63) for cell viability. Discussion: Pore size distribution
profiles showed that the structure allows the uniform distribution of nanopores of 1.5 nm and micropores
of approximately 5 μm. The in vitro release profile indicates an initial burst release of 5% of total
incorporated gentamicin. A time-delayed antibacterial efficacy test was designed to introduce the bacteria
at predetermined time intervals from 0 to 60 min and showed that gentamicin prevents S. aureus grown
in the same culture within 30 min, with no evidence of bacterial regrowth within 24 h. Human osteoblast
cell (MG63) studies showed no detrimental effect on cell viability. Conclusion: In the light of these results
nano- and micro-pores
Chou, J, Hao, J, Kuroda, S, Ben-Nissan, B, Milthorpe, B & Otsuka, M 2014, 'Bone regeneration of calvarial defect using marine calcareous-derived beta-tricalcium phosphate macrosphere', Journal of Tissue Engineering, vol. 5, pp. 1-7.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The aim of this study was to examine the bone regeneration properties of beta-tricalcium phosphate hydrothermally converted from foraminifera carbonate exoskeleton in the repair of rat calvarial defect. These natural materials possess unique interconnected porous network with uniform pore size distribution, which can be potentially advantageous. In total, 20 adult male Wistar rats received full-thickness calvarial defect with a diameter of 5 mm. The rate of newly formed bone was measured radiologically by X-ray and micro-computed tomography and by histologic examination. After 2 weeks, the beta-tricalcium phosphate group exhibited full closure of the defect site, while control group remained unrestored at the end of the 6-week experimentation. It was observed that the newly regenerated bone thickened over the course of the experiment in the beta-tricalcium phosphate group. No soft tissue reaction was observed around the beta-tricalcium phosphate implant and the rats remained healthy. These results showed that repair of the calvarial defect can be achieved by biomimetic beta-tricalcium phosphate macrospheres, which hold potential for application as bone grafts for bone augmentation surgeries.
Heness, GL, Cegla, RNR, Macha, IJ, Ben-Nissan, B, Grossin, D & Chung, RJ 2014, 'Comparative Study of Conversion of Coral with Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate and Orthophosphoric Acid to Produce Calcium Phosphates', Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 154-161.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Biogenic materials like corals, which are readily available, could be used to produce bioceramic materials and address significant advantages due to their unique structures and chemical compositions that contain Mg and Sr. Many conversion processes has been in the past proposed. In this work, a comparison study between the conversion of coral with orthophosphoric acid and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate was conducted. The resultant structures and compositions were studied using XRD, ICP-MS, SEM and FTIR. The results show that with phosphoric acid the coral was converted into mainly monetite (92%). The ammonium dihydrogen phosphate converted approximately 76% of the coral to hydroxyapatite through solid state reactions. The two routes proved to be effective in producing bioceramic materials from corals under moderate conditions of temperature with a basic condition favouring the yield of hydroxyapatite.
Heness, GL, Booth, N & Ben-Nissan, B 2014, 'Specimen Size Effects on the Compressive Strength of Porous, Open Cell Ceramics - Size Matters', Journal of the Australian Ceramics Society, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 176-179.
Choi, AH, Conway, RC & Ben-Nissan, B 2014, 'Finite-element modeling and analysis in nanomedicine and dentistry', Nanomedicine, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1681-1695.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This article aims to provide a brief background to the current applications of finite-element analysis (FEA) in nanomedicine and dentistry. FEA was introduced in orthopedic biomechanics in the 1970s in order to assess the stresses and deformation in human bones during functional loadings and in the design and analysis of implants. Since then, it has been applied with great frequency in orthopedics and dentistry in order to analyze issues such as implant design, bone remodeling and fracture healing, the mechanical properties of biomedical coatings on implants and the interactions at the bone–implant interface. More recently, FEA has been used in nanomedicine to study the mechanics of a single cell and to gain fundamental insights into how the particulate nature of blood influences nanoparticle delivery.
Chou, J, Valenzuela, SM, Santos, J, Bishop, D, Milthorpe, B, Green, DW, Otsuka, M & Ben-Nissan, B 2014, 'Strontium- and magnesium-enriched biomimetic beta-TCP macrospheres with potential for bone tissue morphogenesis', JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 771-778.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ben-Nissan, B 2013, 'Instructions to authors for preparation of papers (in times new roman size 18, bold)', Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 148-149.
The purpose of this document is to provide an example of how authors must format their manuscripts, which will be published in the Journal of Australian Ceramic Society. The. should be a self-contained and explicit overview of the paper with a clear statement of the principal conclusions reached. It should be at least 100 words, but must not exceed 150 words in length. It must be single spaced, even justified across the full width of the page and start two 10 point line spaces down from the author affiliation list. The entire paper must be prepared using 10 point Times New Roman font, with the exceptions of the title of the paper which must be Times New Roman 18 point in size and any superscripts which must be 12 point. The paper title and all section and sub-section headings, including the summary and keywords headings, must be bold.
Macha, IJ, Ozyegin, LS, Chou, J, Samur, R, Oktar, FN & Ben-Nissan, B 2013, 'An Alternative Synthesis Method for Di Calcium Phosphate (Monetite) Powders from Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) Shells.', Journal of the Australian Ceramics Society, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 122-128.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Marine species, such as corals, sea shells and nacres, attract special interest in bioceramics field for bone graft, bone cements and drug delivery applications. Most of the marine structures are made up of pure calcium carbonate (calcite or aragonite) with a very small amount of an organic matrix. In the past the most common way to transform these structures to hydroxyapatite was hydrothermal transformation method. This current work introduces a new approach for producing fine powders of calcium phosphates from Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) shells. A comparative study was carried out to investigate the differences of these powders under only hot plate heating and hot plate heating together with ultrasonic agitation while H3PO4 was added. The temperature of the hotplate was kept constant at 80 °C and then, H3PO4 was added drop wise into the solution for 2 hrs. The mixture was then placed into an oven at 100 °C for 24 hrs. They were further calcined at 800 °C for 3 hrs. XRD, FTIR and ICP-MS were used to identify the structure and composition. It was found that the final powders were predominantly monetite, with some tricalcium phosphate as a secondary phase. This relatively simple and efficient method can be easily applied to produce calcium phosphate precursor powders for a range of biomedical applications.
Chou, J, Hao, J, Ben-Nissan, B, Milthorpe, BK & Otsuka, M 2013, 'Coral Exoskeletons as a Precursor Material for the Development of Calcium Phosphate Drug Delivery System for Bone Tissue Engineering', Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 1662-1665.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
With the global rise in aging of populations, the occurrence of osteoporosis will continue to increase. Biomaterial and pharmaceutical scientists continue to develop innovative strategies and materials to address this disease. In this article, we describe a new perspective and approach into the use of coral exoskeletons as a precursor material to synthesize a calcium phosphate-based drug delivery system. Studies detailing the methodology of the conversion methods and the strategies and approach for the development of these novel drug delivery systems are described. Furthermore, in vivo studies in osteoporotic mice using a drug loaded and chemically modified version of the biomimetic delivery system showed significant cortical and cancellous bone increases. These studies support the notion and the rationale for future research and development of the use of coral exoskeletons as materials for drug delivery applications
Samur, R, Ozyegin, L, Agaogullari, D, Oktar, F, Agathopoulos, S, Kalkandelen, C, Duman, I & Ben-Nissan, B 2013, 'Calcium Phosphate Formation From Sea Urchin - (brissus Latecarinatus) Via Modified Mechano-chemical (ultrasonic) Conversion Method', Metalurgija, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 375-378.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This study aims to produce apatite structures, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and fluorapatite (FA), from precursor calcium phosphates of biological origin, namely from sea urchin, with mechano-chemical stirring and hot-plating conversion method. The produc
Chou, J, Ito, T, Otsuka, M, Ben-Nissan, B & Milthorpe, BK 2013, 'Simvastatin-loaded Beta-tCP Drug Delivery System Induces Bone Formation And Prevents Rhabdomyolysis In OVX Mice', Advanced Healthcare Materials, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 678-681.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Bone formation and regeneration is a prolonged process that requires a slow drug release system to assist in the long-term recovery. A drug-delivery system is developed that allows for the controlled release of simvastin, without exhibiting the side effects associated with high concentrations of simvastatin, and is still capable of inducing constant bone formation.
Chou, J, Ito, T, Otsuka, M, Ben-Nissan, B & Milthorpe, BK 2013, 'The Controlled Release Of Simvastatin From Biomimetic Macrospheres', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 529-530, pp. 461-464.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Simvastatin has been shown to succesfully stimulate bone regeneration and attention has being focussed on developing appropriate delivery carriers for its release. The challenge of deliverying therapeutic concentration of pharmaceutical compunds has bein
Chou, J, Hao, J, Hatoyama, H, Ben-Nissan, B, Milthorpe, BK & Otsuka, M 2013, 'The therapeutic effect on bone mineral formation from biomimetic zinc containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) in zinc-deficient osteoporotic mice', PLoS One, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. e71821-e71821.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of biomimetic zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) produced by hydrothermally converting calcium carbonate exoskeletons from foraminifera, in the treatment of osteoporotic mice. X-Ray powder diffraction showed crystallographic structures matching JCPDS profile for tricalcium phosphate. Mass spectroscopy used to calculate total composition amount showed similar amount of calcium (5×104 µg/g) and phosphate (4×104 ppm) after conversion and the presence of zinc (5.18×103 µg/g). In vitro zinc release showed no release in PBS buffer and <1% zinc release in 7 days. In vivo evaluation was done in ovariectomized mice by implanting the ZnTCP samples in the soft tissues near the right femur bone for four weeks. Thirty ddY mice (5 weeks old, average weight of 21 g) were divided into six experimental groups (normal, sham, OVX, ß-TCP, ZnTCP and direct injection of zinc). CT images were taken every two weeks where the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were calculated by software based on CT images. The ZnTCP group exhibits cortical and cancellous bone growth of 45% and 20% respectively. While sham, OVX and ß-TCP suffered from bone loss. A correlation was made between the significant body weight increase in ZnTCP with the significant increase in plasma zinc level compared with OVX. The presented results indicate that biomimetic ZnTCP were effective in preventing and treating bone loss in osteoporotic mice model.
Oktar, F, Agathopoulos, S, Ozyegin, L, Turner, I, Gunduz, O, Demirkol, N, Bruck, S, Ben-Nissan, B, Samur, R, Kayali, E & Aktas, C 2013, 'Nano-bioceramic production via mechano-chemical conversion (Ultrasonication)', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 529-530, no. 1, pp. 609-614.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The production of nano-calcium phosphate powders, such as HA (hydroxyapatite), from synthetic chemicals can be expensive and time consuming. The skeleton or shells of sea creatures (e.g. sea urchins, shells, corals) could be an alternative source of mate
Ben-Nissan, B, Choi, AH & Bendavid, A 2013, 'Mechanical properties of inorganic biomedical thin films and their corresponding testing methods', Surface & Coatings Technology, vol. 233, no. 1, pp. 39-48.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Coatings on implants are aimed to achieve some or all of the improvements in abrasion, corrosion resistance, metal ion release protection, increased bioactivity, biocompatibility, and ultimately an improved environment and structure for new bone attachme
Choi, AH, Ben-Nissan, B, Matinlinna, J & Conway, R 2013, 'Current Perspectives: Calcium Phosphate Nanocoatings and Nanocomposite Coatings in Dentistry', Journal of Dental Research, vol. 92, no. 10, pp. 853-859.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The purpose of coatings on implants is to achieve some or all of the improvements in biocompatibility, bioactivity, and increased protection from the release of harmful or unnecessary metal ions. During the last decade, there has been substantially incre
Choi, AH, Matinlinna, J & Ben-Nissan, B 2013, 'Effects of micromovement on the changes in stress distribution of partially stabilized zirconia (PS-ZrO2) dental implants and bridge during clenching: A three-dimensional finite element analysis', Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, vol. 71, pp. 72-81.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Objective. This investigation aims to evaluate the changes in stress magnitudes and distributions on Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PS-ZrO2) dental implants and bridges and on the mandible caused by fibrous encapsulations during clenching. Materials and methods. Four 3.26 mm diameter PS-ZrO2 dental implants with lengths of 12 mm were modelled and placed in the second premolar and first molar region on both sides of the mandible model. A rigid zirconia bridge with a thickness of 0.5 mm connects the PS-ZrO2 dental implants placed in the second premolar and first molar. Four periodontal ligament (PDL) case studies were examined: PDL in the second premolars; PDL in the first molars; PDL in both the second premolars and first molars; and no PDL present. Results. The results reveal the magnitudes and distributions of stresses on the dental implants and connecting bridges were governed by the PDLs. A significant drop in stress levels were recorded when the PDL encapsulates the roots of the dental implants. Of the four PDL case studies, it was found that when the PDLs are present in both the second premolars and first molars the lowest stress magnitudes are generated. The analysis also revealed that, during the healing process after implant insertion and the result of fibrous encapsulation, the dental implant system will experience a varying amount of stress levels. Conclusion. This study was intended to produce more insight into the influence of the PDL on the changes in stress distribution on the dental implant system during clenching.
Chou, J, Green, DW, Singh, K, Hao, J, Ben-Nissan, B & Milthorpe, BK 2013, 'Adipose Stem Cell Coating of Biomimetic ß-TCP Macrospheres by Use of Laboratory Centrifuge', BioResearch Open Access, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 67-71.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Biomimetic materials such as coral exoskeletons possess unique architectural structures with a uniform and interconnected porous network that can be beneficial as a scaffold material. In addition, these marine structures can be hydrothermally converted to calcium phosphates, while retaining the original structural properties. The ability of biomaterials to stimulate the local microenvironment is one of the main focuses in tissue engineering, and directly coating the scaffold with stem cells facilitates future potential applications in therapeutics and regenerative medicine. In this article we describe a new and simple method that uses a laboratory centrifuge to coat hydrothermally derived beta-tricalcium phosphate macrospheres from coral exoskeleton with stem cells. In this research the optimal seeding duration and speed were determined to be 1?min and 700 g. Scanning electron micrographs showed complete surface coverage by stem cells within 7 days of seeding. This study constitutes an important step toward achieving functional tissue-engineered implants by increasing our understanding of the influence of dynamic parameters on the efficiency and distribution of stem cell attachment to biomimetic materials and how stem cells interact with biomimetic materials.
Green, DW, Padula, M, Santos, J, Chou, J, Milthorpe, BK & Ben-Nissan, B 2013, 'A Therapeutic Potential for Marine Skeletal Proteins in Bone Regeneration.', Marine Drugs, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1203-1220.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A vital ingredient for engineering bone tissue, in the culture dish, is the use of recombinant matrix and growth proteins to help accelerate the growth of cultivated tissues into clinically acceptable quantities. The skeletal organic matrices of calcifying marine invertebrates are an untouched potential source of such growth inducing proteins. They have the advantage of being ready-made and retain the native state of the original protein. Striking evidence shows that skeleton building bone morphogenic protein-2/4 (BMP) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) exist within various marine invertebrates such as, corals. Best practice mariculture and the latest innovations in long-term marine invertebrate cell cultivation can be implemented to ensure that these proteins are produced sustainably and supplied continuously. This also guarantees that coral reef habitats are not damaged during the collection of specimens. Potential proteins for bone repair, either extracted from the skeleton or derived from cultivated tissues, can be identified, evaluated and retrieved using chromatography, cell assays and proteomic methods. Due to the current evidence for bone matrix protein analogues in marine invertebrates, together with the methods established for their production and retrieval there is a genuine prospect that they can be used to regenerate living bone for potential clinical use.
Chou, J, Hao, J, Kuroda, S, Bishop, DP, Ben-Nissan, B, Milthorpe, BK & Otsuka, M 2013, 'Bone regeneration of rat tibial defect by zinc-tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP) from porous Foraminifera carbonate macrospheres', Marine Drugs, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 5148-5158.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Foraminifera carbonate exoskeleton was hydrothermally converted to biocompatible and biodegradable zinc-tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP) as an alternative biomimetic material for bone fracture repair. Zn-TCP samples implanted in a rat tibial defect model for eight weeks were compared with unfilled defect and beta-tricalcium phosphate showing accelerated bone regeneration compared with the control groups, with statistically significant bone mineral density and bone mineral content growth. CT images of the defect showed restoration of cancellous bone in Zn-TCP and only minimal growth in control group. Histological slices reveal bone in-growth within the pores and porous chamber of the material detailing good bone-material integration with the presence of blood vessels. These results exhibit the future potential of biomimetic Zn-TCP as bone grafts for bone fracture repair.
Chou, J, Ito, T, Bishop, D, Otsuka, M, Ben-Nissan, B & Milthorpe, B 2013, 'Controlled release of simvastatin from biomimetic β-TCP drug delivery system.', PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-6.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Simvastatin have been shown to induce bone formation and there is currently a urgent need to develop an appropriate delivery system to sustain the release of the drug to increase therapeutic efficacy whilst reducing side effects. In this study, a novel drug delivery system for simvastatin by means of hydrothermally converting marine exoskeletons to biocompatible beta-tricalcium phosphate was investigated. Furthermore, the release of simvastatin was controlled by the addition of an outer apatite coating layer. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mass spectroscopy confirming the conversion process. The in-vitro dissolution of key chemical compositional elements and the release of simvastatin were measured in simulated body fluid solution showing controlled release with reduction of approximately 25% compared with un-coated samples. This study shows the potential applications of marine structures as a drug delivery system for simvastatin.
Green, DW, Li, G, Milthorpe, BK & Ben-Nissan, B 2012, 'Adult stem cell coatings for regenerative medicine', Materials Today, vol. 15, no. 1-2, pp. 60-66.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Stem cells can become potent tools for the treatment of degenerative disorders such as heart failure, eye disease and osteoarthritis. Housing stem cells inside a hydrogel coating, directly deposited around them individually and in groups, may be an important solution to the problem of increasing stem cell viability and protection in cultivation. Such coatings can target regulatory proteins and genes for maintenance, differentiation and development into tissues. Already polymer coatings are being applied directly to protect insulin producing pancreatic islet cells in the hope of treating type I diabetes. Here, we review current emerging developments in adult mesenchymal stem cell nanocoating and microcoating techniques and assess their unique practical engineering, biological and potential clinical advantages.
Choi, AH, Matinlinna, J & Ben-Nissan, B 2012, 'Finite element stress analysis of Ti-6Al-4V and partially stabilized zirconia dental implant during clenching', Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 353-361.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Objective. The purpose of this paper is to compare the differences in stress between Ti-6Al-4V and PS-ZrO2 dental implant during clenching and whether these changes are clinically signi?cant to limit the use of zirconia in oral implantology. Materials and methods. The model geometry was derived from position measurements taken from 28 diamond blade cut cross-sections of an average size human adult edentulous mandible and generated using a special sequencing method. Data on anatomical, structural, functional aspects and material properties were obtained from measurements and published data. Ti- 6Al-4V and PS-ZrO2 dental implants were modelled as cylindrical structure with a diameter of 3.26 mm and length of 12.00 mm was placed in the ?rst molar region on the right hemimandible. Results. The analysis revealed an increase of 23% in the averaged tensile and compressive stress and an increase of 8% in the averaged Von Mises stress were recorded in the boneimplant interface when PS-ZrO2 dental implant was used instead of Ti-6Al-4V dental implant. The results also revealed only relatively low levels of stresses were transferred from the implant to the surrounding cortical and cancellous bone, with the majority of the stresses transferred to the cortical bone. Conclusion. Even though high magnitudes of tensile, compressive and Von Mises stresses were recorded on the Ti-6Al-4V and PS-ZrO2 dental implants and in the surrounding osseous structures, the stresses may not be clinically critical since the mechanical properties of the implant material and the cortical and cancellous bone could withstand stress magnitudes far greater than those recorded in this analysis.
Chou, J, Ben-Nissan, B, Green, DD, Valenzuela, S & Kohan, L 2011, 'Targeting And Dissolution Characteristics Of Bone Forming And Antibacterial Drugs By Harnessing The Structure Of Microspherical Shells From Coral Beach Sand', Advanced Engineering Materials, vol. 13, no. 1-2, pp. 93-99.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Pharmaceutical drugs for the treatment of metabolic bone diseases lead to a number of side effects due to the their uncontrollable dispersion throughout the body.() Therefore, many groups directed their research to develop devices that are targeted to
Roest, RS, Latella, BA, Heness, GL & Ben-Nissan, B 2011, 'Adhesion of sol-gel derived hydroxyapatite nanocoatings on anodised pure titanium and titanium (Ti6Al4V) alloy substrates', Surface & Coatings Technology, vol. 205, no. 11, pp. 3520-3529.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The mechanical properties and adhesion behaviour of sol-gel derived hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocoatings on commercially pure (cp) titanium (Ti) and Ti6Al4V alloy have been determined and related to anodising treatment. The surface roughness, wetting and coating characteristics were examined using profilometry, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Nano-indentation was used to determine the Young's modulus and hardness of the coatings, while microtensile tests were used to introduce controlled strains in the coatings through the cp Ti and TiAl6V4 alloy substrates, from which the strength, fracture toughness and adhesion behaviour could be ascertained based on multiple cracking and delamination events. The toughness of the HA coatings is found to be slightly lower to that of equivalent bulk pure HA ceramics. The substrate and the anodized layer thickness have the most influence on the interfacial adhesion of HA, with nanocoatings on Ti6Al4V exhibiting superior interfacial bonding in comparison to cp Ti.
Chou, J, Green, DW & Ben-Nissan, B 2010, 'New slow drug delivery materials and systems for biomedical applications', Materials Australia, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 37-41.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cordingley, RL, Kohan, L & Ben-Nissan, B 2010, 'What Happens To Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density After Hip Resurfacing Surgery?', Journal Of Bone And Joint Surgery-British Volume, vol. 92b, no. 12, pp. 1648-1653.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The major advantage of hip resurfacing is the decreased amount of bone resection compared with a standard total hip replacement. Fracture of the femoral neck is the most common early complication and poor bone quality is a major risk factor. We undertook a prospective consecutive case control study examining the effect of bone mineral density changes in patients undergoing hip resurfacing surgery. A total of 423 patients were recruited with a mean age of 54 years (24 to 87). Recruitment for this study was dependent on pre-operative bilateral femoral bone mineral density results not being osteoporotic. The operated and non-operated hips were assessed. Bone mineral density studies were repeated over a two-year period. The results showed no significant deterioration in the bone mineral density in the superolateral region in the femoral neck, during that period.
Chou, J, Shimmon, R & Ben-Nissan, B 2009, 'Bisphosphonate determination using H-1-NMR spectroscopy for biomedical applications', Journal Of Tissue Engineering And Regenerative Medicine, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 92-96.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Bisphosphonate is known to be a very active drug in the treatment of osteoporosis and bone regeneration. A new method has been developed, utilizing nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify and measure the amount of bisphosphonate in solution. A standard reference with similar functional group to that of the bisphosphonate was chosen and applied in the experimentation. The results showed that the use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-1-NMR) in determining the solvent residues of various pharmaceutical drugs has proved to be effective. Unlike chromatography, it is possible to use a universal reference standard as an internal standard assayed by quantitative NMR. Using the same theory, this method is capable of both identifying and quantifying the bisphosphonate in various solutions. This paper is the first publication showing this unique measurement method, which can be used in a range of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.
Nowak, D, Florek, M, Kwiatek, W, Lekki, J, Chevallier, P, Hacura, A, Wrzalik, R, Ben-Nissan, B, Van Grieken, R & Kuczumow, A 2009, 'Morphology and the chemical make-up of the inorganic components of black corals', Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 1029-1038.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Black corals (Cnidaria, Antipatharia) from three different sources were investigated with the aim of detecting inorganic components and their morphology. In general, the skeleton of black corals was composed of the chitin fibrils admixed with peptides and the chitin presence was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) and microRaman Microscopy, the latter giving the opportunity of tracing single fibrils and their location. The composition and concentrations of the inorganic components of the black corals were measured, using a scanning electron microprobe and micro-Particle Induced X-ray Emission (mu-PIXE). The application of such instruments enabled the estimation of the constituent distributions in a microscale. The mapping option was the most useful technique of making analyses in these studies, just to reveal the composition of chamber-like cells. Analysis of the morphology and microstructure showed that there were three distinct regions within the coral: a core and the cells encircled with adjacent interface gluing strips. The majority of the elements analyzed were selectively distributed and segregated in a striking way in mentioned distinctive zones of the skeleton and it was detected for the first time. The core area was characterized by the relatively elevated concentrations of Ca. The measurements gave extremely clear images of the distribution of particular elements in the skeletal tissue, with I, Ca, K and Fe much more concentrated in the gluing zones, while C, N, Na and Mg present in the interiors of particular skeletal cells. The distribution of some elements (Mg, Fe) and some compounds (chitin) and functional groups (S-S, C-I) allows differentiating the biological and mechanical functions of particular fragments of the rods
Kealley, CS, Latella, BA, Van Riessen, A, Elcombe, M & Ben-Nissan, B 2008, 'Micro- and Nano-Indentation of a Hydroxyapatite-Carbon Nanotube Composite', Journal of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 3936-3941.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The mechanical properties of pure synthetic hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-carbon nanotube composites were examined. Vickers microhardness and nanoindentation using a Berkovich tipped indenter were used to determine the hardness, fracture toughness an
Lewis, KC, Valenzuela, S & Ben-Nissan, B 2008, 'Changes in the Activity of Osteoblast Like Cells with Sol-Gel Derived Hydroxyapatite and Zirconia Nanocoatings', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 361-363, no. 1, pp. 633-636.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
When producing implant materials, achievement of optimal bioactivity and biocompatibility are essential. Nanocoatings can provide an efficient cost effective way to alter the interactions of the implant material with its destined host environment. Nanocoatings of sol-gel derived carbonated hydroxyapatite (HAp) and zirconia were produced in this study. The surfaces were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and light microscopy. Cell adhesion, proliferation and viability, as well as expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP is an indicator of bone formation) were assessed as indicators of biocompatibility. Our results have shown that sol-gel derived nano crystalline HAp acts as an ideal surface for implant coatings.
Heness, GL, Booth, NG & Ben-Nissan, B 2008, 'Does size matter? the effect of volume on the compressive strength of open cell brittle ceramics', Advanced Materials Research, vol. 41-42, pp. 221-226.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This study investigates the effect of specimen volume o the compressive strenmgth of open cell brittle ceramics. A siries of unconfined compression tests were carried out on specimens ranging in volume. The crushing strength and apparent stiffness were measured and these results are correlated with the volume of material stressed. It was found that as the volume of material tested decreased the strength decreased.
Roest, RS, Atanacio, AJ, Latella, BA, Wuhrer, R & Ben-Nissan, B 2007, 'An investigation of sol gel coated zirconia thin films on anodised titanium substrate by secondary ion mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy', Materials forum, vol. 31, pp. 160-163.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
White cast iorn ares used extensively throughout the mining industry for their wear resistant properties. Since their original development in the early 1900s researchers have continued to develop a range of white cast iron composites with varying degrees of hardness, toughness or corrosion resistance.
Chalasani, R, Poole-Warren, LA, Conway, RM & Ben-Nissan, B 2007, 'Porous Orbital Implants In Enucleation: A Systematic Review', Survey Of Ophthalmology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 145-155.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Orbital implants have been used for cosmesis following surgical removal of the eyeball, or enucleation, for over a century. Implant design has progressed significantly in recent years with the use of porous devices, with the theoretical advantages of red
Choi, AH & Ben-Nissan, B 2007, 'Sol-gel Production Of Bioactive Nanocoatings For Medical Applications. Part II: Current Research And Development', Nanomedicine, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 51-61.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Over the years, the use of hydroxyapatite as coatings for medical devices and drug-delivery systems has gone through a revolution - from being a rarity to being an absolute necessity. Without these coatings, many medical implants and devices would never
Chou, J, Ben-Nissan, B, Choi, AH, Wuhrer, R & Green, D 2007, 'Conversion of coral sand to calcium phosphate for biomedical applications', Journal of the Australasian Ceramic Society, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 44-48.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Coral sand grains were analysed using simultaneous differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA) Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). These techniques were performed to confirm the characteristics and properties as well as the composition of the coral sand grains. Imaging of the full surface topography were conducted inthe ESEM. After characterisation coral sand grains were treated for impurities and organic materials were subsequently removed. The materials were then converted to calcium phosphates utilising hydrothermal treatment. The results have shown that the coral sand grains were composed of calcium carbonate with a network of uniform inner porous structure. The ESEM has provided valuable information through the imaging of the samples which in turn allowed a comparison of the pore sizes before and after the hydrothermal treatment. The current study shows that the coral sand to be a promising source of converted calcium carbonate to calium phosphates for biomedical applications.
Roest, RS, Heness, GL, Latella, BA & Ben-Nissan, B 2006, 'Fracture toughness of nanoscale hydroxapatite coatings on titanium substrates', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 306-308, no. 1, pp. 1307-1312.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In the biomedical field, the surface modification of titanium aims to inhibit wear, reduce corrosion and ion release, and promote biocompatibility. Sol-gel-derived ceramic nanoscale coatings show promise due to their relative ease of production, ability
Kealley, CS, Ben-Nissan, B, Van Riessen, A & Elcombe, M 2006, 'Development of carbon nanotube reinforced hydroxyapatite bioceramics', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 309-311, no. 1, pp. 597-600.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper reports development of a production method to produce a composite material that is biocompatible, with high mechanical strength and resilience. The chemical precipitation conditions necessary for the production of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp
Kealley, CS, Elcombe, M, Van Riessen, A & Ben-Nissan, B 2006, 'Neutron characterisation of hydroxyapatite bioceramics', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 309-311, no. 1, pp. 61-64.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper reports neutron diffraction data and its analysis that characterise a biocompatible hydroxyapatite composite material. The neutron data has elucidated the crystal structure, and enabled the positions of the hydrogen atoms to be determined. The data also shows the improvement of crystallinity during the heat treatment process. An extension of the work involved looking at a hydroxyapatite - carbon nanotube composite material, and neutron diffraction has shown that the retention of the carbon nanotubes in the composite material has been successful. The nanotubes have had no affect on the hydroxyapatite structure.
Ramaswamy, Y, Ben-Nissan, B, Roest, RS, Haynes, D & Zreiqat, H 2006, 'Human osteoclasts behaviour on sol-gel derived carbonate hydroxyapatite coatings on anodized titanium alloy substrates', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 309-311, no. 1, pp. 709-712.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Titanium alloy has been used as a material for orthopaedic implants, however drawbacks still exist. Considerable efforts have been taken to modify the surface structure of the implant material and improve the biological performance. Previously we have de
Kealley, CS, Ben-Nissan, B, van Riessen, A & Elcombe, M 2006, 'Development of carbon nanotube-reinforced hydroxyapatite bioceramics', Physica B: Condensed Matter, vol. 385, no. SI, pp. 496-498.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper reports development of a production method to create a composite material that is biocompatible, which will have high mechanical strength and resilience, and be able to withstand exposure to the physiological environment. The chemical precipitation conditions necessary for the production of single-phase synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) and a HAp and carbon nanotube (CNT) composite material have been optimised. Neutron diffraction patterns collected before and after sintering show that the nanotubes have remained intact within the structure, while most of the remaining soot has burnt off. Small-angle neutron scattering, in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), also shows preservation of the CNTs. Hot isostatically pressed samples showed excellent densification. Neutron diffraction data has enabled the positions of the hydroxide bonds to be determined, and shown that the addition of the CNTs has had no effect on the structural parameters of the HAp phase, with the exception of a slight reduction in the unit cell parameter a.
Okano, H, Hasegawa, K, Ben-Nissan, B & Standard, OC 2006, 'Preparation of piezoelectric thin films and their applications to GHz band surface acoustic wave devices', Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 14-20.
Ben-Nissan, B & Choi, AH 2006, 'Sol-gel production of bioactive nanocoatings for medical applications. Part 1 An Introdction', Nanomedicine, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 311-319.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Coatings offer the possibility of modifying the surface properties of surgical-grade materials to achieve improvements in performance, reliability and biocompatibility. Sol-gel derived coatings demonstrate promise owing to their relative ease of production, ability to form a physically and chemically pure and uniform coating over complex geometric shapes and potential to deliver exceptional mechanical properties owing to their nanocrystalline structure. Other advantages unique to sol-gel include the production of a homogenous material, since mixing takes place on the atomic scale, and its relatively low processing temperature avoids decomposition of the coating materials and limits the damage ti metallic substrate materials as a result of exposure to elevated temperatures. A range of materials can eb adapted easily for a number of biomedical and engineering applciations.
Lewis, KC, Boonyang, U, Evans, LA, Siripaisarnpipat, S & Ben-Nissan, B 2006, 'A comparative study of Thai and Australian crocodile bone for use as a potential biomaterial', Bioceramics 18, Pts 1 And 2, Key Engineering Materials, vol. 309-311, no. 1, pp. 15-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This study aims to characterize the structure and properties of crocodile bone to assess the potential for use in biomedical applications. Crocodile bone samples obtained from Thailand (Crocodylus siamensis) and Australia (Crocodylus porosus), being the
Huggett, PG, Wuhrer, R, Ben-Nissan, B & Moran, K 2005, 'A novel metallurgical bonding process and microstructural analysis of ferrous alloy composites', Materials Forum, vol. 29, pp. 83-88.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
A group of ferrous alloy composites have veen produced using a novel vacuum casting process. The bonding and the interfacial analysis of these composites has been studied using various techniques including: optical microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis, X-ray mapping (XRM and electron back scattered diffraction (EBDS). A number of phase changes and unique microstructural features have been observed. Some of thes microsturctural features are the result of the solidification process, whilst other changes have resulted from diffusion of elements across the composite interface. This study demonstrates the uniqueness of the vacuum casting process as an efficient bonding process and the importance of comparing data from a variety of analytical techniques to enable a thorough model of the solidification and diffusion processes to be properly developed.
Nowak, D, Florek, M, Nowak, J, Kwiatek, W, Lekki, J, Zieba, E, Romero, PG, Ben-Nissan, B & Kuczumow, A 2005, 'Micro-spectrometric investigations of inorganic components of the black corals for biomedical applications', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 284-286, no. 1, pp. 297-300.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The distribution of about twenty inorganic elements was traced in the skeletons of black corals of the Anipathes salix species. Electron microprobe and PIXE mappings revealed the peculiar structure of this material, composed of the large cells (arranged in annual rings) surrounded by thin layers with an elevated level of iodine (up to 5%). Our current knowledge of the chemical composition of these corals' skeleton is not complete. Essentially the organic skeleton is saturated with inorganic elements and several of these could be comercially important. In fact, they have never been investigated for biomedical applications. In the preliminary current work, black corals from the Antipathes salix species were studied with the aim of detecting the inorganic components of their matrix and their suitability as biomedical materials.
Lewis, KC, Kealley, CS, Elcombe, M, Van Riessen, A & Ben-Nissan, B 2005, 'Neutron diffraction comparison of bone derived and synthetic hydroxyapatite', Journal of Australasian Ceramic Society, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 52-55.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper reports neutron diffraction data and its analysis of bone derived hydroxyapatite and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp). FTIR spectroscopy showed a number of changes in the bone derived hydroxyapatite as a function of temperature, and that firing at 600C provides an increased crystallinity without decomposition of the HAp. The neutron diffraction data has elucidated the crystal structure of both materials, and enabled the positions of the hydrogen atoms to be accurately determined, and the lattice parameters to be compared. The only noticeable difference was a slight reduction in the lattice parameter a, and in increase in c in the bone derived HAp material. This can be attributed to the residual carbonate phase. The data also shows the improvement of crystallinity of the bovine bone suring the heat treatment process.
Zreiqat, H, Roest, RS, Valenzuela, S, Milev, AS & Ben-Nissan, B 2005, 'Human bone derived cell (HBDC) behaviour of sol-gel derived carbonate hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium alloy substrates', Bioceramics, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 541-544.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Poor cell adhesion to orthopaedic and dental implants results in implant failure. Establishing and maintaining mature bone at the bone/device interface is critical to the long-term success of the prostheses. Considerable effort has been devoted to alter
Zreiqat, H, Valenzuela, S, Ben-Nissan, B, Roest, RS, Knabe, C, Radlanski, RJ, Renz, H & Evans, PA 2005, 'The effect of surface chemistry modification of titanium alloy on signalling pathways in human osteoblasts', Biomaterials, vol. 26, no. 36, pp. 7579-7586.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Establishing and maintaining mature bone at the bone-device interface is critical to the long-term success of prosthesis. Poor cell adhesion to orthopaedic and dental implants results in implant failure. Considerable effort has been devoted to alter the
Choi, AH, Ben-Nissan, B & Conway, RM 2005, 'Three-dimensional modelling and finite element analysis of the human mandible during clenching', Australian Dental Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 42-48.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Background. Until recently, very few papers have been published concerning the development, analysis and experimental verification of three-dimensional, finite element modelling of the human adult edentulous mandible. The purpose of this study was to imp
An improved understanding of the interactions at the nanoscale level between the bioceramics in medical implants and the hard or soft tissues in the human body could contribute significantly to the design of new-generation prostheses and postoperative patient management strategies. Overall, the benefits of advanced ceramic materials in biomedical applications have been universally accepted, specifically in terms of their strength, biocompatibility, hydrophilicity, and wear resistance in articulating joints. The continuous development of new-generation implants utilizing nanocoatings with novel nanosensors and devices is leading to better compatibility with human tissue and improved well-being and longevity for patients. This article gives a short overview of bioceramics and reexamines key issues of concern for processing and applying nanoceramics as biomaterials.
Milev, AS, Kannangara, GK, Ben-Nissan, B & Wilson, MA 2004, 'Temperature effects on a hydroxyapatite precursor solution', Journal Of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 108, no. 18, pp. 5516-5521.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy has been used to monitor synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) from diethyl hydrogen phosphonate and calcium diethoxide in solution at two different temperatures. Acetyl 2-hydroxyethyl phosphonate, bis(2-hydroxyethyl) phosphonate, and acetyl ethyl phosphonate have been identified for the first time in this reaction solution as intermediates. The formation of these compounds is shown to be crucial in controlling the phase purity of the final hydroxyapatite product. A possible mechanism for the formation of acetyl 2-hydroxyethyl phosphonate is discussed.
An improved understanding of the interactions at the anoscale level between the bioceramics in medical implants and the hard or soft tissues in the human body could contribute significantly to the design of new-generation prostheses and postoperative patient management strategies. Overall the benefits of advanced ceramic materials in biomedical applications have been universally accepted, specifically in terms of their strength, biocompatibility, hydrophilicity and wear resistance in articulating joints. The continuous development of new-generation impalnts untilising nanocoatings with novel nanosensors and devices is leaf=ding to better compatibility with human tissue and improved well-being and longevity for patients. This article gives a short oevrview odf bioceramics and reexamines key issues of concern for processing and applying nanosensors as biomaterials.
Overall, the benefits of advanced ceramic materials in biomedical applications have been universally appreciated, specifically, in terms of their strength, biocompatibility and wear resistance. However, the amount of supporting data is not large and the continuous development of new methods is pertinent for better understanding of the microstructure properties relationshp and in general, for obtaining new directives for thier further improvement. This paper gives an overview of some of the more innovative applications of bioceramics in medicine.
McCutcheon, A, Kannangara, GK, Wilson, MA & Ben-Nissan, B 2004, 'Preliminary analysis of pore distributions using NMR in natural coral and hydrothermally prepared hydroxyapatite', Journal of Materials Science, vol. 39, pp. 5711-5717.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Pore size distributions in an Australian coral from Goniopora sp have been measured by mercury intrusion, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A significant result is that NMR predicts nanopores which could be seen visibly. The methods give similar results as mercury intrusion for large pores around 100um but differ for smaller pores. Differences between NMR and mercury intrusion are equated using a non linear sigmoidal regression model. The NMR method was also compared with mercury intrusion methods to measure pore sizes on hydroxyapatite conversion products which have promise as bio-implants. Differences between samples due to errors in the methodology are discussed. Together all three methods are shown to complement each other.
Ben-Nissan, B. 2004, 'Nanocoated Converted Coral Meets High Structural Strength Requirement For Load-bearing Bone Graft Applications', MRS Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 611-611.
Overall, the benefits of advanced ceramic materials in biomedical applications have been universally appreciated, specifically, in terms of their strength, biocompatibility and wear resistance. However, the amount of supporting data is not large and the continuous development of new methods is pertinent for better understanding of the microstructureproperties relationship and, in general, for obtaining new directives for their further improvement. This paper gives an overview of some of the more innovative applications of bioceramics in medicine.
Clarke, IC, Manaka, M, Williams, PA, Pezzotti, G, Kim, YH, Ries, MD, Sugano, N, Sedel, L, Delauney, C, Ben-Nissan, B, Donaldson, T, Gustafson, GA & Green, DD 2003, 'Current status of zirconia used in total hip implants', The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - American Volume, vol. 85A, no. 4, pp. 73-84.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Cordingley, R.L., Kohan, L., Ben-Nissan, B. & Pezzotti, G. 2003, 'Aluminia and zirconia bioceramics in orthopaedic applications', Journal of the Australasian Ceramic Society, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 20-28.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Milev, AS, Kannangara, GK & Ben-Nissan, B 2003, 'Morphological stability of hydroxyapatite precursor', Materials Letters, vol. 57, no. 13-14, pp. 1960-1965.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ben-Nissan, B & Pezzotti, G 2002, 'Bioceramics: Processing routes and mechanical evaluation', Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, vol. 110, no. 1283, pp. 601-608.View/Download from: Publisher's site
An improved understanding of currently used bioceramics in human implants and in bone replacement materials could Contribute significantly to the design of new generation prostheses and post-operative patient management strategies. Overall, the benefits of advanced ceramic materials in biomedical applications have been universally appreciated, specifically, in terms of their strength, biocompatibility and wear resistance. However, the amount of supporting data is not large and the continuous development of new characterization tools is pertinent for better understanding of the microstructure-properties relationship and in general for obtaining new directives for their further improvement. This paper gives an overview and re-examines key-issues which concern both processing and applications of ceramics as biomaterials. With doing this, we attempt to bring to the attention of the ceramic community the issues in current bioceramics.
Southon, PD, Bartlett, JR, Woolfrey, JL & Ben-Nissan, B 2002, 'Formation and characterisation of an aqueous zirconium hydroxide colloid', Chemistry of Materials, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 4313-4319.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Among the wide variety of routes reported for the chemical synthesis of zirconia, the development of simple, aqueous sol-gel technology is of considerable interest for industrial-scale applications. In this study, zirconium hydroxide nanoparticles were produced by the controlled hydrolysis of zirconium carbonate in nitric acid, followed by gentle heating at 70 °C. Transparent, colorless gels were subsequently produced from the concentrated sols (500 g/L, oxide basis) by drying at ambient temperature. The nanoparticle sols and gels were characterized using a range of techniques, including EXAFS, Raman spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and SAXS, which revealed the presence of platelike particles of width 2.8 ± 0.4 nm and thickness 0.5 ± 0.1 nm. The platelets exhibit a surprisingly high degree of short-range ordering, and it is demonstrated that they are composed of stacked layers of two-dimensional [Zr(OH)4]n sheets, as proposed (but not established) in earlier studies. The speciation of the nitrate anions in the sols was also investigated by Raman and 14N NMR, which revealed that the majority of anions were closely associated with the nanoparticles (i.e., separated from the surface by several layers of coordinated water molecules), rather than coordinated directly to the surface. The role of such species in maintaining the stability of the nanoparticle sols is discussed.
Radchik, VS, Ben-Nissan, B & Muller, W 2002, 'Theoretical modelling of surface asperity depression into an elastic foundation under static loading', Journal of Tribology, vol. 124, no. N/A, pp. 852-856.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ben-Nissan, B & Pezzotti, G 2002, 'Bioceramics: processing routes and mechanisal evaluation', Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, vol. 110, no. 7, pp. 601-608.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Radchik, VS, Ben-Nissan, B & Muller, W 2002, 'Semi-graphical methods for the calculation of real areas of loaded contact by means of the Abbott-firestone bearing curve', Journal of Tribology, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 223-226.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ben-Nissan, B, Green, DD, Kannangara, GK, Chai, CS & Milev, AS 2001, 'P-31 NMR Studies of Diethyl Phosphite Derived Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite', Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, vol. 21, pp. 27-37.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of the intermediate species of sol derived from triethyl phosphite, calcium diethoxide and acetic acid. NMR spectral data revealed that the reaction proceeds via a dialkyl phosphite intermediate. The use of a dialkyl phosphite precursor (diethyl phosphite) with calcium diethoxide eliminated the aging time required in triethylphosphite method and offered an effective sol-gel procedure for monophasic hydroxyapatite.
Radchik, VS, Ben-Nissan, B & Muller, WJ 2001, 'The Graph-Analytical Method of Determination of the Actual Contact Area of the Rough Surface Using the Specified Curve of Abbot-Firestone', Friction And Wear Treniei-Izo s, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 282-288.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Hu, J, Russell, JJ, Ben-Nissan, B & Vago, R 2001, 'Production and Analysis of Hydroxyapatite fromAustralian Corals Via Hydrothermal Process', Journal of Materials Science Letters, vol. 20, pp. 85-87.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Hu, J., Fraser, R., Russell, J.J., Ben-Nissan, B. & Vago, R. 2000, 'Australian Coral as a Biomaterial: Characteristics', Journals of Materials Science & Technology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 591-595.
Miao, X. & Ben-Nissan, B. 2000, 'Microstructure and Propertiues of Zirconia-Alumina Nanolaminate Sol-Gel Coatings', Journal of Materials Science, vol. 35, no. 0, pp. 497-502.
Miao, X & Ben-Nissan, B 2000, 'Microstructure and properties of zirconia-alumina nanolaminate sol-gel coatings', Journal of Materials Science, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 497-502.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Zirconia-alumina multilayer nanolaminate coatings were applied on stainless steel 316 substrates by a sol-gel dipping method. The coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy. The hardness and elastic modulus, the wear resistance and the oxidation resistance of the coatings were measured and assessed. It was observed that the coatings possessed fine grains, fine pores and high retention of tetragonal zirconia phase. The coatings exhibited high hardness and elastic modulus as well as good resistance to oxidation at high temperatures. However, these properties may be influenced by the interactions at the coating/substrate interface.
Heness, GL, Ben-Nissan, B, Gan, L & Mai, Y 1999, 'Development of a finite element micromodel for metal matrix composites', Computational Materials Science, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 259-269.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A finite element micromodel has been developed based on real microstructures. The method of modelling is unique in that displacements calculated from large-specimen models are used as boundary conditions to model more accurately at the microstructural le
Chai, CS & Ben-Nissan, B 1999, 'Bioactive nanocrystalline sol-gel hydroxyapatite coatings', Journal of Materials Science-Materials in Medicine, vol. 10, pp. 465-469.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sol-gel technology offers an alternative technique for producing bioactive surfaces for improved bone attachment. Previous work indicated that monophasic hydroxyapatite coatings were difficult to produce. In the present work hydroxyapatite was synthesize
It has been established that hydroxyapatite coatings can be produced using an alkoxide based sol-gel technique. Previous work showed that in addition to hydroxyapatite other phases including CaO were observed. A critical factor in determining the composi
Paterson, M, Paterson, P & Ben-Nissan, B 1998, 'The Dependence Of Structural And Mechanical Properties On Film Thickness In Sol-gel Zirconia Films', Journal Of Materials Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 388-395.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The structure, morphology, and mechanical properties of sol-gel zirconia films have been examined using XRD, AES depth profiling, AFM, and ultramicro indentation. There is a systematic variation in the structure and morphology of the zirconia films with
Whittall, A, Chai, CS, Kannangara, GK, Ben-Nissan, B & Hanley, L 1998, 'Thin hydroxyapatite coatings via sol-gel synthesis', Journal Of Materials Science-materials In Medicine, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 839-843.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Production of hydroxyapatite coatings using an alkoxide-based sol-gel route requires control of solution aging time and heating schedule. P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate the changes during aging of the sol and thermal
Payten, WM, Ben-Nissan, B & Mercer, DJ 1998, 'Optimal topology design using a global self-organisational approach', International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 35, no. 3-4, pp. 219-237.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A method based on a self-organisational approach has been developed, where a local state operator defines the state of each finite element at each iteration. The algorithm is based on the principle of local adaptation with global feedback in the form of a derivative equation based on von Mises stresses that allows the local remodelling function to vary at each time step. The state operator has the form of a nonlinear differential equation solved iteratively based on the material density and strain energy density within each element. A constraint equation is formulated based on a maximum deviatoric strain energy criteria, with the objective to minimise the mass of the design domain subject to the above constraint. A number of examples are presented to demonstrate the use of this approach. © 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Lutton, PP & Ben-Nissan, B 1997, 'Status of biomaterials for orthopedic and dental applications: Part I - materials', Materials Technology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 59-63.
Materials used for orthopedic and dental implantation are reviewed, and the mechanical properties of biocompatible metal, polymer, and ceramic materials are compared with those of human tissue.
Optimal engineering shape design is becoming increasingly important as the efficient utilisation of material can account for significant cost savings during production. Traditional optimisation techniques based on finite element analysis using functional
Lutton, PP & Ben-Nissan, B 1997, 'The status of biomaterials for orthopedic and dental applications: Part II - bioceramics in orthopedic and dental applications', Materials Technology, vol. 12, no. 3-4, pp. 107-111.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The applicability of ceramics for orthopedic and dental applications is assessed and future trends are identified.
Cassidy, DJ, Woolfrey, JL, Bartlett, JR & Ben-Nissan, B 1997, 'The Effect of Precursor Chemistry on the Crystallisation and Densification of Sol-Gel Derived Mullite Gels and Powders', Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 19-30.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Stoichiometric and silica-rich mullite gels and powders were prepared using four different sol-gel methods. Thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction and dilatometry techniques were used to investigate the thermal decomposition, crystallisation and sintering of these mullite precursor gels. The method of preparation, by controlled hydrolysis of various mixtures of tetraethylorthosilicate, aluminium sec-butoxide and aluminium nitrate, affected the texture of the gels, producing single-phase or diphasic samples. The crystallisation sequence of the gels depended on the composition and method of preparation. Single phase mullite crystallised from homogeneous gels at 980°C, while diphasic gels initially formed of a mixture of γ-Al2O3 spinel and mullite, or simple γ-Al2O3 spinel, which subsequently transformed to mullite at 1260°C. Dilatometry and density measurement were used to investigate the sintering of compacts formed by pressing powders prepared from gels precalcined at 500°C. Varying the heating rates from 2 to 10°C min-1 had little effect on the densification to 1500°C. However, the densification rate was sensitive to the degree of crystallinity and the amount and type of phases present at the sintering temperature. The presence of γ-Al2O3 spinel in the structure initially promoted densification, but the sintering rate was reduced considerably after mullite crystallised. Diphasic materials, especially those with an excess amount of silica in the original gel, sintered to higher densities due to the presence of excess silica promoting densification by viscous phase sintering.
Gan, L & Ben-Nissan, B 1997, 'The effects of mechanical properties of thin films on nano-indentation data: Finite element analysis', Computational Materials Science, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 273-281.
Mechanical properties of thin films are commonly determined using nano or ultra-microhardness indentation. Understanding the relationship of the measured data and the mechanical properties of the indented materials is of importance in order to obtain reliable mechanical properties, particularly of the thin films. Using finite element analysis, the effects of the elastic modulus, yield strength, and strain hardening of the film on indentation data are analysed and discussed for the indentation with 2, 8, 10 and 50 μm radius indenters. Elastic modulus of the films on a single ductile substrate shows relatively small influence whereas yield strength and strain hardening are found to have significant effect on the measured data. © 1997 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
Materials used for orthopedic and dental implantation are reviewed, and the mechanical properties of biocompatible metal, polymer, and ceramic materials are compared with those of human tissue.
Lutton, PP & Ben-Nissan, B 1997, 'Biomaterials in the marketplace: Focus on orthopedic and dental applications', Materials Technology, vol. 12, no. 3-4, pp. 121-126.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Paterson, MJ, McCulloch, DG, Paterson, PJ & Ben-Nissan, B 1997, 'The morphology and structure of sol-gel derived zirconia films on stainless steel', Thin Solid Films, vol. 311, no. 1-2, pp. 196-206.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Sol-gel zirconia films of various thicknesses were deposited on 316 stainless steel and treated using one of two firing regimes. The resulting effect on the structure of these films was investigated. One set of films were fired using a regime typically e
Ben-Nissan, B & Payten, W 1996, 'Biocompatible, strong modular ceramic knee prosthesis with greater wear resistance designed to have long life under stress', Materials Technology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 175-177.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Australian researchers have designed a largely ceramic knee prosthesis that by reducing friction and wear is expected to have a much longer lifetime in use than existing models. The new design enables taking advantage of the biocompatibility of ceramics while overcoming them inherent drawback of brittleness. The new design also eliminates the need for the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bonding cement and allows retention of all the ligaments, hence increasing stability.
Paterson, MJ & Ben-Nissan, B 1996, 'Multilayer sol-gel zirconia coatings on 316 stainless steel', Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 86-87, no. PART 1, pp. 153-158.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Multilayer alkoxide based sol-gel zirconia coatings were fired under two regimes. SET I coatings were fired by drying each layer at 380°C and then performing a final firing at 800°C. For SET II coatings, each layer was fired to 380°C and then 800°C in a single firing. The structure of the SET I coatings was found to be thickness dependent. In addition, significant substrate reaction was found to occur with increasing thickness. For SET II samples the coating structure did not change significantly after a thickness of 600 nm was reached. Substrate reaction also appeared to be lessened. This behaviour indicates that the phase change rate within the coatings during firing is related to the amount of reaction with the substrate. In addition, the higher amount of monoclinic phase present in the SET II coatings suggests that the phase changes occurring may be dependent on total firing time at 800°C.
Ben-Nissan, B & Martin, D 1996, 'Sol-gel zirconia coatings aimed at dust suppression in aluminosilicate high temperature insulating blankets', Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 187-196.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The feasibility of reducing the amount of loftable fibres in aluminosilicate blankets by coating with sol-gel zirconia was studied. A zirconium alkoxide based solution was employed to coat small samples of blanket using a dip-coating technique. The zirconia coatings and two grades of blanket were analysed using DTA, XRD, SEM and optical microscopy techniques to characterize any reactions and phase changes occurring in the system over a range of temperatures. It was found that dip-coated samples fired at temperatures of 700-800°C displayed reasonably coherent coatings providing an "anchoring" effect at the surface of the material by bonding loose surface fibres in a network of zirconia. © 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Gan, L, Ben-Nissan, B & Ben-David, A 1996, 'Modelling and finite element analysis of ultra-microhardness indentation of thin films', Thin Solid Films, vol. 290-291, pp. 362-366.View/Download from: Publisher's site
High stresses and complex deformations usually develop in thin films during indentation tests. Understanding the stresses and deformations in thin films is beneficial for the development of sound mechanical and thermomechanical components. This paper investigates the stress field and deformations in thin films under microindentation using finite element analysis. The features of the distribution of stress and strain are described. The change of the stress distribution as a function of Young's modulus to the equivalent yield stress ratio (E/σ ey ) of the film is presented. The effects of the thickness of the film and the radius of the indenter on the stress are investigated. The results from the finite element analysis are found to be in a good agreement with experimental data and can be used to develop a reliable mechanical design methodology.
Chai, C, Ben-Nissan, B, Pyke, S & Evans, L 1995, 'Sol-Gel Derived Hydroxylapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications', Materials and Manufacturing Processes, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 205-216.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper presents the preliminary findings of a novel coating technique for the deposition of hydroxylapatite coatings on ceramic substrates. Through the use of sol-gel methods crystalline coatings of hydroxylapatite on substrates of vycor glass, polycrystalline alumina and single crystal magnesia have been successfully produced. The production of sol-gel solutions, coatings and their analysis was examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Results thus far indicate that high quality hydroxylapatite coatings can be produced on ceramic substrates, with coatings deposited in this manner offering a number of benefits over other coating methods. © 1995, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.
Anast, M, Jamting, A, Bell, JM & Ben-Nissan, B 1994, 'Surface morphology examination of sol-gel deposited TiO2 films', Thin Solid Films, vol. 253, no. 1-2, pp. 303-307.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Thin films of TiO2 were deposited by spin-coating onto both single-point diamond machined (SPDM) disks and mechanically polished disks of aluminum. A titanium alkoxide sol-gel precursor was used and films were heat treated after deposition to remove organic components. This work is being undertaken to analyse the nature of the surface morphology produced by spin-coating, and to examine how the surface morphology can be modified. Detailed analysis of the surface morphology of the films was carried out using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The uncoated surfaces of the SPDM samples show cutting marks characteristics of the single-point diamond machining process, while these have largely disappeared on the coated surfaces. The coatings show some regions where flow lines are apparent, probably arising from the spinning process, but are otherwise quite featureless, indicating good surface coverage in the spinning process. Line and area scans of the coated surfaces were used to measure the surface roughness. An analysis of measured roughness as a function of the area of measurement indicates that the measured roughness increases with the area of the measurement. This applies to both line and area scans. Roughness measurements over macroscopic lenghts were also carried out with a stylus profilometer and these results are compared with the AFM measurements. Line scans of the surface profile of the materials show long wavelength surface features in some of the samples which are attributed to the diamond machining process. © 1994.
Ben-Nissan, B 1993, 'Review: reliability and finite element analysis in ceramic engineering design', Materials Forum, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 105-125.
The increasing use of ceramics in structural applications has led to the development of various design methodologies that include deterministic, empirical, probabilistic, multiaxial, linear elastic fracture mechanics and recently finite element analysis. With the exception of partially stabilised zirconia and ceramic matrix composites, structural ceramics are generally brittle and exhibit little or no plasticity and a low resistance to fracture. This low fracture toughness poses unique challenges in structural design with ceramics. This review examines the microstructural aspects of various structural ceramics that influence the existing design methodologies and compares various published theories and proposes a new approach in design combining some of the existing methodologies and the finite element analysis.
Anast, M, Bell, JM, Bell, TJ & Ben-Nissan, B 1992, 'Precision ultra-microhardness measurements of sol-gel-derived zirconia thin films', Journal of Materials Science Letters, vol. 11, no. 22, pp. 1483-1485.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ben-Nissan, B, Isles, J & Todhunter, AJ 1991, 'Integrated finite element and reliability analysis in ceramic design and science', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 53-55, pp. 36-46.
Ceramics exhibit specific properties which preclude the use of conventional design methodology. The strength of ceramics is a statistical quantity. In addition to classical design concepts it is most appropriate to include the probabilistic design concepts. Thus, a top priority must be placed on the development of an appropriate design methodology for ceramic engineering components. The design of reliable ceramic components and design methodology is essential to the introduction and further use of structural ceramics, advanced ceramics and composites on the market.
Spiccia, L, West, BO, Cullen, J, de Villiers, D, Watkins, I, Bell, JM, Ben-Nissan, B, Anast, M & Johnston, G 1991, 'Sol-gel precursor chemistry', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 53-55, pp. 445-450.
The application of the 'sol-gel' process in the preparation of mixed metal oxides, both of bulk powders and thin films, has grown dramatically over the last 20 years and is currently attracting much world-wide attention. Recent developments suggest that if careful control of the 'sol-gel' process is to be achieved then a better understanding of the chemistry of precursor solutions is necessary. This paper focuses on recent developments in this area and our work on the deposition of YBa2Cu3oxide films.
Todhunter, AJ & Ben-Nissan, B 1991, 'Finite element modelling of a metal-ceramic interface', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 53-55, pp. 107-110.
The Finite Element Method is a numerical technique that is used to model real systems from discrete elements. Appropriate definitions of system geometry, boundary conditions, material properties and system environment are required to simulate real systems. In describing the system geometry it is necessary to accurately define a mesh of suitable refinement. To this end it is necessary for the researcher to be well versed in Materials Science and Finite Element Methods. Such combined knowledge supplies the research with a means of studying material behaviour at a computer terminal as well as in the laboratory environment. The modeling of a metal-ceramic interface using finite element methods is well documented in the literature. To demonstrate this application of the finite element method a series of models of a silicon nitride-titanium couple interface have been developed.
Anast, M, Wong, A, Bell, JM, Ben-Nissan, B, Cullen, J, Spiccia, L, De Villiers, D, Watkins, I, West, BO & Johnston, G 1991, 'Thin film ceramic coatings via the sol-gel process', Key Engineering Materials, vol. 53-55, pp. 427-432.
The sol-gel process enables the creation of high quality, thin film ceramic coatings which are adherent and uniform over large areas. The process is controllable and is more cost effective than other currently available techniques. The technique is flexible and can be adapted to form many different ceramic materials. Provided a stable solution of a metal alkoxide or alkanoate can be formed a ceramic coating of that species can be deposited. The main emphasis of the work so far has been on the production of barium titanate films. This system is relatively simple and the problem of differential hydrolysis which can occur in multiple metal alkoxide systems is not found. This paper describes the deposition process for BaTiO3and results on the crystallization process occuring in the films.
Choi, AH, Conway, RC, Cazalbou, S & Ben-Nissan, B 2018, 'Maxillofacial bioceramics in tissue engineering: Production techniques, properties, and applications' in Fundamental Biomaterials: Ceramics, pp. 63-93.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Bioceramics prior to the 1970s were employed as implants to perform singular and biologically inert roles. The limitations with these synthetic materials as tissue substitutes were emphasized with the growing realization that the cells and tissues of the body perform many other vital regulatory and metabolic roles. Since then, the demands of bioceramics have changed, from maintaining an essentially physical function without eliciting a host response to providing a more positive interaction with the host. This has been accompanied by increasing demands on medical devices that they not only improve the quality of life but also extend its duration. More importantly, the exciting and potential opportunities associated with the use of nanobioceramics as body interactive materials, helping the body to heal, or promoting the regeneration of tissues, thus restoring physiological functions. This review covers the type of bioceramics currently used in maxillofacial surgery as well as their production methods and properties. The bioceramics covered include glass ceramics, bioglass, alumina, PSZ and zirconia, and calcium phosphate materials.
Choi, AH, Heness, G & Ben-Nissan, B 2018, 'Using finite element analysis to understand the mechanical properties of ceramic matrix composites' in Advances in Ceramic Matrix Composites: Second Edition, pp. 375-400.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are replacing other materials in applications where the higher costs are offset by improvements in performance. Due to their lack of toughness they are prone to catastrophic failure. To take advantage of the potential of CMCs and to minimize risks such as component failure, modeling and analysis tools such as finite element analysis (FEA) are essential for evaluating material performance nondestructively at the operating temperatures and conditions. FEA can determine mechanical properties such as interlaminar shear properties, cumulative damage failure, and crack deviation. This chapter introduces FEA and reviews the examination and validation of the design, mechanical properties, and failure modes of CMCs using FEA.
Choi, AH & Ben-Nissan, B 2017, 'Calcium phosphate nanocomposites for biomedical and dental applications: Recent developments' in Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, pp. 423-450.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Scrivener Publishing LLC. Interests in nanostructured materials for advanced technologies have been growing throughout the past decade, and the current emphasis is on the production of nanocomposites which are relevant to a number of biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and regeneration. It is possible through the use of the composite approach to engineer the strength of the nanocomposite scaffold to become close to those of human bone. At present, the most common biomaterials used in nanocomposites for clinical applications are those selected from a handful of available and well-characterized biocompatible ceramics such as calcium phosphate and various natural and synthetic polymers such as chitosan and polylactic acid. This chapter aims to give a brief introduction and recent developments in calcium phosphate nanocomposite coatings and nanocomposites or nanolaminates for tissue-engineering scaffolds and delivery vehicles for pharmaceutical and therapeutic substances.
Choi, AH, Macha, IJ, Akyol, S, Cazalbou, S & Ben-Nissan, B 2017, 'Nanostructured calcium phosphates for drug, gene, DNA and protein delivery and as anticancer chemotherapeutic devices' in Clinical Applications of Biomaterials: State-of-the-Art Progress, Trends, and Novel Approaches, pp. 227-256.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© Springer International Publishing AG 2017. During the past two decades, a number of materials and devices have been utilised in drug delivery applications. A range of biomaterials with different morphologies and pore sizes are currently utilised. For any given biomaterial or bioceramic, having an adequate control of the chemical composition as well as the critical pore sizes is important in terms of controlling the effectiveness when used to deliver drugs locally. In comparison to all currently known and used biomaterials, given the fact that it possesses chemical similarity to human bone, and most importantly its dissolution characteristics which allow for bone regeneration and growth, calcium phosphate holds a special consideration. Moreover, due to their interconnected pore structure, marine materials such as shells and coral exoskeletons show potential for applications in drug delivery due to their easy conversion to calcium phosphates with controllable dissolution rates. This chapter covers a range of current methods used specifically for natural materials that can be converted to calcium phosphates and mixed with polymeric materials as thin film or nanostructured drug, genes, protein and range of delivery and as anticancer chemotherapeutic devices.
Choi, AH, Matinlinna, JP, Conway, RC & Ben-Nissan, B 2017, 'Application of biomaterials and finite element analysis (FEA) in nanomedicine and nanodentistry' in Computational Finite Element Methods in Nanotechnology, pp. 373-400.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2013 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. 'Nanostructured materials' refer to certain materials that have delicate structures and sizes that fall within the range of 1-100 nm. As a consequence of this size, an extensive development of nanotechnology has taken place in the fields of materials science and engineering in the past decade. Yet, such developments have not come as a 374surprise, when it is appreciated that these nanostructured materials have the ability to be adapted and integrated into biomedical devices. This is possible because most biological systems, including viruses, membranes and protein complexes, exhibit natural nanostructures.
Macha, IJ, Ben-Nissan, B, Choi, A & Cazalbou, S 2017, 'Development and in vitro analysis of a new biodegradable PLA/Hydroxyapatite (HAp) composite for biomedical applications' in Clinical Applications of Biomaterials: State-of-the-Art Progress, Trends, and Novel Approaches, pp. 411-423.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© Springer International Publishing AG 2017. The development of new drugs or formulations for the treatments of different musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) has now being a focus of pharmaceutical and scientific societies. Targeted and multidelivery of drug and key minerals to support bone repair and regeneration at the defect site, from flexible biodegradable devices at the rate within the therapeutic window, seem to be an effective strategy. However, the drug delivery vehicles available are neither flexible and degradable nor able to deliver both pharmaceutical drug and minerals effectively. The use of biodegradable polymer and bioceramic for composite development with enough flexibility and potential for slow in situ drug delivery for biomedical applications could be one of the real options to mitigate MSDs problem. In vitro analysis of the developed devices is a vital step towards clinical trial and commercialization of the implant. Different approach and results have been compared to draw guidelines for the development and testing of thin film composite applications as a slow drug delivery vehicle.
Nissan, BB, Choi, AH & Macha, I 2017, 'Advances in bioglass and glass ceramics for biomedical applications' in Springer Series in Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Springer, Germany, pp. 133-161.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
ï¿½ Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017. Tissue engineering and advanced biomedical technologies have proved to be potential to improve the quality of human life. During the last four decades, the capability to engineer or repair new functional tissues has been a very effective approach to improve the quality of life of patients. Since its discovery by Hench and co-workers in the 1960s, bioglasses and glass ceramics have attracted considerable attention of many researchers because of their unique properties which can easily be tailored by manipulating its compositions and morphology. Over the years, many questions concerning its interactions with both hard and soft tissues have been answered with a multidisciplinary team of surgeons, scientists and engineers. Many clinical Bioglassï¿½ and other similar structures and compositions are being used for bone augmentation and restoration, in orthopaedic, dental and maxillofacial surgery and in general in the field of tissue engineering. They have proved to be efficient and effective, some with outperformance over other bioceramic and metal prostheses. It is our aim in this chapter to present the development of these important biomaterials focusing on the history, synthesis, properties, modern characterisation methods and the current development of nano- and biocomposite materials for clinical applications.
Green, DW & Ben-Nissan, B 2016, 'Biomimetic applications in regenerative medicine: Scaffolds, transplantation modules, tissue homing devices, and stem cells' in Bawa, R, Audette, GF & Rubinstein, I (eds), Handbook of Clinical Nanomedicine: Nanoparticles, Imaging, Therapy and Clinical Applications, CRC Press, USA, pp. 1109-1139.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Ben-Nissan, B, Choi, AH, Macha, IJ & Cazalbou, S 2016, 'Sol-gel nanocoatings of bioceramics' in Antoniac, IV (ed), Handbook of Bioceramics and Biocomposites, Springer, Germany, pp. 735-756.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.The ability to produce homogeneous high-purity materials is of great interest to industrial and medical applications. In addition, the chemical and physical changes observed at the nanoscale and their influence on properties have been an important academic interest. The gel-structure transition plays a critical role in the formation as well as the current production of various types of sol-gel-derived materials such as nanopowders, nanofibers, nanocoatings, nanocomposites, and solid monoliths. It is the area of thin film coatings produced by sol-gel technology that this chapter covers. In particular, this chapter focuses on the basic synthesis and application methods to produce nanocoatings for biomedical applications. This chapter also attempts to answer some of the pertinent questions related to sol-gel processing and production methods and issues related to the fundamental understanding of the sol-gel process.
Choi, AH, Cazalbou, S & Ben-Nissan, B 2016, 'Biomimetics and Marine materials in drug delivery and tissue engineering' in Antoniac, IV (ed), Handbook of Bioceramics and Biocomposites, Springer, Germany, pp. 521-544.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. During the last two decades, biomimetics has provided mankind new directions for the utilization of natural organic and inorganic skeletons for novel drug delivery systems and new medical treatment approaches with unique designs ranging from the macro- to the nanoscale. The use of ready-made organic and inorganic marine skeletons has potentially created an opportunity of presenting one of the simplest cures to fundamental issues hampering the future development of regenerative medicine, dentistry, and orthopedics such as providing a richness of framework designs and devices and abundant and available sources of osteopromotive analogues and biomineralization proteins. Organic matrix and inorganic marine skeletons possess a habitat ideal for the proliferation of added mesenchymal stem cell populations and promoting clinically acceptable bone formation. It has been proven that self-sustaining musculoskeletal tissues can be supported by coral and marine sponge skeletons, and bone mineralization can be promoted by the extracts of spongin collagen and nacre seashell organic matrices. This idea is reinforced by the fact that bone morphogenetic protein molecules are produced by endodermal cells into the developing skeleton. Furthermore, the regenerative signaling proteins in bone therapeutics such as TGF and Wnt are also present in early marine sponge development and instrumental to the activation of stem cells in cnidarians. This chapter aims to give a brief background into the nature, morphology, and application of some of these structures in bone grafts, drug delivery, tissue engineering, and specific extracts such as proteins for regenerative medicine.
Ben-Nissan, B 2015, 'Discovery and development of marine biomaterials' in Kim, S (ed), Functional Marine Biomaterials: Properties and Applications, Elsevier, The Netherlands, pp. 1-17.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Use of ready-made organic and inorganic marine skeletons is one of the simplest potential remedies to major problems hindering the future development of regenerative orthopedics such as providing a richness of framework designs and now a potentially rich, accessible source of scaffolds and osteopromotive analogues and biomineralization proteins. It has already been shown that coral and marine sponge skeletons can support self-sustaining musculoskeletal tissues and that extracts of spongin collagen and nacre seashell organic matrices promote bone mineralization. This should not be surprising given that the pivotal biomineralization proteins, which orchestrate bone morphogenesis, are also found in the earliest calcifying marine organisms.This is because they are representatives of the first molecular components established for calcification, morphogenesis, and wound healing.In support of this notion, it has emerged that BMP molecules - the main clusters of bone growth factors for human bone morphogenesis - are secreted by endodermal cells into the developing skeleton. In addition, the regenerative signaling proteins, TGF and Wnt-prime targets in bone therapeutics, are also present in early marine sponge development and instrumental to stem cell activation in Cnidarians. As more analogues are discovered using proteomic tools, skeletal organic matrices may have ever increasing utility for regenerative orthopedics and -maxillofacial surgery.
Ben-Nissan, B, Choi, AH, Roest, R, Latella, BA & Bendavid, A 2015, 'Adhesion of hydroxyapatite on titanium medical implants' in Hydroxyapatite (HAp) for Biomedical Applications, Elsevier, pp. 21-51.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a biocompatible material; although known since 1916, it was only in the early 1980s that it was first introduced as a porous-plasma-coated material in a range of metallic implants for orthopedic and maxillofacial applications. Adhesion and mechanical properties are important factors in determining the viability of coated implants or devices and their performance under simulated physiological environments. An in-depth understanding of the adhesion of implants and the susceptibility of the coating to cracking and delamination are critical reliability issues. This chapter discusses the various surface coating methods used on titanium and its alloys-in particular, the calcium phosphate coatings-and explores current testing methods for these surface-modified materials.
The finite element method (FEM) was first introduced in 1956 and was extensively used in the fields of civil and mechanical engineering and in 1970's in orthopedic biomechanics to evaluate stresses in human bones during functional loadings. It's application to implant design and analysis and in dentistry related to the deformations under functional loadings accelerated after 1980's. Since then, this method has widely been accepted in engineering and in biomedical systems and applied with increasing frequency for stress analyses of bone and bone-prosthesis structures, dental implants and devices, fracture fixation devices and soft and hard tissues. FEM also been accepted to nanoindentation and nanomechanical testing to evaluate the biomechanical properties of nanocoatings such as hydroxyapatite on metallic implants and devices.
During the last decade, there has been a major increase in the interest of nanostructured materials in advanced technologies for biomedical and dental clinical applications. Nanostructured materials are associated with a variety of applications within the dental and biomedical field, for example nanoparticles in drug delivery systems and nanostructured scaffolds in tissue engineering. More importantly, nanotechnology has also been linked with the modification of surface properties of synthetic implants in an attempt to improve their bioactivity, reliability and protection from the release of harmful or unnecessary metal ions. This is achieved through the use of nanocoatings and nanocomposite coatings. These new-generation coatings based on inorganic materials and biological materials such as proteins and peptides are currently investigated and applied. This chapter aims to give an overview of the recent advances in nanocoatings and their composites being investigated or used in dentistry.
Choi, A, Ben-Nissan, B & Heness, GL 2014, 'Using finite element analysis (FEA) to understand the mechanical properties of ceramic matrix composites' in Low, J (ed), Advances in Ceramic Matrix Composites, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, pp. 286-311.
Choi, A, Ben-Nissan, B, Conway, R & Macha, I 2014, 'Advances in Calcium Phosphate Nanocoatings and Nanocomposites' in Ben-Nissan, B (ed), Advances in Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials, Springer, Germany, pp. 485-509.View/Download from: Publisher's site
It is possible by using nanocomposite approach to control the strength and Young's modulus of the composite to become close to those of human cortical or cancellous bone. This is made possible with the help of secondary substitution phases. Various materials have been applied as biomaterials and tissue regeneration materials, and the in vivo cytotoxicity and biocompatibility have been the main consideration in their use and their long-term success. This chapter aims to give a brief introduction and current applications of calcium phosphate nanocomposites as tissue engineering and as a delivery vehicle for drugs, genes, and proteins. Furthermore, the chapter will also examine the potential use of calcium phosphate nanocomposite coatings for tissue engineering scaffolds.
Nanocoatings present the possibility of altering the surface properties of medical-grade materials to achieve improvements in biocompatibility, reliability, and performance. Sol-gel processing is a versatile and attractive technique since it can be used to fabricate ceramic coatings from solutions by chemical means. The sol-gel process is relatively easy to perform, and complex shapes can be coated, and it has also been demonstrated that the nanocrystalline grain structure of sol-gel coatings produced results in improved mechanical properties. 12.1 IntroductionA material containing delicate structures and sizes that fall within the range of 1 nm to 100 nm is referred to as a nanostructured material.
Choi, AH, Matinlinna, JP, Heness, G & Ben-Nissan, B 2014, 'Nanocomposites for Biomedical and Dental Applications' in Handbook of Functional Nanomaterials. Volume 4 - Properties and Commercialization, Nova Publishing, New York, pp. 149-173.
During the last decade, there has been a major increase in the interest of
nanostructured materials in advanced technologies such as biomedical and dental
technology. Nanostructured materials are associated with a variety of uses within the
biomedical field, for example, nanoparticles in drug-delivery system, in biomaterial
science and diagnostic systems and in regenerative medicine.
By definition, a biomaterial is a nondrug substance that is ideal for inclusion in
systems that replace or extend the function of bodily tissues or organs. The key factors in
the clinical success of any biomaterial are its biocompatibility and biofunctionality, both
of which are related directly to tissue/implant interface interactions.
Nanocomposites can be described as a heterogeneous combination of two or more
materials, in which at least one of those materials should be on a nanometer-scale. By
using the composite approach, it is possible to manipulate the mechanical properties such
as strength and modulus of the composites closer to those of natural bone, with the help
of secondary substitution phases.
Currently, the most common composite materials used for clinical applications are
those selected from a handful of available and well-characterized biocompatible ceramics
and the combination with metals and polymers as composites and hybrids. This approach
is currently being explored in the development of a new generation of nanocomposites
with a widened range of biomedical and dental applications.
The aim of this chapter is to provide information relating to the use of
nanocomposites for biomedical and dental applications.
Choi, AH, Matinlinna, J, Conway, R & Ben-Nissan, B 2013, 'Application of Biomaterials and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in Nanomedicine and Nanodentistry' in Musa, SM (ed), Computational Finite Element Methods in Nanotechnology, CRC Press, United States, pp. 373-399.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
'Nanostructured materials' refer to certain materials that have delicate structures and sizes that fall within the range of 1100 nm. As a consequence of this size, an extensive development of nanotechnology has taken place in the !elds of materials science and engineering in the past decade. Yet, such developments have not come as a surprise, when it is appreciated that these nanostructured materials have the ability to be adapted and integrated into biomedical devices. This is possible because most biological systems, including viruses, membranes and protein complexes, exhibit natural nanostructures.
Ben-Nissan, B, Latella, BA & Bendavid, A 2011, 'Biomedical thin films: Mechanical properties' in Ducheyne, P, Healy, KE, Hutmacher, DW, Grainger, DW & Kirkpatrick, CJ (eds), Comprehensive Biomaterials, Elsevier, USA, pp. 63-73.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ben-Nissan, B, Choi, AH, Green, DW, Latella, BA, Chou, J & Bendavid, A 2011, 'Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Nanocoatings by Sol-Gel Method for Clinical Applications' in Sam Zhang (ed), Biological and Biomedical Coatings Handbook: Processing and Characterization, CRC Press, United States, pp. 37-79.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Nanostructured materials are associated with a diversity of uses within the medical field, for instance, in drug-delivery systems, regenerative medicine, formation of surgical tools, medical devices, and diagnostic systems. It has long been established that porous bulk hydroxyapatite (HAp) cannot be used for load-bearing applications due to its unfavorable mechanical properties. As a result, HAp has been used instead as a coating in orthopedic surgery on metallic alloys, metals giving the support required. Of the metallic alloys used, titanium-based and cobalt chromium alloys are the preferred materials for these HAp coatings for orthopedic and maxillofacial implants (Figure 2.1).
Green, DW & Ben-Nissan, B 2010, 'Biomimetic applications in regenerative medicine: Scaffolds, transplantation modules, tissue homing devices and stem cells' in Torchilin, V & Amiji, M (eds), Handbook of Materials for Nanomedicine, Pan Stanford, United States, pp. 821-850.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ben-Nissan, B & Choi, AH 2010, 'Nanoceramics for Medical Applications' in Geckeler, KE & Nishide, H (eds), Advanced Nanomaterials Volume 2, Wiley-VCH, Germany, pp. 523-552.View/Download from: Publisher's site
"Nanostructured materials" refer to certain materials which have delicate structures and sizes that fall within the range of 1 to lOOnm. As a consequence of this size, an extensive development of nanotechnology has taken place in the fields of materials science and engineering during the past decade. Yet, such developments have not come as a surprise, when it is appreciated that these nanostrucrured materials have the ability to be adapted and integrated into biomedical devices. This is possible because most biological systems, including viruses, membranes and protein complexes, exhibit natural nanostructures.
Green, DW & Ben-Nissan, B 2008, 'Biomimetics: Bio-inspired engineering of human tissue scaffolding for regenerative medicine' in Tateishi, T (ed), Biomaterials in Asia, World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 364-385.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ben-Nissan, B, Choi, AH & Cordingley, RL 2008, 'Alumina ceramics' in Kokubo, T (ed), Bioceramics and their clinical applications, Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge UK, pp. 223-242.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ben-Nissan, B & YlÃ¤nen, H 2006, 'Bioactive glasses and glass ceramics' in Metin Akay (ed), Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering, Wiley-Interscience, United States, pp. 0-0.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Ben-Nissan, B. 2004, 'Biomimetics and bioceramics' in Reis, R.L. & Weiner, S. (eds), Learning from nature how to design new implantable biomaterials, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 89-103.
Ben-Nissan, B., Pezzotti, G. & Muller, W. 2004, 'Macromechanics and micromechanics of ceramics' in Totten, G.E. & Liang, H. (eds), Mechanical Tribology: Materials, Characterisation and Applications, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA, pp. 135-184.
Ben-Nissan, B., Pezzotti, G. & Muller, W.H. 2004, 'Macromechanics and micromechanics of ceramics' in Totten, G.E. & Liang, H. (eds), Mechanical Tribology: Materials, Characterisation and Applications, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp. 135-184.
Payten, W.M. & Ben-Nissan, B. 2000, 'Development of a Modular Ceramic Knee Prosthesis' in Wise, D.L., Trantolo, D.J., Lewandroowski, K.U., Gresser, J.D., Cattaneo, M.V. & Yaszemski, M.J. (eds), Biomaterials Engineering and Devices; Human Applications, Humana Press, New Jersey USA, pp. 309-336.
Gunduz, O, Yetmez, M, Ekren, N, Kilic, O, Ben-Nissan, B & Oktar, FN 2018, 'Microstructural and mechanical properties of nano-yttria-oxide doped hydroxyapatite composites', Materials Science Forum, pp. 89-92.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Nowadays hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics are very important because increasing traffic accidents and ageing of the population. They can be produced from synthetic or natural sources with different production methods. The biggest negative issue of HA is being very brittle and unstable under pressure. Various materials are added for restoring these weaknesses, but there is not so much studies adding nano-ingredients for restoring the mechanical properties of HA. In this study, 5-10% nano-yittria-oxide is added to bovine derived HA (BHA) and to commercial synthetic (CSHA) as a control group. Physical and mechanical properties are examined. Results show that adding of nano-ingredients are really helping to mechanical properties of HA.
Gunduz, O, Sahin, YM, Agathopoulos, S, Agaogullari, D, Gökçe, H, Kayali, ES, Aktas, C, Ben-Nissan, B & Oktar, FN 2014, 'Nano calcium phosphate powder production through chemical agitation from Atlantic Deer Cowrie shells (Cypraea cervus Linnaeus)', 25th Symposium and Annual Meeting of the International-Society-for-Ceramics-in-Medicine (ISCM), Symposium and Annual Meeting of International Society for Ceramics in Medicine (ISCM), TRANS TECH PUBLICATIONS LTD, Bucharest, ROMANIA, pp. 80-85.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The process is a simple chemical method and aims to produce nano-structured calcium phosphate powders from natural sources, for biomedical applications. For this purpose, Atlantic Deer Cowrie (ADC) shells (Cypraea cervus Linnaeus, 1771) were collected from a local gift store in Istanbul. The empty shells were cleaned and crushed then were ball milled and sieved under 100μm. The raw powders were suspended on a hotplate stirrer for a simple chemical agitation. The temperature was kept at 80°C for 15 min. and then appropriate amount of H 3 PO 4 was added by titration into the prepared solution to form calcium phosphate precursors. The solution was stirred on a hotplate for 8 hours then dried at 100°C for 24 hours. Afterwards the resulting dried sediments were collected and heat treated between 400-800°C for 4 hours, dependent on the required specific calcium phosphate phase. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were carried out for identifying various hydroxyapatite (HA), tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and other calcium phosphate phases. Various particle sizes ranging from nano to micron, are obtained depending on the chemistry used and the processing technique applied during the production. A range of calcium phosphate phases can be obtained from ADC shells, by using a simple and economic conversion method. Proper cleaning methods developed and appropriate preparation techniques will enable us to use these nano calcium phosphate powders in orthopedic and dental applications. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
Green, D, Padula, M, Santos, J, Chou, J, Milthorpe, BK & Ben-Nissan, B 2012, 'A new role for marine skeletal proteins in regenerative orthopaedics', Key Engineering Materials (Volumes 529 - 530) bioceramics 24, Bioceramics, Scientific.net, Fukuoka, Japan, pp. 654-659.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Use of ready-made marine skeletons is one of the simplest possible remedies to major problems hindering the future development of regenerative orthopaedics- such as, providing a richness of framework designs and now a potentially rich, accessible source
Lewis, KC, Wuhrer, R, Ben-Nissan, B, Valenzuela, S & Moran, K 2009, 'X-ray mapping of minerals incorporated into liposomes', Microscopy and Microanalysis 2009, Microscopy and Microanalysis 2009, Cambridge University Press, Richmond, Virginia, USA, pp. 908-909.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Liposomes are spherical particles in an aqueous medium formed by a lipid bilayer enclosing an aqueous compartment. They have been long considered as a potential delivery device in the medical and pharmaceutical industries due to their ability to encapsulate different compounds, as the lipids form into liposomes. The ability of these liposomes to be stored in the body, and to be taken up by cells, makes them ideal for drug delivery. They can also potentially increase the efficiency of supplements, particularly those with no accumulation toxicity.
Ben-Nissan, B. 2008, 'Improvement of strength and bioactivity in nanocoated coralline hydroxyapatite for bone graft applications', 1st Asian biomaterials congress, Asian Biomaterials Congress, Japan, pp. 30-30.
Lewis, K, Valenzuela, SM & Ben-Nissan, B 2008, 'Sol-gel derived hydroxyapatite and zirconia nanocoatings, and the effect on the activity of osteoblast like cells', 8th World Biomaterials Congress 2008, p. 567.
Brown, T.A., Kohan, L. & Ben-Nissan, B. 2007, 'Assessment by finite element analysis of the impact of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis on hip resurfacing', Proceedings of the 5th Australasian Congress on Applied Mechanics (ACAM 2007), Australasian Congress on Applied Mechanics, Engineers Australia, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, pp. 271-276.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Hip resurfacing is proposed as an alternative to total hip replacement (THR) for treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), especially for younger, heavier and more active sufferers. There is however, concern with regards to the incidence of post operative femoral neck fractures. We have investigated, with finite element models, the changes in stress and strain in the femoral neck following hip resurfacing. We have included several different bone material property values representing normal, elderly, osteoarthritic and osteoporotic bone. We have also modelled two different hip implant orientations. We have shown that hip resurfacing may increase the magnitude of stress and strain in the femoral neck, especially in osteoporotic bone. We have also shown that the superolateral offset associated with the valgus orientation, not the valgus orientation itself, may be what reduces the stress and strain in the neck and leads to lower incidence of fracture.
Heness, G.L. & Ben-Nissan, B. 2006, 'Porous phosphate bonded alumina strengthened and toughened with limited additions of second phase particles', International Conference and Exhibition on Strurctural Integrity and Failure, Structural Integrity and Failure, Australia Fracture Group & Institute of Materials Engineering Australasia, Sydney, pp. 324-330.
Flexural strength, diametral strength, fracture toughness and fracture surface energy of phosphate, bonded alumina composites were all found to increase with a limited addition of either silicon nitirde of partially stabilised zirconia particles. the addition of monoclinic zirconia and glass spheres showed little improvement of the above properties. These increases in strength are explained using crack bowing theory.
Mizuno, M, Shang, JK, Rusin, R, Kriven, W & Ben-Nissan, B 2005, 'Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings: Preface', Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings.
Wuhrer, R, Huggett, PG, Moran, K, Phillips, M & Ben-Nissan, B 2005, 'EBSD and XRM of Phases in Vacuum Cast Composite Alloys', Proceeding Microscopy and Microanalysis Vol 11 (S2), Microscopy and Microanalysis, Cambridge University Press, Honolulu, Hawaii, pp. 1678-1679.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
There have been a number f new processes developed that allow the joining of very dissimilar materials such as titanium alloys, wear resistant white irons, cast irons and ceramic materials to ferrous (mild steel) and non-ferrous (aluminium) alloys. These new processes have allowed the development of more complex composite shapes to be produced. However, with any new process development, an undertsnating of the mechanism of bonding is required. through the use of x-ray mapping (XRM), chemical phase imaging as well as electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analsysis, very useful information on the mass transport across the interface as well as phase segregation, texture variations and phase distribution within the bond interface can be obtained. results from this investigation on a number of bonded materials are presented and the importance of XRM and EBSD in providing a better understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in metallurgical bonding/welding of dissimilar materials discussed.
Ben-Nissan, B, Milev, A, Vago, R, Conway, MR, Walsh, WR & Diwan, A 2004, 'Nano-Coated Coralline Hydroxyapatite for Load Bearing Applications', Transactions - 7th World Biomaterials Congress, p. 925.
The strongness of the porous structure of Australian coral after a double conversion treatment followed by a HAp sol coating was determined inorder to replace bone in an implant. The characterization studies of the natural and converted corals which involved mechanical testing, XRD, SEM, thermal analysis, NMR and Raman spectroscopy were presented. It was shown that the effectiveness of coralline hydroxyapatite as a bone graft substitute depends on it's strength and pore size. The pore size of the coral, investigated in the Goniopora species is between 250-500μm with interconnections of about 150μm.
Ben-Nissan, B, Milev, AS, Vago, R, Conway, RM & Diwan, A 2003, 'Sol-gel derived nano-coated coralline hydroxyapatite for load bearing applications', Bioceramics, Vol 16, International Symposium on Ceramics in Medicine, Trans Tech Publications Ltd, Portugal, pp. 301-304.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Wuhrer, R, Moran, K, Huggett, PG, Phillips, M & Ben-Nissan, B 2004, 'X-Ray Mapping and Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction of Phases in Welded Materials', Proceedings Microscopy and Microanalysis 2004, Microscopy & Microanalysis, Cambridge University Press, Savannah, USA, pp. 916-917.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Milev, A.S., Kannangara, G.K., Ben-Nissan, B. & Wilson, M.A. 2003, 'Template directed synthesis of nanosized bone-like apatite', Oz Nano 03 Proceeding of the Aisa Pacific Nanotechnology FOrum 2003, Oz Nano, World Scientific, Cairns, Australia, pp. 87-92.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ben-Nissan, B. 2003, 'Nanobioceramics', Proceedings of the Asia Pacific Nanotechnology Forum 2003, Oz Nano 03, World Scientific, Cairns, Australia, pp. 139-142.
Recent advances in the fundmental understanding of cell and molecular biology, tissue engineering, targeted drug delievry, would healing and other biomedical processes, together with the development of new enabling technologies such as micro, nanoscale, and bio-inspired fabrication and surface modification methods, have the potential to drive the design and development of new biomateirlas useful for medical applications at an unprecedented rate. The current focus is ont he production of new nanobioceramics relevant to a broad range of applications such as implantable surface modified devices for better hard and soft tissue attachment, increased bioactivity, tissue regeneration and engineering, cancer treatment, drug delivery and gene therapies, treatment of bacterial and viral infections, delievery of oxygen to damaged tissues, imaging, materials fr minimally invasive surgery and most promising of all nanorobotics, nanobiosensors and nanodevices for wide range of biomedical applications.
Roest, RS, Eberhardt, AW, Latella, BA, Wuhrer, R & Ben-Nissan, B 2003, 'Adhesion of sol-gel derived zirconia nano-coatings on surface treated titanium', Bioceramics 16:Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Ceramics in Medicine, Bioceramics 16, Trans Tech Publications, Portugal, pp. 455-458.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Milev, A, Kannangara, GSK, Ben-Nissan, B & Wilson, MA 2004, 'Intermediate reactions in a hydroxyapatite alkoxide precursor solution', Transactions - 7th World Biomaterials Congress, p. 160.
The synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) from diethyl hydrogen phosphonate and calcium diethoxide in solutions was investigated using the XRD and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) resonance spectroscopy. During the synthesis of HAp, acetyl 2-hydroxyethyl phosphonate, bis(2-hydroxyethyl) phosphonate and acetyl ethyl phosphonate were identified as intermediates. The formation of the intermediates were important in controlling the phase purity of the final HAp product. It was found that diethyl hydrogen phosphonate in the presence of calcium diethoxide, ethylene glycol and acetic acid had undergo ligand substitution reactions, which influenced HAp phase precipitation.
Roest, R, Eberhardt, AW, Latella, B, Wuhrer, R & Ben-Nissan, B 2004, 'Tribology and adhesion of zirconia nano-coatings on surface treated titanium', Transactions - 7th World Biomaterials Congress, p. 1783.
The effects of tribology and tensile adhesion of zirconia nano-coatings on surface treated titanium metal surfaces, were analyzed. The modification of titanium metal surfaces was performed by anodizing and phosphatase treatment with specific phosphate adsorption and photocatalysis treatments to improve the wettability. The titanium samples were anodized in sulfuric and phosphoric acid at varying concentrations and at different currents ranging from 10mins to 30mins. The tribological properties were investigated using an AMTI Orthopod machine, with UHMWPE pins articulating in bovine serum. The results show that adhesion tests for 50V anodizing, photo catalysis reaction and phosphate treatment, exhibited higher interfacial fracture energy.
Cordinglev, RL, Kohan, L, Ben-Nissan, B, Kerr, D & Czyniewski, S 2004, 'Hip resurfacing in Australia: A 2-year survival analysis', Transactions - 7th World Biomaterials Congress, p. 1869.
The survival analysis of 245 consecutive hip resurfacing procedures using the Briningham hip prosthesis was presented. Hip resurfacing offers an alternative method to total hip replacement. In this analysis, all patients underwent duplex ultrasound venography at two weeks post-operative. Assessment was made using SF-36 and WOMAC health evaluation questionnaires pre-operatively and at 6-month intervals post-operatively. Pre-operative selection criteria for patients selection involve DEXA bone mineral densitometry test to evaluate femoral neck strength as well as the identification of secondary causes of osteoporosis. Patients with a T-score of less than -2 were not considered suitable for resurfacing.
Choi, AH, Conway, RC & Ben-Nissan, B 2003, 'Finite element analysis of ceramic dental implants incorporated into the human mandible', Bioceramics, Vol 16, International Symposium on Ceramics in Medicine, Trans Tech Publications Ltd, Portugal, pp. 707-710.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Choi, AH, Conway, RC & Ben-Nissan, B 2004, 'Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the human mandible: Stress and distortions within ceramic and metal dental implants', Transactions - 7th World Biomaterials Congress, p. 821.
The influence of implant length and rot configuration on the distribution of stress and distortion acting in the dental implants during clenching was investigated by using three-dimensional finite element analysis. A dry human mandible was used to define the geometry of the model. The mandible was cast in a polyester resin and cross-sectioned into 28 sections. The distribution of displacements around the dental implants was slightly higher with the 12 mm implants. The results show that compressive stress acting on the 8 and 12 mm implants increases as the root taper angle increases.
Ben-Nissan, B, Sher, D & Walsh, W 2003, 'Key Engineering Materials: Preface', Key Engineering Materials.
Clarke, IC, Pezzotti, G, Sakakura, S & Ben-Nissan, B 2003, 'Bio-lubrication phenomena affect residual stresses and phases of zirconia implants', Bioceramics 15, Bioceramics 15, Trans Tech Publications Ltd, Sydney, Australia, pp. 781-784.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Innes, JK, Vago, R & Ben-Nissan, B 2002, 'Hydrothermal conversion and sol-gel coating of Red Sea coral', Bioceramics 15, Bioceramics 15, Trans Tech Publications Ltd, Sydney, Australia, pp. 43-46.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Milev, AS, Kannangara, GK & Ben-Nissan, B 2002, 'Morphological stability of plate-like hydroxyapatite', Bioceramics 15, Bioceramics 15, Trans Tech Publications Ltd, Sydney, Australia, pp. 481-484.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Williams, PA, Clarke, IC, Pezzotti, G, Green, DD & Ben-Nissan, B 2002, 'Water-lubrication effects on zirconia debris production in hip-joint simulators', Bioceramics 15, Bioceramics 15, Trans Tech Publications Ltd, Sydney, Australia, pp. 835-838.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Clarke, IC, Green, DD, Pezzotti, G, Sakakura, S & Ben-Nissan, B 2003, 'The bio-lubrication phenomena (proteins) may control the wear performance of zirconia hip joints', Bioceramics: Materials and Applications IV, 105th Annual Meeting of the American Ceramic Society, The American Ceramic Society, Nashvile, USA, pp. 155-167.
Green, DD, Kannangara, GSK, Milev, A & Ben-Nissan, B 2002, '31P solution state NMR investigation of the hydrolysis of a new alkoxide sol-gel hydroxyapatite', Key Engineering Materials, pp. 75-78.
Previous work by these authors found that ageing was necessary to convert the starting precursors of calcium diethoxide [Ca(OEt)2] and triethyl phosphite [P(OEt)3] sol-gel system to more reactive intermediates. These conclusions provided the impetus to examine an alternative phosphorous precursor that will not entail a 24-hour ageing period. The use of diethyl phosphite [HOP(OEt)2] as an alternate precursor it was possible to produce hydroxyapatite which did not require ageing of the sol. . The solution-state 31p NMR spectroscopy was successfully applied to monitor the reaction during the ageing period that provided the vital characteristics of the alternate phosphorous precursor. However, no attempts were made to postulate mechanism(s) and identification of the intermediate species formed in these sol-gel systems. This report encompasses both these aspects; mechanism and identification of the reaction intermediates for P(OEt)3 and HOP(OEt)2 sol-gel systems.
Green, D.D., Kannangara, G.K., Milev, A. & Ben-Nissan, B. 2002, 'P-31 solution state NMR investigation of the hydrolysis of a new alkoxide sol-gel hydroxyapatite', Key Engineering Materials, Bioceramics 14, Trans Tech Publications, California, USA, pp. 75-78.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Previous work by these authors found that ageing was necessary to convert the starting precursors of calcium diethoxide [Ca(OEt)(2)] and triethyl phosphite [P(OEt)(3)] Sol-gel system to more reactive intermediates, These conclusions provided the impetus to examine an alternative phosphorous precursor that will not entail a 24-hour ageing period. The use of diethyl phosphite [HOP(OEt)(2)] as an alternate precursor it was possible to produce hydroxyapatite which did not require ageing of the Sol. . The solution-state P-31 NMR spectroscopy was successfully applied to monitor the reaction during the ageing period that provided the vital characteristics of the alternate phosphorous precursor. However, no attempts were made to postulate mechanism(s) and identification of the intermediate species formed in these sol-gel systems. This report encompasses both these aspects; mechanism and identification of the reaction intermediates for P(OEt)3 and [HOP(OEt)(2)] sol-gel systems
Innes, J.K., Ben-Nissan, B. & Vago, R. 2002, 'Biomimetic conversion of Red Sea corraline structures for implant purposes', AUSTCERAM 2002 Proceedings, AUSTCERAM 2002, Australasian Ceramic Society, Perth, Australia, pp. 21-22.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Kannangara, G.K., Green, D.D., Milev, A.S. & Ben-Nissan, B. 2002, 'Synthesis of non-aged new alkoxide sol-gel hydroxyapatite monitored by solution state 31 P NMR', AUSTCERAM 2002 Proceedings, AUSTCERAM 2002, Australasian Ceramic Society, Perth, Australia, pp. 13-14.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ben-Nissan, B, Milev, AS, Green, DD, Conway, RM, Vago, R & Walsh, WR 2002, 'Mechanical properties and characterisation of sol-gel coated coralline hydroxyapatite', Key Engineering Materials, Bioceramics 14, Trans Tech Publications, California, USA, pp. 379-382.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Milev, AS, Kannangara, GK & Ben-Nissan, B 2002, 'Ligand substitution and complex formation in hydroxyapatite sol-gel system', Key Engineering Materials, Bioceramics 14, Trans Tech Publications, California, USA, pp. 79-83.
Milev, A.S., Kannangara, G.K. & Ben-Nissan, B. 2002, 'Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite coatings: solution chemistry and analysis', AUSTCERAM 2002 Proceedings, AUSTCERAM 2002, Australasian Ceramic Society, Perth, Australia, pp. 23-24.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Roest, R.S. & Ben-Nissan, B. 2001, 'Surface Modification of Anodized Titanium for Calcium Phosphate Coatings', Proceedings of Engineering materials 2001, Engineering materials 2001, Institute of Materials Engineering Australasia Ltd, Melbourne, pp. 115-120.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ben-Nissan, B, Russell, JJ, Hu, J, Milev, AS, Green, DC, Vago, R, Walsh, WR & Conway, RM 2001, 'Comparison of Surface Morpholgy in Sol-Gel Treated Coralline Hydroxyapatite Strucures for Impant Purposes', Key Engineering Materials Vols. 192-195 Proeedings of the 13th Int. Symp. On Ceramics in Medicine, 13th Int. Symp. On Ceramics in Medicine, Trans tech Publications Ltd, Bologna, pp. 959-962.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Gross, KA, Ben-Nissan, B, Walsh, WR & Swarts, E 1998, 'Analysis of retrieved hydroxyapatite coated orthopaedic implants', Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference, pp. 1133-1138.
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings are used to improve the adhesion of bone onto implanted devices. This approach increases the integrity and hence the lifetime of the implant. Several orthopaedic appliances (HAp coated and macrotextured) were recovered from patients after revision surgery. The implants were cleaned and sterilised in ethanol or formaldehyde before being photographed and sectioned for analysis. X-ray diffraction indicated that the remaining coating was of high crystallinity. Micro textured areas such as ribbings and fenestrations subjected the coating to different modes of stress which has affected the coating. Adhesive failure was evident on implants attributed to dissolution of the amorphous phase at the interface. Observation of the microstructure with scanning electron microscopy showed that coating degradation begins at the surface where the coating is resorbed and continues along the substrate-coating interface thereby compromising interface strength. The microstructure and the dissolution of retrieved implants are discussed in relation to the general coating features in plasma sprayed HAp coatings.
Jamting, A, Ben-Nissan, B, Ashcroft, I, Swain, MV & Bell, JM 1995, 'Studies of ultra micro indented multi layered sol-gel zirconia films', Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings, pp. 711-716.
The deformation behavior of sol-gel derived zirconia films during ultra micro indentation has been investigated. The sol-gel films were deposited using a multiple stage coating procedure onto stainless steel substrates. The indentation process was carried out using both pointed indenters, such as a Berkovich, as well as spherical indenters. The use of different indenter types enables the determination of hardness, elastic modulus as well as the elastic-plastic or elastic-brittle transition of the films. The mechanical behavior of thin films is strongly influenced by the interaction between the substrate and the film. In brittle materials, the stress singularities induced by the indentation process cannot readily be reduced by long range plastic flow and may cause cracking. Therefore, a great deal of attention has been paid to post-indentation observations of the films, in particular examinations of the surface morphology for visible traces of the film behavior during indentation.