Bee Bee Chua is a lecturer in the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology at the University of Technology, Sydney. Prior to joining UTS, Bee Bee was a part-time academic at an overseas institution, a full time senior engineer and a project leader for large corporate organisations. Her background in software configuration of computing science has become the focus for her PhD, with the aim of developing a model for estimating the risk in requirements changes for software practitioners. She has been a member of several program committees and has assisted with the review of conference and journal research papers. Her most recent publications include papers in Empirical Software Engineering, Risk Management, Knowledge Management, Teaching and Learning.In 2010, a research paper entitled ‘Introducing Scholarly Articles: A Way for Attaining Educational Sustainability’, co-authored with Mr. Danilo Bernardo, won a best paper award in an IEEE Conference in the Netherlands Antilles.From the perspective of high quality in teaching, Bee Bee seeks to improve deep learning and undertakes research into a variety of teaching techniques for undergraduate and postgraduate students. She supervises postgraduate students’ research projects and students on industry placement. She has served as a member on the faculty board, as a member for the PEP committee and Academic Misconduct committee.
Software Cost Estimation, Configuration ManagementChange ManagementSoftware quality ManagementKnowledge ManagementEducational Learning Methods and Theories
Current teaching subjects in Information Systems and StrategySupervising postgraduate projects
Despite a variety of programming languages
adopted in open source (OS
) projects, fork variation on some
languages has been minimal and slow to be adopted, and there is
little research as to why this is so. We therefore employed a K
nearest neighbours (KNN) technique to predict the fork visibility
performance of a productive
language from a pool of
programming languages adopted in projects. In total, 38
showcase OS projects from 2012 to 2016 were downloaded from
the GitHub website and categorized into different levels of
programming language adoption clusters. Among 33 langua
community. It has been predicted the language chosen when fork
visibility is high can increase project longevity as a highly visible
language is likely to occur more often in projects with a
ignificant number of interoperable programming languages and
high language fork count. Conversely, a low fork language
reduces longevity in projects with an insignificant number of
interoperable programming languages and low fork count. Our
the survival of a productive language is in response
to high language visibility (large fork number) and high
interoperability of multiple programming languages
Chua, B. 2012, 'Using the SOAR (Scholarly Articles) Framework for Developing and Improving Student Reading and Understanding of Scholarly Articles', Journal of Teaching and Education, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 81-87.
This paper introduces an innovative learning framework designed to aid readers comprehension of scholarly articles. The SchOlarly ARticles (SOAR) framework is based on a theory of Browns et al, emphasizing the importance of collaborating and sharing educational knowledge, so that various scholarly articles can be understood faster and more easily by students, researchers and academics.
Chua, B. & Verner, J. 2010, 'Examining Requirements Change Rework Effort: A Study', International Journal of Software Engineering & Applications (IJSEA), vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 48-64.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Although software managers are generally good at new project estimation, their experience of scheduling rework tends to be poor. Inconsistent or incorrect effort estimation can increase the risk that the completion time for a project will be problematic. To continually alter software maintenance schedules during software maintenance is a daunting task. Our proposed framework, validated in a case study confirms that the variables resulting from requirements changes suffer from a number of problems, e.g., the coding used, end user involvement and user documentation. Our results clearly show a significant impact on rework effort as a result of unexpected errors that correlate with 1) weak characteristics and attributes as described in the programâs source lines of code, especially in data declarations and data statements, 2) lack of communication between developers and users on a change effects, and 3) unavailability of user documentation. To keep rework effort under control, new criteria in change request forms are proposed. These criteria are shown in a proposed framework; the more case studies that are validated, the more reliable the result will be in determining the outcome of effort rework estimation.
Chua, B. 2018, 'The Integration of Social Design Methodologies (wicked problems, design thinking and rich pictures) From the Perspective of Solution-based Thinking for Analyzing Stakeholders Values' in Advances in Information Systems and Business Engineering., Advances in Information Systems and Business Engineering.
Chua, B. 2017, 'A Survey Paper on Open Source Forking Motivation Reasons and Challenges', Association for Information Systems AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), PACIFIC ASIA CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION SYSTEMS (PACIS), AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), Langkawi, pp. 1-13.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper adopts a systematic literature review method and a content analysis method to
examine and review the current literature on open source developer forking motivation to
investigate categories, research types and reports, specifically, literature in the emerging
field of using forking to maintain project sustainability. The review generated five
conclusions: 1) reviving original project health is important; 2) there are few frameworks on
social interaction and negotiation policy between project leaders, junior and senior
developers that could minimise project-to-project developer migration; 3) many papers
analysed social forking community behaviour; 4) the biggest fork threat is poor guidance;
and 5) most research used qualitative and statistical analyses to analyse forking activity. A
methodological framework for forking sustainability is developed from the literature
review. The contributions of this paper include providing a quick reference for new open
source researchers to understand categories of developer forking motivation, and to
introduce guidelines to open source software communities on ways to reduce organisational
issues as motivating factors for developers.
Bernardo, D.V. & Chua, B.B. 2015, 'Introduction and analysis of SDN and NFV security architecture (SN-SECA)', Proceedings - International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA, International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (was ICOIN), IEEE, Gwangiu, pp. 796-801.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2015 IEEE. There have been a few literature published about the security risks expected on the implementations of SDN and NFV (SN), however, no formal Security Architecture with practical attributes was proposed until recently. The first of its kind SN-Security Architecture (SN-SECA) was presented as an IETF draft. This draft presents the architecture with specific ascription to ensure effective security evaluation and integration on the SDN/NVF designs and implementations. This paper briefly introduces the proposed architecture and employs methods to analyze and verify its underlying security attributes. A unified method to review SN-SECA through symbolic analysis previews traffic process flow behavior across an infrastructure with SDN and NFV frameworks. The result of this work highlights the fundamental but important role of each attribute and its flow, and overall viability of the proposed architecture for SDN and NFV that protractedly useful to security practitioners.
Chua, B. 2015, 'Detecting Sustainable Programming Languages through Forking on Open Source Projects for Survivability', IEEE, IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, IEEE, Gaithersburg, USA, pp. 120-124.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper proposes a technique to detect the chance of programming languages used in Apache, Mozilla and Ubuntu surviving from a forking perspective. This line of investigation is important because there is currently no evidence showing which programming language is sustainable in the context of forking. Moreover, there is little evidence to compare and analyse open source project programming language continuity. The research outcome showed Apache, Mozilla and Ubuntu are different types of programming languages that are sustainable can increase their survivability. The more sustainable a programming language is, the more forking is expected. In contrast, a less sustainable a programming language is, the less likely the programming language will survive.
Chua, B. & Hall, J. 2015, 'Analysing Yammer Usage Pattern in the Context of Social CollaborativeActivity Performance from Knowledge Workers', Social Computing and Social Media, HCI International, Springer, Los Angeles, pp. 127-137.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This study investigates the impact and trend of the Yammer utilisation pattern by multi-generational knowledge workers employed in the risk service department of a multi-national enterprise. In contrast to the existing literature, our results highlight the different experiences of the younger and older generations in their adoption of a new technology. In our study, older management used Yammer for post creation more frequently than did the younger management. Furthermore, the older the employee was, the higher the chance he or she would access Yammer. Senior management was less concerned about Yammer's usability and functionality compared to junior management. Yammer usage rate increased if the tool was well integrated with other in-house compatible tools. Finally, younger management benefitted from high-quality coaching about Yammer's benefits and values.
Bernardo, D.V. & Chua, B. 2013, 'Random Validation and Fault Detection Method in Systems Implementations', 13th International Conference Intelligent Systems Design and Applications, International Conference Intelligent Systems Design and Applications, IEEE, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia, pp. 172-176.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The problematic absence of a structured technique which in its presence ensures complex infrastructure implementations and software deployment focus on how to utilize prior knowledge of existing infrastructure and on how to apply the information obtained from the preceding and historical outcomes in achieving successful validation cases, has become the central point of discussion in this paper. The concept of Markov Process and Chain validation is based on the BAYESIAN approach to parametric models for implementations which can employ prior knowledge, even skills and preceding outcomes for their parameter estimation. This paper proposes an important validation technique drawn from Markov Process and Monte Carlo method and presents statistical analysis to examine the effectiveness of Markov Chain with basic random validation.
Chua, B. 2014, 'Applying the Submission Multiple Tier (SMT) Matrix to Detect Impact on Developer Interest on Open Source Project Survivability', Open Source Software: Mobile Open Source Technologies, IFIP WG . International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS), SpringerOpen, Costa Rica, pp. 70-75.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
There is a significant relationship between project activity and developer interest on Open Source (OS) projects. Total project activity submission count number can be an indicator for gauging developer interest. The higher the project activity submission of a project is, the larger developer interest in a project. Our paper proposed that applying a Submission Multiple Tier (SMT) matrix can detect the impact of developer interest on project activity. Results showed more volume of OS projects with low project activity than high. Activity submission results also showed that developers are more likely to review than correct projects, with the first priority to find and fix bugs. Further research is needed to determine the impact of project activity type on developer motivation to contribute, participate and support OS projects
Chua, B. 2013, 'Analyzing Version Control Open Source Software Survivability', 2013 The 19th International Conference on Distributed Multimedia Systems, International Conference on Distributed Multimedia Systems, Knowledge Systems Institute Graduate School, Brighton, United Kingdom, pp. 61-65.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Survivability is a significant topic that is vital to the Open Source Software (OSS) community. User download is a metric suggested for measuring the user population size, use and download, to determine software popularity, successability and survivability. The size of the user download is significant as it can help determine a products popularity and users trust. This paper makes two important contributions to the literature: identification of low survival issues in relation to existing projects during survival growth and the significance of project type differences underpinning product age and survival impacts.
Chua, B. & bernardo, D. 2013, 'Open Source Developer Download Tiers: A Survival Framework', Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on IT Convergence and Security (ICITCS 2013), International Conference on IT Convergence and Security (ICITCS), IEEE, Macau, China, pp. 314-318.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The Developer Download Tier is a survival strategy framework that aims to guide the open source community, particularly to maximise developer download performance. The framework shows two tiers, displaying tier 1 as high surge software download by technical developer and non-developer and tier 2 as slow surge software download by technical developer and non-developer. Results show inconsistent download strategy between technical and non- technical developers, who apply criteria differently. Tier 1 technical developers targeted at appropriate license properties, non-windows operating system and C programming language whereas non-technical developers targeted appropriate license properties however non-windows operating systems and non C programming language. For Tier 2, technical developers targeted at appropriate license properties, operating system and programming language in different variations and non-technical developers targeted less appropriate license properties however operating systems and programming language on different variations.
Chua, B. 2011, 'Role Playing For Scholarly Articles', Software Engineering, Business Continuity and Education, International Conference on Advanced Software Engineering and Its Applications (ASEA), Springer-Verlag Berlin / Heidelberg, Jeju Island, Korea, pp. 662-674.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In attempting to read a scholarly article, learners (students) often struggle with problems of comprehension. It is likely that when a scholar writes a paper and discusses a new idea or a method within a particular discipline, they assume that readers have a scholarly background enabling them to understand the paper content in detail. Such an assumption is not justified, and there is evidence that students who are learning to carry out research for the first time find that understanding scholarsâY papers is not always an easy task. Deciding which RE (Requirement Elicitation) technique and tool to apply to issues can become complicated for educators constructing a learning approach which emphasises that group learners should read scholarly articles in a short time and be able to summarise the content from the article, while at the same time allowing learners to devise solutions that will, enhance their creativity and innovation, allowing them to explore how an idea in a paper could be integrated into an industry application. A case study in this paper introduces a university framework, which can be applied to aid students in their decision-making on selecting a presentation technique; that is, choosing role-playing as the appropriate technique for an effective learning outcome.
Chua, B. & Bernardo, D.V. 2011, 'Integrating Scholarly Articles within E-learning Courses', Communications in Computer and Information Science. Enhancing Learning Through Technology. Education Unplugged: Mobile Technologies and Web 2.0, International Conference on ICT in Teaching and Learning, Springer-Verlag Berlin / Heidelberg, Hong Kong, pp. 37-50.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
E-learning systems support course-based learning. Inadequate course materials provided to learners can result in a decline in effective learning. The designed framework discussed in this paper illustrates that learning can be advanced and assist learners through a better method of learning. In turn, it helps learners build diversified skills including research, aptitude and analysis. This framework is based on the notion that an educational theory can foster a circle of educational knowledge building and sharing between educators and learners emphasizing a better understanding of scholarly articles. Three case studies have validated this framework and in each case study the result highlighted the fact that studentsâ learning and motivation to learn was significantly increased
Chua, B. & Bernardo, D.V. 2011, 'Integrating Scholarly Articles Within E-Learning Courses: A Framework', Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science (ITiCSE 2011) Sponsored by ACM SIGCSE, Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science, ACM, Darmstadt. Germany, pp. 392-392.
Most e-learning courses do not include research as part of teaching materials for learners. A framework SOAR (Scholarly articles) based on an educational theory can foster a circle of educational knowledge building and sharing between educators and learners that emphasizes a better understanding of scholarly articles. This framework has been validated in several courses and its results demonstrate that it has a positive impact on students learning, which has shown a significant improvement as well as an increase in both creativity and innovation skills
Chua, B. & Verner, J. 2011, 'Evaluating software maintenance effort: The COME Matrix', Software Engineering, Business Continuity and Education, International Conference on Advanced Software Engineering and Its Applications (ASEA), Springer-Verlag Berlin / Heidelberg, Jeju Island, Korea, pp. 120-136.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
If effort estimates are not easily assessed upfront by software maintainers we may have serious problems with large maintenance projects, or when we make repeated maintenance changes to software. This is particularly problematic when inaccurate estimates of the required resources leads to serious negotiation issues. The development of a Categorisation of Maintenance Effort (COME) matrix enables an overall summary of software maintenance changes and maintenance effort to be shown, upfront, to software practitioners. This can occur without any consideration or use of other effort estimation techniques whose results, when used to estimate effort, can appear complicated and it may not be clear how accurate their estimates may be. We use a simple approach to categorizing maintenance effort data using five steps. We use regression analysis with Jorgensen's 81 datasets to evaluate the selected variables to find out the true efficacy of our approach: 1) adaptive changes and functional changes with maintenance effort predicted from low to high, 2) high predicted effort when updating KSLOC for software maintenance changes, 3) find that more lines of source codes do not imply that more software maintenance effort is needed, 4) find no significant relationship when we consider the age of the application and 5) find that at least 20 application sizes between KSLOC of 100, 200, 400 and 500 have a low predicted software maintenance effort. Our experiment shows that using the COME matrix is an alternative approach to other cost estimation techniques for estimating effort for repeated requirement changes in large software maintenance projects.
Chua, B. 2010, 'Requirements Changes Rework Effects: A Case Study', Informatics Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference Software Engineering and Applications (SEA 2010), The IASTED International Conferences on Informatics, ACTA Press, Marina Del Rey, USA, pp. 487-493.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Although software managers are generally good at estimation, their experience of scheduling reworks is poor. Inconsistent or incorrect effort estimation in turn increases the risk that the completion time for a project will ultimately become problematic. To continually alter software maintenance schedules while maintaining software projects is, in fact, a daunting task. Our proposed framework, validated in a case study, confirms that variables in requirements change suffer from weaknesses in coding, user involvement and user documentation. Our results clearly show that there is significant impact on rework as a result of unexpected errors found to correlate to 1) weak characteristics and attributes as described in the source lines of code, especially in data declaration and data statement, 2) lack of communication between developers and users on a change effect, and 3) unavailability of user documentation. To keep rework under control, new criteria in change request forms are proposed. These criteria are shown in the framework to need refining; thus, the more case studies that are validated, the more reliable the result will be in determining outcomes of effort rework effects.
Chua, B. 2010, 'Rework Requirement Changes in Software Maintenance', The Fifth IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, IEEE, Nice, France, pp. 252-258.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The rework cost of a requirement change is high. Requirements changes, which relate to hidden catastrophic failures, can cost many thousands of dollars to fix. An exploratory study on software maintenance records demonstrates that specific change characteristics in corrective change and functional change are shown to have an effect on rework. In pursuing a deep understanding of the effects, we found that unexpected errors and poor understanding of errors trigger higher rework effort.
Chua, B. & Bernardo, D.V. 2010, 'Introducing Scholarly Articles: A way for Attaining Educational Sustainability', Proceedings: The Second International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-Line Learning (eL&mL 2010), International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-Line Learning, IEEE, St Martaan, Netherland, pp. 111-115.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Education needs to be sustainable and one way to achieve educational sustainability is through developing studentsâ interest in scholarly articles. Introducing scholarly articles in the classroom is often compellingly challenging for both the lecturer and students, largely because most of these articles are too complicated for some students. In this paper, we introduce a practiced-based technique to assist lecturers/teachers to achieve better student learning through scholarly articles, and therefore attain educational sustainability. This technique was implemented and validated in our case studies. It demonstrates that it makes a significant contribution in guiding students to a better way of reading difficult scholarly articles.
Chua, B., Bernardo, D.V. & Verner, J. 2010, 'Understanding the use of Elicitation Approaches for Effective Requirements Gathering', Proceedings of The Fifth International Conference on Software Engineering Advances ICSEA 2010, International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, IEEE Computer Society, Nice, France, pp. 325-330.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Requirements sometimes can turn out to be either incomplete or inconsistent. Factors contributing to this situation include the selection of the elicitation technique and other approaches used. Some approaches used for requirements gathering such as single elicitation approach, and their effects during requirements elicitation, can cause deficiency in many requirements elicitation methods. Our experimental study showed that when an interview technique is used, choice-based and integration-based approaches are far better than a single elicitation approach, as they provide an effective process for eliciting complete and correct requirements.
Chua, B. & Verner, J. 2009, 'Designing change request forms for better effort estimates on requirements changes', 2009 international conference on software engineering theory and practice (SETP), International Conference on Software Engineering Theory and Practice, ISRST, Imperial Swan Hotel & Suites located at 7050 S. Kirkman Road, Orlando, FL 32819, USA., pp. 32-39.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Chua, B., Bernardo, D.V. & wang, X. 2009, 'Cultural Issues In The Use Of Collabor-Ative Knowledge Management Systems', KMO '2009 Fourth International KMO Conference, International KMO Conference, KMO '2009 Fourth International KMO Conference, National Taiwan University, pp. 1-9.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Collaborative Knowledge Management Systems (CKMS) have become very important tools for knowledge workers in creating, sharing, and transferring knowledge between people at different times and in different places. Despite numerous research studies addressing the benefits, uses, and challenges in CKMS, cultural issues pose a threat for knowledge workers to distribute and transfer knowledge appropriately. The aim of this research is to understand inherited cultural differences between Eastern and Western knowledge workers using CKMS. Hosftedes well known theory on culture dimensions will be evaluated in our study as the first step toward deepening the understanding between people with different cultural backgrounds. The research outcome, a cultural framework of CKMS, will be developed to increase software development practitioners awareness on the importance of cultural issues as the underpinning concern for constructing a high-quality knowledge management system.
Bernardo, D.V., Chua, B. & Hoang, D.B. 2009, 'Quantitative Security Risk Assessment (SRA) Method: An empirical case study', World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing (NaBIC'09), World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing, Research Publishing Services, Comibatore, India, pp. 972-977.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper introduces a novel approach to a more practical Quantitative SRA. The approach formalized in this paper is based on the methods described in various risk assessment frameworks that were described by existing international standards with adjustments combining qualitative and ranking method based on distance-based approach. The successful implementation of this approach in four organizations provides an alternative conventional means of performing a more practical Quantitative SRA, in a manner consistent with current set of standards and practices.
Chua, B. & Verner, J. 2008, 'Requirement Change Management: Why are current change request forms inadequate', Proceedings of the 5th Software Measurement European Forum, Software Measurement European Forum, Libreria CLUP Soc Group, Milan Italy, pp. 101-111.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Chua, B., Verner, J. & Bernardo, D.V. 2008, 'Criteria For Estimating Effort For Requirements Changes', Software Process Improvement, EuroSPI, Springer, Dublin, Ireland, pp. 36-46.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
IT practitioners realize that poor scheduling can cause project failure. This is because schedule overruns may be caused by the effort involved in making requirement changes. A software process improvement challenge is to better estimate the cost and effort of requirements changes. Difficulties with such effort estimation is partially caused by lack of data for analysis supported with little information about the data types involved in the requirements changes. This research is an exploratory study, based on change request forms, in requirements change categorization. This categorization can be used to develop an empirical model for requirements change effort as input into a cost estimation model. An empirically based estimation model will provide IT practitioners with a basis for better estimation of effort needed for requirements changes.
Chua, B. & Verner, J. 2006, 'A Framework for Predicting Person-Effort on Requirements Changes', The 5th International Conference on Software Methodologies, Tools, and Techniques, International Conference on Software Methods and Tools, IOS Press, Quebec, Canada, pp. 439-451.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Chua, B. & Verner, J. 2005, 'IT Practitioner's Perspective on Australian Software Development Projects in Risk Management Practices and Tools: A Pilot Study', New trends in software methodologies, tools and techniques: Proceedings of the fourth SoMeT-W05, International Conference on Software Methods and Tools, IOS Press, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 111-125.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Chua, B. & Brennan, J. 2004, 'Enhancing Collaborative Knowledge Management Systems Designs', Proceedings 5th European Conference on Knowledge Management, European Conference on Knowledge Management, Academic Conferences International, Paris, France, pp. 171-179.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Chua, B. & Dyson, L.E. 2004, 'Applying the ISO9126 Model to the evaluation of an e-learning system', Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE 2004), Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, Perth, Australia, pp. 184-190.View/Download from: UTS OPUS