Dr. Brito Rodriguez is a Chancellor's postodctoral fellow. She is currently leading a study focused in the sequencing the respiratory virome in cattle and its association with disease. Dr. Brito Rodriguez is also collaborating with DPI NSW to study the molecular epidemiology of Bluetongue viruses. Dr. Brito graduated from Universidad Mayor in Chile as a Doctor in Veterinary Medicine, and Masters in Preventive Veterinary Medicine and PhD in Epidemiology from the University of California, Davis. She has also worked at the University of Minnesota, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad de Chile School of Veterinary Sciences and at Plum Island Disease Center, United States Department of Agriculture. Her research has been focused on studying viral diseases that affect animals. She has extensive experience working with Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus, and Influenza virus, among others. Her publications have contributed to understanding the distribution and occurrence of viral diseases in animals, through the application of viral sequencing and phylogenetic analyses.
Can supervise: YES
Animal Health, Virology, Metagenomics (virome), Epidemiology, Phylogenetics, One Health
Lecturer: General Microbiology, Epidemiology and Public Health Microbiology, Human Genetics and Precision Medicine.
Subject coordinator: Biotechnology solutions to infectious disases
Agüero, B, Mena, J, Berrios, F, Tapia, R, Salinas, C, Dutta, J, van Bakel, H, Mor, SK, Brito, B, Medina, RA & Neira, V 2020, 'First report of porcine respirovirus 1 in South America', Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 246.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020 The Authors Porcine respirovirus 1 (PRV1) is an emerging virus in pigs that has been previously described in the USA and China. There are no reports of its presence in the rest of the world. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of PRV1 in Chile and to determine its phylogeny. Thus, we collected samples (oral fluids, nasal swabs, and lungs) from a swine influenza A virus (IAV) surveillance program, most of which belonged to pigs with respiratory disease. The samples were analyzed by RT-PCR, and the viral sequencing was obtained using RNA whole-genome sequencing approach. Maximum likelihood phylogeny was constructed with the available references. Thirty-one of 164 samples (18.9 %) were RT-PCR positive for PRV1: 62.5 % oral fluids, 19.0 % nasal swabs, and 8.6 % lungs. All 6 farms in this study had at least one positive sample, with 6–40 % of positive results per farm, which suggests that PRV1 is disseminated in Chilean swine farms. Twenty-one of 31 (677%) PRV1-positive samples were also positive for IAV, so the role of PRV1 as secondary pathogen in respiratory disease needs to be further evaluated. Near to complete genome of two PRV1s were obtained from two farms. The phylogenies, in general, showed low bootstrap support, except the concatenated genome and the L gene trees which showed clustering of the Chilean PRV1 with Asian sequences, suggesting a close genetic relationship. This is the first report of PRV1 in the Southern Hemisphere. Further studies are necessary to determine the genetic diversity of this virus in Chile.
Ehizibolo, DO, Fish, IH, Brito, B, Bertram, MR, Ardo, AG, Ularamu, HG, Lazarus, DD, Wungak, YS, Nwosuh, CI, Smoliga, GR, Hartwig, EJ, Pauszek, SJ, Dickmu, S, Abdoulkadiri, S & Arzt, J 2020, 'Characterization of transboundary foot-and-mouth disease viruses in nigeria and cameroon during 2016.', Transboundary and emerging diseases.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Continuous surveillance for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in endemic settings such as West Africa is imperative to support improved local and regional control plans, with the long-term goal of regional eradication. This paper describes the genetic characterization of FMD viruses (FMDV) obtained from outbreaks in Nigeria (n = 45) and Cameroon (n = 15) during 2016 and from archival samples (n = 3) retrieved from a 2014 outbreak in Nigeria. These viruses were analyzed in the context of previously published FMDV sequences from the region. Four FMDV serotypes: O, A, SAT1 and SAT2 were detected. Phylogenetic analyses of the VP1 coding sequences indicate the continuity of FMDV serotype O East Africa-3 (O/EA-3), serotype A AFRICA genotype G-IV (A/AFRICA/G-IV), and serotype South African Territories (SAT) 2 lineage VII (SAT2/VII). The FMDV SAT1 topotype X (SAT1/X), which emerged in Nigeria in 2015, continued to be associated with outbreaks in the region during 2016, and SAT1 is reported for the first time from Cameroon. Additionally, a re-emergence or re-introduction of the serotype O West Africa (O/WA) topotype in Nigeria is described herein. Our findings indicate a consistent, pan-serotypic relationship between FMDV strains detected in Cameroon and Nigeria. Additionally, FMDV strains from West Africa obtained in this study were genetically related to those occurring in East and North Africa. These phylogenetic relationships suggest that animal movements (pastoralism and/or trade) are important factors for virus spread across the African continent. These data provide critical baselines which are a necessary component of Stage 0 and 1 of the Progressive Control Pathway of FMD (PCP-FMD). Specifically, characterizing the existing virus strains (risk) provides the basis for the comprehensive risk-based control plan which is the requisite criteria for Nigeria's transition to Stage 2 of PCP-FMD, and for coordinated regional control of FMD.
Omondi, GP, Gakuya, F, Arzt, J, Sangula, A, Hartwig, E, Pauszek, S, Smoliga, G, Brito, B, Perez, A, Obanda, V & VanderWaal, K 2020, 'The role of African buffalo in the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in sympatric cattle and buffalo populations in Kenya', Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 2206-2221.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2020 Blackwell Verlag GmbH Quantitative knowledge on the contribution of African buffalo to the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in East Africa is lacking, and this information is essential for the design of control programs in the region. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of FMDV in buffalo, including the role of buffalo in the circulation of FMDV in livestock populations. We collected blood and oropharyngeal fluids from 92 wild buffalo and 98 sympatric cattle in central Kenya and sequenced the virus' VP1 coding region. We show that FMDV has a high seroprevalence in buffalo (~77%) and targeted cattle (~93%). In addition, we recovered 80 FMDV sequences from buffalo, all of which were serotype SAT1 and SAT2, and four serotype O and A sequences from sympatric cattle. Notably, six individual buffalo were co-infected with both SAT1 and SAT2. Amongst sympatric buffalo and cattle, the fact that no SAT1 or 2 sequences were found in cattle suggests that transmission of FMDV from buffalo to sympatric cattle is rare. Similarly, there was no evidence that serotype O and A sequences found in cattle were transmitted to buffalo. However, viruses from FMDV outbreaks in cattle elsewhere in Kenya were closely related to SAT1 and SAT2 viruses found in buffalo in this study, suggesting that FMDV in cattle and buffalo do not constitute independently evolving populations. We also show that fine-scale geographic features, such as rivers, influence the circulation of FMDV in buffalo and that social segregation amongst sympatric herds may limit between-herd transmission. These results significantly advance our understanding of the ecology and molecular epidemiology of FMDV at wildlife–livestock interfaces in East Africa and will help to inform the design of control and surveillance strategies for this disease in the region.
Biswal, JK, Ranjan, R, Subramaniam, S, Mohapatra, JK, Patidar, S, Sharma, MK, Bertram, MR, Brito, B, Rodriguez, LL, Pattnaik, B & Arzt, J 2019, 'Genetic and antigenic variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus during persistent infection in naturally infected cattle and Asian buffalo in India.', PloS one, vol. 14, no. 6.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The role of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) persistently infected ruminants in initiating new outbreaks remains controversial, and the perceived threat posed by such animals hinders international trade in FMD-endemic countries. In this study we report longitudinal analyses of genetic and antigenic variations of FMDV serotype O/ME-SA/Ind2001d sublineage during naturally occurring, persistent infection in cattle and buffalo at an organised dairy farm in India. The proportion of animals from which FMDV RNA was recovered was not significantly different between convalescent (post-clinical) and sub-clinically infected animals or between cattle and buffalo across the sampling period. However, infectious virus was isolated from a higher proportion of buffalo samples and for a longer duration compared to cattle. Analysis of the P1 sequences from recovered viruses indicated fixation of mutations at the rate of 1.816 x 10-2substitution/site/year (s/s/y) (95% CI 1.362-2.31 x 10-2 s/s/y). However, the majority of point mutations were transitional substitutions. Within individual animals, the mean dN/dS (ω) value for the P1 region varied from 0.076 to 0.357, suggesting the selection pressure acting on viral genomes differed substantially across individual animals. Statistical parsimony analysis indicated that all of the virus isolates from carrier animals originated from the outbreak virus. The antigenic relationship value as determined by 2D-VNT assay revealed fluctuation of antigenic variants within and between carrier animals during the carrier state which suggested that some carrier viruses had diverged substantially from the protection provided by the vaccine strain. This study contributes to understanding the extent of within-host and within-herd evolution that occurs during the carrier state of FMDV.
Mathieu, C, Gonzalez, A, Garcia, A, Johow, M, Badia, C, Jara, C, Nuñez, P, Neira, V, Montiel, NA, Killian, ML & Brito, BP 2019, 'H7N6 low pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in commercial turkey farms in Chile caused by a native South American Lineage', Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH In December 2016, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) caused by an H7N6 subtype was confirmed in a grow-out turkey farm located in Valparaiso Region, Chile. Depopulation of exposed animals, zoning, animal movement control and active surveillance were implemented to contain the outbreak. Two weeks later, a second grow-out turkey farm located 70 km north of the first site was also infected by H7N6 LPAI, which subsequently spilled over to one backyard poultry flock. The virus involved in the outbreak shared a close genetic relationship with Chilean aquatic birds' viruses collected in previous years. The A/turkey/Chile/2017(H7N6) LPAI virus belonged to a native South American lineage. Based on the H7 and most of the internal genes' phylogenies, these viruses were also closely related to the ones that caused a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in Chile in 2002. Results from this study help to understand the regional dynamics of influenza outbreaks, highlighting the importance of local native viruses circulating in the natural reservoir hosts.
Ahmed, Z, Pauszek, SJ, Ludi, A, LaRocco, M, Khan, E-U-H, Afzal, M, Arshed, MJ, Farooq, U, Arzt, J, Bertram, M, Brito, B, Naeem, K, Abubakar, M & Rodriguez, LL 2018, 'Genetic diversity and comparison of diagnostic tests for characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains from Pakistan 2008-2012.', Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 534-546.View/Download from: Publisher's site
We report the laboratory analysis of 125 clinical samples from suspected cases of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle and Asian buffalo collected in Pakistan between 2008 and 2012. Of these samples, 89 were found to contain viral RNA by rRT-PCR, of which 88 were also found to contain infectious FMD virus (FMDV) by virus isolation (VI), with strong correlation between these tests (κ = 0.96). Samples that were VI-positive were serotyped by antigen detection ELISA (Ag-ELISA) and VP1 sequence acquisition and analysis. Sequence data identified FMDV serotypes A (n = 13), O (n = 36) and Asia-1 (n = 41), including three samples from which both serotypes Asia-1 and O were detected. Serotype A viruses were classified within three different Iran-05 sublineages: HER-10, FAR-11 and ESF-10. All serotype Asia-1 were within Group VII (Sindh-08 lineage), in a genetic clade that differs from viruses isolated prior to 2010. All serotypes O were classified as PanAsia-2 within two different sublineages: ANT-10 and BAL-09. Using VP1 sequencing as the gold standard for serotype determination, the overall sensitivity of Ag-ELISA to correctly determine serotype was 74%, and serotype-specific sensitivity was 8% for serotype A, 88% for Asia-1 and 89% for O. Serotype-specific specificity was 100% for serotype A, 93% for Asia-1 and 94% for O. Interestingly, 12 of 13 serotype A viruses were not detected by Ag-ELISA. This study confirms earlier accounts of regional genetic diversity of FMDV in Pakistan and highlights the importance of continued validation of diagnostic tests for rapidly evolving pathogens such as FMDV.
Bertram, MR, Delgado, A, Pauszek, SJ, Smoliga, GR, Brito, B, Stenfeldt, C, Hartwig, EJ, Jumbo, SD, Abdoulmoumini, M, Oliva Marie, AA, Salhine, R, Rodriguez, LL, Garabed, R & Arzt, J 2018, 'Effect of vaccination on cattle subclinically infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus in Cameroon.', Preventive veterinary medicine, vol. 155, pp. 1-10.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious and economically important livestock diseases worldwide. Four serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV; O, A, SAT1, SAT2) circulate in Cameroon, and a trivalent inactivated vaccine against the three most common serotypes (O, A, SAT2) was recently introduced in 2014. The objective of this study was to characterize vaccine performance in cattle under natural hyperendemic conditions in the Adamawa region of Cameroon. Vaccinated cattle (n = 50) and non-vaccinated controls (n = 100) were monitored by serum and oropharyngeal fluid (OPF) sample collection through a 12-month period. Anti-FMDV non-structural protein (anti-NSP) seroprevalence increased from 59.3% (89/150) at the beginning of the study to 85.8% (103/120) at the end of the study, and FMDV RNA was found in 28% (42/150) of animals overall, despite detection of clinical signs of FMD in only 6 non-vaccinated animals. Viral sequence analysis indicated that subclinical infections of FMDV serotypes O and A were present within the study herds during the study period, which was reflected by an overall increase of anti-NSP seroprevalence during the study. There was no association between vaccination status and seroconversion or prevalence of FMDV RNA in OPF. Younger cattle had higher odds of detection of FMDV RNA in OPF, but older animals were more likely to be seropositive. This study suggests vaccination of herds previously exposed to FMDV may help to limit clinical signs and reduce economic losses caused by FMDV. These findings also suggest that subclinical circulation of FMDV occurs in hyperendemic regions regardless of vaccination.
Brito Rodriguez, BP, Bertram, MR, Vu, LT, Pauszek, SJ, Hartwig, EJ, Smoliga, GR, Hoang, BH, Phuong, NT, Stenfeldt, C, Fish, IH, Hung, VV, Delgado, A, VanderWaal, K, Rodriguez, LL, Long, NT, Dung, DH & Arzt, J 2018, 'Lack of Transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus From Persistently Infected Cattle to Naïve Cattle Under Field Conditions in Vietnam', Frontiers in Veterinary Science, vol. 5.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brito, B, Pauszek, SJ, Hartwig, EJ, Smoliga, GR, Vu, LT, Dong, PV, Stenfeldt, C, Rodriguez, LL, King, DP, Knowles, NJ, Bachanek-Bankowska, K, Long, NT, Dung, DH & Arzt, J 2018, 'A traditional evolutionary history of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in Southeast Asia challenged by analyses of non-structural protein coding sequences.', Scientific reports, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 6472-6472.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Recombination of rapidly evolving RNA-viruses provides an important mechanism for diversification, spread, and emergence of new variants with enhanced fitness. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an important transboundary disease of livestock that is endemic to most countries in Asia and Africa. Maintenance and spread of FMDV are driven by periods of dominance of specific viral lineages. Current understanding of the molecular epidemiology of FMDV lineages is generally based on the phylogenetic relationship of the capsid-encoding genes, with less attention to the process of recombination and evolution of non-structural proteins. In this study, the putative recombination breakpoints of FMDVs endemic to Southeast Asia were determined using full-open reading frame sequences. Subsequently, the lineages' divergence times of recombination-free genome regions were estimated. These analyses revealed a close relationship between two of the earliest endemic viral lineages that appear unrelated when only considering the phylogeny of their capsid proteins. Contrastingly, one lineage, named O/CATHAY, known for having a particular host predilection (pigs) has evolved independently. Additionally, intra-lineage recombination occurred at different breakpoints compared to the inter-lineage process. These results provide new insights about FMDV recombination patterns and the evolutionary interdependence of FMDV serotypes and lineages.
Brito, B, Pauszek, SJ, Hartwig, EJ, Smoliga, GR, Vu, LT, Vu, PP, Stenfeldt, C, Rodriguez, LL, King, DP, Knowles, NJ, Bachanek-Bankowska, K, Long, NT, Dung, H & Arzt, J 2018, 'A56 Evolutionary analyses of foot-and-mouth disease virus in Southeast Asia using whole-genome sequences', Virus Evolution, vol. 4, no. suppl_1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brito, BP, Mohapatra, JK, Subramaniam, S, Pattnaik, B, Rodriguez, LL, Moore, BR & Perez, AM 2018, 'Dynamics of widespread foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes A, O and Asia-1 in southern Asia: A Bayesian phylogenetic perspective.', Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 696-710.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is, arguably, the animal disease with the most devastating global economic impact owing in part, to the severe trade restrictions imposed upon affected countries and regions. South Asia is one of the regions where widespread lineages of the FMDV virus (FMDV) have emerged. Here, we performed an integrative phylogenetic analysis of all FMDV serotypes (A, O and Asia-1) circulating in southern Asia, including viral sequences collected until 2013. Our results describe the occurrence of FMD caused by different serotypes and lineages, focusing in the cycles where a specific lineage predominates within a region for a protracted period and then are rapidly or progressively replaced by an emergent or re-emergent strain that is introduced from an adjacent region. Transmission between the two main regions in southern Asia (the Indian subcontinent and the region comprised by Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan) has been limited. Results of time divergence estimation of lineages that currently circulate in this region indicate that the most recent common ancestor of endemic lineages are: 1992 [1989-1995] for lineage O/PanAsia; 1997 [1995-1999] for PanAsia2; 2001 [1998-2004] for O/Ind2001; 2001 [2000-2002] for A/Iran-05; 1990 [1988-1991] for A/G-18 (G-VII); 2003 [2000-2006] for Asia-1 Sindh08 and 2002 [1999-2004] for Asia-1 G-VIII. We estimated the mean of the overall substitution rate of the VP1 coding region (substitution/site/year) for serotype O (5.95 × 10-3 ), serotype A (1.19 × 10-2 ) and serotype Asia-1 (3.08 × 10-3 ). The potential factors driving the lineage turnover are discussed. Our results provide insights into the ecological and evolutionary factors driving the emergence of FMDV.
Farooq, U, Ahmed, Z, Naeem, K, Bertram, M, Brito, B, Stenfeldt, C, Pauszek, SJ, LaRocco, M, Rodriguez, L & Arzt, J 2018, 'Characterization of naturally occurring, new and persistent subclinical foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in vaccinated Asian buffalo in Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan', TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 1836-1850.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Fish, I, Stenfeldt, C, Pauszek, SJ, Brito, BP, Hartwig, EJ, Smoliga, G, Rodriguez, LL & Arzt, J 2018, 'A55 Foot-and-mouth disease virus undergoes abundant viral genomic changes at distinct stages of infection of cattle', Virus Evolution, vol. 4, no. suppl_1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Mena, J, Brito, B, Moreira, R, Tadich, T, González, I, Cruces, J, Ortega, R, van Bakel, H, Rathnasinghe, R, Pizarro-Lucero, J, Medina, R & Neira, V 2018, 'Reemergence of H3N8 Equine Influenza A virus in Chile, 2018.', Transboundary and emerging diseases, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 1408-1415.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A new outbreak of equine Influenza A virus (IAV) was reported in Chile in January 2018, 6 years after its last report in 2012. Equine IAV was detected by rtRT-PCR, followed by virus isolation and full genome sequencing. Genetic characterization of equine IAV classified the virus within clade 1 of the Florida sublineage. Although this is the same sublineage that caused an outbreak in Chile in 2012, the virus has a high similarity to other cocirculating viruses that were recently identified in Europe and Asia. The Chilean 2018 equine influenza (EI) outbreak was caused by an H3N8 strain circulating globally that spread through horse movements.
Moreno-Torres, KI, Brito, BP, Branan, MA, Rodriguez, LL, Delgado, AH, Stenfeldt, C & Arzt, J 2018, 'Foot-and-Mouth Disease Infection Dynamics in Contact-Exposed Pigs Are Determined by the Estimated Exposure Dose.', Frontiers in Veterinary Science, vol. 5, no. Jul.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The quantitative relationship between the exposure dose of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and subsequent infection dynamics has been demonstrated through controlled inoculation studies in various species. However, similar quantitation of viral doses has not been achieved during contact exposure experiments due to the intrinsic difficulty of measuring the virus quantities exchanged between animals. In the current study, novel modeling techniques were utilized to investigate FMDV infection dynamics in groups of pigs that had been contact-exposed to FMDV-infected donors shedding varying levels of virus, as well as in pigs inoculated via the intra-oropharyngeal (IOP) route. Estimated virus exposure doses were modeled and were found to be statistically significantly associated with the dynamics of FMDV RNA detection in serum and oropharyngeal fluid (OPF), and with the time to onset of clinical disease. The minimum estimated shedding quantity in OPF that defined infectiousness of donor pigs was 6.55 log10 genome copy numbers (GCN)/ml (95% CI 6.11, 6.98), which delineated the transition from the latent to infectious phase of disease which occurred during the incubation phase. This quantity corresponded to a minimum estimated exposure dose of 5.07 log10 GCN/ml (95% CI 4.25, 5.89) in contact-exposed pigs. Thus, we demonstrated that a threshold quantity of FMDV detection in donor pigs was necessary in order to achieve transmission by direct contact. The outcomes from this investigation demonstrate that variability of infection dynamics which occurs during the progression of FMD in naturally exposed pigs can be partially attributed to variations in exposure dose. Moreover, these modeling approaches for dose-quantitation may be retrospectively applied to contact-exposure experiments or field scenarios. Hence, robust information could be incorporated into models used to evaluate FMD spread and control.
Velazquez-Salinas, L, Ramirez-Medina, E, Bracht, AJ, Hole, K, Brito, BP, Gladue, DP & Carrillo, C 2018, 'Phylodynamics of parapoxvirus genus in Mexico (2007-2011)', INFECTION GENETICS AND EVOLUTION, vol. 65, pp. 12-14.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Arzt, J, Brito, B, Pauszek, SJ, Hartwig, EJ, Smoliga, GR, Vu, LT, Vu, PP, Stenfeldt, C, Rodriguez, LL, Long, NT & Dung, DH 2017, 'Genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O lineage ind-2001d collected in vietnam in 2015', Genome Announcements, vol. 5, no. 18, pp. 1-2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Arzt et al. In 2015, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus lineage Ind-2001 was detected for the first time in Southeast Asia. This report contains the first nearcomplete genome sequence of a viral isolate from this lineage collected from an outbreak in Vietnam. This novel incursion has substantial implications for regional FMD control measures.
Brito, B, Pauszek, SJ, Eschbaumer, M, Stenfeldt, C, Ferreira, HCDC, Vu, LT, Phuong, NT, Hoang, BH, Tho, ND, Dong, PV, Minh, PQ, Long, NT, King, DP, Knowles, NJ, Dung, DH, Rodriguez, LL & Arzt, J 2017, 'Phylodynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus O/PanAsia in Vietnam 2010-2014', Veterinary Research, vol. 48, pp. 1-12.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is endemic in Vietnam, a country that plays an important role in livestock trade within Southeast Asia. The large populations of FMDV-susceptible species in Vietnam are important components of food production and of the national livelihood. In this study, we investigated the phylogeny of FMDV O/PanAsia in Vietnam, reconstructing the virus' ancestral host species (pig, cattle or buffalo), clinical stage (subclinical carrier or clinically affected) and geographical location. Phylogenetic divergence time estimation and character state reconstruction analyses suggest that movement of viruses between species differ. While inferred transmissions from cattle to buffalo and pigs and from pigs to cattle are well supported, transmission from buffalo to other species, and from pigs to buffalo may be less frequent. Geographical movements of FMDV O/PanAsia virus appears to occur in all directions within the country, with the South Central Coast and the Northeast regions playing a more important role in FMDV O/PanAsia spread. Genetic selection of variants with changes at specific sites within FMDV VP1 coding region was different depending on host groups analyzed. The overall ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes was greater in pigs compared to cattle and buffalo, whereas a higher number of individual amino acid sites under positive selection were detected in persistently infected, subclinical animals compared to viruses collected from clinically diseased animals. These results provide novel insights to understand FMDV evolution and its association with viral spread within endemic countries. These findings may support animal health organizations in their endeavor to design animal disease control strategies in response to outbreaks.
Brito, BP, Rodriguez, LL, Hammond, JM, Pinto, J & Perez, AM 2017, 'Review of the Global Distribution of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus from 2007 to 2014', Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 316-332.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Neira, V, Brito, B, Mena, J, Culhane, M, Apel, MI, Max, V, Perez, P, Moreno, V, Mathieu, C, Johow, M, Badia, C, Torremorell, M, Medina, R & Ortega, R 2017, 'Epidemiological investigations of the introduction of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Chile, 2013-2015.', PLoS ONE, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1-15.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is endemic in most pork producing countries. In Chile, eradication of PRRS virus (PRRSV) was successfully achieved in 2009 as a result of the combined efforts of producers and the animal health authorities. In October 2013, after several years without detecting PRRSV under surveillance activities, suspected cases were confirmed on a commercial swine farm. Here, we describe the PRRS epidemic in Chile between October 2013 and April 2015, and we studied the origins and spread of PRRSV throughout the country using official surveillance data and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. Our results indicate that the outbreaks were caused by a PRRSV closely related to viruses present in swine farms in North America, and different from the strain that circulated in the country before 2009. Using divergence time estimation analysis, we found that the 2013-2015 PRRSV may have been circulating in Chile for at least one month before the first detection. A single strain of PRRSV spread into a limited number of commercial and backyard swine farms. New infections in commercial systems have not been reported since October 2014, and eradication is underway by clearing the disease from the few commercial and backyard farms that remain positive. This is one of the few documented experiences of PRRSV introduction into a disease-free country.
Pacheco, JM, Brito, B, Hartwig, E, Smoliga, GR, Perez, A, Arzt, J & Rodriguez, LL 2017, 'Early Detection of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus from Infected Cattle Using A Dry Filter Air Sampling System', TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 564-573.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Pauszek, SJ, Bertram, MR, Vu, LT, Hartwig, EJ, Smoliga, GR, Brito, B, Stenfeldt, C, VanderWaal, K, Fish, IH, Hung, VV, Phuong, NT, Hoang, BH, Rodriguez, LL, Dung, DH & Arzt, J 2017, 'Genome sequences of seven foot-andmouth disease virus isolates collected from serial samples from one persistently infected carrier cow in Vietnam', Genome Announcements, vol. 5, no. 34, pp. 1-3.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Several foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) carrier cattle were identified in Vietnam by the recovery of infectious virus from oropharyngeal fluid. This report contains the first near-complete genome sequences of seven viruses from sequential samples from one carrier animal collected over the course of 1 year. The characterization of within-host viral evolution has implications for FMDV control strategies.
Rivas, J, Neira, V, Mena, J, Brito, B, Garcia, A, Gutierrez, C, Sandoval, D & Ortega, R 2017, 'Identification of a divergent genotype of equine arteritis virus from South American donkeys', Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 1655-1660.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A novel equine arteritis virus (EAV) was isolated and sequenced from feral donkeys in Chile. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new virus and South African asinine strains diverged at least 100 years from equine EAV strains. The results indicate that asinine strains belonged to a different EAV genotype.
Vu, LT, Long, NT, Brito, B, Stenfeldt, C, Phuong, NT, Hoang, BH, Pauszek, SJ, Hartwig, EJ, Smoliga, GR, Vu, PP, Quang, LTV, Hung, VV, Tho, ND, Dong, PV, Minh, PQ, Bertram, M, Fish, IH, Rodriguez, LL, Dung, DH & Arzt, J 2017, 'First detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus O/Ind-2001d in Vietnam', PLoS ONE, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. e0177361-e0177361.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In recent years, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O, topotype Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA), lineage Ind-2001d has spread from the Indian subcontinent to the Middle East, North Africa, and Southeast Asia. In the current report, we describe the first detection of this lineage in Vietnam in May, 2015 in Đắk Nông province. Three subsequent outbreaks caused by genetically related viruses occurred between May–October, 2015 after which the virus was not detected in clinical outbreaks for at least 15 subsequent months. The observed outbreaks affected (in chronological order): cattle in Đắk Nông province, pigs in Đắk Lắk province and Đắk Nông province, and cattle in Ninh Thuận province. The clinical syndromes associated with these outbreaks were consistent with typical FMD in the affected species. Overall attack rate on affected premises was 0.85 in pigs and 0.93 in cattle over the course of the outbreak. Amongst 378 pigs at risk on affected premises, 85 pigs died during the outbreaks; there were no deaths among cattle. The manner in which FMDV/O/ME-SA/Ind-2001d was introduced into Vietnam remains undetermined; however, movement of live cattle is the suspected route. This incursion has substantial implications for epidemiology and control of FMD in Southeast Asia.
Brito, B, Koenig, G, Cabanne, GS, Beascoechea, CP, Rodriguez, L & Perez, A 2016, 'Phylogeographic analysis of the 2000-2002 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Argentina', INFECTION GENETICS AND EVOLUTION, vol. 41, pp. 93-99.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brito, BP, Jori, F, Dwarka, R, Maree, FF, Heath, L & Perez, AM 2016, 'Transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease SAT2 Viruses at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface of Two Major Transfrontier Conservation Areas in Southern Africa', FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY, vol. 7.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Pauszek, SJ, Eschbaumer, M, Brito, B, de Carvalho Ferreira, HC, Vu, LT, Phuong, NT, Hoang, BH, Tho, ND, Dong, PV, Minh, PQ, Long, NT, Dung, DH, Rodriguez, LL & Arzt, J 2016, 'Site-specific substitution (Q172R) in the VP1 protein of FMDV isolates collected from asymptomatic carrier ruminants in Vietnam', Virology Reports, vol. 6, pp. 90-96.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 The epidemiological significance of asymptomatic persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in carrier animals, specifically its ability to seed new clinical outbreaks, is undetermined, and consistent viral determinants of FMDV persistence have not been identified. We analyzed 114 FMDV O/ME-SA/PanAsia VP1 sequences from naturally infected animals in Vietnam, of which 31 were obtained from persistently infected carrier animals. A site-specific substitution was identified at VP1 residue 172 where arginine was present in all 31 of the carrier-associated viruses, whereas outbreak viruses typically contained glutamine. Additionally, we characterized multiple viruses from a single persistently infected animal that were collected over the course of eight months and at multiple distinct anatomic sites (larynx, dorsal soft palate and dorsal nasopharynx). This work sheds new light on naturally occurring viral mutations within the host and provides a basis for understanding the viral evolution and persistence mechanisms of FMDV.
Stenfeldt, C, Pacheco, JM, Brito, BP, Moreno-Torres, KI, Branan, MA, Delgado, AH, Rodriguez, LL & Arzt, J 2016, 'Transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus during the incubation Period in Pigs', FRONTIERS IN VETERINARY SCIENCE, vol. 3.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Di Giacomo, S, Brito, BP, Perez, AM, Bucafusco, D, Pega, J, Rodriguez, L, Borca, MV & Perez-Filgueira, M 2015, 'Heterogeneity in the Antibody Response to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Primo-vaccinated Calves', TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 280-287.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Pacheco, JM, Smoliga, GR, O'Donnell, V, Brito, BP, Stenfeldt, C, Rodriguez, LL & Arzt, J 2015, 'Persistent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection in the Nasopharynx of Cattle; Tissue-Specific Distribution and Local Cytokine Expression', PLOS ONE, vol. 10, no. 5.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brito, B, Dee, S, Wayne, S, Alvarez, J & Perez, A 2014, 'Genetic Diversity of PRRS Virus Collected from Air Samples in Four Different Regions of Concentrated Swine Production during a High Incidence Season', VIRUSES-BASEL, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 4424-4436.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brito, BP, Aly, SS, Anderson, RJ, Fossler, CP, Garry, FB & Gardner, IA 2014, 'Association between caudal fold tuberculin test responses and results of an ELISA for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and mycobacterial culture of feces in tuberculosis-free dairy herds', JAVMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, vol. 244, no. 5, pp. 582-587.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Giannitti, F, Barr, BC, Brito, BP, Uzal, FA, Villanueva, M & Anderson, M 2014, 'Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infections in goats and other animals diagnosed at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System: 1990-2012', JOURNAL OF VETERINARY DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATION, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 88-95.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Patricia Brito, B, Maximiliano Perez, A & Victoria Capozzo, A 2014, 'Accuracy of traditional and novel serology tests for predicting cross-protection in foot-and-mouth disease vaccinated cattle', VACCINE, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 433-436.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brito, BP, Perez, AM, Jamal, SM, Belsham, GJ, Pauszek, SJ, Ahmed, Z & Rodriguez, LL 2013, 'Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O Phylodynamics: Genetic Variability Associated with Epidemiological Factors in Pakistan', TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 516-524.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brito, BP, Gardner, IA, Hietala, SK & Crossley, BM 2011, 'Variation in Bluetongue virus real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay results in blood samples of sheep, cattle, and alpaca', JOURNAL OF VETERINARY DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATION, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 753-756.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Brito, BP, Perez, AM, Cosentino, B, Rodriguez, LL & Koenig, GA 2011, 'Factors Associated With Within-Herd Transmission of Serotype A Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle, During the 2001 Outbreak in Argentina: A Protective Effect of Vaccination', TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 387-393.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Perez, A, AlKhamis, M, Carlsson, U, Brito, B, Carrasco-Medanic, R, Whedbee, Z & Willeberg, P 2011, 'Global animal disease surveillance', Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 135-145.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Development and implementation of global animal disease surveillance has been limited by the lack of information systems that enable near real-time data capturing, sharing, analysis, and related decision- and policy-making. The objective of this paper is to describe requirements for global animal disease surveillance, including design and functionality of tools and methods for visualization and analysis of animal disease data. The paper also explores the potential application of techniques for spatial and spatio-temporal analysis on global animal disease surveillance, including for example, landscape genetics, social network analysis, and Bayesian modeling. Finally, highly pathogenic avian influenza data from Denmark and Sweden are used to illustrate the potential application of a novel system (Disease BioPortal) for data sharing, visualization, and analysis for regional and global surveillance efforts. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.