Awasthi, R, Roseblade, A, Hansbro, PM, Rathbone, MJ, Dua, K & Bebawy, M 2018, 'Nanoparticles in Cancer Treatment: Opportunities and Obstacles', CURRENT DRUG TARGETS, vol. 19, no. 14, pp. 1696-1709.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Pokharel, D, Roseblade, A, Oenarto, V, Lu, J & Bebawy, M 2017, 'Proteins regulating the intercellular transfer and function of P-glycoprotein in multidrug-resistant cancer', ecancermedicalscience, vol. 11.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© the authors; Chemotherapy is an essential part of anticancer treatment. However, the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the subsequent emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) hampers successful treatment clinically. P-gp is a multidrug efflux transporter that functions to protect cells from xenobiotics by exporting them out from the plasma membrane to the extracellular space. P-gp inhibitors have been developed in an attempt to overcome P-gp-mediated MDR; however, lack of specificity and dose limiting toxicity have limited their effectiveness clinically. Recent studies report on accessory proteins that either directly or indirectly regulate P-gp expression and function and which are necessary for the establishment of the functional phenotype in cancer cells. This review discusses the role of these proteins, some of which have been recently proposed to comprise an interactive complex, and discusses their contribution towards MDR. We also discuss the role of other pathways and proteins in regulating P-gp expression in cells. The potential for these proteins as novel therapeutic targets provides new opportunities to circumvent MDR clinically.
Roseblade, A, Ung, A & Bebawy, M 2017, 'Synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of thiosulfinate derivatives for the treatment of human multidrug-resistant breast cancer.', Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1353-1368.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Organosulfur compounds derived from Allium vegetables have long been recognized for various therapeutic effects, including anticancer activity. Allicin, one of the main biologically active components of garlic, shows promise as an anticancer agent; however, instability makes it unsuitable for clinical application. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of stabilized allicin derivatives on human breast cancer cells in vitro. In this study, a total of 22 stabilized thiosulfinate derivatives were synthesized and screened for their in vitro antiproliferative activities against drug-sensitive (MCF-7) and multidrug-resistant (MCF-7/Dx) human adenocarcinoma breast cancer cells. Assays for cell death, apoptosis, cell cycle progression and mitochondrial bioenergetic function were performed. Seven compounds (4b, 7b, 8b, 13b, 14b, 15b and 18b) showed greater antiproliferative activity against MCF-7/Dx cells than allicin. These compounds were also selective towards multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells, a consequence attributed to collateral sensitivity. Among them, 13b exhibited the greatest anticancer activity in both MCF-7/Dx and MCF-7 cells, with IC50 values of 18.54±0.24 and 46.50±1.98 μmol/L, respectively. 13b altered cellular morphology and arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Additionally, 13b dose-dependently induced apoptosis, and inhibited cellular mitochondrial respiration in cells at rest and under stress. MDR presents a significant obstacle to the successful treatment of cancer clinically. These results demonstrate that thiosulfinate derivatives have potential as novel anticancer agents and may offer new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of chemoresistant cancers.
Roseblade, A, Luk, F, Ung, A & Bebawy, M 2015, 'Targeting microparticle biogenesis: a novel approach to the circumvention of cancer multidrug resistance.', Current Cancer Drug Targets, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 205-214.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Microparticles (MPs) are released from most eukaryotic cells after the vesiculation of the plasma membrane and serve as vectors of long and short-range signaling. MPs derived from multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer cells carry molecular components of the donor cell such as nucleic acids and proteins, and can alter the activity of drug-sensitive recipient cells through the transfer of their cargo. Given the substantial role of MPs in the acquisition and dissemination of MDR, we propose that the inhibition of MP release provides a novel therapeutic approach. This study characterises the effect of a panel of molecules known to act on MP-biosynthetic pathways. We demonstrate a differential effect by these molecules on MP inhibition that appear dependent on the release of intracellular calcium stores following activation with the calcium ionophore A23187. Calpain inhibitor, PD-150606; a selective inhibitor of Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK), Y-27632; and the vitamin B5 derivative pantethine, inhibited MP release only upon prior activation with A23187. Calpain inhibitor II showed significant inhibition in the absence of cell activation, whereas the vitamin B5 derivatives cystamine dihydrochloride and cysteamine hydrochloride showed no effect on MP inhibition under either condition. In contrast the classical pharmacological inhibitor of MDR, the calcium channel blocker Verapamil, showed an increase in MP formation on resting cells. These results suggest a potential role for calcium in the mechanism of action for PD-150606, Y-27632 and pantethine. These molecules, together with calpain inhibitor II have shown promise as modulators of MP release and warrant consideration as potential candidates for the development of an alternative therapeutic strategy for the prevention of MP-mediated MDR in cancer.
Roseblade, AP, Luk, F, Rawling, T, Ung, AT, Grau, G & Bebawy, M 2013, 'Cell-Derived Microparticles: New Targets in the Therapeutic management of disease', Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 238-253.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Intercellular communication is essential to maintain vital physiological activities and to regulate the organisms phenotype. There are a number of ways in which cells communicate with one another. This can occur via autocrine signaling, endocrine signaling or by the transfer of molecular mediators across gap junctions. More recently communication via microvesicular shedding has gained important recognition as a significant pathway by which cells can coordinate the spread and dominance of selective traits within a population. Through this communication apparatus, cells can now acquire and secure a survival advantage, particularly in the context of malignant disease. This review aims to highlight some of the functions and implications of microparticles in physiology of various disease states, and present a novel therapeutic strategy through the regulation of microparticle production.