Andrew Jakubowicz is Professor of Sociology at the University of Technology Sydney. He has an Honours degree in Government from Sydney University and a PhD from UNSW. Since the early 1970s he has been involved in action research and race relations, and has been centrally involved in the development of materialist theories of cultural diversity. He has taught at universities in the USA, Europe and Asia, and was the foundation director of the Centre for Multicultural Studies at the University of Wollongong. He has published widely on ethnic diversity issues, disability studies and media studies. In 1994 he led the research team that produced "Racism Ethnicity and the Media (Allen and Unwin), and more recently has been involved in multimedia documentaries such as Making Multicultural Australia (1999-2004) and The Menorah of Fang Bang Lu (2001-2002). He was historical adviser to the exhibitions on the Jewish communities of Shanghai, at the Sydney Jewish Museum (2001-2002), the National Maritime Museum (2001-2003) and the national travelling exhibition "Crossroads: Shanghai and the Jews of China" (2002-2003). He was foundation chair of the Disability Studies and Research Institute.
Supervision areas include new media and social change, racism and ethnicity, public policy and marginalised minorities.
The website, Making Multicultural Australia in the 21st Century, an educational website developed jointly with the Office of the Board of Studies NSW, won the 2005 'Best Secondary Educational website' category of the annual Excellence in Eduational Publishing Awards.
Can supervise: YES
Multiculturalism, digital media, social policy, Australian politics, sociology
Race and ethnicity
For too long Australia's media has failed to communicate Aboriginal political aspirations. This unique study of key Aboriginal initiatives seeking self-determination and justice reveals a history of media procrastination and denial.
A team of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers examine 45 years of media responses to these initiatives, from the 1972 Larrakia petition to the Queen seeking land rights and treaties, to the desire for recognition expressed in the 2017 Uluru Statement from the Heart. This analysis exposes how the media frames stories, develops discourses, and supports deeper historical narratives that corrode and undermine the intent and urgency of Aboriginal aspirations, through approaches ranging from sympathetic stalling to patronising parodies.
This book can be used by media professionals to improve their practices, by Aboriginal communities to test media truth-telling and by anyone seeking to understand how Aboriginal desires and hopes have been expressed, and represented, in recent Australian political history.
Jakubowicz, AH 1997, Is Australia A Racist Society? Australia Lecture (English and Bahasa), Australia-Indonesia Foundation, Jakarta and Sydney.
Jakubowicz, AH & Seneviratne, K 1996, Ethnic Conflict and the Australian Media, ACIJ, UTS, Sydney.
Goodall, H & Jakubowicz, A 1994, Racism, Ethnicity, and the Media, Allen & Unwin Australia.
The Racism and Media research group at the University of Technology, Sydney shows that the media often present a distorted and at times racist image of Australian society.
Bliuc, A-M, Faulkner, N, Jakubowicz, A & McGarty, C 2018, 'Online networks of racial hate: A systematic review of 10 years of research on cyber-racism', COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR, vol. 87, pp. 75-86.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017, © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. The arrival of about 1000 Polish Jews in Shanghai in 1941 has remained one of the footnotes of the Holocaust, even though most survived the War, unexpectedly trapped in the city. This article argues that, expecting to transit Shanghai, unlike the German and Austrian Jewish refugees from 1938 and 1939 who had settled as ‘stateless’ under Japanese authority, they formed a community defined by both their religion and nationality. The article examines the key elements of the community, their religious cultures, their class backgrounds, and their politics. These factors contributed to their contentious relations with the Shanghai Municipal Council, the Japanese military and civil authorities both before and after Pearl Harbor, the international Jewish community, and the other much larger refugee groups from Germany and Austria. Their Polish nationality remained in tension with their Jewish identities, though institutional support for both these dimensions were crucial in facilitating their survival. Drawing on archival material not previously available to the scholars of the late twentieth century, the article challenges contentions that the community was not helped by Polish authorities.
© 2018 Andrew Jakubowicz. The author reflects on engaged sociology over the past half-century, exploring the political contradictions, and social and political change. The essay expresses thoughts on his retirement, and the importance of collaboration.
Jakubowicz, AH 2018, 'Algorithms of hate: How the Internet facilitates the spread of racism and how public policy might help stem the impact', Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, vol. 151, no. 1.
Jakubowicz, A 2017, 'Alt_Right white lite: Trolling, hate speech and cyber racism on social media', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 41-60.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2017 Andrew Jakubowicz. The rapid growth of race hate speech on the Internet seems to have overwhelmed the capacity of states, corporations or civil society to limit its spread and impact. Yet by understanding how the political economy of the Internet facilitates racism it is possible to chart strategies that might push back on its negative social effects. Only by involving the state, economy and civil society at both the global level, and locally, can such a process begin to develop an effective ‘civilising’ dynamic. However neo-liberalism and democratic license may find such an exercise ultimately overwhelmingly challenging, especially if the fundamental logical drivers that underpin the business model of the Internet cannot be transformed. This article charts the most recent rise and confusion of the Internet under the impact of the Alt_Right and other racist groups, focusing on an Australian example that demonstrates the way in which a group could manipulate the contradictions of the Internet with some success. Using an analytical model developed to understand the political economy and sociology of mass media power in the later stages of modernity, before the Internet, the author offers a series of proposals on how to address racism on the Internet.
Jakubowicz, AH 2017, 'Transnationalism in the Analysis of Global Refugee Movements: The Case of the Second World War Polish Jews in Shanghai', Australian Humanities Review, vol. 62, pp. 1-24.
The survival of 1000 Polish Jews in wartime Shanghai demonstrates the ways in which transnational theory can be enhanced by empirical testing against ‘real’ situations. The travails, survival strategies, and evolving identities of these refugees can be interpreted through the application of contemporary transnational theory. The only problem in such an approach is that their ‘nation’ (Poland) had been annihilated, their government exiled, and their identities driven as much by ethno-religious as national passions. By re-conceptualising transnational ideas to take account of the expansionary imperatives of empires, the trajectory and sojourns of the refugees more readily expose the contingent, transitory, accidental and momentary dimensions of seeking refuge. While the analysis draws on historical material from the modern past, it has significant implications for addressing the challenges in theory produced by such recent ‘transnational’ and ‘post national’ conflicts as the refugee crisis around the Mediterranean Sea. In particular, this essay explores the interest that transnational theory has paid to identity, affiliation, transgressive behaviours, questions of scale (from the personal to the global) and the problem of ‘the nation’ as a category of either differentiation or analysis.
Jakubowicz, AH 2016, '"Once upon a Time in … ethnocratic Australia: migration, refugees, diversity and contested discourses of inclusion "', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 144-167.View/Download from: Publisher's site
To what extent can Australia be analysed as an ‘ethnocracy’, a term usually reserved for ostensibly democratic societies in which an ethnic group or groups control the life opportunities of a more widely ethnically diverse population? Australia adopted its first refugee policy in 1977 having been forced to address the humanitarian claims of Asian and Middle Eastern refugees. Only a few years after abandoning the White Australia policy of three generations, the public discourse about refugees was framed by the ethnic origins of these groups (primarily Vietnamese and Lebanese). Over the decades a utopian light has come to be cast on the Indo Chinese as a success story in settlement, while the Middle Eastern peoples have been shaded as a settlement failure. Yet the counter narratives developed in the SBS television documentary series “Once Upon a Time...” demonstrate how ethnocratic framing can be challenged and more nuanced and analytical discourses introduced into the public sphere.
Jakubowicz, AH & Monani, D 2015, 'Mapping Progress: Human Rights and International Students in Australia', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: an interdisciplinary journal, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 61-80.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The rapid growth in international student numbers in Australia in the first decade of the 2000s was accompanied by a series of public crises. The most important of these was the outbreak in Melbourne Victoria and elsewhere of physical attacks on the students. Investigations at the time also pointed to cases of gross exploitation, an array of threats that severely compromised their human rights. This paper reviews and pursues the outcomes of a report prepared by the authors in 2010 for Universities Australia and the Human Rights Commission. The report reviewed social science research and proposed a series of priorities for human rights interventions that were part of the Human Rights Commission's considerations. New activity, following the innovation of having international students specifically considered by the Human Rights Commission, points to initiatives that have not fully addressed the wide range of questions at state.
Collins, JH, Jakubowicz, A, Reid, C & Chafic, W 2014, 'Minority Youth and Social Transformation in Australia: Identities, Belonging and Cultural Capital', Journal of Social Inclusion, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 5-16.
Increasingly minority youth, especially from Muslim backgrounds, have been seen in Australian public policy and the media as potentially disruptive and transgressive. In some European societies similar young people have been portrayed as living in parallel and disconnected social spaces, self-segregated from interaction with the wider community. Yet Australian ethnic minority youth do not fulfil either of these stereotypes. Rather, despite their often regular experiences of racism or discrimination, they continue to assert a strong identification with and belonging to Australian society, albeit the society that marginalizes and denigrates their cultural capital. In particular it is the neighbourhood and the locality that provides the bridge between their home cultures and the broader world, contributing to a range of positive aspirations and fluid identities
Jakubowicz, A 2014, '“Don’t mention it…”: what government wants to hear and why about multicultural Australia', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 1-1.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Research into migration, settlement, racism and multiculturalism has been a major theme of the Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Research Centre at the University of Technology, Sydney, since its inception in 2006. In this article the author, a scholar with over forty years of research experience in this thematic area, draws on his experience of the interaction between research, policy and politics to argue that independent research that tackles difficult questions can contribute to wider social understanding of difficult issues. He demonstrates the impact both of the investment in and expansion of research, and the contrary contraction and deprivation of resources. Key research exercises discussed include the Henderson Poverty Inquiry, Jean Martin’s 1970s study of the first Indochinese arrivals, the Galbally Report, the Australian Institute of Multicultural Affairs, the Bureau of Immigration Population and Multicultural Research, the Office of Multicultural Affairs, the Eureka Harmony reports, the Challenging Racism project, the Scanlon Social Cohesion project, and The People of Australia report.
Jakubowicz, AH & Hadzelek, AG 2013, 'The Polish Jews of Shanghai and the Political Sociology of Historical Memory', Holocaust Studies: a journal of culture and history, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 27-64.
The political sociology of historical memory directs our attention to the ways and functions of memorialising significant periods in national histories. This essay examines the survival of the Polish Jews of Shanghai, overwhelmingly escapees from the first few weeks of the Nazi-Soviet War in Poland, as it now appears in memorialising institutions along their escape route. About 1,000 Polish Jews went to Shanghai in the period from 1940, many sent there from Japan, to which they had escaped via Lithuania and the USSR. Their community was riven by all the challenges of the pre-war communities of Polin, developing a variety of practices to manage their survival on the edge of the Holocaust. The essay draws on four data sources: the `Sugihara list detailing people given authentic transit visas for Japan; a Polish consulate list from Shanghai in 1942; a `Shanghai Ghetto list collected by the Japanese police in 1944; and the records of the Shanghai Polish Mutual Aid Society. It explores the implications of class, gender and politics for the community and its interaction with the other Jewish communities of the city. It then reviews how the issues of nation, belonging and recognition surface in present-day narratives about this group.
Jakubowicz, AH 2011, 'Chinese Walls: Australian Multiculturalism and the Necessity for Human Rights', Journal of Intercultural Studies, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 691-706.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Australian multiculturalism is undergoing major challenges and reformulations. In part, this is due to the rapidly increasing presence of Chinese communities. In the past, `The Chinese were both a major trigger for the creation of and later protagonists for the abolition of White Australia. The complex and multiple layers of engagement of the Chinese in the Australian political system range from inter-governmental relations, through national political and policy issues, to local politics. Their involvement in a wide range of political parties and the interweaving of international and national politics, and economic and policy decisions, indicates political changes that may transcend the problematic of a multiculturalism constituted before the terror attacks of 2001 and before the rise of China as an international economic and political force in the wake of the 20072008 Global Financial Crisis. Moreover, the effective integration of the Chinese into Australian society may depend on how well the human rights dimension of multicultural policy is applied and conveyed to and through the Chinese population
The Chinese have been Australias Other since before Federation, and a major driver behind both the creation and abolition of White Australia. The complex and multiple layers of engagement of the Chinese (an omnibus term with many strands and contested perspectives which the paper will explicate) in the Australian political system, from the government to government machinations, to their involvement in a wide range of political parties, indicates something important occurring that transcends the problematic of multiculturalism. The paper argues they help us understand the challenges of globalised post-multicultural politics
Jakubowicz, AH 2011, 'Playing the triangle: Cosmopolitanism, Cultural Capital and Social Capital as intersecting scholarly discourses about social inclusion and marginalisation in Australian public policy debates', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 68-91.View/Download from: Publisher's site
A constant challenge for scholarly research relates to its impact on and integration into public policy. Where the policy issues are `wicked, as are those concerning intercultural relations and social cohesion, social science research often becomes implicated in real-world problem solving which occurs within everyday political manoeuvring. This paper takes three empirical problems, and three conceptual approaches, and explores what happens when they are pressed together. In particular the paper explores how together they can enhance the social value of the concept of `social inclusion. Cosmopolitanism has a myriad of possible definitions, but is perhaps best addressed in anthropological fashion, by trying to capture the space formed by its presumptive antagonists: nationalism, prejudice, localism, parochialism, and `rootedness (as in `rootless cosmopolitan).
Jakubowicz, AH 2010, 'Australia: Cultures in Friction', Australian, vol. Sept 08, no. 2008 Casula Powerhouse Project, pp. 64-73.
Jakubowicz, AH & Moustafine, M 2010, 'Living on the Outside: cultural diversity and the transformation of public space in Melbourne', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Jo..., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 55-75.
Melbourne has been described as Australia's most liveable and most multicultural city. What relation do these descriptions have to each other? How has the public culture of Victoria been influenced by the cultural diversity of the state? The political class in Victoria has tended to be more in favour of multiculturalism as a policy, more resistant to populist racism and more positive about immigration than elsewhere in Australia. How has this orientation been affected by the institutional embedding of ethnic power during the past four decades? The organization of ethnic groups into political lobbies, which have collaborated across ethnic borders, has brought about cultural transformations in the mainstream. Often the public experiences these transformations through changing uses of public spaces. This paper offers an historical sociology of this process, and argues for a view of public space as a physical representation of the relative power of social forces. It is based on research for the Making Multicultural Australia (Victoria) project. (http://multiculturalaustralia.edu.au). An online version of the paper inviting user-generated comments can be found at http://mmav1.wordpress.com.
Jakubowicz, AH & van Leeuwen, T 2010, 'The Goldberg Variations 1: Assessing the academic quality of multidimensional linear texts and their re-emergence in multimedia publications', Discourse and Communication, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 361-378.View/Download from: Publisher's site
After an introduction on the recent history of academic publishing in non-linear media, the article compares two versions of an academic publication by the American sociologist David Theo Goldberg. The two versions deal with the same subject matter, but one is a traditional scholarly article, the other published in an online journal in a non-linear format. While the academic article constructs a tight, linear argument, subordinating a range of themes to a single key theme, the non-linear text gives all themes equal weight, accommodates a greater amount of evidence and documentation, and has more scope for multimodality.
Jakubowicz, AH 2009, 'D. Denemark, G. Meagher, S. Wilson, M. Western and T. Phillips, eds, 'Australian Social Attitudes 2: Citizenship, Work and Aspirations.'', International Sociology, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 673-674.
Jakubowicz, A 2008, 'Visibly different: Face, place and race in Australia', BIOGRAPHY-AN INTERDISCIPLINARY QUARTERLY, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 308-310.
Jakubowicz, A 2007, 'Bridging the mire between e-research and e-publishing for multimedia digital scholarship in the humanities and social sciences: An Australian case study', Webology, vol. 4, no. 1.
Digital media developments confront the humanities and social sciences with major challenges in exploiting multimedia rich data sets. A critical need is demonstrated to bridge the divide between the building of multimedia digital repositories, and the publishing of research outcomes that exploit the interactive potential of digital media. Software that melds the steps in digital research and publishing, now disparate environments, into a single sequence of integrated procedures can provide a critical innovation for the transformation of digital research and publishing from from a quasi-craft-like and demanding set of skills, into a transparent and and user-directed flow process. Humanities and social science (HSS) researchers who use multimedia data could be working more collaboratively, creatively and with far more international impact. The HSS have not yet exploited the interactive and collaborative potential offered by interactive computer technologies, and the expansion of digital repositories. Digital publishing has opened opportunities to incorporate both interactivity and multimedia into scholarly publishing, permitting new modes of visualization and creating ever mutable texts. Open Source software, can offer an internationally significant break-through in research definition, data collection and management, and interactive publishing, leading to a major paradigm shift in eHumanities and eSocialScience. The article proposes a framework for bridging the gap, overcoming the silo problem and building an interactive multimedia research environment (m.i.r.e.). Copyright © 2007, Andrew Jakubowicz.
Jakubowicz, AH 2007, 'Mediating social relations in complex societies: mass media and social cohesion', metropolis world bulletin, vol. 7, pp. 7-8.
Jakubowicz, AH 2007, 'Political Islam and the future of Australian multiculturalism', National Identities, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 265-280.
How can complex and diverse societies ensure the survival of core democratic values and the allegiance of all citizens, while respecting cultural difference? In the Australian context, these issues have been foregrounded by the presence of Muslim communities. This article argues that the discourses about Muslims and discourses by Muslims can work to reveal the dynamics for negotiating social cohesion. The political projects of mainstream Muslim communities can play a critical role in knitting together fragmented elements, and offering broader fronts through which a more integrated multicultural society can evolve. However, the potential for integration can be undermined in two ways: a) by political decisions in the dominant society that reject such projects, rather than engaging with them in creative and constructive directions; and b) by marginal groups within Muslim communities gaining greater leverage over younger people in a period of heightened apprehension occasioned by world events and Australian government reactions.
Jakubowicz, AH 2006, 'Anglo-multiculturalism: Contradictions in the politics of cultural diversity as risk', International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 249-266.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The continuing controversy over the place of multiculturalism within national political cultures has been highlighted by recent international policy debates. Nations with European, and especially Anglo-Celtic, roots have been forced into a major re-assessment of their strategies in relation to culturally diverse populations living within the nation-state. The dynamics underlying these tensions reflect fundamental fissures that global terrorism has exposed, sometimes instigating the portrayal of international rifts as confrontations of civilizations. Great Britain and Australia have long historic links, sharing many cultural orientations, the one of course the founder through invasion of the other. To some extent they have shared a commitment to policies of multiculturalism, which they saw as ways of reducing risks of social conflict in late modernity. They both now experience societal debates where multiculturalism has come under strong political critique ironically, for amplifying risk. Both societies have presented themselves to the international community as beacons of tolerance and diversity, as successful expressions of multiculturalism, and as examples of the power of the core values of Anglo-liberalism. Yet external audiences sometimes comment, and internal critics have persuasively argued, that such representations disguise systematic structures of racialized inequality masked by surface egalitarian discourses. As these contradictions become ever more apparent, we are thus directed towards a re-formulation of what a multicultural project would require if it is to demonstrate sufficient robustness to survive much into this century.
Jakubowicz, AH 2005, 'Multiculturalism in Australia: apogee or nadir?', Canadian Diversity, vol. 4, no. 1 (Winter), pp. 15-18.
Jakubowicz, AH 2005, 'Religion and Australian Cultural Diversity', Canadian Diversity, vol. 4, no. 3 (Fall), pp. 51-55.
Jakubowicz, AH 2005, 'The Menorah of Fang Bang Lu', Vectors, vol. Winter, no. 1.
Shanghai has an iconic quality in the West - a place out of time and space where cultures explode and opportunities expose themselves. Its physical presence - Victorian waterfront and post-modern skyline - reflect trajectories of empires long lost, and futures spinning relentlessly in many directions. Since its eruption as a Western nodule on the marshy plains along the bend of Whampoo river in the 1850s, Shanghai has evoked that heady mixture of sin and profit that entices new generations to its now ever-more canyon-like streets
Jakubowicz, AH & Meekosha, H 2004, 'Detecting Disabilities: Moving Beyond Metaphor in the Crime Fiction of Jeffrey Deaver', Disability Studies Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 1-11.
Jakubowicz, AH 2003, 'Media research and the politics of racism in New South Wales', Australian Quarterly, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 13-17.
Jakubowicz, AH 2003, 'Wheeling free?: Disability studies meets media studies and the Australian media', Australian Journal of Communication, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 101-122.
This study examines the complex, long-term relationship of Australia with Indonesia through the framing process in the Australian media. The authors describe a mature relationship in which the partners no longer have any illusions about each other, but where feelings of antipathy and hostility can have no place either in the longer-term relationship. In the events around the replacement of Suharto in May 1998 clear examples could be found of the framing process in which Australian media sought to make an Australian sense out of the Indonesian tragedies of the end of the century. © 2002, Sage Publications. All rights reserved.
Jakubowicz, AH & Meekosha, H 2002, 'Bodies in Motion: critical issues between disability studies and multicultural studies', Journal of Intercultural Studies, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 237-252.
Disability studies, with their direct challenge to theories of alterity, subaltern status and ideologies of domination, open up ways of examining cultural diversity that cannot otherwise be approached. This paper examines disability studies as a position from which multicultural studies can be interrogated, and through which critical questions about social hierarchies can be confronted. Given that national population policies and world-views underpin both multicultural and disability practices, an analysis which recognises this commonality seems overdue. The paper addresses the Australian environment, in which the politics of recognition, the nature of discourses of the normal, and the tensions generated in the politics of redistribution, merge in strategies adopted by the state to control the 'quality' of its population.
Jakubowicz, AH 2000, 'Exploring Disability: A Sociological Introduction', Disability & Society, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 959-960.
Jakubowicz, AH 1999, 'We'll fight them on the beaches- Australian immigration policy faces the new millennium', Meanjin, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 106-117.
Jakubowicz, AH & Meekosha, H 1999, 'Disability, Political Activism and Identity Making: A Critical Feminist Perspective on the Rise of Disability Movements in Australia, the USA and the UK', Disability Studies Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 393-404.
Jakubowicz, AH 1998, 'Human Rights and the Public Sphere: an exploration of communications and democracy at the 'fin de siecle' in Australia, Indonesia and Malaysia', The Journal of International Communication, vol. 5, no. 1 & 2, pp. 165-180.
Jakubowicz, AH 1998, 'Media Frames: The Racism Debate and Pauline Hanson in Australia and Asia', Marege, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 11-29.
Jakubowicz, AH 1997, 'Australian Cities: Issues, Strategies And Policies For Urban Australia In The 1990s - Troy,p', Australian Journal Of Political Science, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 131-132.
Jakubowicz, AH 1997, 'She's Not There: Pauline Hanson and the Australian media', Metro, vol. 109, pp. 82-85.
Jakubowicz, AH 1996, 'Fear and Loathing in Ipswich', Australian Rationalist, vol. 42, no. Summer, pp. 6-13.
Jakubowicz, AH 1994, 'Ethnic leadership, ethno-nationalist politics and the making of multicultural Australia', People and Place, vol. 2, no. 3.
Jakubowicz, AH 1993, 'Media self-regulation and ethnic communities', Migration Action, vol. XV, no. 3, December.
Jakubowicz, AH 1993, 'Social-sciences In Australia - An Introduction - Bulbeck,C', Australian Journal Of Political Science, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 563-564.
Jakubowicz, AH 1992, 'Media and Cultural Minorities in the 1990s', Media Information Australia, vol. 62, no. February.
Jakubowicz, AH 1991, 'As long as you're willing to wait...: Access and equity in Universities for Students with Disabilities', Higher Education Research and Development, vol. 10, no. 1.
Jakubowicz, AH & Meekosha, H 1991, 'Repetition Strain Injury: The rise and fall of an 'Australian' disease', Critical Social Policy, vol. 11, 1, no. 31.
Repetition Strain Injury has been widely if inaccurately identified as an Australian phenomenon. Within Australia governments in conjunction with some elements of the medical profession and large employers have carried out a major campaign against RSI. This campaign focussed on the fact that RSI was overwhelmingly a condition suffered by women. The class, gender and ethnic dimensions to the rise of RSI in Australia are relevant to other industrial societies in which occupational health and safety is a major social policy issue. The article explores the two major strategies adopted by the state to destroy the legitimacy of RSI: manage. © 1991, Sage Publications. All rights reserved.
JAKUBOWICZ, A 1989, 'SOCIAL-JUSTICE AND THE POLITICS OF MULTICULTURALISM IN AUSTRALIA', SOCIAL JUSTICE-A JOURNAL OF CRIME CONFLICT AND WORLD ORDER, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 69-86.
Jakubowicz, AH 1989, 'Immigrants and the Mass Media in Australia', Informationsdienst zur Auslandersarbeit, no. May.
Jakubowicz, AH 1989, 'Social Justice and the Politics of Multiculturalism in Australia', Social Justice, vol. 13, no. 2.
Jakubowicz, AH 1989, 'The state and the welfare of immigrants in Australia', Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 12, no. 1.
Jakubowicz, AH & Meekosha, H 1989, 'Increasing opportunity or deepening disappointment? Access and equity in the Department of Community Services and Health', Migration Action, vol. XI, no. 1, pp. 9-18.
Jakubowicz, A & Castles, S 1988, 'Why objectivity need not lead to understanding: A rejoinder to Mariah Evans, Frank Jones, Jonathan Kelley et al.', Journal of Intercultural Studies, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 80-84.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Jakubowicz, AH 1988, 'The Celebration of (Moderate) Diversity in a Racist Society: Multiculturalism and Education in Australia', Discourse, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 37-75.
Jakubowicz, AH 1987, 'Days of Our Lives':Multiculturalism, Mainstreaming and 'Special' Broadcasting', Media Information Australia, vol. 45, no. August, pp. 18-32.
Jakubowicz, AH 1986, 'Promoting Racial Harmony - Banton,m', Australian And New Zealand Journal Of Sociology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 476-477.
Jakubowicz, AH & Castles, S 1986, 'The Inherent Subjectivity of the Apparently Objective in Research on Ethnicity and Class', Journal of Intercultural Studies, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 5-25.
Jakubowicz, AH & Jakubowicz, H 1986, 'Polish Australians - A Study Of The Adaptation And Assimilation Of The 2nd Generation - Harris,r, Smolicz,j', International Migration Review, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 1063-1064.
Jakubowicz, AH & Meekosha, H 1986, 'Women suffering RSI: the hidden relations of gender, the labour process and medicine', Journal of Occupational Health and Safety (Australia and New Zealand), no. Cctober.
Jakubowicz, AH 1985, 'Racial And Ethnic Competition - Banton,m', Australian And New Zealand Journal Of Sociology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 149-151.
Jakubowicz, AH 1983, 'Ethnic Welfare - Problems In Policy Formation And Implementation', Social Alternatives, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 51-55.
JAKUBOWICZ, A 1981, 'ESSAYS IN THE POLITICAL-ECONOMY OF AUSTRALIAN CAPITALISM, VOL 4 - WHEELWRIGHT,EL, BUCKLEY,K', AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 99-100.
Jakubowicz, AH 1981, 'State And Ethnicity - Multiculturalism As Ideology', Australian And New Zealand Journal Of Sociology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 4-13.
Jakubowicz, AH 1981, 'Work And Inequality, Vol 1, - Workers Economic-crisis And The State, Vol 2, - Ideology And Control In The Capitalist Labor Process - Boreman,P, Dow,G', Politics, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 337-338.
ROSE, H & JAKUBOWICZ, A 1978, 'RISE AND FALL OF WELFARE RIGHTS', NEW SOCIETY, vol. 45, no. 832, pp. 558-560.
Jakubowicz, A 2020, 'Carved in stone: the 1992 Redfern Statement' in Does the Media Fail Aboriginal Political Aspirations, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, pp. 99-116.
Thomas, A, Jakubowicz, A & Norman, H 2019, 'Findings' in Does the media fail Aboriginal political aspirations?: 45 years of news media reporting of key political moments, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, pp. 232-241.
Thomas, A, Jakubowicz, A & Norman, H 2019, 'Introduction' in Does the media fail Aboriginal political aspirations? 45 years of news media reporting of key political moments, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, pp. 9-9.
Jakubowicz, AH 2017, 'New Australian ways of knowing ‘multiculturalism’ in a period of rapid social change' in Critical Reflections on Migration, ‘Race’ and Multiculturalism Australia in a Global Context, Routledge, UK, pp. 47-68.
Political rhetoric about multiculturalism in Australia has made much of the ‘exceptionalism’ of the Australian situation (Jakubowicz 2013). Simply put, as European governments have been abandoning the concept (while holding on to some of the practices and dissolving others), Australian governments have been promoting their country’s social cohesion as a reflection of multicultural policy properly implemented (Bowen 2011). In particular, whereas European leaders have blamed multiculturalism for the rise of Islamist threats, Australian governments have praised multiculturalism as the strongest domestic weapon against Islamic terrorism ‘at home’ (Pendergast 2015).
Jakubowicz, AH 2017, 'Unplanned stay: how the Polish Jews became refugees in Shanghai in 1941 (Jìhuà wài de dòuliú:1941 Nián bōlán yóutàirén rúhé zài shànghǎi lún wéi nànmín)' in Pan, G, Zhang, J, Chen, X & Zhang, Y (eds), Jewish Refugees and China: Sources on Jewish refugees in China Vol. IV Academic Perspectives, Shanghai Jiaotong University Press, pp. 29-37.
Jakubowicz, AH 2015, '‘In the beginning all is chaos . . .’: Roaming the Dystopic Realm in Australian Multiculturalism' in Castles, S, Ozkul, D & Cubas, M (eds), Social Transformation and Migration: National and Local Experiences in South Korea, Turkey, Mexico and Australia, Palgrave Macmillan, UK, pp. 221-236.
Jakubowicz, AH 2015, ''Hating to know':government and social policy research in multicultural Australia' in Husband, C (ed), Research and Policy in Ethnic Relations Compromised Dynamics in a Neoliberal Era, Policy Press, Great Britain, pp. 53-78.
With this unique book, the contributors seek to develop a dialogue about the internal constraints that impact on this field of practice and to kickstart a wider debate within the research community.
Jakubowicz, AH & Icduygu, A 2015, 'After Gallipoli: Empire, Nation and Diversity in Multicultural Turkey and Australia' in Michalis Michael (ed), Reconciling Cultural and Political Identities in a Globalized World Perspectives on Australia-Turkey Relations, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, pp. 63-90.
This collection provides a relevant, comparative and comprehensive study of two countries seeking to reconcile their history with their geography.
Jakubowicz, A 2014, '‘And thats goodnight from us’: Cultural diversity and its challenges for public service media' in Horsti, K, Hulten, G & Titley, G (eds), National Conversations: Public Service Media and Cultural Diversity in Europe, Bristol, UK, Bristol, UK, pp. 225-240.
Ho, C & Jakubowicz, AH 2013, 'The Realities of Australian Multiculturalism' in Jakubowicz, A & Ho, C (eds), 'For those who've come across the seas': Australian multicultural theory, policy and practice, Australian Scholarly Publishing, North Melbourne, pp. 3-14.
Jakubowicz, AH 2013, 'Comparing Australian Multiculturalism: The International Dimension' in Jakubowicz, A & Ho, C (eds), 'For those who've come across the seas': Australian multicultural theory, policy and practice, Australian Scholarly Publishing, North Melbourne, pp. 15-30.
Jakubowicz, AH & Ho, C 2013, 'Conclusion: An Agenda for the Next Decade' in Jakubowicz, A & Ho, C (eds), 'For those who've come across the seas': Australian multicultural theory, policy and practice, Australian Scholarly Publishing, North Melbourne, pp. 277-289.
Lubek, I, Kros, S, Wong, M, Lee, HA, Van Merode, T, Idema, R, Thamarangsi, T, Jakubowicz, AH, Tolson, M, McCreanor, T & Liu, JH 2013, 'HIV/AIDS and Alcohol Risks in Cambodia: Confronting Challenges and Policymaking through Research-Guided Actions' in Smith, RA (ed), Global HIV/AIDS Politics, Policy, and Activism: Persistent Challenges and Emerging Issues, Praeger, California, pp. 203-232.
The Khmer Rouge period (1975-1978) saw up to 25 percent of Cambodians die in "the killing fields" or Ii'om starvation, Devastation to national ini1-astructures, family and social life, culture, and the elimination of educated professionals including doctors and teachers werc not alleviated when the Vietnamese then occupied Cambodia for the next 11 years, The Paris Peace Accords in 2001 defined the rebuilding of the Cambodian state and the United Nations moved international personnel to Cambodia to separate warring factions and prepare for elections in 1993, UNAMIC (United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia, 1991-1992) brought 1,100 personnel and was replaced by UNTAC (United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia, 1992-1993) with over 22,000 foreign soldiers, police, and so on, including contingents from sub-Saharan Affican nations already in the throes of their own HIV/AIDS pandemics (UNAMIC, 1992; UNTAC,1996;Yeager & Kingma, 2005),
Nelson, J & Dunn, KM 2013, 'Racism and anti-racism' in Jakubowicz, A & Ho, C (eds), For Those Who’ve Come Across the Seas: Australian Multicultural Theory, Policy and Practice, Australian Scholarly Publishing, Melbourne, pp. 259-276.
Jakubowicz, AH 2012, 'Cyber Racism' in Helen Sykes (ed), More or Less: Democracy and new media, Future Leaders, Melbourne, pp. 215-237.
The internet has played a key role in the spread of racism, offering opportunities that amplify the reach and potential impact of White power, Islamophobia, anti-Semitism, Islamist and ultra-nationalist ideologies and actions. At the same time that racist organisations were discovering, exploring and exploiting the potential of the internet, the international community was recognising the dangers that the technology represented to community wellbeing and harmony. In 1998 the United Nations Commission on Human Rights first discussed the role of the internet in the light of the provisions of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD). Since then the issue has been a constant on the UN human rights agenda, while also being the focus of special attention by the Council of Europe (CoE) and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). The Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime was promulgated in 2001, with the additional protocol on race hate as a cybercrime coming into effect in 2006. The essential problem in responding to cyber-racism lies in the significantly different approaches to how an appropriate balance can be struck between protecting those who are harmed by racism, while ensuring freedom of speech and communication are protected and advanced.
Jakubowicz, AH, Collins, J & Chafic, WF 2012, 'Young Australian Muslims: Social Ecology and Cultural Capital' in Mansouri, F & Marotta, V (eds), Muslims in the West and the Challenges of Belonging, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, pp. 34-59.
Young Australian Muslims are both a growing part of the wider Australian youth population, and a significant and rapidly expanding part of the Muslim population in Australia. Over the past decade or more, especially since the events of 9/11, their presence has increasingly been framed in public discourse as a tension between the âAustralianâ and the âMuslimâ aspects of their identities and attitudes. Australiaâs claim to be a multicultural society has thus been tested at the point that culture, religion and community intersect. This chapter explores this intersection, asking what are the dynamics that influence young Australian Muslims in their identities and their social practices?
Jakubowicz, AH 2009, 'Beyond the static text: multimedia interactivity in academic journal publishing in the humanities and social sciences (not)' in Cope, B & Phillips, A (eds), The Future of the Academic Journal, Chandos, Oxford, pp. 361-376.
Despite the discourses that herald the innovation associated with Web 2.0 (Sharp and Salomon, 2008; Slane, 2008) and the opportnnities created by open sonrce and open access computing (Miller and BernersLee, 2008), there is a simple truth. The web has not delivered an interactive environment for ongoing engagement with scholarly research publishing that uses and is enlivened by multimedia data. There are four major reasons for this failure to bridge the rwo dominant silos - on the one hand multimedia data (video, audio, animation, real-time mapping etc.) with its possibilities for interactiviry (as revealed for instance by, but not limited to, social nerworking on the web); and academic journalbased publishing, with its linear and traditionally constrained presentation of knowledge in 'finished' blocks, albeit illustrated and hyperlinked.
Jakubowicz, AH 2009, 'Religion, Media and Cultural Diversity' in James Jupp (ed), The Encyclopedia of Religion in Australia, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne, pp. 655-662.
Jakubowicz, AH 2009, 'Remembering and Recovering Shanghai: Seven Jewish Families [Re]-connect in Cyberspace' in Garde-Hansen, J, Hoskins, A & Reading, A (eds), Save As... Digital Memories, Palgrave Macmillan, London, UK, pp. 96-114.
How we remember and give meaning to the past are creative processes; we take fragments and try to knit them together into something approaching a logical flow. In personal terms, memory is always a reconstruction from the myriad moments of experience, forced by psychological dynamics into some form of narrative. History as a social process tries to stand back from the personal, to make sense of it against a broader fabric. It may include the personal stories of participants, but it will always be set in the political and social time in which it is articulated. History is therefore both a social science, in terms of methodological approaches, and a humanities discipline, in terms of its synthesis of emotional, aesthetic and intellectual responses.
Jakubowicz, A 2008, 'Cosmopolitanism with roots: The jewish presence in Shanghai before the communist revolution and as brand in the new metropolis' in Branding Cities: Cosmopolitanism, Parochialism, and Social Change, pp. 156-171.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Jakubowicz, A 2007, 'Notes for a grave under snow' in Imaginary Neighbors: Mediating Polish-Jewish Relations after the Holocaust, pp. 67-83.
Jakubowicz, AH 2007, 'The media and social cohesion' in Jupp, Nieuwenhuysen & Dawson (eds), Social cohesion in Australia, Cambridge University Press, Port Melbourne, Australia, pp. 158-169.
Social cohesion as a concept suggests that societies need some sort of glue to sustain them over time, some broadly shared orientations to the world among their populations, and ways of testing the commonality or divergence of ideas and values
Jakubowicz, AH 2005, 'Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics', Elsevier, London.
Jakubowicz, AH & Jacka, L 2005, 'The Invisible Ally: Marketing Australia's War in Iraq' in Artz, L & Kamalipour, Y (eds), Bring 'Em On - Media and Politics in the Iraq War, Rowan & Littlefield Publishers Inc, Lanham Maryland USA, pp. 101-120.
Jakubowicz, AH 2003, 'Ethnic Diversity, "Race", and the Cultural Political Economy of Cyberspace' in Jenkins, H & Thorburn, D (eds), Democracy and New Media, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, pp. 203-224.
Jakubowicz, AH & Meekosha, H 2003, 'Can multiculturalism encompass disability?' in Riddell, S & Watson, N (eds), Disability, Culture and Identity, Pearson education Limited, Essex, UK, pp. 180-199.
Jakubowicz, AH 2002, 'Australian dreamings - cultural diversity and audience. Desire in a multinational and polyethnic state' in Ross, K & Peter, P (eds), Black Marks: Research Studies with Minority Ethnic Audiences, Interdisciplinary Series on Race, Gender and Class, Ashgate, Burlington, USA, pp. 195-214.
Jakubowicz, AH 2002, 'White Noise: Australia's struggle with multiculturalism' in Levine-Rasky, C (ed), Working through Whiteness: International perspectives, State University of NY Press, New York, USA, pp. 107-128.
Jakubowicz, AH 2001, 'Australian Dreamings: Cultural Diversity and Audience Desire in a Multinational and Polyethnic State' in Ross, K (ed), Black Marks: Minority Ethnic Audiences and Media, Ashgate Publishing House, Hampshire England, pp. 195-215.
Jakubowicz, AH & Palmer, R 2000, 'Framing Suharto: Media Interpretations of the Australian National Interest' in Ang, I, Chalmers, S, Law, L & Thomas, M (eds), Alter/Asians: Asian-Australian Identities in Art, Media and Popular Culture, Pluto Press, Sydney Australia, pp. 244-262.
Jakubowicz, AH & Meekosha, H 1996, 'Disability, Participation, Representation and Social Justice' in Christensen & Rizvi (eds), Disability and Dilemmas of Education and Justice, Open University Press, Milton Keynes.
Jakubowicz, AH 1995, 'Mass Media in Multicultural Nations: cohesion, conformity and difference' in Mohammadi, Sreberny-Mohammadi & Downing (eds), Questioning the Media, Sage, London.
Jakubowicz, AH 1994, 'Australian (dis) contents: film, mass media and multiculturalism' in Rizvi, F & Gunew, S (eds), Arts for a Multicultural Australia: Issues and Strategies, Allen and Unwin, Sydney.
Jakubowicz, AH 1994, 'In pursuit of anabranches: Immigration, multiculturalism and a culturally diverse Australia' in Gray & winter (eds), The Resurgence of Racism: Howard, Hanson and the Race Debate, Monash Publications in History 24, Clayton.
Jakubowicz, AH 1994, 'Multicultural Project and Australian universities - Prospects for Progress in Hard Times' in Barthel, A (ed), Intercultural Conference Proceedings, UTS, Sydney.
Bagno, O, Al-Haj, M & Jakubowicz, A 2009, 'The civil society', IMMIGRATION AND NATION BUILDING: AUSTRALIA AND ISRAEL COMPARED, Conference on Nations of Immigrants - Israel and Australia, EDWARD ELGAR PUBLISHING LTD, Monash Univ, Prato, ITALY, pp. 91-114.
Boydell, S, Crofts, P, Prior, JH, Jakubowicz, AH & Searle, GH 2009, 'Sex in the city: regulations, rights and responsibilities in Sydney', State of Australian Cities (SOAC) Conference, State of Australian Cities Conference, Promaco Conventions Pty Ltd and DiskBank, Perth, Australia, pp. 1-24.
The state regulates sex industry types in accordance with a range of complex, overlapping and often conflicting legal, policing, planning and administrative mechanisms. The sex industry in Sydney is currently regulated through all levels of Australian government. New South Wales (NSW) is seen as leading the charge within Australia for its neoliberal market model of occupational and premises regulation. Taking a transdisciplinary research design, this paper identifies positive steps towards citizenship and the sex industry in inner Sydney.
Jakubowicz, AH & Leung, LT 2006, 'Exploring strategies for developing a multimedia digital workspace for humanities and social sciences', OZCHI 2006 design: activities, artifacts and environments, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM, Sydney, Australia.
Jakubowicz, AH 2005, ''The Menorah of Fang Bang Lu: Shanghai Modernity and the Jews of', The Diversity Conference 2005: The Fifth International Conference on Diversity in Organisations, Communities, and Nations, n/a, Beijing, China.
Jakubowicz, AH 2003, 'Hard Shell and Soft Centre: Australia as a Truly Modern Nation', International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations, Cultural Diversity in a Globalising World, Common Ground Publishing, University of Hawaii, USA, pp. 337-350.
Jakubowicz, AH 2015, 'Australian Muslim role models could be the missing link in countering 'radicalisation'', The Conversation, Australia.
Jakubowicz, AH 2015, 'Critical Moments in Multiculturalism and Public Sociology Portfolio', The Conversation.
Jakubowicz, AH 2015, 'How national multicultural legislation would strengthen Australia society', The Covnersation, Australia.
Jakubowicz, AH 2015, 'Multicultural mayhem lurks in the shadows of the NSW election', The Conversation, Australia.
Jakubowicz, AH 2015, 'New Multicultural Council signals a broader shift to the right', The Conversation, Australia.
Jakubowicz, AH 2015, 'Repealing 18C would leave Jews exposed as Muslims already are', The Conversation, Australia.
Let’s be clear about one thing as the loony right once more revisits with slavering lips their thwarted desire to allow racial vilification to run untrammelled through Australian society. Nothing that French magazine Charlie Hebdo did or said about Muslims or Christians – but probably almost everything it said about Jews – would have been a tripwire for using Section 18C of the Racial Discrimination Act if it had been published in Australia.
Jakubowicz, AH 2015, 'Ten years on from the Cronulla riots, how much has really changed?', The Conversation, Australia.
Jakubowicz, AH 2015, 'The Great Australian Race Riot', SBS TV / Essential Media.
Jakubowicz, AH 2015, 'The nine race riots that made Australia - for better and worse', The Conversation, Australia.
Jakubowicz, AH, Millmow, A, Boxall, A-M, Penington, D, Forsyth, H, Mendelssohn, J, Caust, J, Giuffre, L, Beeson, M, Whiteford, P, Ville, S, Leeder, S & O'Donnell, V 2015, 'Malcolm Fraser's life and legacy: experts respond', The Conversation, Australia.
Jakubowicz, AH 2014, 'Once Upon a time in Punchbowl', SBS, Australia.
Jakubowicz, A 2013, 'Once Upon a Time in Cabramatta', SBS, SBS Television.
Jakubowicz, AH 2013, '“Once Upon a Time in” Portfolio', Australia.
Jakubowicz, A 2012, 'Once Upon a Time: social disorder and cultural diversity', Theme writer, consultant, researcher, expert commentator.
Continuing invovlement in these roles in three seasons of Ocne Upon a Time - Cabramatta 2012, Punchbowl 2014, Carlton (forthcoming)
Jakubowicz, AH 2010, 'Immigration Nation: documentary and online interactive', SBS, Broadcast 2010, online from 2010.
TV documentary where I cosnulted on the core themes and was key advisor; Inetractive I wrote the master narrative, provided the sub-narratives, based on online project Making Multicultural Australia
Jakubowicz, AH 2002, 'Remaking Multicultural Australia in the 21st Century'.
winner of "Best Secondary Educational website 2005"
exhibition advisor October 2002- September 2003
Jakubowicz, AH 2001, 'The Menorah of fang Bang Lu: Shanghai Jewry and Australia'.
Jakubowicz, AH 1999, 'Making Multicultural Australia- a multimedia documentary, a 3 CD ROM set', Interactive Design Group, NSW Board of Studies.
Executive Producer, writer, director, researcher on "Making Multicultural Australia- a multimedia documentary", a 3 CD ROM set, produced by the Interactive Design Group, NSW Board of Studies, in conjunction with the NSW Ethnic Affairs Commission, the Special Broadcasting Service, and the University of Technology Sydney.
Jakubowicz, AH, 'Crossroads - Shanghai and the Jews of China', national touring exhibition.
exhibition advisor November 2002- September 2003
Jakubowicz, AH, 'Crossroads: Shanghai and the Jews of China', Sydney Jewish Museum.
exhibition advisor October 2001 - October 2002
Jakubowicz, AH, 'The Menorah of Fang Bang Lu - an interactive installation', Performance Space, Sydney.
Jakubowicz, AH & Pentes, T, 'The Menorah of Fang Bang Lu', http://www.cts01.hss.uts.edu.au/ShanghaiSite/index.htm, n/a, http://www.cts01.hss.uts.edu.au/ShanghaiSite/index.htm.
Jakubowicz, AH Australian Human Rights Commission 2015, Hunting for the Snark and finding the Boojum - building community resilience against race hate cyber swarms, Perspectives on the Racial Discrimination Act, Papers from the 40 years of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (CTH), Conference, Sydney, 19 - 20 February 2015, pp. 98-109, Australia.
This is the final report on the research project the `Voices Shaping the Perspectives of Young Muslim Australians Today to the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC). The aims of this research project are: 1) to provide a social ecology of the voices that inspire young Muslims, the voices they hear including their own, their peers and the official voices of the society and government; 2) to review the relevant literature in Australia and comparable nations; 3) to identify the plurality of voices of influence and the various ways in which young Muslim Australians mobilize religious and political symbols, and language around cultural, social and political issues; 4) to identify the relevant sources and voices of influence important for shaping the experience, attitudes, beliefs and opinions of young Muslims in Australia; and 5) to provide an assessment of current practical measures which support and facilitate voices and to identify consistent gaps in government, non-government and individual approaches in this regard. The Department of Immigration and Citizenship's expressed aim for commissioning this research is to identify and support young people in general and where appropriate.
Jakubowicz, A 2019, 'Was there an “ethnic vote” in the 2019 election and did it make a difference?', The Conversation.