Andrea is a chartered civil engineer with a postgraduate degree in environmental engineering from Imperial College, London. She has over 20 years’ engineering and research experience in water, wastewater, stormwater and environmental assessment, having worked in the UK, Hong Kong and Australia.
Since joining the Institute for Sustainable Futures in 2001, Andrea has managed and been the key researcher on a wide range of projects involving the application of integrated resource planning (IRP)/least cost planning (LCP)—an internationally recognised best practice approach to water planning and management. She has been involved in all stages of IRP: strategic long-term and drought response planning; survey design and analysis; detailed demand forecasting; efficiency option design, analysis and costing; development of pilot studies; implementation/budget plans; and evaluation of savings from implemented efficiency programs.
Andrea has worked with water service providers in most major cities (Canberra, Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide and Perth) and many regional centres (Ballarat, Geelong, Wagga Wagga and Alice Springs). She has conducted IRP projects at both an urban and regional scale, investigating demand forecasts and efficiency options for urban, industrial and agricultural sectors in Australia and overseas. She has also worked with the IWA, EU SWITCH, WSAA and NWC to develop guides, training, models and tools to aid the water industry both nationally and internationally. Andrea has presented the findings of her research and provided workshops on end use analysis, demand management and IRP nationally and internationally.
Andrea has also been involved in research associated with smart meters, energy efficiency, distributed systems and water recycling. Andrea has recently led two projects on evaluation: an energy efficiency program in Queensland implemented in 400,000 houses, and a water efficiency program in Newcastle conducted on 4 residential programs and 50 schools using smart metering for leakage management.
Water –integrated resource planning
Water – international
Energy and greenhouse
Stewart, RA, Nguyen, K, Beal, C, Zhang, H, Sahin, O, Bertone, E, Vieira, AS, Castelletti, A, Cominola, A, Giuliani, M, Giurco, D, Blumenstein, M, Turner, A, Liu, A, Kenway, S, Savić, DA, Makropoulos, C & Kossieris, P 2018, 'Integrated intelligent water-energy metering systems and informatics: Visioning a digital multi-utility service provider', Environmental Modelling and Software, vol. 105, pp. 94-117.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Advanced metering technologies coupled with informatics creates an opportunity to form digital multi-utility service providers. These providers will be able to concurrently collect a customers' medium-high resolution water, electricity and gas demand data and provide user-friendly platforms to feed this information back to customers and supply/distribution utility organisations. Providers that can install low-cost integrative systems will reap the benefits of derived operational synergies and access to mass markets not bounded by historical city, state or country limits. This paper provides a vision of the required transformative process and features of an integrated multi-utility service provider covering the system architecture, opportunities and benefits, impediments and strategies, and business opportunities. The heart of the paper is focused on demonstrating data modelling processes and informatics opportunities for contemporaneously collected demand data, through illustrative examples and four informative water-energy nexus case studies. Finally, the paper provides an overview of the transformative R&D priorities to realise the vision.
Turner, A, Sahin, O, Giurco, D, Stewart, R & Porter, M 2017, 'Reprint of: The potential role of desalination in managing flood risks from dam overflows: The case of Sydney, Australia', Journal of Cleaner Production.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Shifting climate patterns are causing extreme drought and flooding across the globe. This combined with the world's burgeoning population and insatiable thirst for water requires water service providers to think differently about the limited resources they manage. In Australia, the severe drought at the beginning of the century caused dams to fall to record levels. In response, many state governments invested heavily in rain-independent supplies such as desalination to augment and diversify traditional sources. However, extreme rainfall soon followed the drought, filled reservoirs and caused flooding in many locations leaving billions of dollars worth of damage and new water infrastructure standing idle. This is the case in Sydney, where the new desalination plant is still not used and the potential for major flooding has raised concerns over the safety of the large population downstream of the dam. This paper explores the growing need to understand the relationship between drought, flooding and infrastructure optimisation. The paper focuses on Sydney to illustrate the application of a system dynamics model. The new model explores options for raising the dam wall, offering airspace to assist flood protection, in contrast to options to lower the dam full supply level and utilise idle desalination capacity to fill the water security gap created. The illustrative results, using publicly available data, find that by lowering the dam water levels and operating desalination, significant flood protection can be achieved at a similar cost to raising the dam wall. The paper demonstrates the importance of optimising existing and new water resources for multiple purposes and how system dynamics modelling can assist water service providers in these complex investigations.
Turner, A, Sahin, O, Giurco, D, Stewart, R & Porter, M 2016, 'The potential role of desalination in managing flood risks from dam overflows: the case of Sydney, Australia', JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, vol. 135, pp. 342-355.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Turner, AJ, Mukheibir, P, Mitchell, C, Chong, J, Retamal, M, Murta, J, Carrard, N & Delaney, C 2016, 'Recycled water – lessons from Australia on dealing with risk and uncertainty', Water Practice and Technology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 127-138.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Much can be learned from the numerous water recycling schemes currently in operation in Australia, especially with respect to making investment decisions based on uncertain assumptions. This paper illustrates through a number of case studies, that by considering the contextual and project related risks, a range of business related risks become apparent. Shifts in the contextual landscape and the various players' objectives can occur over the life of a project, often leading to unforeseen risk and uncertainty. Through a thorough consideration of the potential risks presented in this paper, proponents as well as owners and managers might make better recycled water investment decisions, enhancing the benefits and minimizing the costs of water recycling schemes. This paper presents an overview and discussion of seven key factors to consider when planning a recycling scheme.
Giurco, D, Herriman, J, Turner, A, Mason, L, White, S, Moore, D & Klostermann, F 2015, 'Integrated Resource Planning for Urban Waste Management', Resources, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 3-24.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper summarises some of the results from the "Landfill Futures" project carried out by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology Sydney. Besides the authors, a large number of people have contributed, including researchers, members of a project reference group and participants in workshops and interviews. We are grateful to all these as well as to the CRC CARE 1 Program 4-the Social, Legal, Policy and Economic Issues Program for funding this research.: Social, Legal, Policy and Economic Issues Program
Cordell, D, Turner, A & Chong, J 2015, 'The hidden cost of phosphate fertilizers: mapping multi-stakeholder supply chain risks and impacts from mine to fork', Global Change, Peace & Security: formerly Pacifica Review: Peace, Security & Global Change, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 323-343.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Without phosphorus, we could not produce food. Farmers need access to phosphate fertilizers to achieve the high crop yields needed to feed the world. Yet growing global demand for phosphorus could surpass supply in the coming decades, and the world currently largely relies on non-renewable phosphate rock that is mined in only a few countries. Morocco alone controls 75% of the remaining reserves, including those in the conflict territory of Western Sahara. While some argue that the market will take care of any scarcity, the market price of phosphate fertilizers fails to account for far-ranging negative impacts. Drawing on multi-stakeholder supply chain risk frameworks, the article identifies a range of negative impacts, including the exploitation and displacement of the Saharawi people, the destruction of aquatic ecosystems by nutrient pollution, and jeopardizing future generations' ability to produce food. This paper fills a crucial gap in understanding phosphorus impacts by mapping and discussing the nature of phosphorus supply chain risks, and the transmission of such risks to different stakeholder groups. It also identifies a range of potential interventions to mitigate and manage those risks. In addition, the paper highlights that while risks are diverse, from geopolitical to ecological, those groups adversely affected are also diverse – including the Saharawi people, farmers, businesses, food consumers and the environment. Potential risk mitigation strategies range from resource sparing (using phosphorus more sparingly to extend the life of high quality rock for ourselves and future generations), to resource diversification (sourcing phosphorus from a range of ethical sources to reduce dependence on imported phosphate, as a buffer against supply disruptions, and preferencing those sources with lower societal costs), and sharing the responsibility for these costs and consequences.
Giurco, D, Turner, Fane & White, SB 2014, 'Desalination for Urban Water: Changing Perceptions and Future Scenarios in Australia', Chemical Engineering Transactions, vol. 42, pp. 13-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In response to prolonged drought, large desalination plants have been built in Australia's major cities over the last decade. This paper identifies those plants and focuses on the context surrounding the decision to build the plant in Sydney. Whilst a portfolio approach allowed lower cost options for secure supply to be identified – including an innovative 'desalination-readiness option' – perceived uncertainty and political decisions led the state government to build the desalination plant before the carefully considered planning triggers dictated and without revisiting the decision when the drought broke. Media analysis is used to construct a timeline of reported headlines relating to the pre- and post-construction periods including events surrounding heavy rain, overflowing dams and dialogue on desalination being unnecessary and expensive. The paper highlights a disconnect between the planning processes, stakeholder and community engagement and political decision-making. Given desalination is now an embedded feature of water supply in most major Australian cities, scenarios are used to assess the potential role of desalination
in the future urban water landscape and broader economy.
Turner, A, Fyfe, J, Rickwood, P & Mohr, S 2014, 'Evaluation of implemented Australian efficiency programs: Results, techniques and insights', Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1112-1123.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© IWA Publishing 2014. Australia has invested heavily in water efficiency in recent years, mainly due to severe drought, and has implemented some of the largest efficiency programs in the world. Despite this there is little public information on actual savings achieved or the cost effectiveness of programs implemented. This paper draws together the limited publicly available evaluations from Australia, focusing on the residential sector. It describes some of the large-scale residential programs implemented such as home retrofits, showerhead exchanges, washing machine rebates, toilet retrofits and rainwater tank rebates. It identifies key savings evaluation techniques used including participant-control and regression analysis, and summarizes water savings results from evaluation studies conducted. It also discusses key learnings from both the evaluation techniques employed and the programs implemented. The paper will be of significant interest to water service providers looking for evidence of actual savings achieved and/or wanting to understand how to evaluate their own programs.
Mukheibir, P, Giurco, D, Turner, AJ, Franklin, J, Teng, ML & McClymont, T 2013, 'End-use demand forecasting: Contemporary insights', Water: Journal of the Australian Water Association, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 76-80.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper reports on the application of integrated resource planning using the integrated supply demand planning tool in regional Victoria (Geelong and Colac) and New South Wales (Lower Hunter region) . It discusses data assumptions and findings across the case studies. A key finding is that the uptake of efficient appliances has been decreasing total water use (e.g. in toilets and showers) despite population growth. However, this will be driven close to the maximum limits over the next 15 years or so, while customer behaviour patterns such as length and frequency of appliance use will be crucial for informing future demand side management strategies.
Fane, S & Turner, A 2010, 'Integrated water resource planning in the context of climate uncertainty', Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 487-494.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In many locations, climate change may significantly reduce urban water supplies and could also affect water demand. With uncertainty around future climate, supply-demand planning needs to adapt. This paper addresses the question: How does climate change alter Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) for urban water? The paper covers the setting of planning objectives in the face of climate change, assessing the impacts of climate change on urban water supply and water demand, and considers the available responses. While climate change represents a major challenge for urban water planning it also reinforces key principles of IRP such as adaptive management, the central role of water conservation and need for public engagement in water planning. © IWA Publishing 2010.
Fane, S.A. & Turner, A.J. 2010, 'Integrated water resource planning in the context of climate uncertainty', Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 487-494.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In many locations, climate change may significantly reduce urban water supplies and could also affect water demand. With uncertainty around future climate, supply-demand planning needs to adapt. This paper addresses the question: How does climate change alter Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) for urban water? The paper covers the setting of planning objectives in the face of climate change, assessing the impacts of climate change on urban water supply and water demand, and considers the available responses. While climate change represents a major challenge for urban water planning it also reinforces key principles of IRP such as adaptive management, the central role of water conservation and need for public engagement in water planning.
Retamal, ML & Turner, AJ 2010, 'Unpacking the energy implications of distributed water infrastructure: how are rainwater systems performing?', Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 546-553.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Drought and concern over climate change has led to the increased use of distributed water systems in Australia to supplement centralised supply systems. A literature review carried out by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) into the energy consumption of water infrastructure found that very little data on energy consumption exists, particularly for distributed systems. This paper reviews the findings of the literature review and presents results from a preliminary monitoring study on the energy implications of household rainwater systems. Typical household systems that are currently being installed in houses cross Australia use approximately 1.5 kWh/kL.
This paper provides an overview of the innovative One to One Water Savings Program implemented in the South East Queensland (SEQ) region of Australia in 2007. The program aimed to assist households classified as high water users (HWUs) to reduce their water demand during the worst drought on record. The program consisted of sending out a survey to over 79,000 HWUs using more than 800 L/household/day (L/hh/d) and for those that completed the survey, a personalised plan was provided on how to save water. The program had a unique combination of: a very large sample size (over 70,000 respondents); access to individual customer water meter readings; and availability of detailed household survey responses on water using practices. Due to this unique combination it was possible to investigate the suite of reasons why HWUs have above average water consumption. It was also possible to analyse how HWUs could save water to inform future water saving policy initiatives. The analysis outlined in this paper draws on an extremely important water usage dataset, of a size that has never been collated and analysed before in Australia. The research is of significant importance at a regional, national and international level and will be of significant interest to those water resource managers facing a drought situation and those involved in water forecasting and demand management interested in understanding how water is being used and could be saved.
The energy intensities of a range of household rainwater systems were monitored in Sydney and Newcastle as part of a study carried out by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) in collaboration with the Australian Commonwealth Scientific Investigation and Research Organisation (CSIRO). The study found that the energy intensity of these rainwater systems varied depending on system configuration, rainwater end uses and the water efficiency of the household. Preliminary results indicate that the energy intensity varies between 0.9 and4.9 kWh/kL with a 'typical' household rainwater system using approximately 1.5 kWh to deliver each kilo litre of rainwater.
The energy intensities of a range of household rainwater systems were monitored in Sydney and Newcastle as part of a study carried out by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) in collaboration with the Australian Commonwealth Scientific Investigation and Research Organisation (CSIRO). The study found that the energy intensity of these rainwater systems varied depending on system configuration, rainwater end uses and the water efficiency of the household. Preliminary results indicate that the energy intensity varies between 0.9 and 4.9 kWh/kL with a 'typical' household rainwater system using approximately 1.5 kWh to deliver each kilolitre of rainwater.
Turner, AJ, White, S, Kazaglis, A & Simard, S 2007, 'Have we achieved the savings? The importance of evaluations when implementing demand management', Water Science & Technology: Water Supply, vol. 7, no. 5-6, pp. 203-210.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Even though millions of dollars have been spent on demand management (DM) over the last decade across Australia, there is still very little evaluation of implemented DM/water efficiency programs. This paper brings together some of the limited examples of evaluation studies undertaken, providing details of both the statistical analysis method used and the findings of such studies undertaken by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) on behalf of water utilities. The studies include measurement of water savings in the residential and non-residential sectors and economic assessment of implemented programs. The paper highlights the importance of evaluation and need for embedding evaluation into the water planning process. It also highlights additional research currently being undertaken in this field associated with pressure reduction and energy usage when implementing DM programs. This paper will be of interest to a broad spectrum of practitioners beginning or currently involved in the development of DM programs or implementing and evaluating existing DM programs.
Turner, AJ, White, S, Beatty, K & Gregory, A 2005, 'Results of the largest residential demand management program in Australia', Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, vol. 5, no. 3-4, pp. 249-256.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Turner, A.J. 2005, 'IWA's International Demand Management Framework', Water Demand Management Bulletin, vol. 73.
This paper provides details of a preliminary least cost planning (LCP) assessment carried out for Canberra, the capital city of Australia, as part of the development of a 50 year Water Resources Strategy. In the assessment a suite of options consisting of demand management, source substitution, reuse and supply were developed to determine how to satisfy water demand requirements for the projected population over the 50 year planning horizon whilst also achieving the identified demand reduction targets. The options developed were then compared on an equal basis using the principles of LCP to identify the suite of lowest cost options to be considered for further analysis and implementation. The suite of demand management options developed was found to have the lowest whole of society levelised cost. Since the preliminary analysis and release of the Water Resources Strategy in April 2004, a water efficiency team has been set up to develop an implementation plan, implement options, develop an end use model, conduct pilot studies and undertake program evaluations
Chong, J, Cooley, H, Dickinson, M, Turner, AJ & White, S 2018, 'Managing drought in urban centres – Lessons from Australia' in Wilhite, DA & Puwarty, RS (eds), Drought and Water Crises: Science Technology and Management Issues, Taylor and Francis.
Turner, AJ, White, S & Hilaire, J 2018, 'Pushing the boundaries of sustainable development: The case of Central Park, Sydney' in Ruming, K (ed), Urban Regeneration in Australia Policies, Processes and Projects of Contemporary Urban Change.
Drawing together leading urban academics, this book provides the first detailed and cohesive exploration of contemporary urban regeneration in Australian cities.
Retamal, M.L., Turner, A.J. & White, S. 2010, 'The water-energy-climate nexus: systems thinking and virtuous circles' in Howe, C., Smith, J. & Henderson, J. (eds), Climate Change and Water: International perspectives on mitigation and adaptation, American Water Works Association and IWA Publishing, Denver, USA and London, UK, pp. 99-109.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
White, S., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D. & Turner, A.J. 2008, 'Putting the economics in its place: decision-making in an uncertain environment' in Zografos, C. & Howarth, R. (eds), Deliberative Ecological Economics, Oxford University Press, New Dehli, India, pp. 80-106.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Fane, S.A., Turner, A.J. & Mitchell, C.A. 2006, 'The secret life of water systems: least cost planning beyond demand management' in Beck, M.B. & Speers, A. (eds), 2nd IWA Leading-Edge on Sustainability in Water-Limited Environments, IWA Publishing, London, UK, pp. 35-41.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The water industry in Australia and international is involved in a period of significant change. The conventional roles of water and wastewater utilities are being redefined with the objectives of resource conservation and sustainable development added to existing responsibilities. Least cost planning (LCP) has emerged as the way forward for water utilities in regions where water conservation has become an objective or where ongoing supply expansion is constrained. It involves techniques for the design and evaluation of demand management programs and aims to compare demand- and supply-side options on an equivalent basis. The approach is based on the key ideas that: demand is for the services water provides rather than the actual volume supplied; and that a drop of water saved is equal to a drop supplied. This paper contends that LCP has much to offer the water sector beyond demand management. It is an approach that has potential for options assessment across the water cycle and can aid planning towards more sustainable outcomes within the sector. The paper concludes that LCP concepts and techniques will have worth in addressing the challenges of sustainable development for both urban water systems and catchment management
Innovation in the water sector has seen decentralization, emergence of third party utilities and more recently the convergence of the water and waste sectors where commodification of waste streams is driving business opportunities across sectors. While opportunities exist so do risks where integrated policy and regulation lags behind innovation and practice.
Sahin, O, Stewart, R, Turner, A, Giurco, D & Porter, M 2015, 'Systems model for optimising the long-term water supply system of a major city considering the competing goals of water security and flooding risk', 10th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, Dubrovnik, Croatia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Mukheibir, P., Turner, A.J., Mitchell, C.A., Chong, J., Murta, J., Retamal, M.L., Carrard, N.R. & Delaney, C.C. 2014, 'Shifts happen: Making better recycled water investment decisions', Sustainability in Public Works Conference 27 29 July 2014, Sustainability in Public Works Conference 27 29 July 2014, IPWEA, Tweed Heads.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
ABSTRACT: Recycled water has increasingly been considered as a means to deal with water supply-demand imbalances, treated wastewater disposal and stormwater management. It contributes to the sustainability of urban water systems and the regeneration of the urban landscape. However, recycled water schemes are not mainstream, and are often confronted with numerous challenges. By considering the contextual and project related risks associated with a diverse selection of recycling projects in Australia, a range of business related risks have become apparent. There is now evidence that shifts in both the contextual landscape and the objectives of the various players involved can occur over the life of a project, resulting in risk and uncertainty often not foreseen. Many guidelines on recycling have been produced which focus mainly on technical risk. Drawing on the experiences of a diverse selection of case studies in Australia, this paper contemplates the additional risks and uncertainties, often not initially considered at the inception of a recycling scheme. This paper presents an overview and discussion of six key issues to consider when planning a recycling scheme.
Mukheibir, P., Giurco, D., Turner, A.J., Franklin, J., Teng, M.L. & McClymont, T. 2013, 'Integrated resources planning: Contemporary insights', Proceedings of the 5th National Water Efficiency Conference, 5th National Water Efficiency Conference, Australian Water Association (AWA), Sydney, pp. 1-9.
Mitchell, CA, Murta, J, Retamal, M, Turner, A, Carrard, N & Chong, J 2013, 'Recycled water investment decisions: case studies in balancing the costs, benefits, and risks', Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
White, S., Retamal, M.L., AbuZeid, K.M., Elrawady, M.H. & Turner, A.J. 2011, 'Integrated resource planning in Alexandria, Egypt', Proceedings of Efficient '11 - 6th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Water, Efficient '11 - 6th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Water. Water Demand Management: Challenges & Opportunities, International Water Association, Dead Sea, Jordon, pp. 1-8.
McKibbin, J.L., Inman, M. & Turner, A.J. 2010, 'ISDP: a new national tool for integrated water resource planning', Ozwater '10: Australia's National Water Conference and Exhibition, Ozwater '10: Australia's National Water Conference and Exhibition, Australia Water Association (AWA), Brisbane, Australia, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This paper reviews recent research undertaken to extend the integrated Supply-Demand Planning (iSDP) model, a tool developed by the Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS, and the CSIRO together with water utilities across Australia. The research seeks to provide a transparent, open-source tool to assist urban water resource planners nationally. This paper reviews the role of the model and details several novel developments. These include an integrated analysis of wastewater, energy, nutrient and greenhouse gas flows, facility for testing alternative scenarios, a series of outputs for assessing the impact of alternative strategies, and an embedded library of region-specific assumptions and references.
Fane, S.A., Turner, A.J. & Smith, P. 2010, 'Integrated resource planning in a changing environment: new resources for the Australian water industry', Proceedings of OzWater'10: Achieving Water Security, OzWater'10: Achieving Water Security, Australian Water Association (AWA), Brisbane, Australia.
Fane, S.A. & Turner, A.J. 2009, 'Integrated water resource planning in the context of climate uncertainty', Proceedings of the 5th IWA Specialist Conference 'Efficient 2009', 'Efficient 2009': 5th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water, International Water Association (IWA) and Australian Water Association (AWA), Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-17.
Turner, A.J., Fyfe, J., Retamal, M.L., White, S. & Coates, A. 2009, 'The one to one water savings program unpacking residential high water usage', 5th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water, 'Efficient 2009': 5th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water, International Water Association (IWA) and Australian Water Association (AWA), Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-8.
Retamal, M.L. & Turner, A.J. 2009, 'Unpacking the energy implications of distributed water infrastructure: how are rainwater systems performing?', Proceedings of the 5th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water, 'Efficient 2009': 5th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water, International Water Association (IWA) and Australian Water Association (AWA), Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-9.
Turner, A.J. 2008, 'Integrated resource planning: how do we know if our water planning and management is best practice? (slides)', 3rd National Water Efficiency Conference, Surfers Paradise, Australia.
Turner, A.J., Willetts, J.R. & White, S. 2008, 'Integrated resource planning: how do we know if our water planning and management is best practice? (paper)', Conference Proceedings & Participant List, 3rd National Water Efficiency Conference, AWA, Surfers Paradise, Australia.
Turner, A.J., White, S., Kazaglis, A. & Simard, S. 2007, 'Have we achieved savings yet? The importance of evaluations when implementing demand management', 4th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply: Proceedings 1, IWA Efficient 2007, IWA Specialist Group: Efficient Operation and Management, Jeju Island, Korea, pp. 927-934.
White, S., Turner, A.J., Fane, S.A. & Giurco, D. 2007, 'Urban water supply-demand planning: a worked example', 4th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply: Proceedings 1, IWA Efficient 2007, IWA Specialist Group: Efficient Operation and Management, Jeju Island, Korea, pp. 419-420.
Snelling, C.M., Turner, A.J., Riedy, C., White, S. & Cummings, S. 2007, 'Where does the water go? Best practice stock modeling for water using appliances', 4th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply: Proceedings 1, IWA Efficient 2007, IWA Specialist Group: Efficient Operation and Management, Jeju Island, Korea, pp. 307-314.
Turner, A.J. & White, S. 2007, 'A town like Alice: overcoming barriers to unlocking the potential of water efficiency', 4th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply: Proceedings 1, IWA Efficient 2007, IWA Specialist Group: Efficient Operation and Management, Jeju Island, Korea, pp. 935-936.
Turner, A.J., Willetts, J.R., White, S. & Gonzalez, F.C. 2007, 'The International Demand Management Framework: outcomes of Stage 1', 4th IWA Specialist Conference on Efficient Use and Management of Urban Water Supply: Proceedings 1, IWA Efficient 2007, IWA Specialist Group: Efficient Operation and Management, Jeju island, Korea, pp. 421-423.
Smith, T., Edwards, D., Kazaglis, A. & Turner, A.J. 2007, 'How much further can demand management strategies go to ensure further water security for South East Queensland?', Water...It's for life, Water...It's for life, AWA Regional Conference, Australian Water Association (AWA), Sunshine Coast, pp. 284-295.
Turner, A.J. 2005, 'The Canberra least cost planning case study', International conference on the efficient use and management of urban water proceedings, International conference on the efficient use and management of urban water, International Water Association, Santiago, Chile, pp. 305-312.
Turner, A.J., White, S., Beatty, K. & Gregory, A. 2005, 'Results of the largest residential demand management program in Australia', International conference on the efficient use and management of urban water, International conference on the efficient use and management of urban water, International Water Association, Santiago, Chile, pp. 58-65.
White, S., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D. & Turner, A.J. 2006, 'Putting the economics in its place: decision making in an uncertain environment', Ninth Biennial Conference of the International Society for Ecological Economics, New Delhi, India.
Turner, A.J. & White, S. 2006, 'Does demand management work over the long term? What are the critical success factors?', Sustainable Water in the Urban Environment II Conference, Sustainable Water in the Urban Environment II, AWA Conference, Sippy Downs, Queensland.
Turner, A.J., White, S., Smith, G., Al Ghafri, A., Aziz, A. & Al Suleimania, Z. 2005, 'Water efficiency - a sustainable way forward for Oman', Stockholm Water Symposium, Workshop 5, Stockholm Water Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden.
White, S., Cordell, D.J. & Turner, A.J. 2005, 'A single planning framework applicable to urban water management around the world: an international demand management framework', World Water Week, Stockholm Water Symposium 2005, Stockholm, Sweden.
Mitchell, C.A., Turner, A.J., Fane, S.A., White, S. & Cordell, D.J. 2004, 'Water conservation is dead: long live water conservation', Proceedings of 2nd IWA Leading-Edge Conference on Sustainability: Sustainability in Water-Limited Environments, 2nd International Water Association Leading Edge Conference on Sustainability: Sustainability in Water-Limited Environments, IWA, Sydney, Australia, p. 53.
Fane, S.A., Turner, A.J. & Mitchell, C.A. 2004, 'The secret life of water systems: least cost planning beyond demand management', Proceedings of 2nd IWA Leading-Edge Conference on Sustainability: Sustainability in Water-Limited Environments, 2nd Leading-Edge Conference on Sustainability: Sustainability in Water-Limited Environments, IWA, Sydney, Australia, p. 7.
Outdoor demand in arid climates generally represents a significant proportion of total demand and is often extremely seasonal in nature and difficult to characterise, leading to problems when building an end use model and determining which options will provide the highest water savings at the lowest cost. In the investigations undertaken for Alice Springs, a wide variety of low cost methods for gathering data were used to disaggregate water demand, build an end use model and assist in the development of the demand management (DM) program. These included: analysis of bulk water and customer metered demand; review of available data and documents on water issues; the use of a low cost residential water usage survey which was linked to customer metered demand; interviews with suppliers/maintenance specialists (e.g. pools, air conditioners and garden irrigation); and an experiment in relation to evaporative air conditioning systems. During these investigations it was found that the unit cost of the individual DM options ranged from as low as 0.20 AUD per kilolitre for some institutional efficiency options to 1.40 AUD per kilolitre for residential washing machine rebates. It was also found that due to the high energy costs associated with pumping water from the existing supply, considerable savings could be made by deferring borefield augmentation and operating costs. In fact for the proposed demand management program, combining 15 individual DM options, the savings in operating costs for water supply alone exceed the whole of society costs of the DM program. This paper will be useful to those dealing with water efficiency issues in arid zones by providing details on cost effective data/information sources and methods, the use of climate correction, the types of DM options available for arid zones and details of typical unit costs.
The main objective of sustainable urban water systems is to satisfy the water related needs of the community at the lowest cost to society whilst minimising environmental and social impacts. This paper explores these objectives in relation to effluent reuse in urban areas. It describes the evolutionary progress of urban water reuse from agricultural reuse, to large scale industrial reuse, and then to dual reticulation for urban developments. It argues that the next step in this progression is to more fully implement the principles of the water quality cascade, and to use the benefits associated with reducing sewage and water transport costs to trade off increased costs associated with distributed treatment and reuse systems. The other key message of the paper is that there is a logical order of investment in methods of sustainable urban water management, both in terms of unit cost and energy intensity, starting with improved efficiency of water use. These options, improved water efficiency, generally have the lowest unit cost, with typical levelised costs of $0.1-0.7/kL. They also result in a reduction of energy use from hot water savings and reduced pumping and treatment. Scheme supplies can vary typically from $0.2-1.2/kL, depending on the cost of augmentation, and have energy intensity levels in the range 300-1,000 kWh/ML. High level reuse can cost between less than $1/kL for large scale industrial reuse, to over $3/kL for dual reticulation schemes. The energy intensity of high level reuse can be as high as 4,000 kWh/ML.
Turner, A.J., Campbell, S. & White, S. 2003, 'End use modelling and water efficiency program for arid zones: the Alice Springs experience', Efficient 2003: Efficient Use and Management of Water for Urban Supply Conference, Efficient 2003: Efficient Use and Management of Water for Urban Supply Conference, Tenerife.
Turner, A, Fam, DM, McLean, L, Zaporoshenko, M, Halliday, D, Buman, M, Lupis, M & Kalkanas, A Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney 2018, Central Park Precinct Organics Management Feasibility Study, Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney.
Turner, A.J., Fam, D., Madden, B. & Liu, A. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2017, Pyrmont-Ultimo Precinct (PUP) Scale Organics Management Scoping Study, pp. 1-127, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This report, the 'Pyrmont Ultimo Precinct (PUP) Scale Organics Management Scoping Study has been prepared by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF), University of Technology Sydney (UTS). The research, conducted by ISF and funded through a collaboration between Sydney Water Corporation (SWC) and the NSW Environment Protection Authority (EPA), has investigated at a high level, a suite of innovative organic waste management options that could potentially be piloted in Pyrmont-Ultimo, currently the densest urban area in Australia. The Pyrmont-Ultimo precinct (PUP), encompassing Pyrmont, Ultimo and the newly developed Central Park, has been specifically chosen due to the significant potential in the area, existing network of sustainability practitioners (i.e. Smart Locale1) and ISF's/UTS's direct involvement in research in food waste management.
Now an ideal time to reflect, to take stock of where the Australian water industry is at, to scan the trends, disruptions and innovation opportunities that lie ahead, to imagine what the water industry could look like in the next 20 to 30 years, and to work out what it would take to realise that vision. As the weight of history, the push of the present and the pull of the future unfold, there is a need to take control, innovate, advocate and consciously head in the desired direction to ensure that the collective vision of the future water industry is fulfilled.
The Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA), the peak industry body that represents over 70 public and privately, owned water or water related organisations, commissioned the Institute to research and write this discussion paper on the trends and potential disruptions to Australia's urban water futures.
Fam, DM, Turner, A, Latimer, G, Liu, A, Giurco, D & Starr, P Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2017, Convergence of the waste and water sectors: risks, opportunities and future trends – discussion paper, pp. 1-24, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The aim of this discussion paper is to bring to light the increasing convergence of the water and waste sectors and the associated risks, benefits, and future trends already on the horizon. Current examples of convergence in managing coal seam gas (CSG), food waste, fats, oils and grease (FOG) and biosolids, provide insights into not only the risks to public and environmental health of waste streams that cross sectoral boundaries but also potential opportunities for the water and waste sectors to seize as business opportunities. What is clear is that convergence between these sectors is already happening and in some cases there are adverse environmental consequences and associated health impacts. A key message from this research is the need to take an integrated and coordinated approach to planning and regulating the convergence of the water and waste sectors. Key recommendations to manage the risks associated with cross sector convergence of the water and waste sectors include facilitating: (1) increased engagement between regulators of each sector, (2) greater communication across sectors (3) a co-ordinated approach and plan to managing waste streams, (4) the development of monitoring and evaluation frameworks that cross sectors and (5) a coordinated approach to the assessment of research needs.
The Victorian water utilities have been active in the implementation of water efficiency for many years. Similar to other jurisdictions this intensified during the Millennium drought. The approaches employed during the drought involved both individual and joint water utility initiatives, often in collaboration with the Victorian government. These initiatives covered both the residential and non-residential sectors and were supported by the important collaborative research initiated in 2003 under the $50m Smart Water Fund (now closed). This research report 'Assessment of Future Water Efficiency Measures' has been developed by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF), University of Technology Sydney, on behalf of the three Melbourne retailers, Melbourne Water, Barwon Water and the Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning. The rapid study does not aim to be exhaustive but to begin to gather information to assist in taking stock of the current efficiency situation and to look on the horizon in terms of how efficiency might change. It aims to gather information that will be useful to assist in testing alternative potential scenarios of long term demand forecasts and new potential short and long term efficiency program opportunities that can be actioned when deemed appropriate into the future. There is significant additional conservation potential available as we look to the future in terms of new more efficient appliances and ways to interact with customers by tapping into new technical and behavioural opportunities.
Turner, A, White, S, Chong, J, Dickinson, M, Cooley, H & Donnelly, K the Alliance for Water Efficiency, the Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney and the Pacific Institute 2016, Managing drought: Learning from Australia, pp. 1-93, University of Technology Sydney and the Pacific Institute for the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
California is facing yet another year of unprecedented, record-breaking drought. At this time of need, US agencies have turned to Australia to identify the strategies that urban water utilities and water agencies adopted to survive its worst drought in recorded history, the Millennium Drought, which lasted from 1997 until it officially ended in 2012.
The Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology Sydney, undertook a review of the environmental effects of the Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards (WELS) Scheme on behalf of the Australian Government Department of the Environment.
The review analysed several facets of the Scheme, including:
* the interactions between WELS and other urban water policies
* changes in the products registered and sold since the commencement of WELS
* changes in water consumption since the commencement of WELS
* energy, greenhouse and household bill impacts associated with reduced water consumption
The Institute developed a monitoring and evaluation framework for State Water to assess the impact of the new Decision Support System for river management, part of the Murrumbidgee Computer Aided River Management Project (CARM) - a $65 million upgrade of infrastructure and operational processes throughout the Murrumbidgee River System.
Murta, J., Milne, G.R., Turner, A.J., White, S., Harris, S.M. & Mukheibir, P. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Water and energy use efficiency of evaporative air conditioners: Stage 1 - scoping study, Sydney, Australia.
Murta, J., Milne, G.R., Turner, A.J., White, S., Harris, S.M. & Mukheibir, P. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Options to improve the water and energy efficiency of existing evaporative air conditioners, pp. 1-47, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Hamlyn- Harris, D., Mitchell, C.A., Abeysuriya, K. & Turner, A.J. Bligh Tanner Consulting Engineers and Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Study of local alternative water supplies: Discussion paper, pp. 1-82, Brisbane, Australia.
Nguyen, M., Milne, G.R., Rickwood, P., Mohr, S.H. & Turner, A.J. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2012, Analysis of data from the ClimateSmart Home Service, Sydney, Australia.
Fane, SA, Turner, AJ, McKibbin, JL, May, D, Fyfe, J, Chong, J, Blackburn, N, Patterson, JJ & White, S Australian National Water Commission 2011, Integrated resource planning for urban water - resource papers, pp. 1-206, Canberra.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Turner, A.J., Willetts, J.R., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D., Chong, J., Kazaglis, A. & White, S. Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) 2010, Guide to Demand Management and Integrated Resource Planning (update on original 2008 Guide), pp. 1-174, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This Guide lays out a way to undertake urban water planning, using a consistent framework, which creates benefits for the whole community. It was originally developed by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology Sydney for the Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) and has been updated with the support of the Australian Governments National Water Commission (NWC). The Guide is intended for both WSAA members and the broader Australian water industry
Turner, A.J., Retamal, M.L., White, S., Palfreeman, L. & Panikkar, A. The Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation in assoc. with the Institute for Sustainable Futures 2010, Third party evaluation of Wide Bay Water smart metering and sustainable water pricing initiative project.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Retamal, M.L., Glassmire, J., Abeysuriya, K., Turner, A.J. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2009, The water-energy nexus: investigation into the energy implications of household rainwater systems, Sydney, Australia.
Turner, A.J., Willetts, J.R., Fane, S.A., Giurco, D., Kazaglis, A. & White, S. Water Services Association of Australia 2008, Guide to Demand Management, pp. 1-176, Sydney, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Turner, A.J., White, S. & Edgerton, N. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2007, Alice Springs Water Efficiency Study Stage III - Implementation of the Alice Springs Water Efficiency Program - Feasibility Study - Final Report, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
White, S., Turner, A.J., Kazaglis, A. & Carrard, N.R. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2007, Response to Queensland Water Commission Report 'Evaluation of ISF / Cardno report: Review of water supply-demand options for South East Queensland', pp. 1-31, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In February 2007, the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) and Cardno Australia released a Review of Water Supply-Demand Options for South East Queensland (the Review). The Review was submitted to the Senate Rural & Regional Affairs and Transport (RRAT) Committee Inquiry into Additional Water Supplies for South East Queensland. The key finding of the ISF/Cardno Review is that Traveston Crossing Dam will not be useful to provide water security in the current drought and is unnecessary to ensure water security for South East Queensland after the drought and for decades to come. The suite of supply and demand options â excluding Traveston Dam â which are currently being implemented as part of the South East Queensland Regional Water Supply Strategy (SEQRWSS) sufficient to ensure the supply-demand balance to around 2030. For the period 2030-2050, ISF/Cardno suggest a number of enhanced demand management programs that will maintain the supplydemand balance to 2050. The demand management measures suggested by ISF/Cardno are more cost effective than Traveston Dam (in terms of $ per kilolitre) and perform significantly better than Traveston Dam when assessed on social and environmental criteria including greenhouse impact. In the event that a period of water scarcity worse than the current drought occurs, ISF/Cardno propose that a âreadinessâ strategy be adopted whereby water supply projects with relatively short construction and delivery times are planned and approved but only built if and when absolutely necessary to defer a crisis in water supplies. This strategy avoids investing in infrastructure that may not be needed. This represents a lower cost strategy than building capital works pre-emptively. It is important to note that the water supply projects outlined in the ISF/Cardno Review are suggestions of appropriate âreadinessâ options.
Turner, A.J., Hausler, G., Carrard, N.R., Kazaglis, A., White, S., Hughes, A. & Johnson, T. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS and Cardno (Brisbane) 2007, Review of water supply-demand options for South East Queensland, pp. 1-146, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This independent review aims to assess the Queensland Government's proposed strategy for meeting the long-term water supply-demand balance for South East Queensland, of which the Traveston Crossing scheme is a major and controversial component. The review, conducted by a team from the ISF at the UTS and Cardno, concludes that a diverse portfolio of options can ensure supply security for South East Queensland (SEQ) well into the future, certainly to 2050. Such options include: increasing water supply availability (supply-side options); decreasing the demand for water (demand-side options); and meeting water supply needs during deep droughts (drought response options). A number of the elements of such a portfolio are already being implemented as part of the current Queensland Government strategy. With the extension and addition of low unit cost demand-side options and supply-side drought response readiness options, a clear conclusion of this study is that the proposed dam at Traveston Crossing on the Mary River is neither necessary nor desirable as a part of the portfolio for ensuring supply security to 2050. The increase in supply from this proposed dam will not assist in the short-term during the current severe drought in which water (from savings and supply) is needed over the next two to three years. Planned completion of the Traveston Crossing Dam Stage 1 is in 2012. Additional time will be needed for the dam to fill, which could take an additional two years, resulting in the yield from this source only potentially being available in 2014. Neither is the Traveston Crossing scheme needed for supply-demand balance in the longer term with the suite of other more appropriate drought response measures being implemented by the Queensland Government and strategy being proposed as part of this study. The proposed dam at Traveston Crossing on the Mary River represents a high total cost, high unit cost, high risk and high environmental and social impact option.
Barwon Water seeks a more detailed understanding of its current water demand and the range of options, which can augment supply or conserve water across sectors (residential, commercial industrial and non-revenue water). This will inform its long term planning to 2055 via the Barwon Water Supply and Demand Strategy (WSDS) and the Victorian Government's Central Region Sustainable Water Strategy (CRSWS) which is administered by the Department of Sustainability and the Environment. This report develops sector-based forecasts of water demand for the Greater Geelong supply region. These forecasts indicate that in the absence of water conservation initiatives and new supply options, demand will exceed available supply in 2013. A range of water conservation and alternative supply options developed herein can ensure supply demand balance is met to 2055 and ensure specific water conservation targets in 2015 and 2020 are met. Options are ranked based on the total resource cost of the option (including costs to the utility, customer and government) and expressed as a levelised unit cost (namely dollars per kL of water that is saved or supplied by the option). The table below shows the costs and water saved by the least cost options needed to meet the 2015 target (6,971 MLa) and 2020 target (9,825 MLa) for water conservation which are based respectively on 25 percent and 30percent reductions against a mid 1990s baseline of 464 Lhd. Savings in 2030 are included for comparison as are cost-competitive supply options of Dewing Creek and Barwon Downs Stage 3 and Shell recycling which is committed.
The Institute for Sustainable Futures is currently undertaking the ACTEW Integrated Supply Demand Planning Model Study. The project involves the development of a detailed water demand forecasting and options model using existing Water Services of Australia (WSAA) software. The options reflect the suite of responses to supplydemand imbalances as forecast by the model, and include both supply-side and demand management options. The project has been commissioned by ACTEW Corporation, and is co-funded by ACTEWAGL and the ACT Government's Office of Sustainability. A key feature of the study is the active engagement of the client in the development of the model, with a view of building in-house capacity and end-use modelling expertise. Three major project stages have been defined to enable key review points for theclient. Each stage involves one or more client workshops. Stage 1 - Planning of the process: review of available data Stage 2 - Situation analysis: development of Stage 3 - Development of the response (options) This report summarises the results from Stage 2 and identifies issues for discussion during delivery of the work in a client workshop on 6 December 2006
Central Highlands Water is required to reduce its water usage by 820 ML/a by 2015 in line with the targets for the Central Region Sustainable Water Strategy. This report reviews demand trends from the residential, commercial and concessional sectors along with non-revenue water usage to gain a historical understanding of water usage patterns. This covers both restricted and unrestricted periods. Together with population projections, this historical analysis provides a basis for initial projections of future demand on a sector basis. Additional detail has been included in the residential sector to understand demand for both single residential dwellings and flats/units as a separate category as their outdoor water usage is significantly less than for single residential dwellings. Options for reducing demand in the residential, commercial and concessional sectors were then developed and modelled, including the water savings, timing total resource costs (the total costs borne by CHW, Customers and Government) as well as who pays the costs for each option. Levelised unit cost (present value $/ present value kL of water saved or supplied) were used to rank the costs of options. It shows the total cost of the options to meet the targets and the breakdown by stakeholders and water saved by implementation year. An implementation plan, drawing on ISF experience in assisting other utilities to roll-out demand management programs was developed to outline the practical issues associated with staffing requirements, management strategies for each option, plus monitoring and evaluation strategies to ensure options are meeting savings targets. It is proposed that additional staff resources be dedicated to coordinating the implementation of the options. Option-specific implementation issues are detailed in the report.
This report forms part of a larger study (Stage 1 of the International Demand Management Framework (IDMF)) which has been undertaken under the auspices of the International Water Association Task Force 7 of the Specialist Group Efficient Operation and Management. Current practice often utilises litres per capita per day (LCD) to describe and forecast water demand; however this practice has been found to be limited for planning purposes within water utilities. In its place, an emerging way forward is based on disaggregation of demand and robust comparison of both demand and supply options to improve reliability. Disaggregation of demand into sectors and end uses allows accurate forecasting of demand and strategic design of demand management options which may be used in complement to supply options. The findings indicate that Canal de Isabel II has completed excellent work in certain areas, such as drought and risk management, management of water losses, knowledge of supply and distribution system, and sector and end use data collection. There remains significant opportunity for Canal de Isabel II to incorporate other improvements toward best practice, including the following: Â·approach the planning process in a coherent way that considers both demand and supply options and works through a logical sequence of steps Â·utilise in-depth knowledge of sector and end-uses to strategically identify and design demand management options Â·compare demand and supply options using a consistent economic analysis so that the solutions with the lowest cost to society can be selected and implemented Â·involve a larger group of stakeholders at appropriate points in the planning process Â·conduct pilot and implementation of chosen demand management options to initiate on-going learning about what works and doesn't in the local context & Â·monitor and evaluate pilot and implementation programs using robust statistical methods.
McFarlane, D.J., Inman, M., Loh, M.T., Scott, I., Turner, A.J. & Brennan, D. CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship 2006, An integrated Supply Demand Planning model for Perth. Client report to W.A. Government, pp. 1-87, Canberra, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Section 2 of this report details the iSDP base case and compares the current demand prediction with one based on a more detailed understanding of the factors underpinning demand. Because the base case is based on year 2000 conditions, it also estimates the impact of introducing the two-days-per-week sprinkler restrictions on demand in late 2001 and the rebate scheme that was introduced in February 2003 and revised in June 2005.
This report provides the findings of a review of the water efficiency programs being undertaken by the Water Corporation of Western Australia (WA). It has been undertaken to determine what might be improved to assist the Water Corporation to meet corporate and WA Government objectives, and to determine what other strategies might contribute to meeting those objectives. In addition the review has considered what would be required to implement best practice water efficiency programs, and to test the possibility that Perth could become one of Australia's most water efficient cities by tapping into greater conservation potential. The review has considered the large range of programs that the Water Corporation has in place to save water, including the WA Government funded Waterwise Rebate Program providing rebates on residential water efficient equipment. It has also investigated the regulatory environment in which the Water Corporation operates, the framework for economic assessment of water efficiency programs; the monitoring and evaluation of programs, and the internal support for development of water efficiency strategies. A model has been developed to estimate and summarise the relative unit costs and savings of the existing programs, and to estimate the potential for new extension programs to generate greater savings. These programs have then been compared with a range of reuse and supply augmentation options being considered by Water Corporation. The WA regulatory environment, as expressed through the WA State Water Strategy, places strong emphasis on the need to utilise an integrated resource planning framework for water supply and water efficiency programs. This framework requires that demand side be evaluated on the same basis as supply side options (source augmentation) and reuse options, based on the costs to all parties and that least cost options be investigated for implementation ahead of, or at least in conjunction with higher cost options.
McFarlane, D.J., Inman, M., White, S., Loh, M.T., Turner, A.J. & English, L. CSIRO: Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship 2005, Integrated resource planning for the integrated water supply scheme for: expert panel examining Kimberly water supply options, pp. 1-43, Canberra, Australia.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Through the State Water Strategy the Government of Western Australia has committed to using Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) in its water allocation and licensing processes (Government of Western Australia, 2003). There is currently limited experience in using IRP methods within the state and methods used elsewhere may need to be adapted to take account of the specific water environment within Western Australia, especially the relative complexity of the states water sources, the high outdoor use component and self-supply options such as domestic bores. Improved management of existing water resources (e.g. catchment thinning, plantation management) to release more water are also not well covered in many past uses of the method. The Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA) commissioned and recommends the use of an End Use Model (since renamed, the Supply and Demand Planning Model) to detail how water is used on both a customer sector (e.g. domestic, commercial) and end use basis (e.g. toilet flushing, garden watering). Such a model allows water suppliers to better predict future demand (forecasting) and to develop options to meet a future water supply demand balance (backcasting). Importantly, it allows water supply and demand management options to be compared on a consistent economic basis. Alternative methods of assessing supply and demand options often only consider the financial impact on the water service provider, whereas the government needs to also consider the impact on consumers and on the general community
This review has been undertaken to provide advice to DIPNR regarding the potential for improvements to BASIX, prior to BASIX going live on July 1st 2004. As a regulatory support tool, BASIX has a great potential to reduce potable water demand. It provides a useful performance based approach to regulation, moving away from prescriptive requirements. The user friendly web based interface allows for the potential for broad reach and reduced compliance costs. The usefulness of this tool will depend largely on appropriate complementary and supplementary measures to support its implementation, including resources such as training and education for developers, builders and householders compliance monitoring economic incentives least cost planning and estate level planning. Without such support measures BASIX risks resulting in perverse outcomes such as increased water use or stakeholder opposition and resistance to cooperation. Many of these options are beyond the scope of DIPNR to implement, which further strengthens the requirement for a whole of government approach to water efficiency implementation. This review found that the key limitations of BASIX were largely a result of its inability to affect more than technical measures to reduce potable water demand at the stage of development consent. This means neither water efficient appliances nor behavioural measures could be influenced either at the development application stage or in the longer term. Furthermore, without compliance monitoring, economic incentives and appropriate training and education for the industry and community, there is little assurance that design savings will be achieved. This report suggests a number of recommendations to overcome these limitations and maximise the effectiveness of BASIX.
Turner, A.J. & White, S. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS 2003, ACT Water Strategy: Preliminary Demand Management and Least Cost Planning Assessment, pp. 1-45, Sydney.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
The aim of the Brisbane City Least Cost Planning and Demand Management Study is to develop the principles and application of least cost planning (LCP), end use analysis and demand management for water service provision (including water, wastewater and stormwater services) in the planning and operation of Brisbane City Council (BCC) and Brisbane Water (BW), thus providing the City of Brisbane with the tools to enable provision of sustainable urban water services in the future. BCC, as the largest council in Australia, has inherited the water services responsibility of providing and treating water for 1.3 million people within South East Queensland (which includes Brisbane City and five surrounding local government areas), distributing water to the City of Brisbane (376,000 property connections), collecting and treating sewage from 368,000 property connections within Brisbane and managing the stormwater and protecting the 633 km of waterways within 33 catchments covering an area of over 1,100 km. Due to a number of constraints and drivers BCC will need to invest considerable capital in its current water services infrastructure over the next 50 years, of which a significant proportion will be needed within the next 20 years. This is illustrated in Figures 1 & 2, especially with respect to wastewater.
The aim of the Burnett Region Least Cost Planning (LCP) Study is to develop a framework for meeting water related needs on a whole of catchment basis (irrigated agriculture, town water supplies, industry and environmental needs). The use of an LCP approach involves considering a range of options including investment in supply augmentation, recycling and water efficiency. Therefore allowing the development of an integrated 'triple bottom line' solution, which provides the services that water users require at the minimum economic, environmental and social cost. This document provides the findings of the Study and includes details on the background of the Study, studies already undertaken, regional physical and economic details, methodology used, current water supply and projected water demand. It then considers possible water demand/management efficiency measures possible (under various end-use sectors) and alternative reuse and smaller supply options other then the currently proposed Paradise Dam. Using these costed options a Hybrid Option has been developed, which achieves the requirements of the Paradise Dam but with significant additional financial, social and environmental benefits. The Study has been conducted in such as way as to provide a framework for considering LCP principles within other areas of Queensland. The Burnett Region has specifically been chosen as a pilot study to examine LCP principles due to the a wide range of complex water related issues that apply to this region.