Andrea Trianni is currently Associate Professor at School of Information, Systems, and Modelling, Faculty of Engineering and IT, University of Technology Sydney. He previously was Assistant Professor of Industrial Eco-Efficiency, Energy Management Lab and Fundamentals of Industrial Plants at Politecnico di Milano. In March 2012 gets a PhD “cum laude” at the Department of Management, Economics & Industrial Engineering – Politecnico di Milano. He holds a MSc in Mechanical Engineering. His current research activities are focused on improved industrial sustainability, through the evaluation of barriers and driving forces for the promotion of energy efficiency measures, the development of methodologies for energy audit and benchmarking for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises and the investigation of the energy efficiency indirect benefits within industrial activities, together with barriers to industrial sustainability and business models for closed-loop supply chains applied to critical raw materials. Italian representative (invited) within the IEA–IETS Annex XIV on “Energy Efficiency in SMEs”. He has co-authored more than 80 publications in journals and conference proceedings. He is member of the Editorial Board of Journal of Cleaner Production, and serves as reviewer and Guest Editor for several relevant international peer-reviewed journals in the field of industrial energy efficiency and industrial eco-efficiency.
Can supervise: YES
- Industrial Energy Efficiency
- Industrial Eco-Efficiency and Sustainability
- Sustainable Supply Chain Management
- Operations and Supply Chain Management
- Industrial Eco-Efficiency and Industrial Sustainability
- Industrial Energy Efficiency
Lapko, Y, Trianni, A, Nuur, C & Masi, D 2019, 'In Pursuit of Closed-Loop Supply Chains for Critical Materials: An Exploratory Study in the Green Energy Sector', Journal of Industrial Ecology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 182-196.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 by Yale University A closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) is considered not only an important solution for ensuring sustainable exploitation of materials, but also a promising strategy for securing long-term availability of materials. The latter is especially highlighted in the materials criticality discourse. Critical raw materials (CRMs), being exposed to supply disruptions, create an uncertain operational environment for many industries, particularly for green energy technologies that employ multiple CRMs. However, recycling rates of CRMs are very low and engagement of companies in CLSC for CRM is limited. This study examines factors influencing CLSC for CRM development in photovoltaic panels and wind turbine technologies. The aim is to analyze how the factors manifest themselves in different companies along the supply chain and to identify enabling and bottleneck conditions for implementation of CLSC for CRM. The novelty of the study is twofold: the focus on material rather than product flows, and examination of factors from a multiactor perspective. The evidence obtained suggests that the manufacturing companies and reverse supply-chain operators engaged in the study take different perspectives (product vs. material) regarding development of CLSC for CRM and thus emphasize different factors. The findings underline the need for interactions between supply-chain actors, a sound competitive environment for recycling processes, and investment in technologies and infrastructure development if CLSC for CRM is to be developed. The paper provides implications for practitioners and policy makers for implementation of CLSC for CRM, and suggests prospects for further research.
Cagno, E, Moschetta, D & Trianni, A 2019, 'Only non-energy benefits from the adoption of energy efficiency measures? A novel framework', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 212, pp. 1319-1333.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Industrial energy efficiency has been widely recognized as a major contributor to the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and improvement of industrial competitiveness. Nevertheless, a broad set of studies have pointed out the existence of barriers limiting the adoption of promising Energy Efficiency Measures (EEMs). Recently, scholars have shown the relevance of the so-called 'non-energy benefits' (NEBs) coming from the adoption of EEMs for overcoming those barriers. Still, the existence of such benefits has been pointed out from specific studies and manuals for practitioners, but an overall framework describing them in terms of savings and benefits, as well as technical and management implications, is missing yet. Moreover, a considerable part of the scholars and of the practitioners just focuses on the identification and definition of the positive benefits deriving from these measures after they have been completely adopted, thus neglecting to describe the full set of both positive and negative effects occurring also during the implementation phase. Thus, starting from a literature review of scientific as well as practitioners' studies, we have proposed a novel framework and characterization of the relevant items to be considered by an industrial decision-maker when deciding whether to adopt an EEM considering both the implementation and service phases. Hence, by taking this perspective, we have tested and validated the framework and the characterization in a two-step process: firstly, considering a set of EEMs well diffused and adopted in industry; secondly, investigating benefits and losses in ad-hoc selected manufacturing companies. Finally, considerations and implications are drawn from the preliminary validation and suggestion for further research are proposed, for both industrial decision-making as well as policy-making purposes.
Trianni, A, Cagno, E, Bertolotti, M, Thollander, P & Andersson, E 2019, 'Energy management: A practice-based assessment model', APPLIED ENERGY, vol. 235, pp. 1614-1636.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Franzò, S, Frattini, F, Cagno, E & Trianni, A 2019, 'A multi-stakeholder analysis of the economic efficiency of industrial energy efficiency policies: Empirical evidence from ten years of the Italian White Certificate Scheme', Applied Energy, pp. 424-435.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 There is growing interest worldwide in more effective policies to promote industrial energy efficiency and mitigate climate change. The White Certificates Scheme is a market-based mechanism aimed at stimulating the adoption of Energy Efficiency Measures. The Italian White Certificates scheme - one of the most long-standing and articulated - is a successful example of industrial energy efficiency policies, considered an interesting and remarkable case by other countries, especially due to its robustness in terms of the volume of certificates traded. Despite the considerable interest in White Certificates, an in-depth analysis of the economic efficiency of the mechanism from the perspective of different stakeholders is still lacking. To address this gap, this study develops a cost-benefit evaluation framework and a multi-stakeholder economic efficiency analysis of the Italian White Certificates scheme focusing on the Italian State, utilities, players in the energy efficiency value chain, and energy users. Our findings (also corroborated with sensitivity analyses) show that the White Certificates Scheme has led to several positive impacts for almost all stakeholders involved, with the exception of energy utilities that have suffered a major economic loss mainly due to a reduction of energy sold to end users. Such loss is likely to promote a deep change in the role of utilities in the energy market in terms of the services they offer and their business models. Our findings, in addition to providing useful directions for future research, offer interesting insights and implications for policymakers who may take inspiration from the pros and cons of the Italian White Certificates scheme when promoting energy efficiency through incentive mechanisms.
Cagno, E, Neri, A, Howard, M, Brenna, G & Trianni, A 2019, 'Industrial sustainability performance measurement systems: A novel framework', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 230, pp. 1354-1375.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd Improved sustainability of industrial activities and measurement of its performance are becoming prime topics of discussion among policy-makers and industrial decision-makers. The current literature proposes a number of performance measurement systems and related indicators, but mainly lacks a real capability to address all sustainability pillars and their intersections, as well as scalability to firms of different sizes, availability of internal resources, and maturity over sustainability issues, suggesting that further research is needed in this area. Building on the literature, our work develops a new framework for the evaluation of industrial sustainability performance, proposing three different Industrial Sustainability Performance Measurement Systems (ISPMSs), with a decreasing number of indicators suitable in different contexts of application. In the framework, selection mechanisms have been conceived and used to reduce the number of indicators considered, while still guaranteeing complete and adequate coverage of all sustainability pillars, as well as their intersections. The framework has been tested through semi-structured case studies in heterogeneous Northern Italian manufacturing firms. The preliminary results are sound as the different ISPMSs proved to be complete, useful, and easy to use. The proposed ISPMSs provide industrial decision-makers with a scalable framework applicable in different contexts, allowing benchmarking and development of specific implementation strategies for increased sustainability, and provide policy-makers with a framework to develop a more effective regulatory policy, better understanding how sustainability performance can be addressed in an integrated manner across industrial firms.
Trianni, A, Cagno, E, Neri, A & Howard, M 2019, 'Measuring industrial sustainability performance: Empirical evidence from Italian and German manufacturing small and medium enterprises', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 229, pp. 1355-1376.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd Measuring industrial sustainability performance in manufacturing firms is still a major challenge for both policy and industrial decision makers, with many firms, particularly small and medium enterprises, struggling to properly engage with them. Hence, to understand the level of adoption of industrial sustainability indicators and the issues preventing their effective measurement, and stimulate further research in this area, a multiple case analysis of 26 small and medium manufacturing enterprises across Germany and Italy operating in the chemical and metalworking sectors was conducted. The findings show that only 18 indicators are in place on average. Furthermore, too many firms still focus almost exclusively on the economic pillar of sustainability, while social and environmental pillars are addressed almost exclusively for compliance with legislation. Moreover, the research suggests that contextual factors may influence the firms' perspective on sustainability and the way it is managed, as well as the certifications held by firms, influencing, in turn, the number and types of indicators considered. An exploratory investigation allowed identification of several important open issues, leading to future research avenues, and in particular towards the development of a novel model to gauge sustainability in industrial activities, as well as adoption of policy-making measures for further emphasis on environmental and social pillars when promoting the adoption of sustainability indicators.
Lozano, FJ, Lozano, R, Freire, P, Jiménez-Gonzalez, C, Sakao, T, Ortiz, MG, Trianni, A, Carpenter, A & Viveros, T 2018, 'New perspectives for green and sustainable chemistry and engineering: Approaches from sustainable resource and energy use, management, and transformation', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 172, pp. 227-232.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The special volume on green and sustainable chemistry and engineering has fourteen papers that were considered relevant to the present day issues and discussion, such as adequate use of raw materials and efficient energy, besides considering renewable sources for materials and energy; and changing economical canons towards circular economy. Businesses, governments and Society are facing a number of challenges to tread the sustainability path and provide wellbeing for future generations. This special volume relevance provides discussions and contributions to foster that desirable future. Chemicals are ubiquitous in everyday activities. Their widespread presence provides benefits to societies' wellbeing, but can have some deleterious effects. To counteract such effect, green engineering and sustainable assessment in industrial processes have been gathering momentum in the last thirty years. Green chemistry, green engineering, eco-efficiency, and sustainability are becoming a necessity for assessing and managing products and processes in the chemical industry. This special volume presents fourteen articles related to sustainable resource and energy use (five articles), circular economy (one article), cleaner production and sustainable process assessment (five article), and innovation in chemical products (three articles). Green and sustainable chemistry, as well as sustainable chemical engineering and renewable energy sources are required to foster and consolidate a transition towards more sustainable societies. This special volume present current trends in chemistry and chemical engineering, such as sustainable resource and energy use, circular economy, cleaner production and sustainable process assessment, and innovation in chemical products. This special volume provides insights in this direction and complementing other efforts towards such transition.
Cagno, E, Neri, A & Trianni, A 2018, 'Broadening to sustainability the perspective of industrial decision-makers on the energy efficiency measures adoption: some empirical evidence', Energy Efficiency, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1193-1210.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature. The industry should take further efforts towards increased energy efficiency, that is a major contributor to improve industrial sustainability performance, by implementing energy efficiency measures (EEMs). However, the rate of adoption of these measures is still quite low. Hitherto, EEMs and barriers to their adoption have been evaluated almost exclusively from the viewpoint of energy efficiency decision-makers, not accounting for the broader sustainability perspective. This work aims at understanding whether an industrial sustainability perspective can better address issues related to EEMs adoption, analyzing the question through different viewpoints and insights offered by industrial decision-makers of different industrial sustainability areas within a firm. By doing this, we aim at offering a contribution in the understanding of the low rate of adoption of EEMs. As case studies, we investigated 12 firms from Northern Italy. In comparison to previous literature, results show that an industrial sustainability perspective can better explain the real decision-making process of adopting an EEM. Indeed, people knowledgeable about different industrial sustainability areas may perceive different barriers about the same EEM. EEMs may be negatively affected by reasons related to other areas of industrial sustainability, while positive reciprocal impacts may exist among areas of industrial sustainability; thus, EEMs may have effects on areas other than energy efficiency, and these effects may be perceived only by such areas. The study concludes with some remarks for policy and industrial decision-makers and advice for further research.
Neri, A, Cagno, E, Di Sebastiano, G & Trianni, A 2018, 'Industrial sustainability: Modelling drivers and mechanisms with barriers', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 194, pp. 452-472.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Sustainability's relevance is constantly increasing among industrial decision makers, policy-makers and scholars. To improve sustainability performance, firms must adopt industrial sustainability measures. These have been proven to positively impact on overall firm's performance, but their rate of adoption is still low, and barriers to their adoption need to be properly tackled by drivers. This work is based on a review of literature on drivers to sustainability and to the areas of occupational health and safety, eco efficiency, and energy efficiency, and contributes to industrial sustainability research presenting a novel framework of drivers. The framework comprehends a model of drivers and a model of mechanisms: the former encompasses previous literature contributions and aims to characterize drivers for the adoption of measures in all areas of industrial sustainability; the latter aims to evaluate if a driver may tackle specific barrier or boost the action of another driver. We conducted a preliminary validation of the framework in nine Italian manufacturing firms. Regarding model of drivers, capacity to represent, usefulness and ease of use were evaluated; concerning model of mechanisms usefulness and ease of use were evaluated. Results seem to be sound with an overall positive evaluation of the framework by all the interviewees. Model of drivers was appreciated for its structure and completeness, and for its ability to enhance knowledge and awareness; model of mechanisms was considered useful for properly foster the adoption of a measure within the firm. The framework could be useful for industrial decision makers and policy-makers to better direct resources and efforts to foster the adoption of industrial sustainability measures.
© 2018, Springer Nature B.V. Energy Efficiency is an international journal dedicated to research topics connected to energy with a focus on end-use efficiency issues. In 2018, the journal celebrates its 10th anniversary. In order to mark it and analyze not only how the journal has been performing over the years, but also which are the trends for academic debate and research in this journal, this article presents a bibliometric overview of the publication and citation structure of the journal during period 2008–2017. The study relies on the Web of Science Core Collection and the Scopus database to collect the bibliographic results. Additionally, the work exploits the visualization of similarities (VOS) viewer software to map graphically the bibliographic material. The research analyses the most cited papers and the most popular keywords. Moreover, the paper studies how the journal connects with other international journals and identifies the most productive authors, institutions, and countries. The results indicate that the journal has rapidly grown over the years, obtained a merited position in the scientific community, with contributions from authors all over the world (with Europe as the most productive region). Moreover, the journal has focused so far mainly on energy efficiency issues in close relationship with policies and incentives, corporate energy efficiency, consumer behavior, and demand-side management programs, with both industrial, building and transport sectors widely involved. Our discussion concludes with suggested future research avenues, in particular towards coordinated efforts from different disciplines (technical, economic, and sociopsychological ones) to address the emerging energy efficiency challenges.
Trianni, A, Cagno, E & Neri, A 2017, 'Modelling barriers to the adoption of industrial sustainability measures', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 168, pp. 1482-1504.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Sustainability is constantly gaining relevance among industrial decision makers, policy makers and scholars. In order to be sustainable, firms need to implement industrial sustainability measures, however there are many barriers to doing this. This work is based on a review of literature on barriers to the areas of occupational health and safety, eco efficiency, energy efficiency and to sustainability, and contributes to industrial sustainability research by presenting a novel, integrated theoretical model of barriers to the implementation of sustainability measures. The model encompasses previous literature review contributions and is intended to characterize and evaluate barriers to the adoption of industrial sustainability measures in all its areas. We have conducted a preliminary validation of the model investigating eight northern Italian manufacturing firms, looking at its ability to represent barriers to sustainability, usefulness and ease of use. We conducted semi-structured interviews to people responsible of the different areas of industrial sustainability, complemented by questionnaires and secondary materials. Results show a positive overall judgment of the model by all the interviewees. Moreover, the model was able to be applied to issues deriving from different perspectives and different areas of industrial sustainability. The findings can help firms and policy makers overcome barriers and they also provide insight into the different perspectives on the adoption of industrial sustainability measures than can be used to promote their adoption.
Leurent, M, Jasserand, F, Locatelli, G, Palm, J, Rämä, M & Trianni, A 2017, 'Driving forces and obstacles to nuclear cogeneration in Europe: Lessons learnt from Finland', Energy Policy, vol. 107, pp. 138-150.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Nuclear power plants generate electricity and a large amount of waste heat which is valuable for cogeneration. District heating (DH) is a suitable technology to decarbonize the European heat sector. By contrast with most of nuclear non-electric applications, nuclear district heating (NDH) has already been implemented in Europe, thus providing us with some valuable empirical insights. This paper investigates the forces and obstacles to nuclear cogeneration by looking at the Loviisa 3 NDH project in Finland. The key forces are energy efficiency, decarbonization of the heat sector, operational competitiveness of future nuclear technologies, and synergies with renewable energies. The key obstacles are split incentives, electricity prices volatility, inexpediency of business models and regulatory frameworks, electioneering of local authorities and pessimist expectations with regards to project financing. Policy makers should recognize nuclear plants alongside other utilities generating large amounts of wasted heat. International cooperation programs involving both nuclear and heat stakeholders should be encouraged. EU28 Member States wanting to promote nuclear cogeneration may consider providing support for the electricity generated by high-efficiency plants.
Cagno, E, Trianni, A, Spallina, G & Marchesani, F 2017, 'Erratum to: Drivers for energy efficiency and their effect on barriers: empirical evidence from Italian manufacturing enterprises (Energy Efficiency, (2017), 10, 4, (855-869), 10.1007/s12053-016-9488-x)', Energy Efficiency, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 871-871.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016. This paper was unfortunately published with error. The given name of one of the authors was incorrectly captured as 'Vincenzo' when it should be 'Giovanni.' Further, the email address should be corrected to email@example.com. This was then corrected and is not anymore present in the published copies of the article.
Cagno, E, Trianni, A, Spallina, G & Marchesani, F 2017, 'Drivers for energy efficiency and their effect on barriers: empirical evidence from Italian manufacturing enterprises', Energy Efficiency, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 855-869.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2017, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Industrial activities are responsible for a significant share of both global delivered energy demand and CO 2 emissions. Hence, a widespread adoption of energy-efficient technologies and practices represents a crucial means for sustainable production. Adopting a novel framework of drivers for energy efficiency describing the effect of drivers on barriers in the decision-making process steps and able to account for the nature of drivers and the stakeholders responsible for their promotion, we have performed an exploratory investigation into 61 manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises in Northern Italy. Our findings have highlighted the importance of information and economic drivers, showing the need for enterprises to be supported not only by public institutions but also by external stakeholders involved in the supply of energy-efficient technologies and practices such as industrial associations and groupings, as well as service and technology suppliers. Moreover, our study has highlighted an almost equal relevance of both internal and external drivers. According to our findings, the increase of awareness—generating the interest to energy issues and stimulated both by external and internal stakeholders—as well as financial issues have emerged as the most critical in the decision-making process to adopt an energy-efficient measure. A preliminary comprehension of the mechanisms relating drivers to barriers in the decision-making process brought additional value to the study, highlighting the most effective and specific means to overcome the existing barriers. We have also explored the effect of several firm characteristics, such as firm size and energy intensity offering suggestions for industrial decision-makers as well as policy-makers.
Trianni, A, Cagno, E, Marchesani, F & Spallina, G 2017, 'Classification of drivers for industrial energy efficiency and their effect on the barriers affecting the investment decision-making process', Energy Efficiency, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 199-215.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Industrial energy efficiency represents a priority for European industrial competitiveness. Many studies offer contributions providing evidence of the existence of driving forces supporting the adoption of energy efficiency measures, but a structured approach to drivers for industrial energy efficiency is still lacking. Therefore, in the present study, we propose a definition of drivers, making emphasis on the industrial decision-maker perspective, that is needed for their classification here proposed. Focus is given to point out the difference between internal and external drivers, highlighting the major stakeholders responsible for their promotion. Drivers are further categorized into: regulatory, economic, informative, and vocational training. Moreover, we propose a framework describing the effect of drivers on barriers in the decision-making process, as well as a preliminary identification of the major stakeholders to promote drivers. The study opens several opportunities for further research in the area of industrial energy efficiency.
Lozano, FJ, Freire, P, Guillén-Gozalbez, G, Jiménez-Gonzalez, C, Sakao, T, Dowell, NM, Ortiz, MG, Trianni, A, Carpenter, A & Viveros, T 2016, 'New perspectives for sustainable resource and energy use, management and transformation: Approaches from green and sustainable chemistry and engineering', Journal of Cleaner Production.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Trianni, A, Cagno, E & Farne, S 2016, 'Barriers, drivers and decision-making process for industrial energy efficiency: A broad study among manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises', APPLIED ENERGY, vol. 162, pp. 1537-1551.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cagno, E, Trianni, A, Abeelen, C, Worrell, E & Miggiano, F 2015, 'Barriers and drivers for energy efficiency: Different perspectives from an exploratory study in the Netherlands', Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 102, pp. 26-38.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd Increased energy efficiency represents a crucial opportunity for European industrial sustainability, but several barriers still need to be tackled. Thus, it is crucial to understand the existing mismatches between the perception of enterprises and what the major actors promoting energy efficiency believe enterprises suffer from and need within the decision-making process. To do so, we have performed an exploratory investigation analysing a set of manufacturing enterprises participating in the Dutch voluntary agreements. The study involved the major external actors, i.e. the national energy agency, governmental and industrial organisations, to map their views on the decision-making process. Results show that enterprises agree not only on the most important barriers and drivers, but also on the mechanisms underlying them. However, even a general common understanding of the barriers is disputed when major external actors are considered, as they only agree on the primary role of economic barriers. Mismatches appear when considering how single barriers affect the decision-making process and which drivers – and actors promoting them – need to be addressed. Although voluntary agreements represent the most popular instrument on energy efficiency in the Netherlands, they do not seem to be considered by small and medium-sized enterprises as a stimulus for improving energy efficiency. Crucial for future success are the link with other policy instruments, and the degree to which the instruments trigger the right drivers and barriers at the right moment.
Thollander, P, Paramonova, S, Cornelis, E, Kimura, O, Trianni, A, Karlsson, M, Cagno, E, Morales, I & Jiménez Navarro, JP 2015, 'International study on energy end-use data among industrial SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) and energy end-use efficiency improvement opportunities', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 104, pp. 282-296.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The industrial sector is important to study in terms of improved energy efficiency, being one of the major energy-using sectors and responsible for a major share of CO2 emissions. The energy end-use (EEU) in the industrial sector is complex in general as processes are intertwined and interrelated. Moreover, bottom-up data of EEU on an aggregated level is scarce. Data for total energy supply like electricity, oil, coal, and natural gas exists but bottom-up data of what processes these energy carriers are used in, and moreover, where the major potential for implementation of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) exists, is less prevalent. This holds in particular for industrial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This makes policy formulation and design for industry a great challenge. Knowledge on where and how energy is used, as well as where opportunities for improvement exist, may provide good support for developing the most effective policies. Therefore, the aim of this study has been to present and compare available bottom-up energy data for industrial SMEs in four countries, namely Belgium, Italy, Japan and Sweden. Results show that the existence and quality of bottom-up EEU data differs largely between the countries and the development of a general taxonomy of structuring EEU data as well as EEMs is needed. Without the development of such a general taxonomy, the deployment level of EEMs and carbon dioxide emission reductions is unlikely to ever reach its full potential as knowledge is missing on how large the potential is, in which processes the major potential is found, how far industry has reached in terms of deployment levels, and in which areas future energy policies are needed. In conclusion, this paper of EEU and EEM in industrial SMEs addresses the high importance of future research in creating a harmonized data categorization, as this will greatly support the transition towards sustainable indus...
Cagno, E, Ramirez-Portilla, A & Trianni, A 2015, 'Linking energy efficiency and innovation practices: Empirical evidence from the foundry sector', Energy Policy, vol. 83, pp. 240-256.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. The Europe 2020 strategy currently promotes energy efficiency and innovation through disconnected targets focusing on either energy or R&D. Similar policies indicate that in practice, these two concepts are usually perceived as mutually exclusive. Furthermore, evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between R&D and energy efficiency is still highly limited. This exploratory study aims to address this gap by investigating the link between innovation practices and energy efficiency through a multiple case study of 30 foundries in Northern Italy. We analysed the firms' innovativeness, measured by internal R&D and Open Innovation practices (inbound and outbound), and energy efficiency, measured by specific energy consumption, level of adoption of energy-efficient technologies and barriers to energy efficiency. The results seem to show that those foundries complementing internal R&D with inbound practices have a higher level of energy efficiency, a higher level of adoption of available technologies, and a lower perception of barriers to efficiency improvements. This finding suggests that diversifying innovation practices could lead to better performance with respect to all three indicators of energy efficiency analysed. This study contributes to understanding how more innovative firms can be more energy efficient, providing interesting highlights for managers and policymakers.
Cagno, E & Trianni, A 2014, 'Evaluating the barriers to specific industrial energy efficiency measures: an exploratory study in small and medium-sized enterprises', JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, vol. 82, pp. 70-83.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Trianni, A, Cagno, E & Worrell, E 2013, 'Innovation and adoption of energy efficient technologies: An exploratory analysis of Italian primary metal manufacturing SMEs', ENERGY POLICY, vol. 61, pp. 430-440.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Thollander, P, Backlund, S, Trianni, A & Cagno, E 2013, 'Beyond barriers - A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden', APPLIED ENERGY, vol. 111, pp. 636-643.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Trianni, A, Cagno, E, Worrell, E & Pugliese, G 2013, 'Empirical investigation of energy efficiency barriers in Italian manufacturing SMEs', ENERGY, vol. 49, pp. 444-458.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cagno, E & Trianni, A 2013, 'Exploring drivers for energy efficiency within small- and medium-sized enterprises: First evidences from Italian manufacturing enterprises', APPLIED ENERGY, vol. 104, pp. 276-285.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cagno, E, Worrell, E, Trianni, A & Pugliese, G 2013, 'A novel approach for barriers to industrial energy efficiency', RENEWABLE & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS, vol. 19, pp. 290-308.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Trianni, A, Cagno, E, Thollander, P & Backlund, S 2013, 'Barriers to industrial energy efficiency in foundries: a European comparison', JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, vol. 40, pp. 161-176.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cagno, E & Trianni, A 2012, 'Analysis of the Most Effective Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Manufacturing Primary Metals, Plastics, and Textiles Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises', JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME, vol. 134, no. 2.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Cagno, E, Accordini, D & Trianni, A 2019, 'A framework to characterize factors affecting the adoption of energy efficiency measures within electric motors systems', Energy Procedia, pp. 3352-3357.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
© 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of ICAE2018 The 10th International Conference on Applied Energy. Electric motor systems account for a remarkable share of total industrial power consumption (even more than 70% in some countries). Despite the wide set of effective opportunities to improve energy efficiency in this cross-cutting technology, the implementation rate is still quite low. Among the barriers affecting the adoption of such measures - identified by previous literature -, little knowledge of the factors that should be taken into account when deciding to undertake an action in this area emerges. Therefore, in the present study we present an innovative framework representing factors affecting the adoption of measures for improved efficiency in electric motor systems. Such factors have been classified according to several categories as follows: compatibility, economic, energy benefits, production-related and operations-related non-energy benefits and losses, synergies, complexity, personnel, and additional technical features, so to fully describe the relevant elements to be considered when considering the adoption of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) in electric motor systems (EMS). The framework may represent a valuable instrument to support industrial decision-makers in the adoption of EEMs for EMS.
© 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of ICAE2018 The 10th International Conference on Applied Energy. Electric motor systems (EMS) play the lion's share in industrial power consumption. Many opportunities for energy efficiency - most of which apparently cost-effective - can be found, but often decision-makers do not take them as the detail for a specific decision can be too high. In many cases, information regarding the characteristics of such energy efficiency measures (EEMs) is quite vague. For this reason, in the present study we offer a thorough overview of EEMs for EMS, basing on an extensive review of scientific and industrial literature, aimed at offering specific detail over single EEMs and thus support to industrial decision-makers. EEMs are presented according to four main groups, as follows: hardware, motor system drives, management of motors in the plant, and power quality. The new categorization could be helpful to support research for the development of a novel framework to represent the main factors the affect the adoption of EMS for EMS.
Trianni, A, Cagno, E & Nicosia, M 2018, 'Compressed air systems: Factors affecting the adoption of measures for improved efficiency', Eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy Summer Study, Belambra Presqu'île de Giens, France, pp. 171-180.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
© 2018 eceee and the authors, Stockholm. The sustainability and competitiveness of industrial activities may strongly rely on increased energy efficiency. In that, compressed air could be one of the most expensive forms of energy in industry because of its low efficiency. Nonetheless, compressed air is widely used, and is considered as relevant in many facilities, accounting for even more than ten per cent of industrial electricity consumption in the EU, in US and in China. Moreover, it should be noted that the life-cycle cost of a compressed air system is mostly covered by the operating costs, so that most of the measures to lower energy consumption pay for themselves almost immediately, producing relevant monetary savings. Nevertheless, several studies show that the adoption rate of such Energy Efficiency Measures (EEMs) is still low. For this reason, we have carefully reviewed scientific and industrial literature over EEMs for Compressed Air Systems (CAS), so to get useful insights into the main factors leading to their adoption. Our study lays a good foundation for a novel framework aimed at describing and characterising EEMs in CAS, revealing that, so far scientific and industrial literature has mostly presented energy and economic factors, thus giving little room to other factors that still could be quite relevant for an effective EEM adoption, such as compatibility of the measure within the production system (e.g., adaptability to different conditions, presence of different pressure loads), complexity of the production system (e.g., accessibility for operational activities, expertise required for implementation), observability of the performance (e.g., impact on air quality and/or safety). The framework could result in a valuable tool offering different perspectives in the decision-making of industrial managers and technology suppliers, as well as industrial policy-makers.
Trianni, A & Cagno, E 2016, 'Introduction to Panel 2 Sustainable production design and supply chain initiatives', Eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, pp. 171-172.
Neri, A, Cagno, E & Trianni, A 2016, 'Barriers to energy efficiency measures and the role of industrial sustainability', Eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, pp. 233-242.
© 2018 European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy. All Rights Reserved. Energy efficiency is largely recognized as a major contributor for industrial sustainability. In order to improve their energy efficiency and thus industrial sustainability performances firms should implement energy efficiency measures (EEMs) that are not largely diffused yet. Hitherto, EEMs have been evaluated exclusively by looking at barriers from an energy efficiency decision maker's viewpoint, thus not accounting for a broader sustainability perspective. When considering the latter, the Triple Bottom Line could be taken: within an industrial context, it can be identified with the areas of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) and Eco-efficiency (in which energy efficiency is gaining increasing relevance). For this reason, the present work is aimed at better understanding barriers to EEMs adoption, by analyzing them through different perspectives and insights offered by several responsible of single areas of industrial sustainability within a firm. To address this research gap, we have investigated through explorative case studies some firms within Northern Italy with a specific model on barriers to industrial sustainability measures,. The results seem to show that an EEM should be analyzed under different perspectives. New with respect to previous literature, a more proper perspective for analyzing an EEM should be that of industrial sustainability, and not just that of energy-efficiency, since it may result limited. Energy and Environmental managers may have a different perspective on barriers than the OHS's one, highlighting barriers not perceived by just one area's responsible. Moreover, an EEM may be stopped by reasons not knowledgeable to energy efficiency, rather to other areas, such as, e.g. OHS. Lastly, an EEM may have positive effects (co-benefits) on other areas of industrial sustainability, that may be perceived only by such areas. The study concludes with some remarks fo...
Cagno, E, Moschetta, D & Trianni, A 2016, 'Only non-energy benefits when adopting an EEM? Cases from industry', Eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, pp. 281-292.
© 2018 European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy. All Rights Reserved. Considering the industry's contribution to energy and environmental issues, industrial energy efficiency is recognized as a fundamental step for increased sustainability. Energy efficiency in industry is achieved through the adoption of the so-called Energy Efficiency Measures (EEMs). Traditionally, it has been demonstrated how these interventions have both energy benefits, as the reduction of the energy consumption, and the so-called Non-Energy Benefits (NEBs) deriving from the adoption of a certain measure. In the existing literature, however, a considerable part of the scholars and of the practitioners just focus on the identification and definition of the positive benefits deriving from these measures after they have been completely adopted, thus neglecting to describe the full set of either positive and negative effects. Nevertheless, recently, the description of these effects has been accomplished exploiting different approaches. Thus, on the basis of previous literature studies and the emerging needs, that affect both the definition of the entire range of effects and the point of view adopted in their description, we have proposed a novel classification of the relevant items to be considered by an industrial decision-maker when deciding whether to adopt an EEM. Hence, by taking this perspective, we have investigated benefits and losses to ad-hoc selected industries where, through an interview, already adopted EEMs have been analysed. Finally, considerations and implications are drawn from the case studies and suggestion for further research are proposed, in order to improve the description of the EEMs in the industrial sector.
Trianni, A & Cagno, E 2015, 'Diffusion of Motor Systems Energy Efficiency Measures: An Empirical Study Within Italian Manufacturing SMEs', Energy Procedia, pp. 2569-2574.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Energy efficiency is a crucial issue for increased industrial sustainability and competitiveness. In the present study we have conducted an investigation about the diffusion of energy efficiency measures within motor systems, which are responsible of about 74% of all industrial consumption of electric energy in Italy. Starting from a selection of nine measures that range from substitution of equipment to management and maintenance of motor systems, we have also tried to find out the problems (barriers) that firms experience in the implementation of such specific measures, and the drivers they perceive to be more effective to overcome barriers. Results show that maintenance measures are mostly diffused, whilst the substitution of equipment with innovative technologies such as inverters or AFDs is still limited. Moreover, beside economic issues, that are even more critical for smaller enterprises, organizational issues emerge. Additionally, the presence of an energy manager points out a greater relevance of technology barriers and leads the firms to have a better knowledge about interventions and devices, that can be used to enhance the level of energy efficiency of electric motors. Finally, the diffusion of inverters and AFDs is limited to larger motors (mostly between 10 and 100 kW), thus tending to disregard the many small motors installed in the production system.
Lapko, Y, Trucco, P, Trianni, A & Nuur, C 2014, 'Implications for Collaborative Development of Reverse Distribution Network: A System Perspective', ADVANCES IN PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: INNOVATIVE AND KNOWLEDGE-BASED PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT IN A GLOBAL-LOCAL WORLD, APMS 2014, PT II, IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems (APSM), SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, Ajaccio, FRANCE, pp. 351-357.
Trianni, A, Cagno, E & Farnè, S 2014, 'An empirical investigation of barriers, drivers and practices for energy efficiency in primary metals manufacturing SMEs', Energy Procedia, pp. 1252-1255.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Despite the well-known need for increased industrial energy efficiency, several studies indicate that energy efficiency measures are little implemented, especially in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). Therefore, to sustain the development of the effective policies, a better understanding of the barriers to be tackled and the drivers to be promoted is crucial. To do so, we have performed an investigation within 64 primary metal manufacturing SMEs located in a Northern Italy province. The adoption of energy management practices among the sample is scarce: indeed, consumption monitoring, energy data analysis, programs of staff training and motivation are barely implemented. The analysis highlights the relevance of economic and information barriers, suggesting that, beside the issue of capital availability, information about technology, regulations and opportunities for financing are perceived as complicated, fragmented or not trustworthy, especially those coming from government and financial institutions. Moreover, barriers affect mostly the first steps of the decision-making process, i.e. those related to the awareness and identification of the punctual measure to be adopted. With exception of smaller firms, start-up and training are not perceived as critical. All external drivers are perceived as more relevant than internal ones. Nonetheless, beside the primary role of economic drivers, the study shows that SMEs look also for increased information on energy efficiency solutions, with greater role played by their energy suppliers, manufacturers and technology suppliers. Finally, particular relevance is given to training, suggesting that greater attention should be paid in the increased competences that manufacturers, technology suppliers and installers should hand over to their final industrial users.
Cagno, E, Trianni, A, Worrell, E & Miggiano, F 2014, 'Barriers and drivers for energy efficiency: Different perspectives from an exploratory study in the Netherlands', Energy Procedia, pp. 1256-1260.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Increased energy efficiency represents a crucial opportunity for European industrial sustainability, but several barriers still need to be tackled, as recent policies have not often succeeded as expected. Thus, it is crucial to understand the existing mismatches between the perception of enterprises, and what the major actors promoting energy efficiency believe enterprises suffer from and need to within the decisionmaking process of investing in energy efficiency. To do so, we have performed an exploratory investigation analyzing a set of Dutch manufacturing enterprises. The study involved other actors, namely the Dutch National Energy agency, the local government, as well as industrial associations to map the views of stakeholders in the decision making cycle. Results show that even a general common understanding of the barriers is disputed, as the interviewees exclusively agree on the primary role of economic barriers. Large mismatches appear when considering how single barriers affect the decisionmaking process and which drivers - and actors promoting them - need to be addressed. Therefore, much greater attention should be paid to such issues, extending policies from industrial final users to all companies supplying enterprises with capital, technologies, services, information, and competences.
Ramirez-Portilla, A, Cagno, E & Trianni, A 2014, 'Is Innovation an enabler of Energy Efficiency? An exploratory study of the foundry sector', Energy Procedia, pp. 1191-1195.View/Download from: Publisher's site
© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Using innovation such as new technologies, R&D, or new processes can support Energy Efficiency (EE). Building on this idea, this paper seeks to explore whether a novel approach to foster EE in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) includes improving the overall innovation degree through the adoption of (OI) practices. To do this, a multiple case study with ten firms in Northern Italy operating in energy-intensive industries was conducted. The paper analyses the firm's specific energy consumption, the adoption of energy-efficient technologies, the perception of barriers to EE, and their relation with the firms' internal innovation and OI activities. Main results show that more innovative firms, in terms of internal and inbound innovation, have better EE indicators albeit a lower adoption of energy-efficient technologies or the challenge of economic and technology barriers. Equally, medium-large firms are more innovative and have better EE performance. This study offers preliminary evidence of a relation between certain innovation practices and the rise of EE in SMEs.
Kool, R & Trianni, A 2014, 'Introduction to panel 3 matching policies and drivers: Policies and directives to drive industrial efficiency', Eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, pp. 259-260.
Cagno, E & Trianni, A 2010, 'ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN INDUSTRIAL OPERATIONS: AN EVALUATION OF BENEFITS AND COST OF THE MOST EFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS WITHIN THE ITALIAN INDUSTRIAL SECTOR.', ES2010: PROCEEDINGS OF ASME 4TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY, VOL 1, Proceedings of the ASME 4th International Conference on Energy Sustainability 2010, AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, Phoenix, AZ, pp. 85-93.
Trianni, A & Trucco, P 2010, 'Competitiveness of small-medium reactors: A probabilistic analysis capital cost', International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants 2010, ICAPP 2010, pp. 2213-2221.
The near-term deployment of nuclear reactors is strongly related to the perception of decision makers of the economical convenience of this kind of investment, characterized by being capital intensive. Nonetheless, there are some doubts regarding the cost of future installations, also considering the delays in which some Gen-III PWRs incurred. Analyzing available data on capital cost, the major plant's life-cycle-cost component, this paper firstly shows that the Three Miles Island accident really represented a bad turnaround, since after that the uncertainty related to the capital cost has dramatically grown: several plants have continued to being built quickly and with costs comparable to the past, others performed (economically) very poorly, mainly due to the high delays for their construction that even took decades. This uncertainty reflects today to the cost estimation of new nuclear units, and consequently to the capital cost of Small Medium Reactors, the Gen-lV Nuclear Power Plants of the mid-term future. The paper deals with this topic, trying to model the uncertainty currently affecting capital cost estimation of past reactors and evaluates its impact on the competitiveness assessment of new NPPs. Several scenarios involving Small Medium Reactors have been tested, in comparison with the Large Reactor option by means of the INCAS model. Reasonable values and distributions have been assumed from literature for all the needed parameters and the electricity wholesale prices. The competitiveness of Small Medium Reactors have been evaluated with a Monte Carlo method using the following economical competitiveness indexes: Net Present Value, financial exposure, project balance, leverage. Final results show that, under certain assumptions, Small Medium Reactors prove to be competitive, not only considering the smoother project balance and shorter leverage, even with an inferior Net Present Value, but especially the uncertainty reduction of these financial indicato...
Cagno, E, Trucco, P, Trianni, A & Sala, G 2009, 'A modular energy scan model for SMEs', IMETI 2009 - 2nd International Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technological Innovation, Proceedings, pp. 205-210.
The growth of energy need - especially of new consumers like China and India -, the uncertainty in fuel prices and the scarcity of use of renewable sources pave the way to the emerging role of energy efficiency as a competitive advantage in a globalised market. Unfortunately small & medium enterprises (SMEs), the large majority of firms in a country, generally do not have a high operational energy efficiency, since they are characterized mainly by scarcely standardized operations and cannot afford too expensive energy audits and management programs. This paper aims at introducing an innovative framework that has been developed to achieve the operational energy efficiency of SMEs. Firstly, through an accurate breakdown of the firm into functional units, the main consuming areas are identified so that a criticality index can be defined; secondly, an enhancement index highlights the gap of each unit towards the best available techniques/practices (BAT/Ps) in energy management programs. Finally, a synthetic index (priority index) created by the junction of the two previous indexes, points out the most profitable areas in which energy saving actions should be implemented. The methodology, particularly quick and simple, has been successfully tested in 25 SMEs in Northern Italy.
Trianni, A, Locatelli, G & Trucco, P 2009, 'Competitiveness of small-medium reactors: A probabilistic study on the economy of scale factor', International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants 2009, ICAPP 2009, pp. 114-121.
With steady increase in energy consumption, the vulnerability of the fossil fuel supply, and environmental concerns, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants (NGNP), also known as Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). The VHTR is planned to be operational by 2021 with possible demonstration of a hydrogen generating plant. Various engineering design studies on both the reactor plant and energy conversion system are underway. For this and related Generation IV plants, it is the goal to not only meet safety criteria but to also be efficient, economically competitive, and environmentally friendly (proliferation resistant). Traditionally, heat exchanger (HX) design is based on two main approaches: Log-Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) and effectiveness-NTU (ε-NTU). These methods yield the dimension of the HX under anticipate condition and vice-versa. However, one is not assured that the dimension calculated give the best performing HX when economics are also considered. Here, we develop and show a specific optimization algorithm (exercise) using LMTD and simple (optimal) design theory to establish a reference case for the Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was further used as a design tool to investigate the optimal design of PCHE thermohydraulic flow. The CFD results were validated against the Blasius correlation before being subjected to optimal design analyses. Benchmark results for the pipe flow indicated that the predictive ability of SST k-ω is superior to the other (standard and RNG k-ε and RSM) turbulence models.The difference between CFD and the empirical expression is less than 10%.
Carelli, MD, Mycoff, CW, Garrone, P, Locatelli, G, Mancini, M, Ricotti, ME, Trianni, A & Trucco, P 2008, 'COMPETITIVENESS OF SMALL-MEDIUM, NEW GENERATION REACTORS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CAPITAL AND O&M COSTS', ICONE 16: PROCEEDING OF THE 16TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NUCLEAR ENGINEERING - 2008, VOL 4, 16th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, Orlando, FL, pp. 499-506.