Chanan, AP, Vigneswaran, S, Kandasamy, JK & Singh, G 2014, 'Beverley Park water reuse plant: getting the salt just right', Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 52, no. 25-27, pp. 4656-4663.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The extraction type wastewater recycling systems are those where wastewater is taken from the collection system en route to the central treatment plant. This paper discusses a case study of Sydneys first ever extraction type scheme, the Beverley Park water reuse scheme. Primary applications of recycled water from this case study site include: parks and ovals, green-belt and golf course irrigation. Given the plants location on a major interceptor sewer along Kogarah Bay, tidal influx posed a significant challenge due to high salt levels. Salt sensitive grass on golf course greens meant that treated water had to meet stringent quality requirements with regards to salt. The design involved modelling the process of diurnal fluctuations in salt levels and to provide an optimised process design. A non-membrane, design based solution was also chosen to resolve this high salinity challenge. This Case Study highlights the significant challenges in planning, design and commissioning of water reuse plant intercepting sewer carriers prone to salt water intrusion. The study provides valuable knowledge that will assist in providing viable extraction type water reuse schemes for tidal impacted areas.
Kandasamy, JK, Sounthararajah, DP, Sivabalan, P, Chanan, A, Vigneswaran, S & Sivapalan, M 2014, 'Socio-hydrologic drivers of the pendulum swing between agricultural development and environmental health: a case study from Murrumbidgee River basin, Australia', Hydrology And Earth System Sciences, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 1027-1041.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
van Emmerik, THM, Li, Z, Sivapalan, M, Pande, S, Kandasamy, J, Savenije, HHG, Chanan, A & Vigneswaran, S 2014, 'Socio-hydrologic modeling to understand and mediate the competition for water between agriculture development and environmental health: Murrumbidgee River basin, Australia', Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 4239-4259.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Competition for water between humans and ecosystems is set to become a flash point in the coming decades in many parts of the world. An entirely new and comprehensive quantitative framework is needed to establish a holistic understanding of that competition, thereby enabling the development of effective mediation strategies. This paper presents a modeling study centered on the Murrumbidgee River basin (MRB). The MRB has witnessed a unique system dynamics over the last 100 years as a result of interactions between patterns of water management and climate driven hydrological variability. Data analysis has revealed a pendulum swing between agricultural development and restoration of environmental health and ecosystem services over different stages of basin-scale water resource development. A parsimonious, stylized, quasi-distributed coupled socio-hydrologic system model that simulates the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems of the MRB is used to mimic and explain dominant features of the pendulum swing. The model consists of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations that describe the interaction between five state variables that govern the co-evolution: reservoir storage, irrigated area, human population, ecosystem health, and environmental awareness. The model simulations track the propagation of the external climatic and socio-economic drivers through this coupled, complex system to the emergence of the pendulum swing. The model results point to a competition between human "productive" and environmental "restorative" forces that underpin the pendulum swing. Both the forces are endogenous, i.e., generated by the system dynamics in response to external drivers and mediated by humans through technology change and environmental awareness, respectively. Sensitivity analysis carried out with the model further reveals that socio-hydrologic modeling can be used as a tool to explain or gain insight into observed co-evolutionary dynamics of diver...
Chanan, AP, Vigneswaran, S, Kandasamy, JK & Johir, M 2013, 'Need for a fresh look at phosphorus management in wastewater treatment: Trash to treasure', Sustainable Environment Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 23-31.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Eutrophication of water bodies is a major, global environmental problem. It is now well understood that its main cause is excessive amounts of nutrients such as phosphorus. Stringent laws were therefore introduced across the world, requiring that the level of the P be significantly reduced. Consequently, the focus for wastewater treatment industry became the elimination of phosphorus in effluent stream. Treatment technologies capable of removing over 90% of phosphorus from wastewater have now been developed. However, these phosphorus removal options are likely to be ineffective in the future. The future would call for a shift to the primary goal of phosphorus removal to 'capturing and reusing' phosphorus. This paper calls for a re-think in developing phosphorus management programs. Discussing Fertigation as step-one in phosphorus reclamation, the paper will further elaborate phosphorus recovery opportunities such as ion-exchange that can be retrofitted to existing wastewater treatment plants.
Chanan, AP, Vigneswaran, S & Kandasamy, JK 2012, 'Case study research: training interdisciplinary engineers with context-dependent knowledge', European Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 97-104.View/Download from: Publisher's site
It is now widely acknowledged that water management discipline is transforming, from being a public health and flood prevention challenge of the nineteenth century to a multi-dimensional challenge of water security for the twenty-first century. In order to train water engineers to be capable of working with this holistic multi-dimensional approach, a new paradigm in engineering education is required. Adjustments already made to undergraduate coursework are not enough; this new paradigm requires modifications to the PhD in engineering, with greater emphasis on interdisciplinary case study research. Such a change can deliver PhD graduates with both sufficient social and technical knowledge, who can then go on to become the hybrid lecturers crucially needed for training future water engineers.
Chekli, L, Phuntsho, S, Shon, H, Vigneswaran, S, Kandasamy, JK & Chanan, AP 2012, 'A Review Of Draw Solutes In Forward Osmosis Process And Their Use In Modern Applications', Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 43, no. 1-3, pp. 167-184.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Forward osmosis (FO) is one of the emerging membrane technologies which has gained renewed interest recently as a low energy desalination process. The central to FO process is the draw solution (DS) and the membrane because both play a substantial role o
Chanan, AP, Ghetti, I & Kandasamy, JK 2011, 'Challenges of managing coastal areas through climate change', Institution of Civil Engineers. Proceedings. Municipal Engineer, vol. 164, no. 2, pp. 83-88.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In Australia the strongest natural fluctuation of climate from year to year is the El NiÃ±o southern oscillation. La NiÃ±a years are associated with an increased probability of wetter and cooler conditions, whereas El NiÃ±o years are drier and hotter then normal. For an urbanised coastal council such as Kogarah there are a number of impacts associated with climate change. For instance, the risk of flooding may be increased due to more intense rainfalls coupled with rising sea levels. Coastal councils may also experience increased coastal flooding and erosion due to increased storm surges and rising sea levels. Water restrictions are already in place due to severe droughts, and it is predicted that councils will have limited water supply available for the irrigation needed to provide parks and well-maintained sporting facilities for the community. Given that the science of climate change is not an exact science there are obvious technical and sociopolitical challenges to be addressed. This paper shares Kogarah Council's experiences in dealing with these challenges and provides a snapshot of programmes currently being implemented in response to climate change. By investing in proactive measure to reduce risk and vulnerability it is possible to build resilience to climate change.
Contemporary water management challenges around Australia highlight water engineers' inability to understand the community's needs. Developing new technologies is not enough. Implementation of these technologies can only take place if the engineers under
Chanan, AP, Vigneswaran, S, Kandasamy, JK & Simmons, B 2011, 'Lessons for a viable water recycling industry', Institution of Civil Engineers. Proceedings. Water Management, vol. 164, no. 5, pp. 213-219.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The platform on which the labour government came to power in Australia in November 2007 included a policy of setting a national wastewater recycling target of 30% by the year 2015. A similar target-based approach was followed by the solid waste recycling industry in Australia the policy of which focused on supply and did not adequately acknowledge the price competitiveness of the product and its demand. This paper highlights the lessons from the solid waste recycling industry and applies them to the water recycling sector. A sound water pricing regime that reflects the true costs of water and a competitive water industry is offered as a better policy alternative to setting recycling targets.
Chanan, AP, Kandasamy, JK, Vigneswaran, S, Spyrakis, G, Ghetti, I & idris, E 2010, 'Applied Rainwater Harvesting Education: An Australian Case Study', Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 32-35.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Rainwater tanks have been an integral part of the Australian landscape given the vital role these tanks have played over the years in rural Australia. In the past Local government and Water Authorities actively discouraged the use of rainwater tanks and informing citizens that they were illegal and dangerous. Kogarah Council within the Sydney metropolitan area is a proactive Council, and became the first council in Sydney to adopt Total Water Cycle Management (TWCM) principles into its Sustainability Management Plan, integrating these principles into on-ground projects at a catchment level in a planned and strategic approach. Among it priority projects was the Rainwater Tanks in Schools. This paper outlines how this project assisted all 22 schools in the Kogarah LGA (The Local Government Association) to increase the efficiency of water use and install rainwater tanks to reduce potable water use in toilet flushing and irrigating school gardens. The rainwater harvesting reduced the amount of drinking water used for toilet flushing and/or irrigation. The rainwater tanks also act as a visual reminder to conserve water for the students. The project has equipped the next generation with the necessary tools to make informed decisions and undertake actions that will move towards achieving sustainability.
Chanan, AP, Vigneswaran, S & Kandasamy, JK 2010, 'Valuing stormwater, rainwater and wastewater in the soft path for water management: Australian case studies', Water Science And Technology, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 2854-2861.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
A Water Sensitive City is now commonly acknowledged best practice for designing the cities of the future. In Australia, the National Water Initiative has allocated high priority towards offering insight into successful water sensitive urban development projects, to facilitate capacity building within the industry. This paper shares innovative water sensitive projects implemented at Kogarah City Council, in Sydney. Four key projects are discussed, demonstrating how stormwater, rainwater and wastewater can be incorporated into decentralised water systems to offer sustainable water management of the future. The case studies included in the paper highlight Kogarahâs journey towards the Soft Path for Water Management.
Chanan, AP, Vigneswaran, S, Kandasamy, JK & Shon, H 2010, 'Chemical-assisted physico-biological water mining system', Institution of Civil Engineers. Proceedings. Water Management, vol. 163, no. 9, pp. 469-474.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Water mining is the process of extracting valuable water from a sewerage network by treating raw sewage to high standards. A range of commercially viable water mining treatment technologies are now available to treat sewage to specified water quality targets. Most of these technologies have minimal plant footprint requirements, making them suitable for decentralised operations. This paper discusses a hybrid water mining system that includes chemically assisted fine solids separation followed by a biological treatment process. Results from the first proof testing of this water mining system in Sydney, Australia are presented. The results confirm the suitability of the hybrid system for producing high-quality water for non-potable reuse.
Chanan, AP, Kandasamy, JK & Simmons, B 2009, 'Benefits of Local Government and University Research Alliances', Institution of Civil Engineers. Proceedings. Municip..., vol. 162, no. ME2, pp. 111-116.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Local government plays an integral role in the Australian economy with a cumulative annual expenditure of over Aus$20 billion representing around 2% of Australian GDP. Local government authorities employ around 1-3% of the Australian workforce and provide a wide range of services and infrastructure. There is a general lack of appreciation among council staff of the value of collaboration with universities and vice versa. However, staff at Kogarah Municipal Council, having been involved in partnership projects with universities, strongly value the benefits of such collaborations. Councils can provide a `one-stopshop for applied research and its application for a range of disciplines from science and technology to arts and policy studies.
Chanan, AP, Kandasamy, JK, Vigneswaran, S & Sharma, D 2009, 'A gradualist approach to address Australia's urban water challenge', Desalination, vol. 249, no. 3, pp. 1012-1016.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
There is growing consensus worldwide against the conventional centralised approach to water management, and a âsoft pathâ for water management has emerged as a sustainable alternative. A âsoft pathâ for water management emphasizes the optimization of end-use efficiency, small-scaled management systems, incorporates fit-for-purpose water use, and recommends the use of diverse, locally appropriate and commonly decentralised infrastructures. However, large-scale desalination plants are currently being built for almost all metropolitan centres in Australia to ensure water supply security. Unlike âsoft pathâ for water management, large-scale desalination plants embody the traditional urban water supply approach. In spite of knowledge and values relating to the water cycle having shifted towards âsoft pathâ, the old organisational framework is believed to be hindering its adoption. Perhaps, therefore major water utilities in recent times have opted for the ideologically easier option of large-scale desalination conforming to the existing framework, instead of choosing a âsoft pathâ for water management with potential for decentralised management. This paper critically reviews the urban water management direction in metropolitan Australia and puts forward a âgradualist approachâ. It incorporates a comprehensive non-potable water reuse program necessary to build the familiarity and trust in water reuse, as a first step before introducing the idea of potable reuse.
Kannapiran, A, Chanan, AP, Singh, G, Tambosis, P, Jeyakumaran, JM & Kandasamy, JK 2008, 'Strategic asset management planning of stormwater drainage systems', Water Practice & Technology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1-8.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Management of the urban water cycle in an integrated manner is an essential task to protect, restore and enhance in a sustainable manner. Strategic asset management planing is being developed as local government authorities face many challenges associated with managing the urban water cycle system. Statistical or conventional mathematical modelling approach has been found not practical for assessment of deteriorating infrastructures. Alternatively, application of fuzzy-based models is found more suitable as it links engineering judgment, experience and scarce field data of the deteriorating assets. In this study, a representative network of buried stormwater system's data is drawn and a pipe condition index is derived by linking the field data and reasoning using fuzzy approach. The inferred results are found to be useful and relevant for asset maintenance and future development programs.
Kannapiran, A, Chanan, AP, Singh, G, Tambosis, P, Jeyakumaran, JM & Kandasamy, JK 2007, 'An innovative model for sustainable cost effective management of stormwater drainage assets', Water Asset Management International, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 4-11.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Stormwater drainage is one of the important infrastructures of any modern urban city. A well planned, operated and maintained stormwater system should drain stormwater runoff effectively during normal periods and during floods. However, with rapidly expanding cities, unanticipated problems from changinf land usage, system overloading, pollution and deteriorating environment cause problems to stormwater assets and contribute to its failure. These issues are more problematic in larger and older cities where replacement is costly. Kogarah Council, a local government authority in Sydney, Australia, is anticipated to face many of the challenges this problem poses as it manages the urban water cycle system in an integrated manner to protect, restore and enhance the stormwater assets. The council owns a significant part of these assets that were constructed back in the 1930s.
Chanan, AP, Vigneswaran, S, Kandasamy, JK & Simmons, B 2013, 'Wastewater Management Journey - From Indus Valley Civilisation to the Twenty-First Century' in Sharma, SK & Sanghi, R (eds), Wastewater Reuse and Management, Springer, Germany, pp. 3-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Throughout the human existence on this planet, water and wastewater infrastructure never attracted as much public attention as it did during the second half of the nineteenth century. Following extensive debate on appropriate solutions for problems associated with hygiene and public health, options were chosen from several competing alternatives, while others foreclosed. Sociocultural impacts of these late nineteenth century decisions have lasted until the present day . The shape of our cities and centralised approach embedded within sanitary engineers mindset today owe its existence to the options selected nearly 200 years ago. The current selection of water and wastewater management options, particularly in the developing world, has the opportunity to learn from 200 years of experience. It is critical that these lessons influence the design of future wastewater management systems because undoubtedly the decisions being made today will impact on the future generations. This chapter highlights the development of wastewater management through human evolution and settlement history.
idris, E, Chanan, AP & Kandasamy, JK 2008, 'Socio-Economics of Constructed Wetlands: Engaging the Community' in Kandasamy, J & Vigneswaran, S (eds), Constructed Wetlands, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, USA, pp. 101-124.
Although good engineering design of a constructed wetland is a significant contributor to the success of its operation, a major element that is often taken for granted is the local community. This paper highlights the social and economic benefits associated with constructed wetlands, and relates these benefits to the necessity to engage the community. Conununily involvement in fact is required at every stage of a constructed wetland project. The paper outlines the methods that can be used to plan for effective community involvement for such projects, and provides a summary of tools and techniques that can be employed at different stages. A case study of Moore Reserve Constructed Wetland Project, in New South Wales, Australia is provided as an example where successfUl community engagement delivered a wetland that fulfilled communityâs expectations.
Chanan, AP, ghetti, I & Kandasamy, JK 2008, 'From El Nino to La Nina and Back: Challenges of managing coastal areas through climate change', IWA World Water Congress 2008, Vienna, Austria, IWA World Water Congress, IWA Publishing, Vienna, Austria, pp. 113-114.
In Australia (particularly eastern Australia), La Niña events are associated with increased probability of wetter conditions, whereas El Niño events are associated with an increased probability of drier conditions For an urbanised coastal council like Kogarah there are a number of impacts associated with climate change. For instance, the risk of flood may be increased due to more intense rainfalls, when couple with rising sea levels. Coastal Councils may also experience increased coastal flooding and coastal erosion due to increased storm surges and rising sea levels. Water restrictions are already in place due to severe droughts and it is further predicted that councils will have limited water supply available for irrigation needed to provide parks and well-maintained sporting facilities for the community. Given that the science of climate change is not an exact science there are obvious technical and socio-political challenges that are to be addressed. The paper shares Kogarah Councils experiences in dealing with these challenges and provides a snapshot of programs currently being implemented in response to climate change. By investing in proactive measure to reduce risk and vulnerability it is possible to build a powerful resilience to climate change.
Chanan, AP, Kandasamy, JK & Sharma, D 2008, 'A Role for Input-Output Analysis in Urban Water Policy Decisions in Australia', Input - Output & Environment Website, Input - Output & Environment, IIOA, Saville Spain, pp. 1-18.
Discussion on water reuse and its role in sustainable water resource management in Australia has been on the agenda of policy makers and scientific community for the last three decades. Despite that, promulgation of water reuse especially in metropolitan Australia has been a rather slow process. To advance sustainable urban water management, water policy shift towards `co-management and `higher value use is critical. Input Output Analysis provides an ideal mechanism for water policy makers to prepare a case for this much needed policy shift. The paper discusses the methodology available for such an exercise, with special reference to Kogarah Local Government Area, located within the Sydney Metropolitan.
Kannapiran, A, Chanan, AP, Singh, G, Tambosis, P, Jeyakumaran, JM & Kandasamy, JK 2008, 'Strategic asset management planning of stormwater drainage systems', Proceedings of the IWA World Water Congress and Exhibition 2008, IWA World Water Congress, International Water Association (IWA), Vienna, Austria, pp. 1-8.
Management of the urban water cycle in an integrated manner is an essential task to protect, restore and enhance in a sustainable manner. Strategic asset management planing is being developed as local government authorities face many challenges associated with managing the urban water cycle system. Statistical or conventional mathematical modelling approach has been found not practical for assessment of deteriorating infrastructures. Alternatively, application of fuzzy-based models is found more suitable as it links engineering judgment, experience and scarce field data of the deteriorating assets. In this study, a representative network of buried stormwater system s data is drawn and a pipe condition index is derived by linking the field data and reasoning using fuzzy approach. The inferred results are found to be useful and relevant for asset maintenance and future development programs.
Kannapiran, A, Jeyakumaran, JM, Chanan, AP, Kandasamy, JK, Singh, G, Tambosis, P & Al-Jumaily, A 2007, 'Asset Management of Stormwater System using Fuzzy Logic', The Eighth International Conference on Intelligent Technologies (InTech-07), International Conference on Intelligent Technologies, University of Technology, Sydney, Sydney, Australia, pp. 182-188.View/Download from: UTS OPUS