Alastair Pennycook is Distinguished Professor of Language, Society and Education at UTS. He is also an Adjunct Professor at the Centre for Multilingualism in Society across the Lifespan at the University of Oslo, and a Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities.
Alastair has been involved in language education for over 30 years in France, Germany, Japan, China, Canada, Hong Kong and Australia. He is well known for his work on the global spread of English, particularly in his classic text The cultural politics of English as an international language, (Longman, 1994), which has just been reissued as a Routledge Linguistics Classic in 2017. Also well known is his work on critical approaches to language education and applied linguistics, outlined in Critical applied linguistics: A critical introduction (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2001), and collected in a new selection of his writing from Shanghai Foreign Language Press.
His most recent work focuses on posthumanism and applied linguistics and looks at the ways in which humanity's focus on itself has excluded animals, things and places, with implications for how we understand language, sharks and assemblages.
This work follows on from his (2015) book, with Emi Otsuji, Metrolingualism: Language in the City, which explores everyday multilingual practices in relation to the city. This book was shorlisted for the BAAL Book Prize which was awarded to his 2012 book Language and mobility: Unexpected places, as well as both his 1994 and 2007 books.
Other work in the last few years has focused on language, globalization and popular culture, as discussed in Global Englishes and Transcultural Flows (Routledge, 2007), the edited book (with Samy Alim and Awad Ibrahim) Global Linguistic Flows: Hip hop cultures, youth identities, and the politics of language (Routledge, 2009). He is currently working on a book with Sender Dovchin and Shaila Sultana on Popular culture, voice and linguistic diversity: Young adults on- and offline, to appear in 2017.
Alastair holds a PADI Master Diver Certificate and is involved in marine ecology and reef preservation projects such as Saving Philippines Reefs (SPR) as part of the Coastal Conservation and Education Foundation. He holds an Australian Yachting federation Coastal Skipper Certificate and can sometimes be found, when time and weather permit, at the helm of the UTS Union yacht, Impulse.
The series encourages monographs directly addressing issues of power (its flows, inequities, distributions, trajectories) in a variety of language and literacy-related realms. We are particularly interested in studies of language and literacy that combine rich description within a strong analytical framework and an understanding of the uneven distribution of local and global resources. Our aim with this new series is twofold: 1) to cultivate scholarship that openly engages with social, political, and historical dimensions in language and literacy studies, and 2) to widen disciplinary horizons by encouraging new work on topics that have received little focus (see below for partial list of subject areas), and that use new theoretical frameworks. We welcome work from authors in parts of the world that are underrepresented in Western scholarship. Books may be single authored, multiple-authored or edited volumes. Please view the series website for further details and how to submit a proposal.
Alastair Pennycook serves on a number of international journal and book series editorial boards, including:
- Applied Linguistics
- Language and Education
- Critical Inquiry in Language Studies
- Australian Review of Applied Linguistics
- Educational Linguistics
- Critical Literacy: Theories and Practices
- Language Policy
- The Canadian Modern Language Review/ La Revue Canadienne des Langues Vivantes
- The English Teacher and Malaysia Journal of ELT Research (MELTA)
Alastair has been an active member of the AILA Research Network on Language Policy (opens an external site) and was one of the founding members at its launch in Limerick, Ireland in 2006.
Can supervise: YES
Implications of the global spread of English
Colonialism, language policy, and English language teaching
Critical applied linguistics
Language, popular culture and identity
Metrolingualism and talking in the city
Alastair teaches mainly in the postgraduate courses in the area of TESOL and Applied Linguistics. He coordinates and teaches the subject Global Englishes (013095), which looks at the implications of the global spread of English, reasons why English has spread so widely, issues around linguistic imperialism, language rights, linguistic genocide, and the maintenance of global inequality, the emergence of new varieties of English, English as a lingua franca, and global Englishes in the classroom, including questions of standardization and intelligibility, issues around native and nonnative teachers, and questions of appropriate pedagogy and evaluation.
Alastair also supervises a considerable number of doctoral students on a range of topics in the field of language studies, including the interrelationships between English, popular culture and identity in Greece, Brunei and Mongolia; autoethnography of hyphenated lives; English language teaching practices and identity in Japan; the developement of bilingual identities among young Koreans studying in Australia; and switches in the medium of instruction in Hong Kong.
Epistemological racism has an impact on knowledge production in applied
linguistics, as it leads to a marginalization and erasure of knowledge by scholars
in the Global South, female scholars of colour, and other minoritized groups.
This book analyses the language practices of young adults in Mongolia and Bangladesh in online and offline environments. Focusing on the diverse linguistic and cultural resources these young people draw on in their interactions, the authors draw attention to the creative and innovative nature of their transglossic practices. Situated on the Asian periphery, these young adults roam widely in their use of popular culture, media voices and linguistic resources. This innovative and topical book will appeal to students and scholars of sociolinguistics, applied linguistics, cultural studies and linguistic anthropology.
Drawing on a range of contexts and data sources, from urban multilingualism to studies of animal communication, Posthumanist Applied Linguistics offers us alternative ways of thinking about the human predicament, with major implications for research, education and politics. Exploring the advent of the Anthropocene, new forms of materialism, distributed language, assemblages, and the boundaries between humans, other animals and objects, eight incisive chapters by one of the world's foremost applied linguistics open up profound questions to do with language and the world. This critical posthumanist applied linguistic perspective is essential reading for all researchers and students in the fields of Applied Linguistics and Sociolinguistics.
Pennycook, AD 2016, Critical Approaches to English Language Teaching, Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, Shanghai.
Pennycook, AD 2016, The Cultural Politics of English as an International Language (Classic edition: 2016), Re-release (Classic Edition: 2016), Routledge, London.
This book is about language and the city. Pennycook and Otsuji introduce the notion of 'metrolingualism', showing how language and the city are deeply involved in a perpetual exchange between people, history, migration, architecture, urban landscapes and linguistic resources. Cities and languages are in constant change, as new speakers with new repertoires come into contact as a result of globalization and the increased mobility of people and languages. Metrolingualism sheds light on the ordinariness of linguistic diversity as people go about their daily lives, getting things done, eating and drinking, buying and selling, talking and joking, drawing on whatever linguistic resources are available. Engaging with current debates about multilingualism, and developing a new way of thinking about language, the authors explore language within a number of contemporary urban situations, including cafés, restaurants, shops, streets, construction sites and other places of work, in two diverse cities, Sydney and Tokyo. This is an invaluable look at how people of different backgrounds get by linguistically. Metrolingualism: Language in the city will be of special interest to advanced undergraduate/postgraduate students and researchers of sociolinguistics and applied linguistics.
This book looks at language in unexpected places. Drawing on a diversity of materials and contexts, including farewell addresses to British workers in colonial India, letters written from parents to their children at home, a Cornish anthem sung in South Australia, a country fair in rural Australia, and a cricket match played in the middle of the 19th century in south India, this book explores many current concerns around language, mobility and place, including native speakers, generic forms, and language maintenance. Using a series of narrative accounts from a journey to southern India to eating cheese in China, from playing soccer in Germany to observing a student teacher in Sydney this book asks how it is that language, people and cultures turn up unexpectedly and how our lines of expectation are formed.
Language as a Local Practice addresses the questions of language, locality and practice as a way of moving forward in our understanding of how language operates as an integrated social and spatial activity. By taking each of these three elements language, locality and practice and exploring how they relate to each other, Language as a Local Practice opens up new ways of thinking about language. It questions assumptions about languages as systems or as countable entities, and suggests instead that language emerges from the activities it performs. To look at language as a practice is to view language as an activity rather than a structure, as something we do rather than a system we draw on, as a material part of social and cultural life rather than an abstract entity. Language as a Local Practice draws on a variety of contexts of language use, from bank machines to postcards, Indian newspaper articles to fish-naming in the Philippines, urban graffiti to mission statements, suggesting that rather than thinking in terms of language use in context, we need to consider how language, space and place are related, how language creates the contexts where it is used, how languages are the products of socially located activities and how they are part of the action. Language as a Local Practice will be of interest to students on advanced undergraduate and post graduate courses in Applied Linguistics, Language Education, TESOL, Literacy and Cultural Studies.
Norton, B, Ramanathan, V & Pennycook, A 2009, Preface.
© 2009 Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved. Located at the intersection of sociolinguistics and Hip Hop Studies, this cutting-edge book moves around the world - spanning Africa, Asia, Australia, the Americas and the European Union - to explore Hip Hop cultures, youth identities, the politics of language, and the simultaneous processes of globalization and localization. Focusing closely on language, these scholars of sociolinguistics, linguistic anthropology, cultural studies, and critical pedagogies offer linguistic insights to the growing scholarship on Hip Hop Culture, while reorienting their respective fields by paying closer attention to processes of globalization and localization. The book engages complex processes such as transnationalism, (im)migration, cultural flow, and diaspora in an effort to expand current theoretical approaches to language choice and agency, speech style and stylization, codeswitching and language mixing, crossing and sociolinguistic variation, and language use and globalization. Moving throughout the Global Hip Hop Nation, through scenes as diverse as Hong Kong's urban center, Germany's Mannheim inner-city district of Weststadt, the Brazilian favelas, the streets of Lagos and Dar es Salaam, and the hoods of the San Francisco Bay Area, this global intellectual cipha breaks new ground in the ethnographic study of language and popular culture.
Pennycook, AD 2001, Critical applied linguistics: a critical introduction, 1, Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, USA.
Pennycook, AD 1998, English and the Discourses of Colonialism, 1, Routledge, New York.
Pennycook, AD 1998, English and the discourses of colonialism, 1, Routledge, London.
Pennycook, AD 1994, The cutural politics of English as an international language, 1, Longman, Harlow.
Hiratsuka, A & Pennycook, A 2020, 'Translingual family repertoires: ‘no, Morci is itaiitai panzita, amor’', Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, pp. 1-15.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper looks at bikescapes – and particularly dockless share bikes – with a focus on their rapid proliferation and subsequent partial demise in Sydney. Four principal themes emerged from this study: first, bikes are an important part of the cityscape, and studies of urban semiotics need to take greater account of modes of transport. Second, the rise of docked and dockless share bikes has changed the ways the city is felt and perceived: as bikes circulate within the city, these shifting bikescapes make visible changes to the physical city environment. The ebb and flow of dockless bikes – from neat alignments to dispersed arrangements – provide an insight into changing patterns of work, leisure, and mobility, and present entropic rather than ordered city processes. Third, these bikes became significant discourse markers, material artefacts where discourses of consumption, convenience, contamination, and co-operation intersect. Dockless share bikes sit at the hub of a tussle over public and private ownership of space and information, in terms both of their physical incursion into public space and as syphons of personal information. Finally, they suggest not only that aspects of the cityscape may play an active role in semiotic networks, but that the semiotic landscape may be returning our gaze
Nguyen, BTT & Pennycook, AD 2018, 'Dancing, Google and fish sauce: Vietnamese students coping with Australian universities', Asia Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 38, no. 4.View/Download from: Publisher's site
This study examines the language, academic, and socio-cultural concerns of 24 Vietnamese international students (PhD, master’s and undergraduate) studying in universities in Sydney, Australia. Alongside the obvious linguistic concerns, the salient issues that emerge from this study draw attention to the struggles these students face to adapt to different educational norms, and particularly the varied expectations of supervisors, the different coping strategies these students use to overcome linguistic and other concerns, and the broader socio-cultural domains that support their studies. This study contributes to an understanding of Vietnamese international students, a growing cohort in Australia and elsewhere. Its findings provide insights that shift the focus away from the “difficulties” faced by international students and the institutional responses (or lack thereof), towards understanding their agentive modes of accommodation in the context of their degree programmes and their other lived experiences which include foods and ways of living.
A transdisciplinary focus in applied linguistics is certainly to be welcomed over the implausible disciplinary claims that have hampered this field of work through much of its history. Applied linguistics has been subjected to handbooks, introductory texts, conferences and symposia, all trying hard to make the case for disciplinary cohesion. Like language standardization, while there may be gains to be made by such processes or normalization, this history of consolidation and exclusion has also rendered applied linguistics unhelpfully narrow in its epistemologies, politics and methods. There are a number of reasons to reject claims to disciplinary status for applied linguistics, including a more persuasive argument that a field of applied study is ordered not so much by a core disciplinary focus but rather by the questions it asks and the fields it engages with – language policy, language in the professions, language in education, and so on – and that the understandings of language, the matters of concern, and the research tools to engage with them change accordingly.
A focus on transdisciplinary applied linguistics, however, is not necessarily the answer to trying to understand the knowledge and politics of applied linguistics. While preferable to both disciplinary and interdisciplinary frameworks (both of which reinforce disciplinary boundaries), a transdisciplinary focus draws attention away not only from the important focus on practice, but also from broader ways in which knowledge is produced, regulated and maintained. A transdisciplinary focus may in fact work against a more flexible notion of academic endeavour. In the next section, I shall explore in greater depth the struggles over disciplinarity in applied linguistics, making a case on several grounds to reject claims that applied linguistics is a discipline. Following this, I will look at the implications of engagement with posthumanist theory, arguing that this is a question of epistemes rather than ...
Pennycook, AD & Otsuji, E 2017, 'Fish, phone cards and semiotic assemblages in two Bangladeshi shops in Sydney and Tokyo', Social Semiotics, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 434-450.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Zhu, H, Otsuji, E & Pennycook, AD 2017, 'Multilingual, multisensory and multimodal repertoires in corner shops, streets and markets: introduction', Social Semiotics, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 383-393.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The research described in the papers in this special issue is situated in a diversity of contexts:
a street market and small shops in Mumbai, a subway in Cape Town, a greengrocer in
Copenhagen, Bangladeshi-run stores in Tokyo and Sydney, a Polish-run shop in London,
Afghan- and Iranian-run stores in a Sydney suburb and markets in Hong Kong. These
diverse studies share several principal concerns: they focus on interactions in markets
and small shops; they all employ a broad understanding of social semiotics that includes
body, space, gesture, senses and objects; they look at the intersecting modes of multilingual,
multimodal and multisensory semiosis; and they rely on complex forms of linguistic
(or semiotic) ethnography as a research tool.
The papers all focus on sites of commercial transaction in what we might call every day,
small, or local sites of transaction (or “extreme locality” in Quentin Williams’ terms, this issue).
It is not so much the commercial transactions themselves that matter for these analyses,
however, but rather the complexity of social, spatial, linguistic, cultural and semiotic
relations. Markets and small shops, more than any other city space, define human engagement
with difference – with different people, different clothes, different goods and different
ways of speaking. Markets, as Hiebert, Rath, and Vertovec (2015, 16) suggest, offer “an ideal
setting to explore the relationship between economy and society, especially when we consider
the ways that these markets reflect, but also shape, the nature and meaning of social
and cultural diversity.” The market, both as a concept and a physical location “is central to
any understanding of intercultural exchange” (Wood and Landry 2008, 148).
Appleby, R & Pennycook, AD 2017, 'Swimming with Sharks, Ecological Feminism and Posthuman Language Politics', Critical Inquiry in Language Studies: an international journal, vol. 14, no. Issue 2-3: Re-examining and Re-envisioning Criticality in Language Studies, pp. 239-261.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The critical project the authors propose overturns the assumptions of human centrality that have underpinned much educational thought and practice, questions the ways in which the human and nonhuman are defined, and opens up new forms of engagement with the material, corporeal, and affective world. The authors ask how critical language studies can be rethought to incorporate a better understanding of the place of humans in the more-than-human world. They discuss the growing body of work that connects concern with the environment with other forms of political activism, particularly through an ecological feminist lens. Bringing this discussion back to focus on the place of language and pedagogy in human exceptionalism, the authors explore ways in which alternative understandings of human relations to the more-than-human material world can reorient the logocentricity of critical language studies toward different forms of critical engagement and entangled pedagogies.
Posthumanism urges us to reconsider what it means to be human. From proclamations about the death of ‘Man’ to investigations into enhanced forms of being, from the advent of the Anthropocene (human-induced planetary change) to new forms of materialism and distributed cognition, posthumanism raises significant questions for applied linguistics in terms of our understandings of language, humans, objects, and agency. After reviewing the broad field of posthumanist thought, this paper investigates—through an overview of a series of recent research projects—the notion of repertoire, to show how this can be better understood by stepping out of the humanist constructs of the individual and the community and looking instead at the notion of distributed language and spatial repertoires. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of posthumanism for applied linguistics, in particular the ways we understand language in relation to people, objects, and place.
This paper asks what translanguaging could start to look like if it incorporated an expanded version of language and questioned not only to the borders between languages but also the borders between semiotic modes. Developing the idea of spatial repertoires and assemblages, and looking at data from a Bangladeshi-owned corner shop, this paper suggests on the one hand that it is important to include a wide range of semiotic possibilities in any analysis. On the other hand, however, we cannot merely add more semiotic items to our translinguistic inventories, but need instead to seek out a way of grasping the relationships among a range of forms of semiosis. The notion of assemblages allows for an understanding of how different trajectories of people, semiotic resources and objects meet at particular moments and places, and thus helps us to see the importance of things, the consequences of the body, and the significance of place alongside the meanings of linguistic resources.
There is a potential tension between the descriptions of language use by contemporary sociolinguistic researchers keen to focus on metro- poly- or translanguaging – with a focus on repertoires of semiotic resources – and the terms used by language users themselves – which may accord much more with traditional linguistic labels. While we tried to account for this disparity in previous discussions by focusing on the push and pull between fluid and fixed language use and descriptions, we focus in this paper on the negotiations around the labels used by the participants themselves. While it is certainly the case that the tools for discussing language use and affiliation in everyday discourse are themselves linguistically constrained (using commonly accepted language labels) the terms people use to talk about their multilingual environments are not necessarily as normative as they first appear. Such apparently stable referents are themselves part of a more complex set of identity repertoires that are always being reworked. What is at stake, therefore, is not so much a polarisation between fluid language use and fixed language ascriptions as a constant reconfiguration of language meanings.
It is probably no great surprise that an article on plagiarism hasattracted considerable attention over the years. The borrowing ofwords from elsewhere is a problem many of us face, either as studentsand writers or as teachers and editors. Twenty years after my 1996 arti-cle in TESOL Quarterly (Pennycook, 1996), plagiarism remains an areaof concern. And yet the enduring interest in this article is also ratherunexpected, given that the article does not attempt to offer any practi-cal solutions or suggest ways we could teach toward the eradication ofplagiarism. The article emerged from the context of teaching at HongKong University, where the problem (whatever this actually was)seemed a constant threat. It entered the debate more on the side ofthe defence (those students caught up in the accusations of plagia-rism), and engaged at a fairly theoretical level with questions of owner-ship and authorship. It also developed from my reading of MichelFoucault (1984) and Roland Barthes (1977). Indeed, when the articlewas ﬁrst submitted to TESOL Quarterly, reviewers questioned whether apaper that drew on the work of Foucault, Bakhtin, Barthes, and others(as a concession the discussion of Derrida was dropped) was appropriate for this journal.
Moving away from logocentric studies of the linguistic landscape, this paper explores the relations between linguascapes and smellscapes. Often regarded as the least important of our senses, smell is an important means by which we relate to place. Based on an olfactory ethnography of a multicultural suburb in Sydney, we show how the intersection of people, objects, activities and senses make up the spatial repertoire of a place. We thus take a broad view of the semiotic landscape, including more than the visual and the intentional, and suggest that we are interpellated by smells as part of a broader relation to space and place. Understanding the semiotics of the urban smellscape in associational terms, we therefore argue not merely that smell has generally been overlooked in semiotic landscapes, nor that this can be rectified by an expanded inventory of sensory signs, but rather that the interpellative and associational roles of smells invite us towards an alternative semiotics of time and place.
Dovchin, S, Sultana, S & Pennycook, A 2015, 'Relocalizing the translingual practices of young adults in Mongolia and Bangladesh', Translation and Translanguaging in Multilingual Contexts, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 4-26.View/Download from: Publisher's site
The translingual practices of young Mongolians and Bangladeshis suggest that contrary to those popular discourses which position youth as passive recipients of global culture, these young adults are better understood as actively and powerfully engaged with popular culture productions. Drawing on the examples of casual offline conversations and online Facebook interactions of university students in Mongolia and Bangladesh, this paper shows how processes of relocalization give new meanings to the translingual practices of these students as they draw on different modalities from popular culture (film, music and so on) and different linguistic and nonlinguistic resources. This transtextual and transmodal analysis enables us to show how these young adults relocalize linguistic and cultural resources in both their on- and offline interactions.
Sultana, S, Dovchin, S & Pennycook, AD 2015, 'Transglossic language practices of young adults in Bangladesh and Mongolia', International Journal of Multilingualism, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 1-16.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
The paper explores the use of varied semiotic resources in the linguistic, social and cultural practices of young adults in the context of Bangladesh and Mongolia. Based on a translinguistic analysis (including pre-textual history, contextual relations, subtextual meaning, intertextual echoes and post-textual interpretation) of these practices, and linking this to other recent calls to reconceptualise the notions of bilingualism and multilingualism, this paper combines Bakhtins heteroglossic and Pennycooks transgressive approaches to the analysis of language practices through what we call a transglossic framework. The paper examines four sets of on/offline linguistic practices taken from two large ethnographic projects from Bangladesh and Mongolia and unravels the ways young adults recycle linguistic and cultural elements from popular culture and mobilise a range of semiotic resources for their communicative purposes. The paper finally suggests that a sophisticated theoretical construction of language as proposed by Bakhtin and Pennycook needs to be addressed and complemented
© , Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Drawing on data recorded in two city markets, this article analyzes the language practices of workers and customers as they go about their daily business, with a particular focus on the ways in which linguistic resources, everyday tasks, and social spaces are intertwined in producing metrolingua francas. The aim of the article is to come to a better understanding of the relationships among the use of diverse linguistic resources (drawn from different languages, varieties, and registers), the repertoires of the workers, the activities in which they are engaged, and the larger space in which this occurs. Developing the idea of spatial repertoires as the linguistic resources available in particular places, we explore the ways in which metrolingua francas (metrolingual multilingua francas) emerge from the spatial resources of such markets.
Pennycook, AD & Otsuji, E 2014, 'Metrolingual multitasking and spatial repertoires: 'Pizza mo two minutes coming'', Journal of Sociolinguistics, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 161-184.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Drawing on data from two restaurants in Sydney and Tokyo, this paper describes the ways in which linguistic resources, everyday tasks and social space are intertwined in terms of metrolingual multitasking. Rather than the demolinguistic enumeration of mappable multilingualism or the language-to-language or language-to-person focus of translingualism, metrolingualism focuses on everyday language practices and their relations to urban space. In order to capture the dynamism of the urban linguistic landscape, this paper explores this relationship between metrolingual multitasking the ways in which linguistic resources, activities and urban space are bound together and spatial repertoires the linguistic resources available in a particular place arguing that a focus on resources, repertoires, space, place and activity helps us understand how multilingualism from below operates in complex urban places.
A central goal of language education is the development of resourceful speakers, people who have both good access to a range of linguistic resources and are good at shifting between styles, discourses, registers and genres. Communication becomes possible not because we adhere to global or even regional norms, but because language users are able to bring their communication into alignment with each other. Drawing on a series of studies of both online and face-to-face interaction in different cities in Asia, this paper suggests that to understand communication in contexts of diversity, we need to focus less on a supposed shared code and more on the interactions among language resources, activities and space. This in turn suggests that in order to pursue intelligibility in multilingual contexts we need a model of principled polycentrism, not the polycentrism of a World Englishes focus, with its established norms of regional varieties of English, nor the reduced communicative domain of the English as a lingua franca framework, but a more fluid yet principled approach to the diversity of contemporary contexts of communication.
Sultana, S, Dovchin, S & Pennycook, AD 2013, 'Styling the periphery: Linguistic and cultural takeup in Bangladesh and Mongolia', Journal of Sociolinguistics, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 687-710.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Focusing on online interactions among young adults in Bangladesh and Mongolia two countries located politically, culturally and economically on the Asian periphery this paper looks at how young adults use linguistic and cultural resources in their online interactions as part of a complex and emergent stylization of place. On the one hand, they appropriate the cultural and linguistic flows according to their locations and engage in a playful stylization and reconfiguration of what the local means. On the other hand, they engage in stylization and reflexive language use, often involving exaggerated linguistic variation, mixing, and other semiotic resources in order to produce and perform a range of social and cultural identities. The paper hence shows how the circulation and takeup of popular cultural flows around Asia can involve diverse processes of linguistic and cultural stylization.
Looking at two sets of conversations, among Greek adolescents, and between Japanese and Australian workers, this article shows how a poststructuralist understanding of the ways in which participants use and mix elements of their language repertoires implies a view of language as performative. Although the poststructuralist element of our approach on the one hand foregrounds a questioning of stable categories of language, identity, and assumed modes of mixing, our development of an understanding of performativity allows us to consider seriously the processes by which language and identity are constantly being remade. For the participants themselves, this is not simply a question of fluid language practices, but rather the interplay of fixed and unfixed language elements, cultural identifications, and social relationships. Reinvigorating Butlers account of performativity, our analysis and comparison of these two sets of data shows how a poststructuralist consideration of performativity sheds light on the relationship between the ongoing production of subjectivity and the deployment of fixed, stable, or stereotypical categories of identity.
Otsuji, E & Pennycook, AD 2011, 'Social inclusion and metrolingual practices', International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 413-426.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all too often premised on an understanding of language use that cannot escape its origins in statist understandings of language ideologieswhere a particular language is associated with a particular cultural, ethnic or geographical configuration.
The notion in popular linguistic discourse that French suffers from a narrow and prescriptive tradition of language policing, with the Académie Française (AF) as the central player, is frequently contrasted with an image of English as a democratic, borrowing language, better suited to its global role. This misrepresents the role of the AF in the regulation of French while overlooking the role of language ideologies, most evident in the two great dictionary projects (OED and DAF). This paper examines the actual role of the AF and other institutions in French language policy. Exploring popular linguistic representations of the AF and reiterated discourses about the relative numbers of words in English and French, we emphasize the dangers for language policy generally of reinforcing triumphalist views about English.
Pennycook, A 2011, 'The sociolinguistics of globalization.', LANGUAGE, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 884-887.
Otsuji, E & Pennycook, AD 2010, 'Metrolingualism: fixity, fluidity and language in flux', International Journal of Multilingualism, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 240-254.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
By extending the notion of metroethnicity, this paper proposes the notion of metrolingualism, creative linguistic practices across borders of culture, history and politics. Metrolingualism gives us a way to move beyond current terms such as 'multilingualism' and 'multiculturalism'. It is a product of modern and often urban interaction, describing the ways in which people of different and mixed backgrounds use, play with and negotiate identities through language. The focus is not so much on language systems as on languages as emergent from contexts of interaction. Looking at data from workplaces where metrolingual language use is common, we show how the use of both fixed and fluid linguistic and cultural identities is part of the process of language use. The notion of metrolingualism gives us ways of moving beyond common frameworks of language, providing insights into contemporary, urban language practices, and accommodating both fixity and fluidity in its approach to language use.
Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term critical as it has been used in critical applied linguistics, critical discourse analysis, critical literacy and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse analysis, literacy or applied linguistics more generally. In this paper I will argue, however, that although critical discourse analysis and critical literacy still make claims to a territory different from their `non-critical counterparts, much of this work has become conventional and moribund. The use of the term `critical (with its problematic claims and divisions) has perhaps reached saturation level. This is not to say, however, that the basic need to bring questions of power, disparity and difference to applied linguistics is any way diminished, but rather that we may need to look in alternative directions for renewal.
The global enterprise of English language teaching (ELT) ought to present the possibility of bringing millions of people into the global traffic of meaning. Yet it does not do so because global ELT is paradoxically viewed as a monolingual enterprise. Both the pedagogy that underpins much of this spread and the ways in which the global spread of English has been described and resisted emphasize English as a language that operates only in its own presence. Overlooked are the ways in which English always needs to be seen in the context of other languages, as a language always in translation. Yet if we wish to take global diversity seriously, we would do well to focus on semiodiversity (the diversity of meanings) as much as glossodiversity (the diversity of languages), and to do so by taking up a project of translingual activism as part of ELT. If students are to enter the global traffic of meaning, translation needs to become central to what we do.
Pennycook, AD 2008, 'Multilithic English(es) and language ideologies', Language in Society, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 435-444.
With the growth of Asia's manufacturing and service industries, the prediction that China and India, respectively, will have the first and third largest global economies within 30 years, a population that comprises over 50% of the world's people, and massive English language programs throughout the region, it is no surprise that the role of English in Asia has become a major concern. At a recent (2006) Asia TEFL conference in Japan, the notions of Asian English(es), along with Asian methodologies and Asian knowledge, were topics of considerable discussion. The size and diversity of Asia, however, makes it a very difficult entity to define: The Asia TEFL conference included delegates from Israel and Iran, and two of the books under review here, Braj Kachru's Asian Englishes: Beyond the canon(AEBC) and Yamuna Kachru & Cecil Nelson's World Englishes in Asian contexts(WEAC), include (with identical maps) Australia and New Zealand. In some ways, the idea of Asia is defined by what it is not: Europe and North America. It is also not, of course, South America or Africa, though with WEACcontaining a chapter on African Englishes (as well as African American Vernacular English, or AAVE), it seems as if they might be allowed in. It is clear nevertheless that various notions of Asia ? as an economic zone, as a cultural entity, and as a user of a type or types of English ? are widely used. We need to take the notion of Asia and Asian English(es) seriously, if only to try to understand what is meant by Braj Kachru's explanation that AEBCis ?essentially about the Asianness in Asian Englishes and their gradual, yet marked, distinctiveness?
In their introduction to this special edition of ARAL, Michael Clyne and Farzad Sharifian have laid out a number of the general concerns we need to consider when trying to grapple with the global spread of English. There is much of value in their proposal for a more symmetrical understanding of the pluricentricity of English; for a focus on cross-cultural/ intercultural communication, especially on pragmatic, discourse, and conceptual variation in English language classes; and for language policies that emphasise bilingualism and multilingualism. Their position nevertheless stops short in its exploration of the wider concerns raised by the gobal spread of English: While rightly critiquing the monolingual mindset that is blind to multilingualism and gives support to the use only of English, Clyne and Sharifian nevertheless fail to problematise the assumptions that underlie all these discussions around the global spread of English. It is not enough just to question monolingualism and argue for multilingualism, since both conceptions emerge from the same context of European-based thinking about language. As long as we still operate with the same epistemological framework of languages that emerged from the colonial/modernist context (Errington, 2008; Nakata, 2007), we will not be able to think our way out of the dilemmas posed by language and globalisation
Thompson, CH & Pennycook, AD 2008, 'A question of dialogues: Authorship, authority, plagiarism', Education Canada, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 20-23.
Alim, HS & Pennycook, AD 2007, 'Global linguistic flows: Hip-hop culture(s), identities, and the politics of language education', Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 89-100.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
People have to understand what you mean when you talk about Hip-Hop. Hip-Hop means the whole culture of the movement. When you talk about rap, you have to understand that rap is part of the Hip-Hop Culture. That means that emceeing is part of the Hip-Hop Culture. The Deejaying is part of the Hip-Hop Culture. The dressing, the languages are all part of Hip-Hop Culture. So is the break dancing, the b-boys and b-girls. How you act, walk, look and talk is all part of Hip Hop Culture. And the music is from whatever music that gives that grunt, that funk, that groove, that beat. Thats all part of Hip Hop. (Afrika Bambaataa, interviewed by Davey D )
Pennycook, AD 2007, 'Language, localization, and the real: Hip-hop and the global spread of authenticity', Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 101-116.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This article addresses the relationship between the call for authenticity, its relocalization in other contexts, and the use of English. Hip-hop forces us to confront some of the conflictual discourses of authenticity and locality, from those that insist that African American hip-hop is the only real variety and that all other forms are inauthentic deviations, to those that insist that to be authentic one needs to stick to one's "own" cultural and linguistic traditions. The global spread of hip-hop authenticity provides an example of the tension between a cultural dictate to keep it real and the processes that make this dependent on local contexts, languages, cultures, and understandings of the real. Looking at various contexts of localization, this article suggests that the horizons of significance that constitute what counts as locally real open up useful perspectives on the local and global use of languages. The multiple realities of global hip-hop challenge ortholinguistic practices and ideologies, relocating language in new ways that both reflect and produce local language practices.
Pennycook, AD 2007, ''The rotation gets thick. The constraints get thin': Creativity, recontextualization, and difference', Applied Linguistics, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 579-596.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
This paper explores the implications of looking at creativity in terms of repeated sameness rather than observable difference. Drawing on insights from hip-hop culture that focus on sampling as creativity, and looking in particular at philosophies of difference that make iterability and performativity central, this paper opens up a discussion of repetition, reenactment, and recontextualization as forms of creativity. A common approach to language and creativity draws on a very particular cultural and intellectual history that posits a core of human, cultural, or linguistic similarity, with creativity as marked divergence from the core. The alternative, or at least complementary, understanding discussed in this paper takes flow and difference as the norm, pointing to the need to account for how the previous expression of others is recontextualized, and suggesting that contemporary acts of digital sampling can be seen in relation to a parallel philosophy of creativity. An understanding of this flip-side of creativity, where difference is taken as a given and sameness needs to account for itself, has major implications for some of the ways we think about writing, learning, and language variation in applied linguistics.
Ramanathan, V & Pennycook, AD 2007, 'Talking across time: Postcolonial challenges to language, history and difference', Journal of Contemporary Thought, vol. 25, no. Summer, pp. 25-53.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
In this paper we argue that although the problematic nature of language construction has been acknowledged by a number of skeptical authors, including the recent claim in this journal (Reagan, 2004) that there is no such thing as English or any other language, this critical approach to language still needs to develop a broader understanding of the processes of invention. A central part of our argument, therefore, is that it is not enough to acknowledge that languages have been invented, nor that linguistic metalanguage constructs the world in particular ways; rather, we need to understand the interrelationships among metadiscursive regimes, language inventions, colonial history, language effects, alternative ways of understanding language, and strategies of disinvention and reconstitution. Any critical (applied) linguistic project that aims to deal with language in the contemporary world, however estimable its political intent may be, must also have ways of understanding the detrimental language effects it may engender unless it confronts the need for linguistic disinvention and reconstitution.
In this paper I suggest that as educators we need to understand that the spaces and cultures our students inhabit are to be found not so much in predefinitions of cultural background or in studies of classrooms as cultural spaces as in the transcultural flows with which our students engage. Thus, my argument is not only that, as Singh and Doherty (2004) suggest, the flow of international students turns many classrooms into global education contact zones (p. 11), but also that the global flows of English and popular culture turn classrooms in many parts of the world into spaces of transcultural contact. Students can no longer be understood as located in a bounded time and space in and around their classrooms but rather are participants in a much broader set of transcultural practices. Taking the global culture of hip-hop as an example, with a particular focus on hip-hop in parts of East and Southeast Asia, I argue that with English increasingly becoming the medium of global transcultural exchange, we need to understand the relations between English, popular culture, education and identity, or the ways in which global Englishes become a shifting means of transcultural identity formation. What I want to suggest here, then, is that in order to be attentive to the politics of location in the global context, we need a pedagogy of flow.
Christian missionaries have played a crucial role not only in assisting past and current forms of colonialism and neocolonialism, not only in attacking and destroying other ways of being, but also in terms of the language effects their projects have engendered. The choices missionaries have made to use local or European languages have been far more than a mere choice of medium. On the one hand, missionary language projects continue to use and promote European languages, and particularly English, for Christian purposes. The use of English language teaching as a means to convert the unsuspecting English language learner raise profound moral and political questions about what is going on in English classrooms around the world. On the other hand, missionary linguists have played a particular role in the construction and invention of languages around the world. Of particular concern here are the ways in which language use, and understandings of language use, have been-and still are-profoundly affected by missionary projects. Bilingualism between indigenous languages and a metropolitan language, for example, was part of a conservative missionary agenda in which converting to Christianity was the inevitable process of being bilingual. The ongoing legacy of the language effects of Christianity is something that needs urgent attention.
Pennycook, AD 2004, 'Beyond plagiarism: transgressive and nontransgressive intertextuality', Journal of Language, Identity and Education, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 171-193.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Drawing analogies with the crisis in understandings of culture that led to the development of cultural studies, I suggest in this article that a similar crisis in the understanding of language may give an important impetus to the development of language studies. Arguing for the need to rethink the notion of language as commonly formulated in linguistics and applied linguistics, I take up the notion of performativity as a way of thinking about language use and identity that avoids foundationalist categories, suggesting that identities are formed in the linguistic performance rather than pregiven. Such a view of language identity also helps us to see how subjectivities are called into being and sedimented over time through regulated language acts. This further provides the ground for considering languages themselves from an anti-foundationalist perspective, whereby language use is an act of identity that calls that language into being. And performativity, particularly in its relationship to notions of performance, opens up ways to understand how languages, identities and futures are refashioned.
Pennycook, AD & Coutand-Marin, S 2003, 'Teaching English as a missionary language', Discourse: studies in the cultural politics of education, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 337-354.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Appleby, RJ, Copley, K, Sithirajvongsa, S & Pennycook, AD 2002, 'Language in Development Constrained: Three Contexts', TESOL Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 323-346.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Estival, D & Pennycook, AD 2001, 'LâAcadeÂ´mie francÂ¸aise and Anglophone language ideologies', Language Policy, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 325-341.
This introductory article aims to pull together the unifying concerns in the varied articles, reports, and discussions in this special issue. I focus on three main themes that may be said to constitute critical approaches to TESOL: (a) the domain or area
In response to Allison's (1996) recent defence of pragmatism in EAP, I argue that it is necessary at the very least to distinguish between "vulgar"" and "critical" pragmatism (Cherryholmes 1988). By showing how various "discourses of neutrality" help construct EAP as a neutral enterprise, I argue that this makes a "vulgar pragmatist" position easily available. Such a position, I argue, must be limited in terms of the possibilities for challenge and change that it offers. By contrast, I outline some of the directions in which a critical approach to EAP might proceed. © 1997 The American University. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
Pennycook, A 1996, 'Language policy as cultural politics: The double-edged sword of language education in colonial Malaya and Hong Kong', Discourse, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 133-152.View/Download from: Publisher's site
In this article, I attempt to deal with some of the complexities of text, ownership, memorization, and plagiarism. Arguing that plagiarism cannot be cast as a simple black-and-white issue, the prevention of which can be achieved via threats, warnings, an
In this article, I suggest that in reacting against the prescriptivism of various language purists, applied linguistics has often opted for a rather bland descriptivism, which tends to assume the existence of an unproblematic world that is neatly referenced by words in a language. Here, I discuss pronouns and argue that they are in fact very complex and political words, always raising difficult issues of who is being represented. There is, therefore, never an unproblematic 'we' or 'you' or 'they' or 'I' or 'he/she'. © 1994 Oxford University Press.
This paper is an attempt to come to terms with different understandings of the term discourse. By comparing the common use of discourse analysis in applied linguistics with its use both in critical discourse analysis and in a Foucauldian use of the term,
A major lacuna in second language education is its divorce from broader issues in educational theory. While this same point was made last year in this journal by White [Curriculum studies and ELT. System 17, 83-93 (1989)], his work ironically also demonstrates a lack of understanding of some basic issues in curriculum philosophy. White misrepresents some key ideological aspects and is thus able to reject the work of many more radical educators, and to adopt Skilbeck's limited model for curriculum development. The nature of second language education, however, requires us to understand our educational practice in broader social, cultural, and political terms, and it is to critical pedagogy that I think we could most profitably turn to extend our conception of what we are doing as language teachers. © 1990.
Pennycook, A 1990, 'The Diremptive/Redemptive Project: Postmodern Reflections on Culture and Knowledge in International Academic Relations', Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 53-81.View/Download from: Publisher's site
Pennycook, A 2020, 'Pushing the ontological boundaries of English' in Hall, C & Wicaksono, R (eds), Ontologies of English: Conceptualising the language for learning, teaching, and assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 355-367.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, A & Otsuji, E 2019, 'Lingoing and everyday metrolingual metalanguage' in Jaspers, J & Madsen, LM (eds), Critical perspectives on linguistic fixity and fluidity, Routledge, New York, pp. 76-96.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
While the ways in which people talk about their everyday language use suggest that they live in a languagised world (a world in which language labels and enumerations are the common stuff of everyday language talk), their understanding of what those language labels mean may be both diverse and flexible. It is important not to make top-down assumptions about the meanings behind language labels. In this paper we are interested in the metrolingual metalanguage people use to describe everyday language use. This is not a question of a disjuncture between a delanguagised realm of academic analysis (such as the recent move towards translingual terminology) and a languagised realm of everyday metalanguage (where languages are named and labelled along normative lines), but rather a call to make visible what lies beneath such everyday terms and linguistic labels. Through an analysis of various discussions of everyday language use, we argue that although people often appear to talk in terms of fixed languages, such accounts are often flexible, negotiable and contestable. This is not therefore best understood in terms of a polarity between fixity and fluidity but rather as a flexible array of entangled language ideologies.
Pennycook, A 2019, 'Critical Applied Linguistics Commons' in Maciel, RF, Tilio, R, de Jesus, DM & Chaves de Barros, AL (eds), Linguística Aplicada Para Além das Fronteiras, Pontes Editores, Campinas, pp. 37-56.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, A 2019, 'From translanguaging to translingual activism' in Macedo, D (ed), Decolonizing foreign language education: The misteaching of English and other colonial languages, Routledge, New York, pp. 169-185.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Recent work on translanguaging has opened up a range of insights into con-temporary language use, helping us rethink the ways we talk about languages, bilingualism, and language mixing. As García and Li Wei (2014: 2) explain, trans-languaging is an approach to bilingual language use and education that “considers the language practices of bilinguals not as two autonomous language systems as has been traditionally the case, but as one linguistic repertoire with features that have been societally constructed as belonging to two separate languages.” This move toward translanguaging is part of a wider shift exploring new terminol-ogy beyond bilingualism, multilingualism, code-mixing, and the like, since these appear to suggest a rigidity of languages, a set of fi xed codes that people choose between. Canagarajah (2013: 6) has argued along similar lines for a need to look at translingual practices where communication transcends both individual languages as well as more traditional accounts of what is considered to be a language, thus involving “diverse semiotic resources and ecological affordances.” The recent growth in studies of translanguaging in education has created several important avenues for research and pedagogy. It has opened up, for example, more useful ways of thinking about why using varied linguistic resources matters beyond the reductive discourses of the “bilingual advantage.” While studies of bilingualism based on word and sentence manipulation in cognitive isolation, or positing increased executive control functions in order to manage two or more languages (Bialystok, 2007), have enabled well-intentioned attempts to persuade parents, educators, and institutions that bilingualism is an inherently good thing (King & Mackey, 2007), they tend to operate as if languages are easily identifiable objects operating in a social vacuum. If we view bilingualism only in additive and cognitive...
Pennycook, A 2019, 'Linguistic landscapes and semiotic assemblages' in Pütz, M & Mundt, N (eds), Expanding the Linguistic Landscape, Multilingual Matters, Bristol, pp. 75-88.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, A & Otsuji, E 2019, 'The Mundanity of Metrolingual Practices' in Lee, J & Dovchin, S (eds), Translinguistics: Negotiating Innovation and Ordinariness, Routledge, New York, pp. 7-23.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, A & Shohamy, E 2019, 'Extending fairness and justice in language tests' in Roever, C & Wigglesworth, G (eds), Social perspectives on language testing: Papers in honour of Tim McNamara., Peter Lang., Berlin.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Otsuji, E & Pennycook, A 2018, 'The translingual advantage: Metrolingual student repertoires' in Choi, J & Ollerhead, S (eds), Plurilingualism in teaching and learning: Complexities across contexts, Routledge, New York, pp. 71-88.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This chapter looks at the metrolingual practices of students in two tertiary institutions in Tokyo and Sydney. Focusing as much on out-of-class as in-class language use, we look at the diverse repertoires of students as they go about their daily university-related lives. The argument here is that a focus only on the medium of instruction, or translingual educational practices, may overlook the diverse semiotic resources students bring to their educational experiences. Contemporary students in particular, with their interlinked online and offiine worlds, their ease of communication in and across the boundaries of educational institutions, inhabit worlds where a diversity of linguistic and other semiotic resources are easily available. They engage in diverse forms of popular culture--from music to TV dramas-and chat to friends elsewhere using a range of creative textual means. When it comes to srudy itself, students' multilingual worlds confer not so much a 'bilingual advantage' as this has been narrowly defined from a more cognitive perspective, but rather a 'translingual advantage' that makes it possible to draw on a range of resources to construct meaning and develop learning
Otsuji, E & Pennycook, AD 2018, 'Sydney’s intersecting worlds of languages and things' in Smakman, D & Heinrich, P (eds), Urban Sociolinguistics: The City as a Linguistic Process and Experience, Routledge, UK, pp. 204-219.
A man of South Asian-background, who has arrived in his white van at the Kyeemagh market gardens to collect vegetables, walks out into the field to pick bitter melons. The suburb of Kyeemagh (with about 10% Greek, 3% Lebanese and 2.5% Cypriot overseas born population) sits at the intersection between the north-south line of older Greek and Lebanese migration in the inner west suburbs of Banksia (8% Macedonian, 4% Chinese, 3% Lebanese) and Arncliffe (8% Lebanese, 5% Macedonian, 3% Chinese) or the older Greek-dominated suburbs that run down the west shore of Botany Bay (Brighton-Le-Sands, Monterey, Ramsgate – the names reflecting their British and other early inhabitants), and the Chinese dominated suburbs to the west (Rockdale – 11% Chinese, 8% Nepalese, 4% Macedonian; Kogarah – 12% Chinese, 7% Nepalese, 5% Bangladeshi; Hurstville – 34% Chinese, 5% Hong Kong, 3% Nepalese) (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2016).
Dovchin, S & Pennycook, AD 2018, 'Digital metroliteracies: : Space, diversity and identity' in Mills, K, Stornaiuolo, A, Smith, A & Pandya, JZ (eds), Handbook of Writing, Literacies, and Education in Digital Cultures, Routledge, pp. 211-222.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Facebook now plays a significant role in the everyday digital literacy practices of people around
the world (de Bres, 2015). Desperately trying to keep up with the proliferation of online semiotic
practices, scholarship on online digital literacy has emphasized linguistic diversity and semiotic heterogeneity
as some of the crucial literacy characteristics of Facebook (Leppänen, Møller, Nørreby,
Stæhr, & Kytöla, 2015). The combination of diverse linguistic resources, repertoires, modes, codes,
genres, and styles in online and Facebook environments emphasizes the growing need to problematize
more traditional concepts, such as bi/multilingualism and codeswitching (Sharma, 2012;
Sultana et al., 2013, 2015), a process that has become a major focus of contemporary sociolinguistics
( Pennycook, 2016). When Androutsopoulos (2007) refers to linguistic and literacy diversity on the
Internet, he directly associates it with creativity saturated with different semiotic resources rather
than mixed language systems.
As Velghe (2015, p. 27) notes, “Language and literacy are always the means to (obtain) voice (‘to
let one be heard and understood’).” Facebook messages, from this point of view, can be viewed not
so much as “linguistic objects” or “carriers of denotational meanings,” but rather “as indexical objects
that are meant to be used to ‘socialize’ with others.” These phatic Facebook exchanges are therefore
better measured by “the standards of the indexical order of conviviality, instead of by the standards
of language only.” While questioning the separability of language from other modes of communication
on Facebook, Sharma (2012) also notes that the Facebook environment is a transmodal space, in
which users redefine the role of English and other languages in relation to their existing online social
relationships, innovatively transcending the meaning of English not only by mixing it with local
language but also by using other multimodal texts drawing on both local and glob...
Pennycook, AD 2018, 'Repertoires, registers, and linguistic diversity' in Creese, A & Blackledge, A (eds), The Routledge Handbook of Language and Superdiversity, Routledge, UK, pp. 3-15.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Otsuji, E & Pennycook, AD 2017, 'Cities, conviviality and double-edged language play' in Bell, N (ed), Multiple perspectives on language play, De Gruyter Mouton, Berlin, pp. 199-218.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Abstract: In this paper we examine different ways in which seemingly joking
encounters reconfirm, reinforce and reinscribe participants into particular lines
of difference through language play. Our focus here is not only on interactive
joking behavior in the workplace but also on the ways in which fellow workers
are described, on the significant work that casually humorous language does in
making and unmaking boundaries. Metrolingual conviviality, as people engage
in everyday multilingual practices, and both celebrate and challenge the diverse
environments in which they live and work, is often double-edged. The interaction
between fixity (pre-given fixed ascriptions of linguistic and cultural identities
and practices) and fluidity (creative linguistic and cultural forces that transgress
fixity) that underpins light-hearted banter creates an urban space of doubleedged
conviviality, reconfirming, reinforcing, subverting or adjusting the original
fixity. Playful language works on multiple levels, both constructing solidarities
(of the workplace, masculinity, or ethnicity) and creating potential fissures. This
analysis of the complex roles of language play in the making of conviviality sheds
light on the different cultural and linguistic tensions at play in the city.
Pennycook, AD 2017, 'Critical applied linguistics and education' in McCarty, TL & May, S (eds), Language Policy and Political Issues in Education, Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 173-185.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Critical applied linguistics (CALx) is an approach to language use and education that connects the local conditions of language to broader social formations. Critical applied linguistics in its contemporary forms can best be understood as the intersection of various domains of applied linguistic work that operate under an explicit critical label, including critical discourse analysis, critical literacy, critical pedagogy, or critical language testing, as well as areas that operate on related critical principles but do not carry the same label, such as feminist or antiracist pedagogy. In the following sections I provide an overview of this work before discussing various problems and difficulties, including struggles over the meaning of the term critical, the need for work beyond only critique, and the question of its applicability to the majority (non-Western) world. Finally I discuss ways in which CALx opens up many new ways of thinking about applied linguistics, and thus presents to applied linguistics more broadly a fresh array of concerns about language, politics, identity, ethics, and difference.
Pennycook, AD 2017, 'Language Policy and Local Practices' in García, O & Flores, N (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Language and Society, Oxford University Press, United Kingdom, pp. 125-140.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
This Oxford Handbook challenges basic concepts that have informed the study of sociolinguistics since its inception in the 1960s.
Pennycook, AD 2016, 'Introduction: Critical Approaches to English Language Teaching' in Critical Approaches to English Language Teaching, Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, Shanghai.
Pennycook, AD 2016, 'Mobile times, mobile terms: The trans-super-poly-metro movement' in Coupland, N (ed), Sociolinguistics: Theoretical debates, Cambridge University Press, UK, pp. 201-217.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
It is evident that something has been going on recently in sociolinguistics with a sudden upsurge – to the pleasure of some and the chagrin of others – of new terminology. Alongside superdiversity (Vertovec 2007; Blommaert 2010) as a new term to address the intensification of diversity, we now have translanguaging (Garcia 2009a; Blackledge and Creese 2010; Li Wei 2011) and translingual practice (Canagarajah 2013), transglossia (García 2013, 2014; Sultana et al. 2015), polylingual languaging (Jørgensen 2008a,b; Møller 2008), and metrolingualism (Otsuji and Pennycook 2010; 2014), amongst others. According to Blommaert (2013; see also this volume, Chapter 11) the old “Fishmanian” framing of sociolinguistics has been profoundly questioned with this proliferation of new terms signalling “an epistemological rupture with past approaches” (p. 621). All share a desire to move away from the language of bi- or multilingualism, castigating earlier work for operating with the idea that multilingualism is the sum of several, separate languages.
The first aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of these different frameworks, weighing up the different approaches and discussing their similarities and differences. All focus on contexts of multiple, mixed language use (while also trying to escape these notions of multiplicity and mixing) with an interest in talking in terms of repertoires of linguistic resources rather than bilingualism, code-mixing, or code-switching. While there are some differences between these different approaches, they have much in common. Their irruption into the world of sociolinguistics raises at least two questions: To what extent do these new terminologies reflect a changing sociolinguistic world marked by greater diversity, mobility, and language contact (as the notion of superdiversity suggests), or to what extent is this rather a shift in theory that could apply to all eras of sociolinguistic interaction? Does this signal a major paradigm shift...
Pennycook, AD 2016, 'Power, Politics and Critical Approaches to ELT' in Critical Approaches to English Language Teaching, Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, Shanghai.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Otsuji, E & Pennycook, AD 2014, 'Unremarkable Hybridities and Metrolingual Practices' in Rubdy, R & Alsagoff, L (eds), The Global_Local Interface and Hybridity, Multilingual Matters, Bristol, pp. 83-99.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, A 2014, 'Cultural alternatives and autonomy' in Autonomy and Independence in Language Learning, pp. 35-53.
Pennycook, A, Kubota, R & Morgan, B 2013, 'Preface', pp. xvii-xxiii.
Pennycook, AD 2013, 'Language policies, language ideologies and local language practices' in Wee, L, Goh, RBH & Lim, L (eds), The Politics of English: South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Asia Pacific, John Benjamins Publishing Company, USA, pp. 1-18.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Discussing a number of examples of language practices in different Asian contexts from a job advertisement for English teachers in Vietnam, to injunctions to speak good English in Singapore, from mission statements on a Philippine convent wall, to an article about temple elephants in India this paper argues that it is not so much language as language ideology that is the object of language policy. While ostensibly dealing with the distribution and regulation of languages, language policies are generally about something else entirely, be it educational, ideological or cultural regulation. Local language practices, meanwhile, may appear to be subject to language policies, but since language policies are always about a different understanding of language, it is this understanding rather than the practices themselves, that are at stake. By insisting on the plannability of language, state authorities insist that a sterile and state-serving view of language is the language ideology we should adhere to. State language policies, therefore, have more to do with the regulation of language ideologies than with the regulation of local language practices, which, despite attempts to contain them, always exceed confinement.
Makoni, S & Pennycook, AD 2012, 'Disinventing multilingualism: from monological multilingualism to multilingua francas' in Martin-Jones, M, Blackledge, A & Creese, A (eds), The Routlledge Handbook of Multilingualism, Routledge, New York, pp. 439-453.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Assumptions about the existence of languages and, ipso facto, multilingualism, are so deeply embedded in predominant paradigms of language studies that they are rarely questioned. Multilingualism, furthermore, viewed from this perspective, is an indomitably good thing; the task of linguists, sociolinguists, applied linguists and educational linguists is to enhance our understanding of multilingualism, to overcome the monolingual blinkers of Anglo- or Eurocentric thought, to encourage both the understanding of and the practices of multilingualism.
Pennycook, A 2012, 'Afterword: Could heracles have gone about things differently?' in Bunce, P & Rapatahana, V (eds), English Language as Hydra: Its Impacts on Non-English Language Cultures, Channel View Publications, UK, pp. 255-262.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, AD 2012, 'Lingua Francas as Language Ideologies' in Kirkpatrick, A & Sussex, R (eds), English as an International Language in Asia: Implications for Language Education, Springer, UK, pp. 137-154.View/Download from: UTS OPUS or Publisher's site
Common truisms about English as the most widely spoken lingua franca and Chinese as the most widely spoken mother tongue stand on very thin ground. The vast disparity between figures of speakers for both of these languages suggests not only that such figures are hard to produce accurately but also, more importantly, that they rest on highly questionable definitions of languages, second languages, native speakers and lingua francas. When it is claimed that English is the great lingua franca of the world and Chinese the great mother tongue, or when it is conceded that Chinese is the great lingua franca and English only comes second, we are dealing not only with incommensurable objects but also staking out very particular ideological ground. What counts as a language, a mother tongue, or a lingua franca, is a question of language ideology, not countability. If we argue that Chinese exists only as an ideological construct (it is a unifying language only by the will for it to be so, not by actual practice), we need to reflect on the fact that this also applies to English: English or Chinese as a lingua franca are not so much linguistic systems as ideological constructs. It is crucial that we grasp such ideologies in order to engage with common and insidious claims about language, communication and the world.
Pennycook, A & Morgan, B 2011, 'Preface', pp. xv-xix.
Pennycook, AD 2011, 'Global Englishes' in Wodak, R, Johnstone, B & Kerswill, P (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Sociolinguistics, SAGE Publications Ltd, London, UK, pp. 513-525.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
It is not hard to make a case that English is intimately involved with processes of globalization. From its wide use in many domains across the world, or the massive efforts in both state and private educational sectors to provide access to the language, to its role in global media, international forums, business, finance, politics and diplomacy, it is evident not only that English is widely used across the globe but also that it is part of those processes we call globalization. What this means for English, other languages and cultures, and processes of global change, however, is much harder to determine. Much work over the past 20 years has been done under the label of world Englishes (WE), a tetm that has been employed with various meanings (Bolton, 2004). It may be llsed as an umbrella term to cover all varieties of English across the world (analysed from a diversity of perspectives), to refer more narrowly to new varieties of English that have developed, particularly in former Btitish colonies, or more narrowly again to the particular framework developed by Braj Kachru and his colleagues to analyse such Englishes.
Pennycook, AD 2010, 'English and globalization' in Maybin, J & Swann, J (eds), The Routledge Companion to English Language Studies, Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 113-121.
Pennycook, AD 2010, 'Nationalism, Identity and Popular Culture' in Hornberger, N & McKay, S (eds), Sociolinguistics and Language Education, Multilingual Matters, UK, pp. 62-86.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
A central problem for sociolinguistic approaches to language is nationhood. Being the defining framework for much discussion of both language and culture in popular and academic domains, the concept of nation has had a huge influence on the ways in which languages and cultures have been defined. From language policies based around national languages to plans to save endangered languages, the relation between nation, on the one hand, and language and culture, on the other, has remained central to many discussions of these themes. In response to the perceived threat of English in Europe, namely the concern that unless English is opposed, we may, as Phillipson (2003: 192) warns, 'be heading for an American-English only Europe', one strategy is to argue for the need to safeguard diversity through the support of other European languages.
Pennycook, AD 2010, 'Popular Cultures, Popular Languages and Global Indentities' in Nikolas Coupland (ed), The Handbook of Language and Globalization, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp. 592-607.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Popular culture is both facilitated by and facilitative of the shifting relationships between languages under conditions of globalization. The ease of cultural movement made possible by the transnational role of major languages such as English, French, Chinese, or Arabic, in conjunction with new digital media, allows popular culture to traverse the globe with speed and gregarity. At the same time, the attractions of popular culture draw people to those languages in order to gain better access to such fiims, music, or online environments. While studies of language and globalization often take economic or various utilitarian goals as primary driving forces behind the spread and take-up of different languages, it is also important to understand the roles of pleasure and desire, and the possibilities that popular culture may hold out for new cultural and linguistic relations and for new possible modes of identity.
Pennycook, AD 2010, 'Rethinking Origins and Localization in Global Englishes' in Saxena, M & Omoniyi, T (eds), COntending with Globalization in World Englishes, Multilingual Matters, UK, pp. 196-210.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Drawing analogies with issues of localization in hip-hop, this chapter argues that processes of localization are more complex than a notion of languages or cultures spreading and taking on local forms; rather, we have to understand ways in which they are already local. Recent debates over the inapplicability of a World Englishes (WE) framework to current conditions of globalization, or concerns that a focus on English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) presents a new form of homogenization, miss the point that what we need to react not only to new conditions of postmodernity but also to the postmodern imperative to rethink language.
For a small subcultural tourist group, graffiti have become an object of their travelling gaze. Jinman (2007), for example, reports that Melbourne's graffiti have achieved international renown to the extent that tourists head straight for some of the best-known alleys. One such is Hosier Lane, just off Federation Square in central Melbourne, where two young Korean women, having seen Melbourne street art on Korean television are now examining and photographing 'a dense, lurid collage that ranges from rudimentary signatures drawn in marker pen to giant dayglo paintings and intricate paper prints pasted on the wall. "Very good," says one, indicating a playful image of a moon-faced Asian child hugging a docile killer whale. "I like it very much'" (p. 11). &lch graffiti tourism can be seen as part of the broader domain of hip-hop tourism (Xie, Osumare and Ibrahim, 2007), which in turn is related to music tourism more generally (Gibson and Connell, 2005). As Xie et al. (2007) explain, 'The ghetto or the hood, which were once a source of sublime terror and fear, have been transformed by Hip-Hop into an enticing landscape for tourism: an image, a sound, graffiti mural waiting at a distance for visual and sensory consumption by those who come from farther afield' (p. 456).
Pennycook, AD 2010, 'Sweating cheese and thinking otherwise' in Nunan, D & Choi, J (eds), Language and culture: Reflective narratives and the emergence of identity, Routledge, New York, USA, pp. 194-198.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, AD 2010, 'The Future of Englishes: one, many or none?' in Andy Kirkpatrick (ed), The Routledge Handbook of World Englishes, Routledge, New York, USA, pp. 673-688.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, AD 2009, 'Is dialogue possible? Anti-intellectualism, relativism, politics and linguistic ideologies' in Wong, MS & Canagarajah, S (eds), Christian and critical English language educators in dialogue, Routledge, New York, USA, pp. 60-65.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, AD 2009, 'Plurilithic Englishes: Towards a 3D model' in Murata, K & Jenkins, J (eds), Gobal Englishes in Asian Contexts, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK, pp. 194-207.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, AD 2009, 'Refashioning and performing identities in global hip-hop' in Couland, N & Jaworski, A (eds), The new sociolinguistics reader, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, pp. 326-340.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, AD & Mitchell, T 2009, 'Hip Hop as dusty foot philosophy: Engaging locality' in Alim, HS, Ibrahim, A & Pennycook, A (eds), Global Linguistic Flows: Hip Hop cultures, youth identities, and the politics of language, Routledge, New York, USA, pp. 25-42.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
When asked what he means by the Dusty Foot Philosopher (the title of his recent CD, which received a 2006 Juno Award for Rap Recording of the Year, and was nominated for the inaugural Polaris Music Prize), Somali-Canadian MC K'Naan explains that this is both how he sees himselfand a broader image of global representation. When images of Africa are shown on charity television (the most common means by which people view Africa, he suggests), the camera always kind of pans to the feet, and the feet are always dusty from these kids. What they're trying to portray is a certain bias connected to their own historical reasoning, and what I saw though instead, was that that child with the dusty feet himself is not a beggar, and he's not an undignified struggler, but he's the dusty foot philosopher. He articulates more than the cameraman can imagine, at that point in his life. But he has nothing; he has no way to dream, even. He just is who he is. (K'Naan Interview, April 25, 2004)1
Ramanathan, V, Pennycook, A & Norton, B 2009, 'Preface', pp. xv-xvii.
Pennycook, AD 2008, 'Critical applied linguistics and language education' in May, S & Hornberger, N (eds), Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Springer, New York, USA, pp. 169-182.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, AD 2008, 'Language-free Linguistics and Linguistics-free Languages' in Mahboob, A & Knight, N (eds), Questioning Linguistics, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, pp. 18-31.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Ramanathan, V & Pennycook, AD 2008, 'Talking across time: Postcolonial challenges to language, history and difference' in Raval, S, Mehta, GM & Yashaschandra, S (eds), Forms of knowledge in India: Critical Revaluations, Pencraft International, New Delhi, India, pp. 272-304.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Thompson, CH & Pennycook, AD 2008, 'Intertextuality in the transcultural contact zone' in Howard, RM & Robillard, A (eds), Pluralizing Plagiarism: Identities, contexts, pedagogies, Boynton/Cook, Potsmouth, NH, USA, pp. 124-139.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Makoni, S & Pennycook, AD 2007, 'Disinventing and reconstituting languages' in Makoni, S & Pennycook, A (eds), Disinventing and reconstituting languages, Multilingual Matters, Clevedon, UK, pp. 1-41.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, AD 2007, 'The myth of English as an international language' in Makoni, S & Pennycook, A (eds), Disinventing and reconstituting languages, Multilingual Matters, Clevedon, UK, pp. 90-115.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, AD 2006, 'Critical applied linguistics' in Berns, M (ed), Encyclopedia of language and Linguistics: 2nd Edition, Elsevier, Ansterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 283-290.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, AD 2006, 'Uma linguistica aplicada transressiva' in Lopes, LPDM (ed), Por Uma Linguistica Aplicada Indisciplinar, Parabola Editorial, Sao Paulo, Brazil, pp. 67-84.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Hazelrigg, A, Sayers, J & Pennycook, AD 2003, 'Dialogues around "The concept of Method, Interested Knowledge, and the Politics of Language Teaching"' in Sharkey, J & Johnson, KE (eds), The TESOL Quarterly Dialogues, TESOL, Virginia, USA, pp. 19-34.
Layzer, C & Pennycook, AD 2003, 'Dialogues around:Borrowing Others' woeds: Text, Ownership, Memory, and Plagiarism"' in Sharkey, J & Johnson, KE (eds), The TESOL Quarterly Dialogues, TESOL, Virginia, USA, pp. 75-86.
Pennycook, AD 2003, 'Linguistica Aplicada pos-Ocidental' in Jose, M, coracini, RF & Bertoldo, ES (eds), O Desejo Da Teoria E A Contingencia Da Pratica, Mercado de Letras, Brasil, pp. 21-59.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, AD 2002, 'Language and linguistics/siscourse and disciplinarity' in BarronB, Bruce, N & Nunan, D (eds), Knowledge and discourse: Towards an ecology of language, Longman/Pearson, Harlow, UK, pp. 13-27.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, AD 2002, 'Language policy and docile bodies: Hong Kong and governmentality' in Tollefson, JW (ed), Language Policies in Education: Critical Issues Language Policies in Education: Critical Issues Language Policies in Education: Critical Issues Language Policies in Education: Critical Issues Language Policies in Education: Critical Issues, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, USA, pp. 91-110.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, AD 2001, 'Lessons from colonial language policies' in Gonzalez, RD (ed), Language Ideologies, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, USA, pp. 195-220.
Pennycook, AD 2001, 'Towards a postcultural curriculum' in Renandya, WA & Sunga, NR (eds), Language curriculum and instruction in multicultural societies, SEAMEO, Singapore, pp. 80-96.
Pennycook, AD 2000, 'English,politics,ideology:from colonial celebration to postcolonial peerformativity' in Ricento, T (ed), Ideology, Politics & Language Policies, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 107-120.
Pennycook, AD 2000, 'Language, ideology & hindsight: lessons from colonial language policies' in Ricento, T (ed), Ideology, Politics & Language Policies, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 49-66.
Pennycook, AD 2000, 'The social politics & the cultural politics of language classrooms' in Kelly Hall, J & Eggington, W (eds), The Sociopolitics of Language Teaching, Multilingual Matters, Clevedon, UK, pp. 89-103.
Morgan, L & Pennycook, AD 2013, 'Exploring and Supporting Home Language Maintenance among Tongan Families in Sydney, Australia', ECER 2013 - Online Programme, The European Conference on Educational Research 2013, EUROPEAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATION, Istanbul, Turkey.
This paper draws on four years of fieldwork among Tongan families within the context of an informal supported play-group in inner Sydney, Australia. In Australia, some 40% of children reach school age without attending formal pre-schools. Aboriginal and immigrant groups are greatly over-represented in this statistic. For these children, informal playgroups, funded from a range of government and non-government sources are important sites for learning. For children who speak a language other than English in the home, the playgroups also offer a `safe space and an opportunity to strengthen and support the use of the home literacies and the connection to heritage cultures. They also spaces where situated practices around community language and identity can be observed. The role of such playgroups in improving the transition to school for Pasifika students has been acknowledged by a number of researchers in Australia and New Zealand. A recent literature review on Transition from Early Childhood Education (ECE) to School by Peters (2010) highlights the issues that have a direct relationship to home language maintenance. These include a sense of belonging, recognition and acknowledgement of culture, and dispositions and identity as a learner. In addition, Peters review also highlights the importance of direct communications between teachers in the ECE settings and those in the school. Our main research questions related to identifying the best ways of engaging and supporting relatively disadvantaged families from Pacific communities in developing their childrens early literacy practices in informal settings. We also aimed at obtaining a clearer picture of literacy practices in the home language as a first step to improving the gap between home practices and the first years of school. This study is one of the few with a primary focus on support for the maintenance of home language and culture in the early years Using data from observations of partic
Pennycook, AD 2008, 'Plenary: Changing practices in ELT', IATEFL 2008: Exeter Conference Selections, IATEFL (International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language) 2008: 42nd INternational Conference, IATEFL, Exeter, UK, pp. 86-93.
Pennycook, AD 2003, 'The perils of language ecology', LED2003: Refereed Conference Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Language, Education and Diversity, Conference on Language, Education and Diversity, University of Waikato, Hamilton, NZ, pp. 1-17.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
We live, it would seem, in ecological times. Ecology has become the metaphor of choice for many working in the social sciences, and particularly in areas such as language planning, sociolinguistics, and even language acquisition. As Leather and Van Dam explain, "an ecological approach to the study of language acquisition sees the individual's cognitive processes as inextricably interwoven with their experiences in the physical and social world .... " and "aims to avoid unjustifiable appeals to normativity - in both research designs and the interpretation of data" (2003, p. 13). According to Fettes (2003), "ecological explanations offer a more promising foundation for critical reasoning than any of the alternatives (Marxism, postsructuralism, gender theory and the rest) ... " (p. 45). Thus, an ecological perspective is currently held up as the new paradigm for our times, able to deliver where many previous frameworks have failed I wish to present a slightly more sceptical account in this paper.
Pennycook, AD 2002, 'Peripheral visions and invisible englishes', The Periphery: Viewing the World, Hellenic Association for the Study of English 4th International Conference, Parousia Publications 60, Athens, Greece, pp. 83-99.View/Download from: UTS OPUS
Pennycook, AD 2000, 'Development, culture & language: ethical concern in a postcolonial world', Partnership & Interaction: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Language & Development, Asian Institute of technology, Hanoi, Vietnam, pp. 0-0.