CLTS Frontiers: Equality and non-discrimination (EQND) in sanitation programmes at scale (part 2)
Client: Institute for Development Studies
This Frontiers of CLTS issue examines the potential of support mechanisms to produce more equitable outcomes for Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and considers implications for the wider rural sanitation sector. CLTS has had great success in improving latrine coverage in rural areas worldwide, but concerns have been raised about the equality of its outcomes. Disadvantaged groups often are the first to revert back to open defecation or are inadequately reached by CLTS processes. Support mechanisms, when designed appropriately and used at the right times, can help to ensure no one is left behind.
Sanitation and hygiene for all: a comparative study of approaches to leaving no one behind across five countries
Client: SNV Development Organisation
This research reviewed SNV’s experience striving to reach all through the Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All (SSH4A) program in rural areas across five of the 11 implementation countries including: Bhutan, Nepal, Cambodia, Zambia and Tanzania.
The breadth of SNV approaches to understanding potential disadvantage, as well as strategies used to ensure inclusive uptake and use of sanitation services was investigated.
Research outputs and reports:
Pro-poor sanitation evaluation: Bantaey Meas Cambodia
Client: SNV Development Organisation
For this research, ISF-UTS reviewed SNV’s pilot pro-poor support mechanism in Banteay Meas District in Cambodia, which is part of SNV’s broader Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All (SSH4A) program. Effectiveness of the pilot pro-poor support mechanism in enabling increased uptake of improved sanitation amongst poor households, as well as understanding the strengths and key enabling factors of the mechanism was investigated.
Enterprise in WASH
Client: Australian Development Research Scheme Award (ADRAS) Grant
This research investigated the role of small-scale enterprises in sustainable WASH service delivery, with a focus on equitable outcomes for the poor. Conducted in partnership with civil society organisations and local research institutions in Indonesia, Timor-Leste, Vanuatu, Cambodia and Vietnam.
Studies included: systematic literature review; political economy analyses on private sector roles; sanitation value chain analyses; motivators and barriers for enterprises; water service outcomes for the poor; associations and business support mechanisms; women’s enterprise participation; and life cycle costs for rural water service delivery.
Supporting the poor to access sanitation in Bokeo, Laos
Client: Plan Laos and Plan Australia
Internationally, there has been debate over the last decade about effective ways to increase access to sanitation, as a basic human right and essential service to support public health.
Within Laos, a similar debate is underway, with a history of provision of hardware subsidies through public or non-governmental organisation funding, and a recent shift towards demand-driven approaches to motivate household investment and market support, to enable more efficient, affordable supply of sanitation products.
This is particularly important in areas such as Bokeo Province, Laos, where remote communities have limited access to the commercial sector.
This research examined strategies to ensure that the poorest members of rural communities in the province of Bokeo, Laos were supported to gain access to sanitation through a 'smart' subsidies approach.
Research outputs and resources
Supporting the poor to access sanitation in Bokeo Province, Laos - Research report