Attendees have the opportunity to actively participate in all six laboratory-based workshops. This is a novel opportunity to engage with the research and industry communities on cutting edge topics, and an important part of the ‘AQUAFLUO experience'. Workshops will not only showcase both innovative platforms and concepts but also provide a means to better standardise measurements and practice. It is also your opportunity to raise and potentially re-address any long-unresolved problems.
Below is a brief outline of the aim, goals and focal points for each of the six workshops – more details will be provided nearer to the meeting. The workshop organisers will also suggest some preparation materials attendees may want to consider before hand. We are always looking for additional support in running of the workshops – if you are interested, please contact the conference organisers.
New Approaches for Modeling in vivo Fluorescence Dynamics
(Sam Laney, UTS Facilitators)
Modeling of in vivo fluorescence dynamics remains a key tool in resolving the physiological processes regulation of ecological patterns. We will introduce researchers to new approaches for modeling and exploring nonlinear dynamical phenomena of in vivo fluorescence systems, such as diurnal trends and transient responses. New software tools now provide non-specialists a framework for modeling and exploring such dynamical phenomena in (algal) fluorescence, which have been singularly difficult to model historically:
1.1. Introduce general concepts and terms used in modeling time-dependent (dynamical) phenomena;
1.2. Illustrate these terms and concepts using some common & longstanding problems in chlorophyll in vivo fluorescence;
1.3. Demonstrate using simple examples of how modern modeling software can represent and explore dynamical phenomena in chlorophyll in vivo fluorescence.
Picosecond Fluorescence Lifetime Measurements and Analysis
(Maxim Gorbunov, Rutgers Team, UTS Facilitators)
Picosecond kinetic analysis provides fundamental information about the rates and quantum efficiencies of energy transfer in light-harvesting processes and photochemistry in primary photosynthetic reactions. Also, fluorescence lifetimes can be directly converted to the absolute quantum yields of fluorescence, which are not possible using amplitude-based fluorometers. Until recently the use of this technology in the ocean was not feasible due to the complexity and cost of related instrumentation. This workshop will offer attendees hands-on experience on picosecond kinetics of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence:
2.1. Introduce the concept of (PIcoLIF) fluorescence lifetime measurements;
2.2. Explore differences between picosecond lifetime measurements and amplitude-based variable fluorescence measurements, including kinetics of fluorescence yields on micro- and millisecond time scales;
2.3. Demonstrate picosecond lifetime measurements and kinetic analyses using a portable PicoLiF instrument, e.g. master basic routines for recording and analyzing picosecond fluorescence kinetics on phytoplankton samples.
Spectrally-resolved photosynthetic signatures of marine phytoplankton
(Zbigniew Kolber, Sarah Andrew, UTS Facilitators)
Spectrally-resolved signatures of marine phytoplankton provide information about the presence of dominant phytoplankton taxa in the water column based on the architecture and composition of their light harvesting apparatus. Wavelength-specific measurements of functional absorption cross section, σPSII(λ), coupled with simultaneously-assessed efficiency of charge separation and the kinetics of photosynthetic electron transport can also be used to characterize their photosynthetic performance under conditions of varying irradiance regime and spectral light quality.
3.1. Introduce basic concepts and methods in fluorescence-based spectral measurements of algal photophysiology
3.2. Familiarize with existing techniques and instrumentation to perform such measurements (e.g. Light Induced Fluorescence Transients (LIFT) technique, FastOcean and multi-PAM) and benefits across platforms over single wavelength measurements;
3.3. Demonstrate the Instantaneous Light Curves (ILC) for assessing light-response curves based on a single LIFT fluorescence transient.
Unlocking the mysteries of non-photochemical quenching parameters
(João Serôdio, Bernard Lepetit, Christian Wilhelm, UTS Facilitators)
A suite of “non-photochemical quenching” parameters has been developed (including “NPQ”) to inform of patterns and processes involved in photosynthetic regulation. This workshop will introduce researchers to the concept of non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and its importance to study various energy-dissipation mechanisms, including thermal dissipation of excess energy and photoinhibitory quenching. Emphasis will be put on particular aspects of the photophysiology of different algal groups using measurements and/or analysis of PAM-derived data sets.
4.1. Introduce the general concept of NPQ and the various NPQ indices, its calculation and (eco)physiological meaning: qN vs NPQ; components qE, qT, qI, qE and the xanthophyll cycle; qI and photoinhibition; NPQ in the dark;
4.2. Present and discuss the most common measuring protocols: NPQ kinetics of induction and relaxation, and NPQ light-response curves.
4.3. Consider the modeling of NPQ responses: use of mathematical models for induction and relaxation kinetics, calculation of NPQ components, and models for the light response of NPQ;
4.4. Illustrate the relationship of these fluorescence data alongside oxygen evolution for modelling of algal biomass production.
Advancing knowledge of photosynthetic functioning through coupled chlorophyll fluorescence-spectroscopy transients
(Milan Szabó, Benjamin Bailleul, David Kramer, UTS Facilitators)
Combination chlorophyll fluorescence with spectroscopy transient measurements has become increasingly popular to advanced understanding of photosynthetic electron transport routes (linear vs. cyclic), and in turn the photosynthetic energy balance and algal productivity. Using practical demonstrations with live photosynthetic material (algae), we will Introduce new approaches for combining such techniques, e.g. open platform PhotosynQ instruments (MultispeQ and CoralspeQ) and the Joliot-type LED pump-probe spectrometer. We will disucss advanced spectroscopic techniques such as electrochromic shift assay (ECS), dark-interval relaxation kinetics (DIRK), P700 measurements along with chlorophyll fluorescence:
5.1. Introduce general tools, concepts and terms used in coupled fluorescence-spectroscopy approaches;
5.2. Present case studies of dissecting the various electron transport pathways;
5.3. Demonstrate novel chlorophyll fluorescence and transient spectral signatures as algal performance indicators.
Hands-on satellite remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence
(Toby Westberry, Greg Silsbe, UTS Facilitators)
Satellite remote sensing affords synoptic monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence properties over the global ocean. Our understanding of factors controlling satellite-measured fluorescence is not complete, but patterns resulting from differences in algal biomass and specific physiological processes can be observed. Using exploratory data analysis, we will introduce satellite remote sensing measurements of fluorescence to a broad (non-specialist) audience, discuss known limitations and improved capabilities we might hope for in future satellite missions.
6.1. Introduce and familiarize non-specialists with satellite-based chlorophyll fluorescence measurements;
6.2. Showcase current understanding of factors controlling observed satellite fluorescence;
6.3. Provide potential data users with sufficient understanding to access and analyze satellite datasets;
6.4. Outline limitations of these data, what has been done to date, and discuss future research opportunities employing satellite measurements of fluorescence.