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Associate Professor Yusuf Pisan

Biography

Yusuf Pisan is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). He is the director of the Games Studio and member of the Human Centred Technology Design (HCTD) research strength. His research interests include enabling technologies for computer games and the design of virtual environments that support collaborative work.

Yusuf has served as a general conference chair and program chair for a number of international conferences and was appointed to head the International Game Developer's Association's (IGDA) taskforce to design a model curriculum for game studies. He is a founding member of the Sydney Chapter of ACM Special Interest Group on Graphics (SIGGRAPH), a key group that brings together academics and practitioners.

Over the past several years, Yusuf has become a prominent voice in both print and broadcast media on the subject of computer games. In 2004, he founded the Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment (opens an external site), an annual event that showcases international technology and research in games. As a pioneer in the field of games studies in Australia, Yusuf introduced the first advanced subjects on computer games in Australia, designed an undergraduate degree in games development (Bsc in Games Development), and developed the first cross-faculty course at UTS (Master of Animation).

Yusuf has a Ph.D. in Artificial Intelligence from Northwestern University and has lived in Sydney, Australia since 1998.

For additional information please refer to the Games Studio web page.

Image of Yusuf Pisan
Associate Professor, School of Software
Core Member, HCTD - Human Centred Technology Design
PGCertEdS (HEd), PhD (Northwestern)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 4478

Research Interests

Computer games, interactive entertainment, artificial intelligence, graphics, animation, interactive storytelling, mobile computing, games

Can supervise: Yes

Game Design, Game Development, Graphics, iPhone Programming, Artificial Intelligence, C#

Conferences

Si, C., Pisan, Y. & Tan, C.T. 2016, 'Understanding players' map exploration styles', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Australasian Computer Science Week (ACSW 2016): Interactive Entertainment, ACM, Canberra, Australia.
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Copyright 2016 ACM. Exploration is an essential part of play in modern video games. It refers to the discovery-based activities, in which players explore mechanisms, as well as spatiality of virtual world. Exploration games and games with exploration plots are booming in gamer communities. In this paper, we focus on spatial exploration, which is central to play in role-playing games (RPG) and real time strategy (RTS) games. We investigate the game-playing behaviors of human players in exploration games, so as to discover behavior patterns and understand gamer styles. The intention is to contribute to the design and development of believable agents. We conducted an experiment where 25 participants played three types of exploration games. In-game data, think-aloud data, questionnaire responses and post-game interview data were collected to gain a deeper understanding of exploration preferences. We used thematic analysis to analyze data and mapped out four game exploration archetypes: Wanderers, Seers, Pathers and Targeters. An analysis from the four highlight aspects: strategy, reasoning, conception and hesitation, is conducted to investigate the behavioral traits of these four archetypes.
Brondi, R., Avveduto, G., Alem, L., Faita, C., Carrozzino, M., Tecchia, F., Pisan, Y. & Bergamasco, M. 2015, 'Evaluating the effects of competition vs collaboration on user engagement in an immersive game using natural interaction.', VRST '15 Proceedings of the 21st ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, ACM, BeiJing, China, pp. 191-191.
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Social experience can deeply impact on gaming experience and is often used to increase enjoyment and retention. In the literature two main categories of social interaction can be identified: competition and collaboration. Player engagement has been widely studied under different conditions related to the type of social interaction taking place during the game. However, rich and newly available contexts based on emerging paradigms, such as those enabled by Natural User Interfaces, have not been yet extensively addressed. In the current study the impact of collaborative and competitive goal structures on player engagement, awareness and social presence is evaluated in the context of a jigsaw puzzle game taking place in a Shared Virtual Environment using a highly immersive setup exploiting natural user interaction.
Garcia Marin, J.A., Pisan, Y., Tan, C. & Felix Navarro, K.M. 2014, 'Step kinnection: a hybrid clinical test for fall risk assessment in older adults', CHI '14 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, Toronto, Canada, pp. 471-474.
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Taylor, D.M. & Pisan, Y. 2014, 'Aussie women game developers', Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, Foundations of Digital Games, Society for the Advancement of the Study of Digital Games, Ft Lauderdale, Florida, USA.
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Women are underrepresented in the digital games industry all over the world. In Australia, womens level of contribution to game development is much lower than the USA, Canada, and UK. Reviewing literature from the areas of computer science, information technology, and digital games, this study focuses on the impact of social, structural and cultural aspects, and how these factors might influence women choosing a career in the Australian digital games industry. Using a mixed-method, Grounded Theory approach, a large-scale census of Australian digital game studios was conducted, and followed up by semi-structured interviews of a small group of women game developers. Findings reveal that the number of women game developers in Australia has recently increased, and although work culture stereotypes and poor workplace conditions persist overseas, Australian women are not experiencing these issues. However, getting interested in digital game development is still a major obstacle in convincing young women to enroll in game development degrees at university. Once enrolled though, attrition is a problem that has been attributed to teaching styles, lack of confidence and how male peers treat female students in their first year. Those women, who eventually graduate and pursue a career in digital games, more often share the influence of strong parents, male siblings, and enjoyed playing games from a young age.
Tan, C., Sapkota, H., Rosser, D.J. & Pisan, Y. 2014, 'Initial perceptions of a casual game to crowdsource facial expressions in the wild', Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, Foundations of Digital Games, Society for the Advancement of the Study of Digital Games, Ft Lauderdale, Florida, USA, pp. 1-4.
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The performance of affective computing systems often depend on the quality of the image databases they are trained on. However, creating good quality training databases is a laborious activity. In this paper, we evaluate BeFaced, a tile matching casual tablet game that enables massive crowdsourcing of facial expressions for the purpose of advancing facial expression analysis. The core aspect of BeFaced is game quality, as increased enjoyment and engagement translates to an increased quantity of varied facial expressions obtained. Hence a pilot user study was performed on 18 university students whereby observational and interview data were obtained during playtests. We found that most users enjoyed the game and were intrigued by the novelty in interacting with the facial expression gameplay mechanic, but also uncovered problems with feedback provision and the dynamic difficulty adjustment mechanism. These findings hence provide invaluable insights for the other researchers/ practitioners working on similar crowdsourcing games with a purpose, as well as for the development of BeFaced.
Tan, C., Sapkota, H., Rosser, D.J. & Pisan, Y. 2014, 'A game to crowdsource data for affective computing', Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, Foundations of Digital Games, Society for the Advancement of the Study of Digital Games, Ft Lauderdale, Florida, USA.
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This game submission describes BeFaced, a tile matching casual tablet game that enables massive crowdsourcing of facial expressions to advance affective computing. BeFaced uses state-of-theart facial expression tracking technology with dynamic difficulty adjustment to keep the player engaged and hence obtain a large and varied face dataset. FDG attendees will experience a novel affective game input interface and also investigate how the game design enables massive crowdsourcing in an extensible manner.
Si, C., Pisan, Y. & Tan, C. 2014, 'Automated terrain analysis in real-time strategy games', Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, Foundations of Digital Games, Society for the Advancement of the Study of Digital Games, Ft Lauderdale, Florida, USA.
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Real-time strategy (RTS) games represent a mainstream genre of video games. They are also practical test-beds for intelligent agents, which have received considerable interest from Artificial Intelligence (AI) researchers, in particular game AI researchers. Terrain knowledge understanding is a fundamental issue for RTS agents and map decomposition methods can help AI agents in representing terrain knowledge. These contributions support AI agents path finding and combat strategy. In some RTS games, such as StarCraft, all terrain information is provided to AI agents at the beginning of the game. This presents an unfair advantage, as human players do not have access to this information. We propose a terrain analysis framework, in which AI agents gather terrain knowledge by managing scouts to explore game maps. This framework is part of my Ph.D. study that is investigating scouting strategies for RTS games. We developed an extension to the StarCraft system, called terrain engine that releases terrain information in small chunks rather than providing the full map, to investigate human-like techniques for scouting. Within the terrain analysis framework, we present a reconnaissance (recon) algorithm to guide individual scout units in recon tasks. Then, we identify the factors for terrain exploration planning model, which will be implemented as part of our future work
Garcia, J.A., Pisan, Y., Tan, C.T. & Navarro, K.F. 2014, 'Assessing the kinect's capabilities to perform a time-based clinical test for fall risk assessment in older people', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag, pp. 100-107.
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The Choice Stepping Reaction Time (CSRT) task is time-based clinical test that has shown to reliably predict falls in older adults. Its current mode of delivery involves the use of a custom-made dance mat device. This mat is a measurement tool that can reliably obtain step data to discriminate between fallers and non-fallers. One of the pitfalls of this test is that the technology in use still imposes an obstacle on the degree of freedom to be able to perform adaptive exercises suitable for the elderly. In this paper, we describe a Kinect-based system that measures stepping performance through the use of a hybrid version of the CSRT task. This study focuses on assessing this system's capabilities to reliably measure a time-based clinical test of fall risk. Results showed a favorable correspondence and agreement between the two systems, suggesting that this platform could be potentially useful in the clinical practice.
Tan, C.T., Bakkes, S. & Pisan, Y. 2014, 'Correlation between Facial Expressions and the Game Experience Questionnaire', ENTERTAINMENT COMPUTING - ICEC 2014, pp. 229-231.
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Altamimi, R., Skinner, G. & Nesbitt, K. 2014, 'A Focused Review and Initial Conceptual Design for Merging Exergame and Activity Monitoring Technologies.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 77-83.
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Alaamri, F., Greuter, S. & Walz, S.P. 2014, 'Trees of Tales: A Playful Reading Application for Arabic Children.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 3-10.
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Anand, B. & Wong, H.W. 2014, 'ARENA - Dynamic Run-Time Map Generation for Multiplayer Shooters.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 149-158.
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Karlsson, B. & Furtado, A.L. 2014, 'Conceptual Model and System for Genre-Focused Interactive Storytelling.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 27-35.
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Marsh, T. & Nardi, B.A. 2014, 'Spheres and Lenses: Activity-Based Scenario / Narrative Approach for Design and Evaluation of Entertainment through Engagement.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 42-51.
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Sonne, T. & Jensen, M.M. 2014, 'Race By Hearts - Using Technology to Facilitate Enjoyable and Social Workouts.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 125-132.
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Si, C., Pisan, Y. & Tan, C.T. 2014, 'A scouting strategy for real-time strategy games', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series.
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© 2014 ACM.Real-time strategy (RTS) is a sub-genre of strategy video games. RTS games are more realistic with dynamic and time-constraint game playing, by abandoning the turn-based rule of its ancestors. Playing with and against computer-controlled players is a pervasive phenomenon in RTS games, due to the convenience and the preference of groups of players. Hence, better game-playing agents are able to enhance game-playing experience by acting as smart opponents or collaborators. One-way of improving game-playing agents' performance, in terms of their economic-expansion and tactical battlefield-arrangement aspects, is to understand the game environment. Traditional commercial RTS game-playing agents address this issue by directly accessing game maps and extracting strategic features. Since human players are unable to access the same information, this is a form of "cheating AI", which has been known to negatively affect player experiences. Thus, we develop a scouting mechanism for RTS game-playing agents, in order to enable game units to explore game environments automatically in a realistic fashion. Our research is grounded in prior robotic exploration work by which we present a hierarchical multi-criterion decision-making (MCDM) strategy to address the incomplete information problem in RTS settings.
Tan, C.T., Bakkes, S. & Pisan, Y. 2014, 'Inferring player experiences using facial expressions analysis', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series.
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© 2014 ACM.Understanding player experiences is central to game design. Video captures of players is a common practice for obtaining rich reviewable data for analysing these experiences. However, not enough has been done in investigating ways of preprocessing the video for a more efficient analysis process. This paper consolidates and extends prior work on validating the feasibility of using automated facial expressions analysis as a natural quantitative method for evaluating player experiences. A study was performed on participants playing a first-person puzzle shooter game (Portal 2) and a social drawing trivia game (Draw My Thing), and results were shown to exhibit rich details for inferring player experiences from facial expressions. Significant correlations were also observed between facial expression intensities and self reports from the Game Experience Questionnaire. In particular, the challenge dimension consistently showed positive correlations with anger and joy. This paper eventually presents a case for increasing the application of computer vision in video analyses of gameplay.
Della-Bosca, D., Patterson, D. & Costain, S. 2014, 'Fractal Complexity in Built and Game Environments.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 167-172.
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Bradshaw, H., Holland, E.P. & Billinghurst, M. 2014, 'Ora - Save the Forest! Designing a Social Impact Game.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 84-91.
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Ferro, L.S., Walz, S.P. & Greuter, S. 2014, 'Gamicards - An Alternative Method for Paper-Prototyping the Design of Gamified Systems.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 11-18.
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Holmgård, C., Liapis, A., Togelius, J. & Yannakakis, G.N. 2014, 'Personas versus Clones for Player Decision Modeling.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 159-166.
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Hoshino, J., Umemura, T., Urano, S. & Satoi, D. 2014, 'SONAR: Communication System for Supporting Information Gathering and Social Interaction in a Niche Market.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 181-188.
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Hu, J., Funk, M., Zhang, Y. & Wang, F. 2014, 'Designing Interactive Public Art Installations: New Material Therefore New Challenges.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 199-206.
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Inchamnan, W., Wyeth, P. & Johnson, D.M. 2014, 'Design for Creative Activity: A Framework for Analyzing the Creative Potential of Computer Games.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 19-26.
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Kriglstein, S., Brown, R. & Wallner, G. 2014, 'Workflow Patterns as a Means to Model Task Succession in Games: A Preliminary Case Study.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 36-41.
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Neil, K., Vries, D.D. & Natkin, S. 2014, 'A Tool for Evaluating, Adapting and Extending Game Progression Planning for Diverse Game Genres.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 60-65.
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Spek, E.V.D., Sidorenkova, T., Porskamp, P. & Rauterberg, M. 2014, 'The Effect of Familiar and Fantasy Aesthetics on Learning and Experience of Serious Games.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 133-138.
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Wyeth, P., Hall, J.V. & Johnson, D.M. 2014, 'Designing a Digital Experience for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 139-146.
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Ishikawa, Y., Muta, M., Tamaru, J., Nakata, E., Uehara, A. & Hoshino, J. 2014, 'HANASUI: Multi-view Observable and Movable Fogscreen.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 189-196.
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Nakevska, M., Sanden, A.V.D., Funk, M., Hu, J. & Rauterberg, M. 2014, 'Interactive Storytelling in a Mixed Reality Environment: The Effects of Interactivity on User Experiences.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 52-59.
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Saadatian, E., Salafi, T., Samani, H.A., Lim, Y.D. & Nakatsu, R. 2014, 'Artificial Intelligence Model of an Smartphone-Based Virtual Companion.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 173-178.
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Giannakos, M.N. & Jaccheri, L. 2014, 'Code Your Own Game: The Case of Children with Hearing Impairments.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 108-116.
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Costain, S. & Patterson, D. 2014, 'The Active Use of Online Presence, Movies and Gameplay to Improve Classroom Engagement.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 66-73.
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Byrne, R. & Mueller, F.F. 2014, 'Designing Digital Climbing Experiences through Understanding Rock Climbing Motivation.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 92-99.
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Kim, Y.-.M. 2014, 'Interactive Performance Art Using Musical Instrument Daegeum for Healing.', ICEC, Springer, pp. 207-213.
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Pisan, Y., Garcia Marin, J.A. & Felix Navarro, K.M. 2013, 'Improving Lives: Using Microsoft Kinect to Predict the Loss of Balance for Elderly Users under Cognitive Load', Proceedings of the Ninth Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment, Interactive Entertainment, ACM Press, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-4.
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Among older adults, falling down while doing everyday tasks is the leading cause for injuries, disabilities and can even result in death. Furthermore, even when no injury has occurred the fear of falling can result in loss of confidence and independence. The two major factors in the loss of balance is weakening of the muscles and reduced cognitive skills. While exercise programmes can reduce the risk of falling by 40%, patient compliance with these programmes is low. We present the Microsoft-Kinect based step training program system that we have developed specifically for elderly patients. The program measures physical health and cognitive abilities and incorporates an individualized adaptive program for improvements. The real-time data obtained from the program is similar to clinical evaluations typically conducted by doctors and the game-like exercises result in increased adherence to the exercise regimes
Greuter, S., McCrea, C., Mueller, F., Richards, D., Hjorth, L. & Pisan, Y. 2013, 'Welcome to IE 2013', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series.
Bakkes, I.S., Tan, C. & Pisan, Y. 2012, 'Personalised gaming: a motivation and overview of literature', Proceedings of The 8th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment: Playing the System, Interactive Entertainment, ACM, Auckland, NZ, pp. 1-10.
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This article focuses on personalised games, which we define as games that utilise player models for the purpose of tailoring the game experience to the individual player. The main contribution of the article is a motivation for personalised gaming, supported by an extensive overview of scientific literature. The motivatin concerns (a) the psychological foundation, (b) the e?ect on player satisfaction, (c) the contribution to game development, and (d) the requirement for achieving ambitions. The provided overview of scientific literature goes into the subject of player modelling, as well as eight adaptive components: (1) space adaptation, (2) mission / task adaptation, (3) character adaptation, (4) game mechanics adaptation, (5) narrative adaptation, (6) music / sound adaptation, (7) player matching (multiplayer), and (8) difficulty scaling. In the concluding sections, the relationship to procedural content generation is discussed, as well as the generalisation to other domains.
Tan, C. & Pisan, Y. 2012, 'Towards Automated Player Experience Detection With Computer Vision Techniques', CHI Workshop on Game User Research, ACM, Austin, Texas, USA, pp. 2679-2681.
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There has been an increasing number of quantitative methods to measure and evaluate player experiences. However, current methods either focus on telemetry approaches, which are insucient to capture real life responses, or psychophysiological methods, which are intrusive and more suited to controlled laboratory environments. This paper presents the position that computer vision techniques can provide a less intrusive and more versatile solution for automatic evaluation of game user experiences. A conceptual framework to automatically infer flow intensity is presented and a work-in-progress study is included to demonstrate the feasibility of this research direction.
Tan, C., Rosser, D.J., Bakkes, I.S. & Pisan, Y. 2012, 'A Feasibility Study in Using Facial Expressions Analysis to Evaluate Player Experiences', Proceedings of The 8th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment, Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment, ACM, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 1-10.
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Current quantitative methods of measuring player experience in games are mostly intrusive to play and less suited to natural, non-laboratory play environments. This paper presents an initial study to validate the feasibility of using facial expressions analysis for evaluating player experiences. It builds on a prior position that video-based computer vision techniques can provide a less intrusive and more versatile solution for automatic evaluation of game user experiences. A user study was performed on an initial group of participants in a rst-person puzzle shooter game (Portal 2) and a social drawing trivia game (Draw My Thing), and the results are shown to support our position
Pisan, Y. & Tan, C. 2012, 'Persuasive environments: Argumentation models in serious games', Computer Science & Education (ICCSE), 2012 7th International Conference on, Computer Science & Education (ICCSE), 2012 7th International Conference on, IEEE, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1319-1322.
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Video games are learning machines. Serious games are games that attempt to impart knowledge and skills that can be used in everyday life while taking advantage of the game mechanics used in commercial games to keep player engaged, to get the player to learn new skills and to enjoy learning for hours at end. The aim of this project is to extend and adapt current computational models of argumentation to support the range of user actions and diverse scenarios in serious games; test and evaluate the effectiveness of the argumentation model in changing people's behaviour and decision through gameplay; and develop tools for game designers to explicitly model player reasoning enabling richer and more adaptive interactive environments.
Pisan, Y. & Tan, C. 2012, 'SimEnv: Understanding and supporting the creation of outcome-driven simulations', Computer Science & Education (ICCSE), 2012 7th International Conference on, Computer Science & Education (ICCSE), 2012 7th International Conference on, IEEE, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1315-1318.
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Immersive computer-based training environments and computer games share many similarities; both require an interactive environment populated with believable characters where users' decisions affect the outcome of future events. The main problem in constructing these complex environments is that any sufficiently complex environment that offers users choices has to allow the users to pursue varied paths through the system and provide guidance for all these paths. Managing the multitude of paths is known as the branching storyline problem. Currently, this is addressed by hand-coding and testing all paths which increases production costs and artificially limiting user choices which damages believability and user experience. This project explores an alternative approach, using characters that rely on case-based reasoning for decision-making to provide flexibility in interacting with player, coupled with a story manager to manage and coordinate the characters by observing all user interactions to achieve the intended outcomes. The techniques developed are applicable for training environments as well as next-generation computer games.
Pisan, Y. & Tan, C. 2012, 'Use of student-designed authorware for e-mediated science and technology learning', Computer Science & Education (ICCSE), 2012 7th International Conference on, Computer Science & Education (ICCSE), 2012 7th International Conference on, IEEE, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1633-1637.
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Student attrition in the enabling sciences suggests that early science and technology education is still failing to capture the imagination of learners. Furthermore, despite initial optimism, e-learning approaches have not redressed this problem. Young students can design an e-learning environment that promotes deep science and technology learning, but high technical support is required for its production and maintenance. To improve the sustainability and spread of this strategy as well as to preserve student ownership, the present research engages students in the design of a student-authorable e-learning system, dynamically re-conceiving student-centred science and technology curriculum for our age.
Cermak-Sassenrath, D., Walker, C., Tan, C.T. & Pisan, Y. 2012, 'Welcome', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series.
McGee, K. & Abraham, A.T. 2010, 'Real-time team-mate AI in games: a definition, survey, & critique.', FDG, ACM, pp. 124-131.
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Mehm, F. 2010, 'Authoring serious games.', FDG, ACM, pp. 271-273.
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McLaughlin, T., Smith, D. & Brown, I.A. 2010, 'A framework for evidence based visual style development for serious games.', FDG, ACM, pp. 132-138.
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Rossoff, S., Tzanetakis, G. & Gooch, B. 2010, 'Adapting personal music for synesthetic game play.', FDG, ACM, pp. 163-170.
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Schild, J., Walter, R. & Masuch, M. 2010, 'ABC-Sprints: adapting Scrum to academic game development courses.', FDG, ACM, pp. 187-194.
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Lewis, C., Whitehead, J. & Wardrip-Fruin, N. 2010, 'What went wrong: a taxonomy of video game bugs.', FDG, ACM, pp. 108-115.
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Tolentino, L.M., Savvides, P. & Birchfield, D. 2010, 'Applying game design principles to social skills learning for students in special education.', FDG, ACM, pp. 252-253.
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Thomas, J.M. & DeRosier, M.E. 2010, 'Toward effective game-based social skills tutoring for children: an evaluation of a social adventure game.', FDG, ACM, pp. 217-223.
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Taylor, T.L. & Witkowski, E. 2010, 'This is how we play it: what a mega-LAN can teach us about games.', FDG, ACM, pp. 195-202.
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Nickel, A. & Barnes, T. 2010, 'Games for CS education: computer-supported collaborative learning and multiplayer games.', FDG, ACM, pp. 274-276.
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Milam, D. & El-Nasr, M.S. 2010, 'Analysis of level design 'push & pull' within 21 games.', FDG, ACM, pp. 139-146.
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Lopes, R. 2010, 'Scenario adaptivity in serious games.', FDG, ACM, pp. 268-270.
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Lewis, C. & Wardrip-Fruin, N. 2010, 'Mining game statistics from web services: a World of Warcraft armory case study.', FDG, ACM, pp. 100-107.
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Khosmood, F. & Walker, M.A. 2010, 'Grapevine: a gossip generation system.', FDG, ACM, pp. 92-99.
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Juul, J. 2010, 'In search of lost time: on game goals and failure costs.', FDG, ACM, pp. 86-91.
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Long, J., Estey, A., Bartle, D., Olsen, S.C. & Gooch, A.A. 2010, 'Catalyst: seeing through the eyes of a cat.', FDG, ACM, pp. 116-123.
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Johnson, M.W. 2010, 'Supporting collaborative real-time strategic planning in multi-player games.', FDG, ACM, pp. 265-267.
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Rowe, J.P., Shores, L.R., Mott, B.W. & Lester, J.C. 2010, 'Individual differences in gameplay and learning: a narrative-centered learning perspective.', FDG, ACM, pp. 171-178.
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Hullett, K. & Whitehead, J. 2010, 'Design patterns in FPS levels.', FDG, ACM, pp. 78-85.
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Hullett, K. 2010, 'The science of level design.', FDG, ACM, pp. 262-264.
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Wong, D., Earl, D., Zyda, F., Zink, R., Koenig, S., Pan, A., Shlosberg, S., Singh, J. & Sturtevant, N.R. 2010, 'Implementing games on pinball machines.', FDG, ACM, pp. 240-247.
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Norton, J., Wingrave, C.A. & Jr, J.J.L. 2010, 'Exploring strategies and guidelines for developing full body video game interfaces.', FDG, ACM, pp. 155-162.
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Smith, G., Whitehead, J. & Mateas, M. 2010, 'Tanagra: a mixed-initiative level design tool.', FDG, ACM, pp. 209-216.
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Treanor, M., Mateas, M. & Wardrip-Fruin, N. 2010, 'Kaboom! is a many-splendored thing: an interpretation and design methodology for message-driven games using graphical logics.', FDG, ACM, pp. 224-231.
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DiSalvo, B.J. & Bruckman, A. 2010, 'Race and gender in play practices: young African American males.', FDG, ACM, pp. 56-63.
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Boyce, A.K. & Barnes, T. 2010, 'BeadLoom Game: using game elements to increase motivation and learning.', FDG, ACM, pp. 25-31.
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Andersen, E., Liu, Y.-.E., Apter, E., Boucher-Genesse, F. & Popovic, Z. 2010, 'Gameplay analysis through state projection.', FDG, ACM, pp. 1-8.
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Angotti, R.L., Hillyard, C., Panitz, M., Sung, K. & Marino, K. 2010, 'Game-themed instructional modules: a video case study.', FDG, ACM, pp. 9-16.
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Estey, A., Long, J., Gooch, B. & Gooch, A.A. 2010, 'Investigating studio-based learning in a course on game design.', FDG, ACM, pp. 64-71.
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Morelli, T., Foley, J., Columna, L., Lieberman, L. & Folmer, E. 2010, 'VI-Tennis: a vibrotactile/audio exergame for players who are visually impaired.', FDG, ACM, pp. 147-154.
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Tuite, K., Snavely, N., Hsiao, D.-.Y., Smith, A.M. & Popovic, Z. 2010, 'Reconstructing the world in 3D: bringing games with a purpose outdoors.', FDG, ACM, pp. 232-239.
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Botvich, D., McGibney, J., Ostapenko, G., Paoli, S.D., Kerr, A. & Keatinge, M. 2010, 'Integrating players, reputation and ranking to manage cheating in MMOGs.', FDG, ACM, pp. 17-24.
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Sali, S., Wardrip-Fruin, N., Dow, S., Mateas, M., Kurniawan, S., Reed, A.A. & Liu, R. 2010, 'Playing with words: from intuition to evaluation of game dialogue interfaces.', FDG, ACM, pp. 179-186.
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Sheldon, J., Perry, J., Klopfer, E., Ong, J., Chen, V.H.-.H., Tzuo, P.W. & Rosenheck, L. 2010, 'Weatherlings: a new approach to student learning using web-based mobile games.', FDG, ACM, pp. 203-208.
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Cooper, S., Treuille, A., Barbero, J., Leaver-Fay, A., Tuite, K., Khatib, F., Snyder, A.C., Beenen, M., Salesin, D., Baker, D. & Popovic, Z. 2010, 'The challenge of designing scientific discovery games.', FDG, ACM, pp. 40-47.
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Doran, K., Boyce, A.K. & Finkelstein, S.L. 2010, 'Reaching out with game design.', FDG, ACM, pp. 250-251.
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Fendt, M.W. 2010, 'Dynamic social planning and intention revision in generative story planning.', FDG, ACM, pp. 254-255.
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Chaffin, A. & Barnes, T. 2010, 'Lessons from a course on serious games research and prototyping.', FDG, ACM, pp. 32-39.
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Hertz, G. 2010, 'OutRun: perversive games and designing the de-simulation of eight-bit driving.', FDG, ACM, pp. 72-78.
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Arena, D. & Schwartz, D.L. 2010, 'Stats invaders!: learning about statistics by playing a classic video game.', FDG, ACM, pp. 248-249.
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Debeauvais, T. & Nardi, B.A. 2010, 'A qualitative study of Ragnarök Online private servers: in-game sociological issues.', FDG, ACM, pp. 48-55.
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Groenewegen, S. 2010, 'Improving crowd behaviour for games and virtual worlds.', FDG, ACM, pp. 256-258.
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Hicks, A. 2010, 'Towards social gaming methods for improving game-based computer science education.', FDG, ACM, pp. 259-261.
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Pisan, Y. 2010, 'FDG 2010 - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games: Preface', FDG 2010 - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games.
Ryan, M. & Pisan, Y. 2009, 'Proceedings of the 6th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment, IE 2009: Preface', Proceedings of the 6th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment, IE 2009.
Hills, D.L., Pisan, Y. & Edmonds, E.A. 2008, 'Towards a Generic Framework for Situated Collaborative Storytelling', Proceedings of the Fifth Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment, Interactive Entertainment, ACM Press, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 1-6.
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How we assimilate stories into our common experiences and shape culture is the field of study known as narrative intelligence. By following these assumptions and investigating theories of conversation and rhetoric, this paper outlines a generic framework for a visual collaborative storytelling system that emphasises participatory narration and shared understanding in a situated context.
Weiley, V. & Pisan, Y. 2008, 'The Distributed Studio: Towards a Theory of Virtual Place for Creative Collaboration', Proceedings of the 20th Australasian conference on Computer-Human Interaction: Designing for Habitus and Habitat, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM, Cairns, QLD, Australia, pp. 343-346.
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Virtual environments intended to support creative collaboration are being built without an informed consideration of the implicit interaction design choices being made. This paper proposes a set of design principles for such environments. Drawing from theory and reflective practice we suggest a conceptual focus on a Distributed Studio designed around the following five principles: Support Reconfiguration, Mix Realities, Control Access, Be A/Synchronous, and Transform Space into Inhabited Place.
Jones, C. 2008, 'Online games-based child safety environment.', IE, ACM, pp. 4-4.
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Obaid, M., Han, C. & Billinghurst, M. 2008, '"Feed the Fish": an affect-aware game.', IE, ACM, pp. 6-6.
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Rasmussen, R. 2008, 'A game theory approach to high-level strategic planning in first person shooters.', IE, ACM, pp. 7-7.
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Willis, M. 2008, 'RoboCup as a spectator sport: simulating emotional response in the four-legged league.', IE, ACM, pp. 8-8.
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McGregor, G.L. 2008, 'Terra ludus, terra paidia, terra prefab: spatialization of play in videogames & virtual worlds.', IE, ACM, pp. 5-5.
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Fitz-Walter, Z., Jones, S. & Tjondronegoro, D. 2008, 'Detecting gesture force peaks for intuitive interaction.', IE, ACM, pp. 2-2.
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Christie, R., Pisan, Y. & Sade, G. 2008, 'Proceedings of The 5th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment, IE 2008: Preface', Proceedings of The 5th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment, IE 2008.
Pisan, Y. 2007, 'My Guild, My People: Role of Guilds in Massively Multiplayer Online Games', IE2007: Proceedings of the 4th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment, Interactive Entertainment, RMIT Press, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-5.
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Massively Multiplayer Online Games continue to grow and attract more users. The social aspect of MMOs differentiates them from single person games, increase user loyalty and often result in users spending increasing amounts of time in these virtual environments. We examine World of Warcraft guilds and identify three components of group identity: affective, behavioral and cognitive components. We present the results of our online survey indicating that the affective component, users liking each other and enjoying their interaction with each other is the strongest component of group identity. The result is significant in understanding user behavior and loyalty in MMOs.
Pisan, Y. 2007, 'Dissecting Group Identity in MMOs', GameON-NA: The 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Games and Simulation, International Conference on Intelligent Games and Simulation, Eurosis-ETI, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA, pp. 67-69.
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Pisan, Y. 2007, 'Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment', The Proceedings of the Fourth Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment, Interactive Entertainment, RMIT Press, Melbourne, Australia.
Editor for the Proceedings of the 4th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment: http://ieconference.org/ie2007/IE2007proceedings/
Pisan, Y. 2007, 'My guild, my people: role of guilds in massively multiplayer online games.', IE, ACM, pp. 20-20.
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Berry, R., Naemura, M., Kobayashi, Y., Masahiro, T., Naomi, I., Pisan, Y. & Edmonds, E.A. 2006, 'An interface test bed for 'kansei' filters using the touch designer visual programming environment', The 7th Australian user interface conference(AUIC 2006), Australasian User Interface Conference, Australian Computer Society, Hobart, Australia, pp. 173-176.
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In the context of a larger project dealing with kansei analysis of movement, we present a basic method for applying real-time filters to human motion capture data in order to modify the perceived emotional affect of the movement. By employing a commercial realtime 3D package, we have been able to quickly prototype some interfaces to an as yet non-existent system. Filters are represented as physical objects whose proximity to an animated dancing human figure determine how much they modify the movement.
Kang, Y. & Pisan, Y. 2006, 'A Survey of Major Challenges and Future Directions for Next Generation Pervasive Computing', Computer and Information Sciences - ISCIS 2006: Lecture Notes In Computer Science, International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences, Springer Verlag, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 755-764.
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Pervasive computing has emerged as a new computing par- adigm with a great deal with appeal in our everyday environment. However, the benefits offered by this new computing paradigm are relatively below our expected standard. This paper discusses the major challenges for the next generation pervasive computing and the difficulties in developing a promising system to meet these challenges. Then, we present a survey that covers relevant existing approaches addressed to overcome the challenges. Finally, we highlight future research directions and present a new intriguing exploration, aiming to broaden the appeal and bridge the gap for the fulfillment of the challenges.
Kang, Y.-.B. & Pisan, Y. 2006, 'A Survey of Major Challenges and Future Directions for Next Generation Pervasive Computing.', ISCIS, Springer, pp. 755-764.
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Berry, R., Naemura, M., Kobayashi, Y., Tada, M., Inoue, N., Pisan, Y. & Edmonds, E. 2006, 'An interface test-bed for 'kansei' filters using the touch designer visual programming environment', Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology Series, pp. 163-166.
In the context of a larger project dealing with kansei analysis of movement, we present a basic method for applying real-time filters to human motion capture data in order to modify the perceived emotional affect of the movement. By employing a commercial realtime 3D package, we have been able to quickly prototype some interfaces to an as yet non-existent system. Filters are represented as physical objects whose proximity to an animated dancing human figure determine how much they modify the movement. © 2006, Australian Computer Society, Inc.
Welsh, S. & Pisan, Y. 2005, 'Enhancing information acquisition in game agents', Proceedings of the 2005 international conference on artificial intelligence ICAI 05 Vol.II, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, CSREA, Nevada, USA, pp. 527-533.
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Significant enhancements in the capabilities of software agents can result through improving how they acquire information. Decision making depends on getting the right information, but the issue of what actually constitutes the right information is complex. This paper outlines important characteristics of information acquisition in agents and suggests how to improve the effectiveness of information acquisition in agents in virtual worlds. By taking an affordance oriented approach it is possible to identify information resources that are efficient, reusable and well matched to the capabilities of game agents.
Pisan, Y. 2005, 'Everything I learned from the SIMS(TM): putting games in context', IADIS International conference www/Internet 2005 Proceedings II, IADIS International conference www/Internet, IADIS, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 96-100.
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Welsh, S. & Pisan, Y. 2005, 'Information-orientated design and Game AI', Proceedings of the second Australasian conference on Interactive entertainment, Interactive Entertainment, Creative and Cognition Studio Press, Sydney, Australia, pp. 227-234.
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Information is a resource that every AI relies on to operate effectively. Although information influences the capabilities and performance of AIs, it is not treated as a design issue. Changing the information available to an AI can potentially enhance or cripple its performance. More direct evaluation of issues such as information selection and acquisition can improve the performance of existing AI implementations. The influence of information on AI behaviour is examined with an emphasis on virtual worlds and game AI, as this domain provides both an effective research environment and opportunities for tangible improvements to AI behaviour.
Pisan, Y. 2005, 'Challenges for Network Computer Games', Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference WWW/Internet 2004 vol 1, WWW/Internet, IADIS Press, Madrid, Spain, pp. 589-595.
Interactive entertainment and specifically computer games has grown into a multi-billion industry in the last few years and continues to grow. This expansion has fueled a number of technologies and led to a wide variety of innovations. Current graphics card have moved from becoming part of the motherboard to be independent peripherals often as expensive as the rest of the computer. With graphics now reaching almost lifelike fidelity, the industry is looking at the next set of innovations that is going to differentiate their product. Part of this innovation will be in the area of artificial intelligence with increasingly humanlike characters, but a more important component will be through advances in network games. While most games already allow the users to play against other players over the internet and some games are specifically built as multiplayer games, they only use the network in a limited manner. The number of web pages, mailing lists and chat rooms devoted to virtual communities centered on specific games is an indication of the size of these communities. The underlying network technologies often limit what types of games are possible. We examine the challenges faced by current games, describe the current workarounds commonly used in the industry and look at the challenges that game developers, users, internet service providers, internet architects and protocol developers face to support this expanding and innovative industry.
Pisan, Y. & Wong, C. 2004, 'Tools for Creating Interactive Teaching Environments', IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, IEEE Computer Society, Joensuu, Finland, pp. 819-821.
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Although learning-by-doing is one of the most effective teaching and learning methodology, its application to some disciplines, such as history, is difficult even when using complex simulation environments. One possible solution is to combine learning-by-doing principles with gaming elements to create immersive and interesting virtual environments. Unfortunately, the level of programming required to create such environments makes it prohibitive for most educators. We describe the Graphical Interactive Fiction Toolkit, GIFT, system we have created that allows educators and writers to easily create interactive stories. While programmers will still be required for complex interactive environments, we believe GIFT can lower the entry bar and allow much richer set of interactive environments to be produced.
Pisan, Y., Richards, D., Sloane, A.M., Koncek, H. & Mitchell, S. 2003, 'A Web-based System for Automatic Program Critiquing.', ACE, Australian Computer Society, pp. 59-68.
Roy, J., Richards, D. & Pisan, Y. 2002, 'Helping teachers implement experience based learning', INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION, VOLS I AND II, PROCEEDINGS, pp. 1396-1397.
Pisan, Y., Sloane, A., Richards, D. & Dale, R. 2002, 'Providing timely feedback to large classes', INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION, VOLS I AND II, PROCEEDINGS, pp. 413-414.
Pisan, Y., Nayak, A., IEEE, IEEE & IEEE 2001, 'Increasing believability: Agents that justify their actions', 10TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FUZZY SYSTEMS, VOLS 1-3, pp. 1347-1350.
Pisan, Y. 2000, 'Extending requirement specifications using analogy', Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, pp. 70-76.
Creating the specifications for a new system is a labour intensive task. Analogical reasoning provides a flexible mechanism to retrieve and adapt past specifications. Previous work in applying analogical reasoning to requirement specifications has departed from the psychological foundations of analogical reasoning, introducing specific ontologies and abstract templates to constrain the reasoning process. We argue that similar results can be obtained without introducing domain specific constraints and that using analogical reasoning engines based on well-established psychological theories, such as the Structure-Mapping Engine, will lead to better results and scale up more effectively.
Pisan, Y. 1997, 'Controlling engineering problem solving', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 496-504.
© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997. Engineering problem solving requires both domain knowledge and an understanding of how to apply that knowledge. While much of the recent work in qualitative physics has focused on building reusable domain theories, there has been little attention paid to representing the control knowledge necessary for applying these models. This paper shows how qualitative representations and compositional modeling can be used to create control knowledge for solving engineering problems. This control knowledge includes modeling assumptions, plans and preferences. We describe an implemented system, called TPS (Thermodynamics Problem Solver) that illustrates the utility of these ideas in the domain of engineering thermodynamics. To date, TPS has solved over 30 problems, and its solutions are similar to those of experts. We argue that our control vocabulary can be extended to most engineering problem solving domains and employed in a variety of problem solving architectures.

Journal articles

Si, C., Pisan, Y., Tan, C.T. & Shen, S. 2017, 'An initial understanding of how game users explore virtual environments', Entertainment Computing, vol. 19, pp. 13-27.
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© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Spatial exploration is a core component of play in a rich and diverse range of modern video games. However, there is insufficient research into understanding spatial exploration in order to design better gameplay experiences. In this paper, we investigate the gameplay behaviors of 25 players across three types of exploration games by collecting in-game data, think-aloud data, questionnaire responses and post-game interview data. We use thematic analysis to analyze the data and map out four player exploration archetypes (PEAs): Wanderers, Seers, Pathers and Targeters. Then, a lens analysis is conducted to investigate the behavioral traits of these four archetypes to highlight different aspects of exploration. Gender, weekly gameplay time and real-life navigation abilities are the three factors which have been found to significantly impact the archetypes. Finally, the relationships between the participants' preferences to the terrain features and their archetypes are also investigated. These results match the participants' traits.
Tan, C., Huang, J. & Pisan, Y. 2013, 'Initial Perceptions of a Touch-based Tablet Handwriting Serious Game from a Player's Perspective', Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 8215, no. 1, pp. 172-175.
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This paper aims to evaluate a handwriting serious game that makes use of popular modern touch-based tablets to preserve traditional handwriting practice. A first playable prototype was built and a pilot study performed on an initial group of twenty participants. Significantly positive results were observed in the perceptions of usefulness and also across all gameplay dimensions except for flow.
Garcia Marin, J.A., Navarro, K.F., Schoene, D., Smith, S. & Pisan, Y. 2012, 'Exergames for the elderly: towards an embedded Kinect-based clinical test of falls risk', Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 51-57.
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Falls are the leading cause of disability, injuries or even death among older adults. Exercise programmes that include a balance component reduce the risk of falling by 40%. However, such interventions are often perceived as boring and drop-out rates are high. The characteristics of videogames may overcome this weakness and increase exercise adherence. The use of modern input devices, such as the Microsoft Kinect, enables quantification of player performance in terms of motor function while engaging with games. This capability has just started to be explored. The work presented in this paper focuses on the development of a Kinect-based system to deliver step training while simultaneously measuring parameters of stepping performance that have shown to predict falls in older people.
Bakkes, I.S., Tan, C. & Pisan, Y. 2012, 'Personalised Gaming', CoLab Journal of Creative Technologies, vol. 2012, no. 3, pp. 1-21.
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This article focuses on personalised games, which we define as games that utilise player models for the purpose of tailoring the game experience to the individual player. The main contribution of the article is a motivation for personalised gaming, supported by an extensive overview of scientific literature. The motivation concerns (a) the psychological foundation, (b) the effect on player satisfaction, (c) the contribution to game development, and (d) the requirement for achieving ambitions. The provided overview of scientific literature goes into the subject of player modelling, as well as eight adaptive components: (1) space adaptation, (2) mission / task adaptation, (3) character adaptation, (4) game mechanics adaptation, (5) narrative adaptation, (6) music / sound adaptation, (7) player matching (multiplayer), and (8) difficulty scaling. In the concluding sections, the relationship to procedural content generation is discussed, as well as the generalisation to other domains.
Pisan, Y. 2007, 'Book Review: Nick Montfort, Twisty Little Passages: An Approach to Interactive Fiction, MIT Press (2005) ISBN 0-262-13436-5.', Artificial Intelligence, vol. 171, no. 18, pp. 1124-1126.
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Berry, R., Makino, M., Hikawa, N., Naemura, M., Pisan, Y. & Edmonds, E.A. 2006, 'Programming in the world', Digital Creativity, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 36-48.
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Over eight years of working with computers, a recurring problem has been what to do when existing tools fail to grow along with artistic ideas. Having failed to become skilled at pro-gramming, I have repeatedly sought ways to deal with this problem. I describe my experi-ence of working with programmers and my adoption of various visual programming tools. I also describe some of the territories I have crossed in pondering the concepts of program-ming and computation, especially in regard to augmented reality. I also describe my group's recent work in augmented reality and music, as well as a promising approach to augmented reality authoring.
Pisan, Y. 2006, 'Artificial intelligence versus clever design for creating intelligent game characters', Journal of Computational Information Systems, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 429-433.
Although a variety of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have been integrated into games, the players' observation of intelligent characters in games is a reflection of not the strength of the AI techniques. But the result of intelligent design has gone into the games. Research describes the three components of intelligent design: emergence, anticipation and cheating, show how they extend current techniques to create believable characters. Intelligent design is a short-term solution. It proposed three models for reflective agents that can be used in games to extend believability and make next generation games possible. that are added during gameplay to having a library of models that the NPC switches between based on user feedback.