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Dr Xiaoying Kong

Biography

Xiaoying has broad interests in control engineering and software engineering.Her recent research work has been in GPS, inertial navigation systems, data fusion, robotics, sensor networks, Internet monitoring systems, agile software development methodologies, web technologies, web design methodologies, web architecture framework, analytical models of software development, and value-based software engineering. She has many years work experience in aeronautical industry, semiconductor industry, and software industry.

Image of Xiaoying Kong
Senior Lecturer, School of Computing and Communications
Member, A/DRsch Ctre for Real-Time Information Networks
Core Member, Centre for Real-Time Information Networks
BE (BUAA), ME (BUAA), PhD (Syd)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 2445
Room
CB11.08.200

Research Interests

Vehicle navigation systems: 

  • inertial navigation systems, quaternion algorithms, INS error propagation modeling  
  • Global Navigation Satellite Systems 
  • data fusion, INS/GPS integration 
  • vehicle sensor networks

Web Engineering:

  • web design methodologies 
  • web architecture framework
  • agile development methodologies
  • analytical models of software development 
Can supervise: Yes

Book Chapters

Kong, X., Liu, L. & Ryu, H. 2012, 'Activity-Artifact Flow of GPS/INS Integration for Positioning Error De-Correlation' in Fouzia Boukour Elbahhar and Atika Rivenq (eds), New Approach of Indoor and Outdoor Localization Systems, InTech, Rijeka, Crotia, pp. 193-212.
Vehicle positioning systems are composed of positioning sensors and positioning algorithms. Positioning sensors provide direct or indirect position, velocity, attitude and timing information. Positioning algorithms transfer sensor direct readings to desired positioning information. Positioning sensors are classified into absolute sensors and dead reckoning sensors (Sukkarieh, 2000). Absolute sensors directly provide the relationships between vehicle position and external positioning references. Dead reckoning sensors measure the vehicle+s position and orientation increment to its last moment without external references. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a widely used absolute positioning system using external satellite references. Inertial Navigation System (INS) is an example of dead reckoning positioning system. INS uses inertial measurement unit (IMU) to measure the self-contained position changing rate, then computes the desired positioning information. INS has been employed in navigation for rockets, missiles, aircrafts, land vehicles, ocean vessels and robots
Lowe, D.B., Murray, S.J. & Kong, X. 2011, 'Wireless Sensor Resource Usage Optimisation Using Embedded State Predictors' in Mohammad S. Obaidat and Joaquim Filipe (eds), e-Business and Telecommunications - ICETE 2009, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp. 320-331.
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The increasing prevalence and sophistication of wireless sensors is creating an opportunity for improving, or in many cases enabling, the real-time monitoring and control of distributed physical systems. However, whilst a major issue in the use of these sensors is their resource utilisation, there has only been limited consideration given to the interplay between the data sampling requirements of the control and monitoring systems and the design characteristics of the wireless sensors. In this paper we describe an approach to the optimization of the resources utilized by these devices based on the use of synchronized state predictors. By embedding state predictors into the sensors themselves it becomes possible for the sensors to predict their optimal sampling rate consistent with maintaining monitoring or control performance, and hence minimize the utilization of limited sensor resources such as power and bandwidth.
Tran, T.P., Tsai, P.C., Jan, T. & Kong, X. 2010, 'Network Intrusion Detection using Multi- expert Classification and Voting Techniques' in Yagang Zhang (ed), Machines Learning, In-Tech Education and Publishing, Vienna, Austria, pp. 267-290.
As the result of recent advent and rapid growth of the Internet, there have been an increasing number of corporations relying on computers and networks for communications and critical business transactions. Because of the network complexity and advanced hacking techniques, such reliance on computer networks often presents unanticipated risks and vulnerabilities. A huge volume of attacks on major sites and networks have been recently reported including those of private companies, government agencies and even military classified networks. Therefore, it is important to deploy protection measures for networks and their services from unauthorized modification, destruction, or disclosure of sensitive information. Intrusion detection systems (IDS) have emerged as an important part of today+s network security infrastructure which can monitor the network traffic and detect possible attacks. Currently existing IDS suffer from low detection accuracy and system robustness for new and rare security breaches.
Kong, X. & Scott, C.A. 2005, 'GPS-Aided INS Alignment Algorithm for IMU with Poor Sensitivity' in Liu, J.X. (eds), Mobile Robots: New Research, Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY, USA, pp. 259-290.
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Conference Papers

Kong, X., Liu, L., Tran, T.P. & Sandrasegaran, K. 2014, 'Analysis of Stakeholder Concerns for Vehicle Navigation System Architecture Solution', 2014 IEEE Fifth International Conference on Communicatiosn and Electronics (ICCE), Da Nang, Vietnam, June 2014 in The Fifth International Conference on Communications and Electronics, ed Quynh, N; Tran-Gia,P; Cho D; Freeman, P, Thomson Reuters, Da Nang, Vietnam, pp. 1-6.
Kong, X., Liu, L. & Chen, J. 2013, 'Modeling Impacts on Software Development Productivity', 2013 Asian Conference on the Social Sciences, Hong Kong, December 2013 in Advances in Social and Behavioral Sciences - 2013 Asian Conference on the Social Sciences, ed Ming Ma, Singapore Management and Sports Science Institute Advances in Social and Behavioral Sciences, Singapore, pp. 26-31.
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The mainstream approach to software development productivity has been on identifying factors of impacting on software development productivity and the static relations between the impact factors and performance. This paper presents a dynamic relationship based on economic theory. The findings provide practitioners with insight into how these factors interact and impact on project productivity. Through simulation based on the Analytical Theory of Project Investment, we have demonstrated the dynamic relationship between project duration, the uncertainty level of the perceived project value and the fixed project upfront cost.
Li, Y., Wang, J.J. & Kong, X. 2013, 'Zero velocity update with stepwise smoothing for inertial pedestrian navigation', International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Society, Surfers Paradise, Australia, July 2013 in International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Society 2013 Symposium Proceedings, ed Allison Kealy, Menay Pty Ltd, Australia, PO Box 413, Tweed Heads NSW 2485 Australia, pp. 1-10.
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Zero velocity update (ZUPT) is an effective way to correct low cost inertial measurement unit (IMU) errors when it is foot-mounted for pedestrian navigation. The stance phase in steps provides zero velocity measurement for inertial sensor error correction. As the errors of IMU estimated position and velocity grow rapidly with time between each correction, ZUPT applied at each step leads to sharp corrections and discontinuities in the estimated trajectory. For motion analysis and visualization, these large corrections are undesirable. Consequently, the implementation of smoothing for ZUPT-aided INS is considered to eliminate the sharp corrections. In this paper, we propose a closed loop Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) smoother using a 24 error states extended Kalman filter (EKF) implement on our previous pedestrian navigation systems. Unlike common RTS smoother which operates as off-line processing mode, a near-real-time stepwise smoother is implemented to eliminate the sharp corrections over the steps. The impact of the near real-time smoothing filter for different step manners (walk, run and climb stairs) combined with the Constant Velocity Update (CUPT) concept we proposed previously is illustrated and analysed. Experimental results show that the proposed method can dramatically improve pedestrian navigation smoothness.
Li, S., Kong, X. & Lowe, D.B. 2012, 'Dynamic Path of Mobile Beacon Employing Reinforcement Learning in WSN Localization', International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, Fukuoka, Japan, March 2012 in 2012 26th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), ed Leonard Barolli, IEEE Computer Society, Fukuoka, Japan, pp. 760-765.
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Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are extensively applied in civil and military areas. Localization is an essential prerequisite for many WSN applications, and is often based on beacons that provide geographical information in real time. Mobile Beacons (MB) can be used to replace many static beacons with paths that can be controlled in real-time. Robotic and/or flight vehicles can work as MBs. In this paper we consider the use of reinforcement learning (RL) (a significant branch of machine learning) to control MBs. Usually, RL needs an infinite series of episodes to determine an optimal policy. We propose however a method of localization employing mobile beacon whose behavior will be controlled by an adapted RL algorithm. A MB learns and makes decisions based on weighted information collected from unknown sensors. Simulation results show that the adapted RL algorithm provides sufficient information to the MB to localise unknown sensors in a lightweight but effective way
Li, S., Kong, X., Lowe, D.B. & Ryu, H. 2012, 'Wireless Sensor Network Localization with Autonomous Mobile Beacon by Path Finding', ICISA 2012, Suwon, South Korea, May 2012 in International Conference on Information Science and Applications (ICISA 2012), ed Kuinam Kim, IEEE Computer Society, Suwon South Korea, pp. 39-44.
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Sensor data with geographical information become ubiquitous with development of location base applications in various businesses. There is no exception to Wireless sensor network (WSN) as it is getting more practical under the booming of semiconductor industry. Localization of WSN usually depends on beacons that equip with GPS or GSM module. The cost of finance and energy hamper the application of WSN. Robot or flight vehicle called Mobile Beacon (MB) can relieve the issue and enhance the application area of WSN. Based on the framework we proposed in [14], we renovate the algorithm to find the best position for MB in every step by grouping weight of cosine similarity to mining the relation between responsible sensors. The MB machine works in an autonomous mode to find dynamic path without any supervision. In simulation, it is proved that the novel method makes the best of observation and covers unknown sensors as many as possible without heavy computation and struggle of energy. With appropriate parameters, the method can reach a 90% average coverage rate on any random distribution of sensors.
Chiu, C.C., Chaczko, Z.C. & Kong, X. 2012, 'Design of an Intelligent Health System Using Evolutionary Middleware for Sensor Actor Networks', 2012 International Conference on Information Science and Applications (ICISA), Suwon, South Korea, May 2012 in International Conference on Information Science and Applications (ICISA 2012), ed Kuinam Kim, IEEE Computer Society, Piscataway, USA, pp. 1-6.
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Information infrastructure for healthcare is undergoing a transformational shift in the way it is perceived and used by health professionals. This is driven by the need to unify patient records seamlessly, and integrate emerging technologies in the Sensor-Actor Network (SANET) realm that incorporate patient sensory systems such as wireless sensor networks and body-area networks. By harnessing The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF), it ensures integrity is considered throughout development processes by analyzing the problem space and scenarios, constraints, requirements, risks, enablers and inhibitors of the legacy application architectures. The proposed architecture with TOGAF components incorporating SANETs addresses the need to harmonize legacy operations in a consistent manner with industry best practice to ensure universal patient records are comprehensive and secure, thus protecting against identity theft and adhering to privacy regulation compliance.
Li, S., Lowe, D.B., Kong, X. & Braun, R.M. 2011, 'Wireless Sensor Network Localization Algorithm Using Dynamic Path of Mobile Beacon', Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (APCC), Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, October 2011 in APCC 2011; 17th Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications, ed Datuk Hod Parman, TSGN, IEEE, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, pp. 344-349.
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Localization is one of the basic prerequisites of sensors in various applications of wireless sensor networks. A beacon is a special sensor with geographical knowledge and which can be employed to help localize general sensors. A mobile beacon is treated as a replacement for many static beacons since it is movable and flexible and often powerful. The path of a mobile beacon will determine the rate of coverage and accuracy of position determination that it supports. Whereas a static path is planned before any localization action, a dynamic path is determined in real-time based on the demands of initially unknown sensors and hence can be more efficient than a static path. In this paper, we proposed a method of localization employed a mobile beacon whose path will be selected according to the real-time information of unknown sensors. The method is designed to be both +thrifty+ in both energy consumption and economical cost, and lightweight in terms of computation load. Simulation results show that the method is lightweight but effective and efficient.
Kong, X., Liu, L. & Lowe, D.B. 2011, 'A cost-effective design approach for integrated positioning system', International Conference on Modeling, Simulation and Applied Optimization, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April 2011 in 4th International Conference on Modeling, Simulation and Applied Optimization (ICMSAO), 2011, ed Marzuki Khalid, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ( IEEE ), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp. 1-6.
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Proceeding Web site: http://www.proceedings.com/11642.html IEEE site: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/mostRecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5771302
Kong, X., Liu, L. & Chen, J. 2011, 'Modeling Agile Software Maintenance Process Using Analytical Theory of Project Investment', 2011 International Conference on Advances in Engineering (ICAE 2011), Nanjing, China, December 2011 in 2011 International Conference on Advances in Engineering (ICAE 2011), ed Yi Yang, Elsevier, Procedia Engineering, pp. 138-142.
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A new modeling approach to analyze the impact of schedule pressure on the economic effectiveness of agile maintenance process is presented in this paper. Based on a causal loop diagram the authors developed earlier and the analytical theory of project investment, this paper analyzed the effect of schedule pressure on the economic effectiveness. Preliminary results show that maintenance effectiveness is low when schedule pressure is high, and is high when schedule pressure is low.
Kong, X., Liu, L. & Tran, T.P. 2010, 'Modeling Satellite Positioning Errors in Different Configurations from End User's Viewpoint', Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications, Auckland, October 2010 in 2010 16th Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (APCC2010), ed Adnan Al-Anbuky, Auckland University of Technology and IEEE, Auckland, pp. 34-39.
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Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) provide positioning service to civil applications. At the end user's side, these positioning services will have different position accuracy levels when satellite signal configurations and receiver noise levels are different. In this paper, a position error modeling is presented using a black-box approach. Using this approach, end users will treat the entire signal biases and receiver noises as a black-box transfer function. No efforts are made to model many different individual error sources of satellite signals and receivers. Further, a different type of sensor is chosen to aid the error de-correlation. Experimental results in different configurations are presented.
Lowe, D.B., Murray, S.J. & Kong, X. 2009, 'Using Synchronised Lightweight State Observers to Minimise Wireless Sensor Resource Utilisation', International Conference on Wireless Information Networks and Systems, Milan, Italy, July 2009 in WINSYS 2009: International Conference on Wireless Information Networks and Systems, ed Mohammad S. Obaidat and Rafael Caldeirinha, INSTICC - Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication, Portugal, pp. 5-12.
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A major trend in the evolution of the Web is the rapidly growing numbers of web-enabled sensors which provide a rich ability to monitor and control our physical environment. The devices are often cheap, lightweight, rapidly deployed and densely interconnected. The current dominant models of Web-based data monitoring are not well-adapted to the operational needs of these devices, particularly in terms of resource utilization. In this paper we describe an approach to the optimization of the resources utilized by these devices based on the use of synchronized state-observers. By embedding state observers with a minimized footprint into both the sensors and the monitoring Web client, we show that it is possible to minimize the utilization of limited sensor resources such as power and bandwidth, and hence to improve the performance and potential applications of these devices.
Kong, X. 2007, 'GPS Modeling in Frequency Domain', International conference on Wireless Broadband and Ultra Wideband Communication, Sydney Australia, August 2007 in The 2nd International Conference on Wireless Broadband and Ultra Wideband Communications, 2007. AusWireless 2007, ed Johnson Agbinya, IEEE, Sydney Australia, pp. 61-66.
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Although DGPS provides positioning information with high precision, when DGPS is unavailable in some situations, stand-alone GPS has to be used in vehicle navigation. The accuracy of standard GPS is low due to position measurement errors. This paper presents a frequency domain modeling approach to model GPS errors and increase GPS positioning accuracy. This approach models GPS errors using shaping filter. External sensors are employed to reduce GPS errors. This paper also presents an approach to select external sensors to meet the quality requirements of positioning system.
Liu, L., Kong, X. & Chen, J. 2006, 'An Economic Model of Software Development Approaches', Australian World Wide Web Conference, Australia Noosa Lakes, July 2006 in Proceedings of the Twelfth Australian World Wide Web Conference, ed Andrew Trekoar, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia, pp. 64-70.
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Zhang, X., Kong, X. & Lowe, D.B. 2006, 'Electronic Government Development in China', International We-B (Working for E-Business) Conference, Melbourne, Australia, November 2006 in Proceedings of 7th International We-B (Working for E-Business) Conference 2006 e-Business: how far have we come?, ed Peter Shackleton, Electronic Commerce Research Unit ECRU, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 317-328.
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Gu, Y., Kong, X. & Lowe, D.B. 2006, 'Adaptive Web Navigation Construction: A Machine Learning Approach', International We-B (Working for E-Business) Conference, Melbourne, Australia, November 2006 in Proceedings of 7th International We-B (Working for E-Business) Conference 2006 e-Business: how far have we come?, ed Peter Shackleton, Electronic Commerce Research Unit ECRU, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 158-166.
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Kong, X., Liu, L. & Lowe, D.B. 2005, 'Web system trace model using a web application architecture framework', IEEE International Conference on e-Technology, e-Commerce and e-Service, Hong Kong, China, March 2005 in Proceedings of 2005 IEEE International Conference On E-Technology, E-Commerce And E-Service, ed Cheung, W; Hsu, J, IEEE Computer Society, Conference Publishing Services, Danver, USA, pp. 508-513.
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N/A
Kong, X., Liu, L. & Lowe, D.B. 2005, 'Modelling an Agile Web Maintenance Process', Annual ANZSYS/Managing the Complex V Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand, December 2005 in Systems Thinking and Complexity Science: Insights for Action, ed Richardson; K. Gregory; W. Midgley; G., ISCE Publishing, Christchurch, New Zealand, pp. 1-6.
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Kong, X., Liu, L. & Lowe, D.B. 2005, 'Supporting Web User Interface Prototyping through Information Modeling and System Architecting', IEEE International Conference on e-Business Engineering, Beijing, China, October 2005 in ICEBE 2005, ed Chen; G. Chung; J, Ni; L., IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, USA, pp. 63-70.
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Existing design methods used for developing webcentric systems are mostly adapted from methods for designing traditional software systems. Web-centric systems however differ from traditional software systems, in terms of both organizational and technical characteristics. Effective design methods for webcentric systems need to address these characteristics specific to web-centric systems. This paper proposes a design method for web-centric systems. The de-sign process comprises three steps: prototyping, information modeling and sys-tem architecture design. The method is differentiated from existing design methods in that the design process commences from user interface prototyping. Information modeling activities are further enhanced in this method. To cope with the complexity of web systems, each design step is partitioned into both structural modeling and behavioral modeling. The design method is illustrated by applying the method to the design of a commercial web application.
Kong, X. & Lowe, D.B. 2005, 'NavOptim Coding: Web Navigational Construction to Minimise Navigation Effort', Australian World Wide Web Conference, Gold Coast, Australia, July 2005 in The Eleventh Australian World Wide Web Conference, ed Ellis A, Norsearch Conference Service, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 1-9.
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Web applications have rapidly become critical to the interaction that organisations have with their external stakeholders. A major factor in the effectiveness of this interaction is the ease with which users can locate information and functionality which they are seeking. Effective design is however complicated by the multiple purposes and users which Web applications typically support. In our earlier work we described a model for evaluating the overall navigation entropy of a Web application which provides a measure of the weighted effort required of users. In this paper we describe a navigational design method aimed at minimizing this navigational entropy. The approach uses a theoretical navigational depth for the various information and service components to moderate a nested hierarchical clustering of the content.
Lowe, D.B. & Kong, X. 2005, 'Applying NavOptim to Minimise Navigational Effort', International World Wide Web Conference, Chiba, Japan, May 2005 in Proceedings: the 14th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2005), ed Iwano, K; Dom, B; Uramoto, N., acm Press, Danvers, MA 01923, USA, pp. 1056-1057.
Kong, X. & Lowe, D.B. 2005, 'NavOptim: On the Possibility of Minimising Navigation Effort', International Conference on Web Engineering, Sydney, Australia, July 2005 in Web Engineering, ed Lowe, D; Gaedke, M., Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 581-584.
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Web applications have rapidly become critical to the interaction that organisations have with their external stakeholders. A major factor in the effectiveness of this interaction is the ease with which users can locate information and functionality which they are seeking. Effective design is complicated by the multiple purposes and users which Web applications support. In our earlier work we described a model for evaluating the weighted effort required of users. In this paper we describe an approach to minimizing this navigational effort.
Kong, X. & Liu, L. 2004, 'A Web Application Architecture Framework', Australian World Wide Web Conference, Gold Coast, Australia, July 2004 in Proceedings of the 10th Australian World Wide Web Conference, ed Ellis, A, and Treloar, A., Norsearch Reprographics, Gold Coast, Australia, pp. 301-313.
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Ceglarek, T. & Kong, X. 2004, 'webXstream - An Optimal Methodology for Web Development', Australian World Wide Web Conference, Gold Coast, Australia, July 2004 in Proceedings of the 10th Australian World Wide Web Conference, ed Ellis, A. and Treloar, A., Norsearch Reprographics, Gold Coast, Australia, pp. 171-184.
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Lowe, D.B. & Kong, X. 2004, 'NavOptim Coding: Supporting Website Navigation Optimisation Using Effort Minimisation', IEEE/WIC/ACM international Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology, Beijing, China, September 2004 in Proceedings of The 2004 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence, ed Zhong, N., IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, California, USA, pp. 91-97.
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Web applications have rapidly become critical to the interaction that organisations have with their external stakeholders. A major factor in the effectiveness of this interaction is the ease with which navigation within the application can occur, and especially the extent to which users can locate information and functionality which they are seeking. Effective design is however complicated by the multiple purposes and users which Web applications typically support. Despite the fact that this implies that navigation design is inherently an optimisation problem, few optimisation techniques have been applied in this domain - with most design techniques being based on intuition, general heuristics, or experimental refinement. In this paper we discuss this problem, and propose a navigation representation which can become the basis for optimisation techniques.
Kong, X. & Liu, L. 2003, 'Critical Feature Method - A Lightweight Web Maintenance methodology for SMEs', International We-B Conference, Perth, Australia, November 2003 in 4th International We-B Conference 2003, ed Knight, S; Croft, L; Lachowicz, E., We-B Centre, School of Management Information Systems, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, pp. 1-9.
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Journal Articles

Li, S., Kong, X. & Sandrasegaran, K. 2014, 'Dynamic path of mobile beacon in localisation of wireless sensor network', International Journal of Sensor Networks, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 130-141.
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Localisation of sensors within wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with the help of mobile beacons (MB) has been shown to be effective. MB is flexible, movable and a powerful replacement for static beacons. The path of a MB within a field of interest is a determining factor of the success of an algorithm. In static paths, the path is determined a priori, often following a fixed pattern and potentially limited by the concrete terrain of the field. Conversely a dynamic path, which is based on the demand of sensors in the field in a real time, is more flexible and applicable in practice. In this paper, a localisation algorithm that is based on a MB dynamic path is proposed which avoids typical complications and heavy computations to save energy in sensors. Simulation results show that the algorithm can settle sensors within a short walking distance of autonomous MB.
Guo, L., Li, X. & Kong, X. 2013, 'Analysis on GNSS receiver with the principles of signal and information', Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 328, no. 1, pp. 261-265.
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In the paper, principles of signal and information were introduced to the design of GNSS receiver. Analyze Antenna and radio frequency (RF) front-end with the perspective of transmission link, Understand the baseband processing though signal modulate and
Li, X., Guo, L., Kong, X. & Gao, S. 2013, 'Conflicts analysis and validation of inertial sensors aided GPS carrier tracking loop', Sensor Letters, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 805-811.
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Considering that the GPS carrier tracking loop is fragile in high dynamic and weak signal environments, carrier tracking loop with information aided from inertial sensors is designed in this paper. The conflicts between loop noise and dynamic stress are analyzed, which are existed in the bandwidth design of carrier tracking loop. To address this problem, the information of inertial sensors is brought to the carrier loop design, which takes advantage of the relation between relative motion and Doppler frequency shift. Simulation results indicate the inertial sensors aided tracking loop could improve the performance of anti-interference and anti-dynamic significantly.
Xu, Z., Sandrasegaran, K., Kong, X., Zhu, X., Hu, B., Zhao, J. & Lin, C. 2013, 'Pedestrain Monitoring System Using Wi-Fi Technology and RSSI Based Localization', International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 17-34.
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This paper presentsa new simple mobile tracking system based on IEEE802.11 wireless signal detection, which can be used for analyzingthe movement of pedestrian traffic. Wi-Fi packets emitted by Wi-Fi enabled smartphones are received at a monitoring station and these packets contain date, time, MAC address, and other information. The packets are received at a number of stations, distributed throughout the monitoring zone, which can measure the received signal strength. Based on the location of stations and data collected at the stations, the movement of pedestrian traffic can be analyzed. This information can be used to improve the services, such as better bus schedule time and better pavement design. In addition, this paper presents a signal strength based localization method.
Kong, X., Liu, L. & Tran, T.P. 2012, 'A Cost-Effective System Design Approach for Vehicle Positioning Using GNSS/INS Integration', International Journal of Vehicle Safety, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 28-47.
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This paper presents a system design approach for vehicle positioning systems. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and inertial sensors are major positioning measurements used in this approach. A number of phases are designed in this approach including: system architecture design using an estimator, GNSS error modeling, estimator low level design, simulation and experiment design, frequency domain simulation, time domain experiment, sensor selection and deployment decision making. This approach enables to model GNSS errors from end user's view point, and choose low cost inertial sensors to meet positioning system requirements using a new sensor selection criterion.
Tran, T.P., Nguyen, T., Tsai, P.C. & Kong, X. 2011, 'BSPNN: boosted subspace probabilistic neural network for email security', Artificial Intelligence Review, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 369-382.
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Detailed information on ACM DL web site: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1969389.1969400 "BSPNN: boosted subspace probabilistic neural network for email security"
Kong, X. 2008, 'A shaping filter approach to model GPS errors', Int. J. Vehicle Information and Communication Systems, vol. 1, no. 3/4, pp. 181-194.
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Although Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) provides positioning information with high precision, when DGPS is unavailable in some situations, stand-alone GPS has to be used in vehicle navigation. The accuracy of standard GPS is low due to position measurement errors. This paper presents a frequency domain modelling approach to model GPS errors and increase GPS positioning accuracy. This approach models GPS errors using shaping filter. External sensors are employed to reduce GPS errors. This paper also presents an approach to select external sensors to meet the accuracy requirements of positioning system.
Kong, X., Liu, L. & Lowe, D.B. 2007, 'A Web System Trace Model and Its Application to Web Design', Journal of Digital Information, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-29.
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Kong, X. 2004, 'INS algorithm using quaternion model for low cost IMU', Robotics And Autonomous Systems, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 221-246.
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Kong, X., Liu, L. & Lowe, D.B. 2004, 'Critical Feature Method - A Lightweight Web Maintenance Methodology for SMEs', Journal of Digital Information, vol. 5, no. 2.
Kong, X., Liu, L. & Lowe, D.B. 2004, 'Separation of Concerns: a Web Application Architecture Framework', Journal of Digital Information, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 1-20.
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Architecture frameworks have been extensively developed and described within the literature. These frameworks typically support and guide organisations during system planning, design, building, deployment and maintenance. Their main pupose is to provide clarity to the different modelling perspectives, abstractions, and domains of consideration within system development. In dpoing so they allow improved clarity with regard to the connections between the different models, and the selection of models tht are most likely to capture salient features of the system. In this paper we present an Architectural Framework which takes into account the specific characteristics of web systems. The framework is based around a two dimensional matrix. One dimension separates the concerns of different participants of the web system into perspectives. The second dimension classifies each perspective into development abstractions: structure (what), behaviour (how), location (where) and pattern. The framework is illustrated through examples from the development of a commercial web application.