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Associate Professor Valerie Gay

Biography

Valerie Gay has more than 25 years of teaching and research experience in leading research laboratories in Europe and Australia;  

She is the BSc (Honours) IT course coordinator and the director of the mHealth lab in the UTS research centre for Innovation in IT services and Applications (iNEXT).

Academic Qualifications

  • Doctor of Science (Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches), University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France - 1997
  • PhD, University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France - 1991
  • Master of Philosophy (Diplôme d'Etudes Approfondies), University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France - 1987
  • Master of Computer science, University Jules Verne, Amiens, France- 1986

Professional History

  • Associate Professor in Computing Sciences, FEIT, UTS - 1999-2000 / 2003-Now  
  • Associate Professor in Computing Sciences. Teaching: University of Technology, Amiens, Research: Pierre et Marie Curie University, Paris 6, France. 1985-1999 / 2000-2003 
  • Visiting appointments at the University of Twente - The Netherlands (2000-2003, 2007 and 2011) and the Federal University of Espirito Santo (UFES) - Vitória – Brazil (2007 and 2011).

Image of Valerie Gay
Associate Professor, School of Computing and Communications
Core Member, Centre for Innovation in IT Services Applications
Associate Member, Centre for Health Technologies
BCompSc (Hons) (Le Havre), MCompSc (Amiens), DEA (UPMC), PhD (UPMC), HDR (UPMC)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 4645
Room
CB11.08.108

Research Interests

Valerie Gay's research focus  is on the design of networked and mobile applications that contributes to economic and social development.

Her current work addresses 2 national research priorities – promoting and maintaining good health and Frontier technologies for building and transforming Australian industries.

She is the director of the mHealth lab in the UTS research centre for Innovation in IT services and Applications (iNEXT).

Current Research Domains 

  • Design of mobile applications
  • Health informatics
  • Health social media
  • Health and serious game, gamification
  • Mobile Health

Current Projects

Personal Health Monitoring (myFitnessCompanion.com): Personalised, intelligent, innovative, non-intrusive, real time health and fitness monitoring using wireless sensors. 

Emotion-aware Apps (CaptureMyEmotion): Use of sensor technologies and facial expression recognition to sense emotions and create emotion-aware apps. Design of a suite of Apps to provide a very personalised way to help autistic children and their carers understanding and managing their emotions. 

SocialCycle: combining social network, sensors and online information to motivate people to exercise using their bicycle in the city and meet and exchange tips with their friends.

Can supervise: Yes

Valerie Gay has more than 25 years of lecturing experience in Universities of Technology in France  and in Australia. Her experience extends across Computer Science, Telecommunications, Software, Mobile Commerce  and Networking.

She is the BSc (Honours) IT course coordinator.

Current Subjects:

  • Lecturer and coordinator of Contemporary Telecommunications (32702) and Mobile Commerce Technologies (32001)
  • Coordinator of the Honours project (31482)

Chapters

Slembek, I. & Gay, V. 2001, 'An architecture for the support of knowledge-intensive e-business processes', pp. 113-120.

Conferences

Gay, V., Leijdekkers, P., Gill, A. & Felix Navarro, K. 2015, 'Le Bon Samaritain: A Community-Based Care Model Supported by Technology.', Stud Health Technol Inform, Netherlands, pp. 50-55.
BACKGROUND: The effective care and well-being of a community is a challenging task especially in an emergency situation. Traditional technology-based silos between health and emergency services are challenged by the changing needs of the community that could benefit from integrated health and safety services. Low-cost smart-home automation solutions, wearable devices and Cloud technology make it feasible for communities to interact with each other, and with health and emergency services in a timely manner. OBJECTIVES: This paper proposes a new community-based care model, supported by technology, that aims at reducing healthcare and emergency services costs while allowing community to become resilient in response to health and emergency situations. METHODS: We looked at models of care in different industries and identified the type of technology that can support the suggested new model of care. Two prototypes were developed to validate the adequacy of the technology. RESULTS: The result is a new community-based model of care called 'Le Bon Samaritain'. It relies on a network of people called 'Bons Samaritains' willing to help and deal with the basic care and safety aspects of their community. Their role is to make sure that people in their community receive and understand the messages from emergency and health services. The new care model is integrated with existing emergency warning, community and health services. CONCLUSION: Le Bon Samaritain model is scalable, community-based and can help people feel safer, less isolated and more integrated in their community. It could be the key to reduce healthcare cost, increase resilience and drive the change for a more integrated emergency and care system.
Leijdekkers, P. & Gay, V.C. 2015, 'Improving User engagement by Aggregating and Analysing Health and Fitness Data on a mobile device', Inclusive Smart Cities and e-Health, Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, ICOST 2015, Springer Series: Information Systems and Applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 325-330.
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Nowadays, health, fitness and contextual data can be ubiquitously collected using wearable devices, sensors and smart phones and be stored in various servers and devices. However, to engage users in active monitoring of their health and fitness, it is essential to personalise the monitoring and have all the relevant data in one place. It is also important to give users control on how their data is collected, analysed, presented and stored. This paper presents how those important features are integrated in myFitnessCompanion®, an Android Health and fitness app developed by our team. The app is able to aggregate data from multiple sources, keep it on the phone or export it to servers or Electronic Health Records (EHR). It can also present the aggregated data in a personalised manner. A mobile app such as myFitnessCompanion® is a solution to the personalisation, interoperability and control issues that are key to user engagement.
Gay, V.C., Pradhan, S. & Nepal, S. 2015, 'Analysing and Using Subjective Criteria to Improve Dental Care Recommendation Systems', PACIFIC ASIA CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION SYSTEMS (PACIS), Singapore.
Online reviews and rating sites are shaping industries as the users rely on recommendations given by former consumers and sharing opinions on the web. Dentistry has also been impacted by dental patients' reviews. This paper classifies trust-related information for dental care recommendations onto 4 categories: context, relationship, reputation and subjective criteria. It discusses each category and describes how they help focussing on trust when matching patients and dentists in brief. The paper then focuses on subjective criteria and presents the results of a survey aimed at showing trust-related information emerged from subjective characteristics. Traits of personalities are used as subjective characteristics of patients and that of dentists are derived from the online patients' reviews. 580 Australian patients were surveyed to determine what factors affect their decision to find the trusted dentist. Subjective characteristics of dentists such as dentists' qualities and experienced dentists are considered the most important factors after location and cost. The most preferred dentists' qualities by almost all types of personalities are experienced, professional and quality of service. When the patients are further classified based on levels of fear, their preferences for dentists' qualities changed. Subjective qualities of both patients and dentists are important factors to improve the matching capability for the dental care recommendation systems.
Pradhan, S. & Gay, V. 2014, 'Introducing Patient and Dentist Profiling and Crowdsourcing to Improve Trust in Dental Care Recommendation Systems', IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, 8th IFIP WG 11.11 International Conference on Trust Management VIII, IFIPTM 2014, Springer, Singapore, pp. 221-228.
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Healthcare blogs, podcasts, search engines and health social networks are now widely used, and referred as crowdsources, to share information such as opinions, side effects, medication and types of therapies. Attitudes and behaviours of the users play a vital role on how they create, share, retrieve and utilise the information for their own or recommend to others for specific health issues. Our research aims at defining a framework to design recommendation system that uses profiling and social networks in dental care. This paper focuses on trust derived in direct interaction between a patient and a dentist from subjective characteristics' point of view. It highlights that attitudes, behaviours and perception of both patients and dentists are important social elements, which enhance trust and improve the matching process between them. This study forms a basis for our profile-based trust framework for dynamic dental care recommendation systems.
Pradhan, S., Gay, V., Nepal, S., Sun, Y., Wang, W., Qin, J., Zhang, Y., Lin, X., Nur, T., Johnsson, M.C. & others 2014, 'IMPROVING THE MATCHING PROCESS OF DENTAL CARE RECOMMENDATION SYSTEMS BY USING SUBJECTIVE CRITERIA FOR BOTH PATIENTS AND DENTISTS'.
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Pradhan, S., Gay, V. & Nepal, S. 2014, 'Improving dental care recommendation systems using trust and social networks', Communications (ICC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on, 2014 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC),, IEEE, Sydney, pp. 4264-4269.
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The growing popularity of Health Social Networking sites has a tremendous impact on people's health related experiences. However, without any quality filtering, there could be a detrimental effect on the users' health. Trust-based techniques have been identified as effective methods to filter the information for recommendation systems. This research focuses on dental care related social networks and recommendation systems. Trust is critical when choosing a dental care provider due to the invasive nature of the treatment. Surprisingly, current dental care recommendation systems do not use trust-based techniques, and most of them are simple reviews and ratings sites. This research aims at improving dental care recommendation systems by proposing a new framework, taking trust into account. It derives trust from both users' social networks and from existing crowdsourced information on dental care. Such a framework could be used for other healthcare recommendation systems where trust is of major importance.
Pradhan, S., Gay, V. & Nepal, S. 2014, 'Improving Dental Care Recommendation Systems Using Patient and Dentist Profiling', Proceedings of the 25th Australasian Conference on Information Systems, ACIS, Auckland, New Zealand.
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Online social networks are emerging in a fast pace as people have started to rely on the information presented on such platforms as a source for many day-to-day activities such as travel, shopping, healthcare, weather and even government services. However, the usage seems to be far less for the healthcare and dental care recommendation sites. This paper investigates whether adding profiling would make a difference in the quality of the recommendation. It analyses dentists' qualities from online dental reviews. The patients are classified based on their dental behavior and type of personality obtained from a popular personality test. A survey on 207 participants confirms that participants with different personality prioritise dentists' qualities differently when selecting their ideal dentist. From this finding, this paper recommends integrating subjective characteristics while profiling both dentists and patients in dental recommendation systems.
Gay, V.C., Leijdekkers, P. & Wu, Q. 2013, 'Helping Autistic Children Understand Their Emotions Using Facial Expression Recognition and Mobile Technologies', 26th Bled eConference eInnovations, 26th Bled eConference eInnovations, AISeL, Bled, Slovenia, pp. 409-420.
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One of the main challenges for autistic children is to identify and express emotions. Many emotion-learning apps are available for smartphones and tablets to assist autistic children and their carers. However, they do not use the full potential offered by mobile technology, such as using facial expression recognition and wireless biosensors to recognise and sense emotions. To fill this gap we developed CaptureMyEmotion, an Android App that uses wireless sensors to capture physiological data together with facial expression recognition to provide a very personalised way to help autistic children learn about their emotions. The App enables children to capture photos, videos or sounds, and simultaneously attach emotion data and a self-portrait photo. The material can then be reviewed and discussed together with a carer at a later stage. CaptureMyEmotion has the potential to help autistic children integrate better in the society by providing a new way for them to understand their emotions.
Pradhan, S., Gay, V.C. & Nepal, S. 2013, 'Social Networking and Dental Care : State of the Art and Analysis of the Impact on Dentists, Dental Practices and their Patients', 26th Bled eConferences, 26th Bled eConference, University of Maribor, Bled, Slovenia, pp. 178-189.
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Health Social networking sites offering search, reviews and recommendation are gaining popularity. This paper reviews the most popular social networking sites related to dental care. Social networks such as DrOogle and Yelp enable their users to review and rate their dentists and dental practices. Such information is then used to rank and recommend dentists or dental practices to new users/patients. This paper compares the dental care social networking sites in terms of their features and criteria supported for search, reviews and recommendations of dentists or dental practices. Mismatches between features and criteria among different dental care reviews sites are identified, which may cause inconsistency in the recommendations in the dental care. Therefore, this paper proposes a new framework for dynamic dental care recommendation system which takes both local (personalised) and global (crowdsourced) trust into account. It analyses the impact of current social networks on dentists, dental practices and their patients. Finally, it identifies the open issues and challenges that need to be addressed to design a trustworthy recommendation system for both the dental professionals and their patients.
Ahad, M.T., Dyson, L.E. & Gay, V.C. 2013, 'Exploring M-Banking for Rural SMEs from the Bank's Perspective: A Focus Group Study in Bangladesh', Proceedings of the 2013 Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), 2013, The Association for Information Systems (AIS), Jeju Island, South Korea, pp. 1-14.
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There is relatively little known about the m-banking use by the rural small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Bangladesh. This research fills the gap by presenting the key advantages of using mbanking by the rural SMEs that a bank can offer in Bangladesh. The research also reports on the critical country level-factors, organizational success factors and obstacles in m-banking adoption for rural SMEs. A focus group was interviewed and the data were analysed using NVivo9.The findings indicate that improved banking facility, an opportunity to create employment in rural area, easy settlement of trade between SMEs, better cash management are some important advantages of mbanking for the rural SMEs. Technology and human resource capabilities of the banks together with the development of mobile infrastructure are some influential factors in m-banking development in Bangladesh. This paper also identifies engagement with the SMEs as an important organizational factor in m-banking diffusion for rural SME that have been rarely identified in prior literature. However, the major constraints are the operational constraints such as cash management, policy and regulation and administrative obstacles. Recommendation for a business version m-banking, joint advertisement by the banks and mobile telecom organisations and a regional m-banking platform are also new knowledge in m-banking research. This is one of the few papers from the perspective of a bank, since most of the literature approaches the matter from the consumer standpoint. The outcomes and results of this research will be of potential value to the government, banks and mobile telecommunications in accelerating the development of m-banking in Bangladesh and in other developing countries.
Leijdekkers, P., Gay, V. & Wong, F. 2013, 'CaptureMyEmotion: A mobile app to improve emotion learning for autistic children using sensors', Proceedings of CBMS 2013 - 26th IEEE International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems, pp. 381-384.
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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is estimated to affect one in eighty-eight children and many mobile apps are available from Google Play or Apple store to help these children and their carer. Our research into apps for autistic children identified that none of the apps use the full potential offered by mobile technology and sensors to overcome one of autistic children's main difficulty: the identification and expression of emotions. This paper describes a mobile app called CaptureMyEmotion that enables autistic children to take photos, videos or sounds, and at the same time senses their arousal level using a wireless sensor. It also allows the child to comment on their emotion at the time of capture. The app has the potential to help autistic children improve their emotions learning based on their own pictures, videos or sounds. It gives the carer a means to discuss the identification and expression of emotions. © 2013 IEEE.
Gay, V., Leijdekkers, P. & Wong, F. 2013, 'Using sensors and facial expression recognition to personalize emotion learning for autistic children', Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, pp. 71-76.
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This paper describes CaptureMyEmotion, an app for smartphones and tablets which uses wireless sensors to capture physiological data together with facial expression recognition to provide a very personalized way to help autistic children identify and understand their emotions. Many apps are targeting autistic children and their carer, but none of the existing apps uses the full potential offered by mobile technology and sensors to overcome one of autistic children's main difficulty: the identification and expression of emotions. CaptureMyEmotion enables autistic children to capture photos, videos or sounds, and identify the emotion they felt while taking the picture. Simultaneously, a self-portrait of the child is taken, and the app measures the arousal and stress levels using wireless sensors. The app uses the self-portrait to provide a better estimate of the emotion felt by the child. The app has the potential to help autistic children understand their emotions and it gives the carer insight into the child's emotions and offers a means to discuss the child's feelings. © 2013 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.
Pradhan, S. & Gay, V.C. 2013, 'Towards a New Trust Model for Health Social Networks', The 8th International Conference on Internet and Web Application adn Services, ICIW 2013, The 8th International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services, IARIA, Rome, Italy, pp. 52-57.
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More specifid purpose driven social networking sites have emerged since social networking sites have gained popularity by bringing people with shared interests together to interact. In health care, they are referred as Health Social Networks (HSNs). Given the sensitive nature of health information, trust ist he fundamental for them. The emergence of pervasive and ubiquitous computing environment and overwhelming information available online is helping the health social sites gain popularityat a fast pace. Health social networkers aare willing to create, share or retrieve trustworthy health or lifestyle related information. Therefore, it is essential that trust is stipulated and scrutinised to understand how the users perceive healthcare, how they decide to interact with HSNs. This paper analyses external factors such as perceived information quality, perceived system quality, perceived reputation and perceived trust signs which impact the trust model for HSNs. In particular, 'perceived reputation' based on the factor 'who has recommended the site' is given an emphasis on this paper. It hightlights that popularity of social networking sites is changing the way trust models have been devined in the past. This is because social relationship created via social networking sites are also impacting on choosing the HSNs and how users are sharing health information on these platforms
Navarro, K.F., Gay, V., Golliard, L., Johnston, B., Leijdekkers, P., Vaughan, E., Wang, X. & Williams, M.-.A. 2013, 'SocialCycle: What can a mobile app do to encourage cycling?', Proceedings - Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 24-30.
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Traffic congestion presents significant environmental, social and economic costs. Encouraging people to cycle and use other forms of alternate transportation is one important aspect of addressing these problems. However, many city councils face significant difficulties in educating citizens and encouraging them to form new habits around these alternate forms of transport. Mobile devices present a great opportunity to effect such positive behavior change. In this paper we discuss the results of a survey aimed at understanding how mobile devices can be used to encourage cycling and/or improve the cycling experience. We use the results of the survey to design and develop a mobile app called SocialCycle, which purpose is to encourage users to start cycling and to increase the number of trips that existing riders take by bicycle. © 2013 IEEE.
Leijdekkers, P., Gay, V. & Wong, F. 2013, 'CaptureMyEmotion: A mobile app to improve emotion learning for autistic children using sensors', Proceedings - IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., pp. 381-384.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is estimated to affect one in eighty-eight children and many mobile apps are available from Google Play or Apple store to help these children and their carer. Our research into apps for autistic children identified that none of the apps use the full potential offered by mobile technology and sensors to overcome one of autistic children's main difficulty: the identification and expression of emotions. This paper describes a mobile app called CaptureMyEmotion that enables autistic children to take photos, videos or sounds, and at the same time senses their arousal level using a wireless sensor. It also allows the child to comment on their emotion at the time of capture. The app has the potential to help autistic children improve their emotions learning based on their own pictures, videos or sounds. It gives the carer a means to discuss the identification and expression of emotions. © 2013 IEEE.
Gay, V. & Leijdekkers, P. 2012, 'Personalised mobile health and fitness apps: Lessons learned from myFitnessCompanion', Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, pp. 248-253.
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Smartphones and tablets are slowly but steadily changing the way we look after our health and fitness. Today, many high quality mobile apps are available for users and health professionals and cover the whole health care chain, i.e. information collection, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. Our team has developed a mobile health and fitness app called myFitnessCompanion® which has been available via Android market since February 2011. The objective of this paper is to share our experience with rolling out a mobile health and fitness app. We discuss the acceptance of health apps by end-users and healthcare industry. We discuss how mobile health apps will be distributed in the near future, the use of Personal Health Record (PHR) systems such as Microsoft HealthVault and the impact of regulations (FDA) on the future of mobile health apps. The paper is based on seven years of experience by the authors as mobile health and fitness application developers and we discuss the challenges and opportunities for app developers in the health industry. © 2012 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.
Ahad, M.T., Dyson, L. & Gay, V. 2012, 'Towards an M-banking framework for rural SMEs in Bangladesh', INNOVATION VISION 2020: SUSTAINABLE GROWTH, ENTREPRENEURSHIP, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, VOLS 1-4, pp. 1153-1164.
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Gay, V. & Leijdekkers, P. 2011, 'The good, the bad and the ugly about social networks for health apps', Proceedings - 2011 IFIP 9th International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, EUC 2011, pp. 463-468.
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Mobile devices are blending into our lives and change the way we manage our social life but also how we look after our health. Hundreds of health apps are available for mobile devices and many use social network functionalities that allow users to exchange personal experiences and discuss their health with others. This has many positive results but also negative side effects. This paper discusses the good, the bad and the ugly about social network integration with mobile health applications. It is based on a comprehensive review of literature, social networking health forums, surveys, and our own experience with health apps for mobile devices. © 2011 IEEE.
Qudah, I., Leijdekkers, P. & Gay, V.C. 2011, 'Proposed Novel Solution to Improve Medication Adherence for Cardiac Patients', 2011 IEEE Jordan Conference on Applied Electrical Engineering and Computing Technologies (AEECT), IEEE Comptuting Society, Jordan Amman, pp. 310-315.
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In this paper we describe our approach to improve medication adherence. The issue of medication adherence is widely been studied. The paper discusses the differences between existing technologies/devices used to improve medication adherence and proposes a novel solution that links between technologty and behavious change model to predict and assess people tendency to make a change models to predict and assess people tendency to make a change models to predict and assess people tendency to make a change in their health behaviour towards adhering to their medication regimens. The use of technology in this intervention is aiming at assessing the effectiveness of using technology to motivate subjects and improve their medication adherence ratings.
Gay, V., Leijdekkers, P. & Barin, E. 2010, 'Feasibility trial of a novel mobile cardiac rehabilitation application', 12th IEEE International Conference on e-Health Networking, Application and Services, Healthcom 2010.
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A trial with a cardiac rehabilitation centre is in progress where we test a novel cardiac rehab application using a standard mobile phone and wireless sensors. The goal is to obtain insight how remote monitoring compares to conventional rehabilitation methods in terms of adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programmes. In this trial we seek feedback from patients and health professionals regarding usability and practicability of the software and hardware used and we investigate whether the use of the novel mobile rehabilitation application provides clinically meaningful reassurance to patients during their cardiac rehabilitation. The trial also investigates whether physical and psychological measures improve using the system. This paper describes the mobile cardiac rehabilitation application as well as the setup of the trial. © 2010 IEEE.
Qudah, I., Leijdekkers, P. & Gay, V. 2010, 'Using mobile phones to improve medication compliance and awareness for cardiac patients', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series.
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Improving cardiac patients' medication compliance is a major factor in reducing mortality rate and reducing hospitalization rate. This paper describes a novel medication compliance management system. Its novelty lies in the combination of functionalities that helps the patient to comply with their medication regimen, together with a personal health monitoring system that monitors their health and collects vital signs data using a mobile phone and wireless bio sensors. The system is designed to collect and analyse medication compliance, side effects and symptom responses and transfers the collected data in real time to a web based system for remote monitoring by caregivers and health professionals. Health professionals can use the system to assess the effect of the medication regimen on their patients' health and adapt it to reduce side effects and maximise the patient's wellbeing. Copyright © 2010 ACM.
Van, A., Gay, V.C., Kennedy, P.J., Barin, E. & Leijdekkers, P. 2010, 'Understanding risk factors in cardiac rehabilitation patients with random forests and decision trees', Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology Series, pp. 11-22.
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Cardiac rehabilitation is a well-recognised non-pharmacological intervention recommended for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have produced large amounts of data to examine the above aspects in patient groups. In this paper, datasets collected for over a 10 year period by one Australian hospital are analysed using decision trees to derive prediction rules for the outcome of phase II cardiac rehabilitation. Analysis includes prediction of the outcome of the cardiac rehabilitation program in terms of three groups of cardiovascular risk factors: physiological, psychosocial and performance risk factors. Random forests are used for feature selection to make the models compact and interpretable. Balanced sampling is used to deal with heavily imbalanced class distribution. Experimental results show that the outcome of phase II cardiac rehabilitation in terms of physiological, psychosocial and performance risk factor can be predicted based on initial readings of cholesterol level and hypertension, level achieved in six minute walk test, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) anxiety score and HADS depression score respectively. This will allow for identifying high risk patient groups and developing personalised cardiac rehabilitation programs for those patients to increase their chances of success and minimize their risk of failure. © 2011, Australian Computer Society, Inc.
Gay, V.C. & Leijdekkers, P. 2010, 'Body Sensor networks for Mobile Health Monitoring', 2010 Fourth International Conference on Digital society ICDS 2010, 2010 Fourth International Conference on Digital society ICDS 2010, IEEE Computer Society, St Maarten, Netherlands Antilles, pp. 204-209.
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Abstractâ Remote ambulatory monitoring is widely seen as playing a key part in addressing the impending crisis in health care provision. We describe two mobile health solutions, one developed in the Netherlands and one in Australia. In both cases patientsâ biosignals are measured by means of body worn sensors which communicate wirelessly with a handheld device. Alarms and biosignals can be transmitted over wireless communication links to a remote location, and a remote health professional can view the biosignals via a web application. The clinical purposes are similar, however the technological approaches differ in some respects. We compare the two approaches and the experience gained working with a number of different patient groups and clinical specialties during trials in Europe and Australia.
Jones, V., Gay, V. & Leijdekkers, P. 2010, 'Body sensor networks for mobile health monitoring: Experience in Europe and Australia', 4th International Conference on Digital Society, ICDS 2010, Includes CYBERLAWS 2010: The 1st International Conference on Technical and Legal Aspects of the e-Society, pp. 204-209.
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Remote ambulatory monitoring is widely seen as playing a key part in addressing the impending crisis in health care provision. We describe two mobile health solutions, one developed in the Netherlands and one in Australia. In both cases patients' biosignals are measured by means of body worn sensors which communicate wirelessly with a handheld device. Alarms and biosignals can be transmitted over wireless communication links to a remote location, and a remote health professional can view the biosignals via a web application. The clinical purposes are similar, however the technological approaches differ in some respects. We compare the two approaches and the experience gained working with a number of different patient groups and clinical specialties during trials in Europe and Australia. © 2010 Crown Copyright.
Leijdekkers, P., Gay, V. & Barin, E. 2009, 'Trial results of a novel cardiac rhythm management system using smart phones and wireless ecg sensors', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 32-39.
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This paper discusses the trial results of a personalised Cardiac Rhythm Management (CRM) system using a smart phone (PDA) and a wireless ECG sensor. The system is used in a trial to record and diagnose abnormal cardiac arrhythmias. This novel approach uses standard mobile phones, off-the-shelf ECG sensors and personalised feedback to the patient when compared to a conventional clinical Holter and event monitor systems. The preliminary results are discussed of an ongoing trial conducted with the Royal North Shore Hospital in Sydney Australia. The results indicate the viability of the system for commercial purposes. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Gay, V., Leijdekkers, P. & Barin, E. 2009, 'A Mobile rehabilitation application for the remote monitoring of cardiac patients after a heart attack or a coronary bypass surgery', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series.
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This paper describes a personalised rehabilitation application using a smart phone (PDA) and wireless (bio) sensors. It instructs and motivates patients to follow their exercise programme and keeps track of their progress. It also monitors the relevant biosignals and provides immediate feedback to the patient. Sensors transmit data to the mobile phone where it is analysed locally and the data can also be instantaneously transmitted to a healthcare centre for remote monitoring by a health professional. The rehabilitation application is personalised for each cardiac patient and provides tailored advice (e.g. exercise more, slow down). A trial with a rehabilitation centre is in progress in which we investigate whether the personalised rehabilitation application improves the success of the rehabilitation programme in terms of patient compliance with recommended life style changes (such as increase physical activity or lose weight) and whether use of the system brings peace of mind to cardiac patients. Copyright 2009 ACM.
Brakel, J.W., Gay, V. & Leijdekkers, P. 2009, '"From the hippocratic oath to electronic data storage": Ethical aspects for m-health projects in Australia', Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference e-Health 2009, Part of the IADIS Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems, MCCSIS 2009, pp. 115-122.
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This paper discusses the issue of ethics when it comes to trialling m-health applications in a hospital environment in Australia. Our team has developed a personalised health monitoring application for smart phones using wireless biosensors to monitor and instruct patients. This paper discusses some of the Australian guidelines regarding ethical aspects of running technological trials of such mobile health projects on cardiac patients. Ethical issues regarding mobile health projects can be generally divided in two parts. The first one concerns any potential dangers to the patient's health. Although testing can also be done on healthy test subjects, the best way to acquire real-life test-data is to perform tests on actual cardiac patients. The second one is the privacy aspect in the doctor-patient relationship as some patients do not want to be identified as having a disease or do not want to have their records kept on file and used in scientific publications. Nevertheless, to show the benefits of this personalized m-health monitoring, a technical trial has to be conducted and research data needs to be published in a verifiable way. This paper gives an introduction into ethical regulations, organizations and issues in Australia. It describes, in detail, the issues involved in conducting technical trials in Australian hospitals. The paper gives several recommendations on how to deal with ethics in personalised m-health monitoring projects. © 2009 IADIS.
Leijdekkers, P., Gay, V.C., Lawrence, E.M. & Barin, E. 2009, 'A PDA-based software interface for remote vital sign monitoring: initial clinical experience', Europace 2009 Vol 11 (suppl 1) Pg 163, CardioRhythm, Europace, Hong Kong, pp. 163-164.
Jones, V., Gay, V.C., Leijdekkers, P., Rienks, R. & Hermens, H. 2009, 'Personalised mobile services supporting the implementation of clinical guidelines', 4th workshop on Personalisation for e-Health, Workshop on Personalisation for e-Health, AIME 2009, Verona, Italy, pp. 10-14.
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Telemonitoring is emerging as a compelling application of Body Area Networks (BANs). We describe two health BAN systems developed respectively by a European team and an Australian team and discuss some issues encountered relating to formalization of clinical knowledge to support realtime analysis and interpretation of BAN data. Our example application is an evidence-based telemonitoring and teletreatment application for home-based rehabilitation. The application is intended to support implementation of a clinical guideline for cardiac rehabilitation following myocardial infarction. In addition to this the proposal is to establish the patientâs individual baseline risk profile and, by real-time analysis of BAN data, continually re-assess the current risk level in order to give timely personalised feedback. Static and dynamic risk factors are derived from literature. Many sources express evidence probabilistically, suggesting a requirement for reasoning with uncertainty; elsewhere evidence requires qualitatie reasoning: both familiar modes of reasoning in KBSs. However even at this knowledge acquisition stage some issues arise concerning how best to apply the clinical evidence. Furthermore, in cases where insufficient clinical evidence is currently available, telemonitoring can yield large collections of clinical data with the potential for data mining in order to furnish more statistically powerful and accurate clinical evidence.
Leijdekkers, P. & Gay, V. 2008, 'A self-test to detect a heart attack using a mobile phone and wearable sensors', Proceedings - IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems, pp. 93-98.
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This paper describes a heart attack self-test application for a mobile phone that allows potential victims, without the intervention of a medical specialist, to quickly assess whether they are having a heart attack. Heart attacks can occur anytime and anywhere. Using pervasive technology such as a mobile phone and a small wearable ECG sensor it is possible to collect the user's symptoms and to detect the onset of a heart attack by analysing the ECG recordings. If the application assesses that the user is at risk, it will urge the user to call the emergency services immediately. If the user has a cardiac arrest the application will automatically determine the current location of the user and alert the ambulance services and others to the person's location. © 2008 IEEE.
Leijdekkers, P. & Gay, V.C. 2008, 'A self-test to detect a heart attack using a mobile phone and wearable sensors', 21st IEEE International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems, CBMS 2008, IEEE International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems, IEEE, Jyvaskyla, pp. 93-98.
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Fokkenrood, S., Leijdekkers, P. & Gay, V. 2007, 'Ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation detection algorithm for 24/7 personal wireless heart monitoring', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 110-120.
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This paper describes a Ventricular Tachycardia/Fibrillation (VT/VF) detection algorithm that is specifically designed for a 24/7 personal wireless heart monitoring system. This monitoring system uses Bluetooth enabled biosensors and smart phones to monitor continuously cardiac patients' vital signs. Our VT/VF algorithm is optimized for continuous real-time monitoring on smart phones with a high sensitivity and specificity. We studied and compared existing VT/VF algorithms and selected the one which suited best our requirements. However, we modified and improved the existing algorithm for the smart phone to achieve better performance results. We tested the algorithm on full-length signals from the physionet CU, MIT-db and MIT-vfdb databases [16] without any pre-selection of VT/VF or normal QRS-complex signals. We achieved 97% sensitivity, 98% accuracy and 98% specificity for our implementation which is excellent compared to existing algorithms. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007.
Duflos, S., Kervalla, B. & Gay, V.C. 2007, 'Considering Security and Quality of Service in SLS to improve Policy-based Management of Multimedia Services', Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Networking, International Conference on Networking, IEEE Computer Society, Sainte-Luce, Martinique, pp. 1-6.
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This paper proposes to improve policy-based management by integrating security parameters into the Service Level Specification (SLS). Integrating those parameters in the QoS part of the Service Level Agreement (SLA) specification is of particular importance for multimedia services requiring security since QoS is negotiated when the multimedia service is deployed. Security mechanisms need to be negotiated at that time when sensible multimedia information is exchanged. In this paper we show that including security parameters in SLA specification improves the negotiation and deployment of security and QoS policies for multimedia services. The parameters this paper proposes to integrate have the advantage to be understandable by end-users and service providers.
Leijdekkers, P. & Gay, V. 2006, 'Personal heart monitoring system using smart phones to detect life threatening arrhythmias', Proceedings - IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems, pp. 157-162.
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This paper discusses a personalized heart monitoring system using smart phones and wireless (bio) sensors. We combine ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology to monitor the wellbeing of high risk cardiac patients. The smart phone analyses in real-time the ECG data and determines whether the person needs external help. We focus on two life threatening arrhythmias: Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) and Ventricular Tachycardia (VT), The smart phone can automatically alert the ambulance and pre assigned caregivers when a VF/VT arrhythmia is detected. The system can be personalized to the needs and requirements of the patient. It can be used to give advice (e.g. exercise more) or to reassure the patient when the bio-sensors and environmental data are within predefined ranges. © 2006 IEEE.
Leijdekkers, P. & Gay, V. 2006, 'Personal heart monitoring and rehabilitation system using smart phones', International Conference on Mobile Business, ICMB 2006.
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This paper discusses a personalized heart monitoring system using smart phones and wireless (bio) sensors. Based on several scenarios we present the functionality of a prototype we have built. The application is capable of monitoring the health of high risk cardiac patients. The smart phone application analyses in real-time sensor and environmental data and can automatically alert the ambulance and pre assigned caregivers when a heart patient is in danger. It also transmits sensor data to a healthcare centre for remote monitoring by a nurse or cardiologist. The system can be personalized and rehabilitation programs can monitor the progress of a patient. Rehabilitation programs can be used to give advice (e.g. exercise more) or to reassure the patient. © 2006 IEEE.
Gay, V. & Leijdekkers, P. 2006, 'Around the Clock Personalized Heart Monitoring Using Smart Phones', SMART HOMES AND BEYOND, pp. 82-89.
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Duflos, S., Gay, V.C., Kervella, B. & Horlait, E. 2005, 'Improving the SLA-based management of QoS for secure multimedia services', MANAGEMENT OF MULTIMEDIA NETWORKS AND SERVICES, PROCEEDINGS, 8th IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Management of Multimedia Networks and Services (MMNS 2005), SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, Barcelona, SPAIN, pp. 204-215.
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Duflos, S., Gay, V., Kervella, B. & Horlait, E. 2005, 'Integration of security parameters in the service level specification to improve QoS management of secure distributed multimedia services', AINA 2005: 19th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, Vol 2, pp. 145-148.
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Lubonski, M., Gay, V., Simmonds, A. & IEEE 2005, 'A conceptual architecture for adaptation in remote desktop systems driven by the user perception of multimedia', 2005 Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (APCC), Vols 1& 2, pp. 891-895.
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Leijdekkers, P. & Gay, V. 2005, 'Personalized service and network adaptation for smart devices', 2005 Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications, pp. 867-871.
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The availability of smart devices with integrated GSM/GPRS/WiFi and the rollout of public hotspots allow users to be always online at reasonable costs. Personalised and context aware applications will become available in the forthcoming years due to the wide availability of smart devices and the interest of telecom operators and service providers to provide personalised services. For the user to access his preferred network and services in a particular context we need to have some mechanisms in place and an infrastructure that reacts autonomously on behalf of the user. This paper proposes a solution based on context-aware user profiles and their associated user preferences. It describes a smart device centered solution and a prototype has been built for Microsoft Windows Mobile™ Pocket PCs to validate the ideas. © 2005 IEEE.
Lubonski, M., Gay, V., Simmonds, A. & IEEE 2005, 'An adaptation architecture to improve user-perceived QoS of multimedia services for enterprise remote desktop protocols', 2005 Next Generation Internet Networks, pp. 149-156.
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Hecker, M., Leijdekkers, P. & Gay, V.C. 2004, 'A Testbed for Ubiquitous Computing using Next Generation Mobile Networks', Proceedings of the 12th Collector Workshop on e-commerce Collector 2004, Collaborative Electronic Commerce Technology and Research, Collector Group, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 1-11.
Diaz, G., Gay, V. & Horlait, E. 2002, 'An object-oriented information model for policy-based management of distributed applications', PROCEEDINGS OF THE IASTED INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS, INTERNET, AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, pp. 7-12.
GAY, V., LEYDEKKERS, P. & INTVELD, R. 1994, 'SPECIFICATION OF AUDIO VIDEO EXCHANGE BASED ON THE REFERENCE MODEL OF ODP', BROADBAND ISLANDS '94 - CONNECTING WITH THE END-USER, pp. 179-191.
DUCHIEN, L., GAY, V., HORLAIT, E. & MACHINERY, A.C. 1992, 'X.400-BASED DISTRIBUTED APPLICATION DESIGN METHODOLOGY', 1992 ACM COMPUTER SCIENCE CONFERENCE, PROCEEDINGS, pp. 517-523.
DUCHIEN, L., GAY, V. & HORLAIT, E. 1992, 'DESIGN OF AN INTEGRATED X400 FILESTORE', UPPER LAYER PROTOCOLS, ARCHITECTURES AND APPLICATIONS, pp. 395-407.
DUCHIEN, L., GAY, V. & HORLAIT, E. 1992, 'INTEGRATION OF A MULTIMEDIA FILESTORE WITH X.400', TOWARDS A NEW WORLD IN COMPUTER COMMUNICATION, pp. 365-370.

Journal articles

van Halteren, A. & Gay, V. 2015, 'Continuous Digital Health', IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 8-9.
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Gay, V. & Leijdekkers, P. 2014, 'Design of emotion-aware mobile apps for autistic children', Health and Technology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 21-26.
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Sensor technologies and facial expression recognition are now widely used by mobile devices to sense our environment and our own physical and mental state. With these technologies today, we have the ability to sense emotions and create emotion-aware apps. One target group that would benefit from emotion-aware Apps are autistic children as they have difficulty understanding and expressing emotions and they are keen mobile device users. However, current mobile apps aimed at autistic children are not emotion-aware. This led our team to design a suite of Apps, called CaptureMyEmotion, that uses wireless sensors to capture physiological data together with facial expression recognition to provide a very personalised way to help autistic children and their carers understanding and managing their emotions. This paper describes how we designed CaptureMyEmotion and it discusses our experience while using sensors and facial expression recognition to detect emotion. It presents in more details the first App we developed for Android phone and tablets, called MyMedia. MyMedia enables children to take photos, videos or sounds, and simultaneously attach emotion data to them. The photos can then be reviewed together with a carer providing them a new way to understand emotions and discussing their daily activities. © 2013 IUPESM and Springer-Verlag.
Leijdekkers, P. & Gay, V. 2013, 'Mobile apps for chronic disease management: Lessons learned from myFitnessCompanion®', Health and Technology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 111-118.
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Nowadays, many health and fitness applications (apps) can be downloaded from app stores, changing the way people manage their health and chronic diseases. This paper reflects on 7 years of experience in mobile health and fitness app development. It analyzes the uptake of a health and fitness app, myFitnessCompanion®, by the healthcare industry and end-users dealing with chronic disease management. The use of myFitnessCompanion® is analyzed from an end-user perspective. The app is available via Google Play since February 2011 and the research presented is based on data collected from 5500+ users over a period of 7 months. The paper also discusses how mHealth apps could be distributed in the near future, as well as, the use of Personal Health Record (PHR) systems such as Microsoft HealthVault, and the impact of regulations on the future of mHealth apps. The conclusion highlights the challenges and opportunities for app developers in the mHealth industry. © 2013 IUPESM and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Ahad, M.T., Dyson, L.E. & Gay, V.C. 2012, 'An Empirical Study of Factors Influencing the SME's Intention to Adopt m-Banking in Rural Bangladesh', Journal of Mobile Technologies, Knowledge and Society, vol. 2012, pp. 1-16.
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This research empirically studies the factors that influence the intention of SME owners and managers to adopt m-banking in rural Bangladesh. The study specifically focuses on business oriented m-banking, such as paying suppliers or receiving payments from customers, and on person-to-person use of m-banking. Although over the last ten years a wide spectrum of mbanking frameworks has emerged in various countries, very few research have focused on SMEs m-banking adoption and acceptance of the service. Another rationale for undertaking such a study is that m-banking has not yet been extended to rural Bangladesh. To fill the gap this research surveyed 550 SMEs owners/managers in four (4) rural villages. The survey indicates that poor banking facilities, cost, credibility, gender, education and SME business type are the main factors that significantly influence the intention to adopt m-banking. The analysis focuses on the three factors that have been largely overlooked in prior literature, that are banking satisfaction, m-banking advantages for SMEs, and SME business type. The study broadens our understanding of m-banking and provides insights into developing m-banking strategies in Bangladesh. This research will be of potential value in accelerating the development of m-banking in Bangladesh.
Leijdekkers, P. & Gay, V. 2012, 'User adoption of mobile apps for chronic disease management: A case study based on myFitnessCompanion®', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), vol. 7251 LNCS, pp. 42-49.
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Health and Fitness apps for smart phones and tablets are changing the way we look after our health. This paper analyses the usage of such an app called myFitnessCompanion for chronic disease management. The analysis is based on data collected from 5000 ?+? users over a period of 7 months. Highlights of the study show that blood glucose, weight and blood pressure are the main physiological data being monitored. Americans and Germans are the front-runners in adopting mobile health apps and are willing to pay for it. Most users choose to enter data manually instead of using automated wireless Bluetooth sensors. Users prefer to store the collected data on the phone rather than exporting it to Personal Health Record Systems. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Leijdekkers, P., Gay, V.C. & Barin, E. 2009, 'Feasibility study of a non invasive cardiac rhythm management system', International Journal of Assistive Robotics and Systems, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 5-14.
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Gay, V.C. & Leijdekkers, P. 2007, 'A Health Monitoring System Using Smart Phones and Wearable Sensors', International Journal of Assistive Robotics and Mechatronic, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 29-36.
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Duflos, S., Diaz, G., Gay, V. & Horlait, E. 2002, 'A comparative study of policy specification languages for secure distributed applications', MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR E-COMMERCE AND E-BUSINESS APPLICATIONS, PROCEEDINGS, vol. 2506, pp. 157-168.
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Gay, V., Duflos, S., Kervella, B., Diaz, G. & Horlait, E. 2002, 'Policy-based Quality of Service and security management for multimedia services on IP networks in the RTIPA* project', MANAGEMENT OF MULTIMEDIA ON THE INTERNET, vol. 2496, pp. 25-35.
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Kervella, B. & Gay, V. 1997, 'MHEGAM - A multimedia messaging system', IEEE MULTIMEDIA, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 22-29.
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Gay, V. & Leydekkers, P. 1997, 'Multimedia in the ODP-RM standard', IEEE Multimedia, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 68-73.
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Gay, V., Leydekkers, P. & in 't Veld, R.H. 1995, 'Specification of multiparty audio and video interaction based on the Reference Model of Open Distributed Processing', Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1247-1262.
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The Reference Model of Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) is an emerging ISO/ITU-T standard. It provides a framework of abstractions based on viewpoints, and it defines five viewpoint languages to model open distributed systems. This paper uses the viewpoint languages to specify multiparty audio/video exchange in distributed systems. To the designers of distributed systems, it shows how the concepts and rules of RM-ODP can be applied. The ODP "binding object" is an important concept to model continuous data flows in distributed systems. We take this concept as a basis for multiparty audio and video flow exchanges, and we provide five ODP viewpoint specifications, each emphasising a particular concern. To ensure overall correctness, special attention is paid to the mapping between the ODP viewpoint specifications. © 1995.

Non traditional outputs

Gay, V.C. 2015, 'Guest editor of Continuous Digital Health - IEEE Internet Computing, Issue 4, July-Aug. 2015', Guest Editor, IEEE Internet Computing.
Guest editor of Continuous Digital Health - IEEE Internet Computing, Issue 4, July-Aug. 2015