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Professor Thomas Clarke

Biography

Thomas Clarke is Professor of Management and Director of the Key University Research Centre for Corporate Governance at the University of Technology, Sydney. Formerly he was Chair of the Academic Board at UTS, and a member of the University Council. In the United Kingdom he was DBM Professor of Corporate Governance at Leeds Business School, and Professor of Management at China Europe International Business School (CEIBS) in Shanghai, a joint venture of the European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) and Shanghai Jia Tong University. He has held Visiting Professorships at the University of Paris, Dauphine; and ESC Lille, France; University of Geneva, Switzerland; FGV Business School, Sao Paulo, Brazil; UAM Business School, Mexico City; and a Nuffield Foundation Visiting Research Fellowship at the University of Warwick.

Professional

In the UK he was a member of the Royal Society of Arts Tomorrow’s Company Inquiry into the sources of sustainable business success, drafting the original position paper for the Inquiry, and directing the national conference. At the OECD in Paris he participated in the review of the original OECD Principles of Corporate Governance. He was consultant to the board of PRS Ltd the intellectual property company for the British and international music business, and worked closely with the Institute of Directors in drafting and delivering the first Masters program in Company Direction.

Image of Thomas Clarke
Professor, Management Discipline Group
Director, KURC for Corporate Governance
Director, Centre for Corporate Governance
Core Member, Centre for Corporate Governance
BSocSc (Birm), MA (Warwick), PhD (Warwick)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 3479
Fax
+61 2 9514 3602
Room
CB05B.04.34

Research Interests

In Australia he conducted an ARC funded national survey of The Changing Roles of Company Boards and Directors with the national law firm DibbsBarker, and completed a survey of Board Evaluation of leading ASX companies for the Australian Council of Superannuation Investors. Currently he is engaged in the EOWA national census of women in leadership surveying women board directors in the ASX 500. His research interests include international comparative corporate governance, corporate governance and innovation, governance and regulation of the financial institutions, corporate social responsibility and sustainability, and the development of the knowledge based economy.

Can supervise: Yes
Thomas has supervised many PhD students to completion in the UK and Australia, and often acts as a doctoral examiner for Australian universities and internationally. Currently he is supervising doctoral students in the fields of corporate governance in the resources sector; the legal reform of corporate governance; the governance and regulation of international resources corporations operating in Africa; and corporate policies and practices on sustainability.

Thomas teaches in the areas of MBA and EMBA corporate governance, corporate social responsibility and sustainability. He has extensive experience in international executive education in the areas of corporate governance, board and director development in the UK, France, Switzerland, China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Brazil and Mexico.

Books

Clarke, T., Nielsen, B.B., Nielsen, S., Klettner, A.L. & Boersma, M. 2012, Australian Census of Women in Leadership, 1, Australian Government EOWA, Sydney, Australia.
A research book commissioned by the Austrlan Government Equal Opportunity Agency. This work reports the results of the 2012 Australian Census of Women in Leadership. The survey includes an analysis of the ASX 500 companies boards and executives gender diversity; gender diversity in public sector boards; and comparison with international initiatives in gender diversity in leadership positions. The work provides a detailed analysis of a large data base, and analytical commentary of the results. There is an assessment of remaining obstacles to achieving greater diversity, and analysis of what is required to create a better pipeline for the development of women for leadership.
Clarke, T. 2007, International Corporate Governance: A Comparative Approach, 1, Routledge, London.
Written by a leading name in the field of corporate governance from a genuinely international perspective, this book provides a balanced analysis of the relative strengths and weaknesses of the Anglo-Saxon, European and Asian traditions of corporate governance; offering a prognosis of the future development, complexity and diversity of corporate governance forms and systems. It: * investigates the reasons for the failure of Enron, WorldCom, Tyco, Parmalat and other major international corporations * examines the role of international standards of corporate governance, with the intervention of the OECD, World Bank and IMF * explores the continuing cultural diversity in corporate and institutional forms in the United States and UK, Europe and Asia Pacific.

Chapters

Clarke, T. & Branson, D. 2012, 'Corporate Governance an Emerging Discipline?' in Clarke, T. & branson, D. (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Corporate Governance, Sage, London and Los Angeles, pp. 1-35.
Clarke, T. 2012, 'Markets, Regulation and Governance: The Causes of the Global Financial Crisis' in Clarke, T. & Branson, D. (eds), Handbook of Corporate Governance, Sage, London and Los Angeles, pp. 533-555.
Clarke, T. 2011, 'Corporate governance causes of the global financial crisis' in William Sun (ed), Corporate Governance and the Global Financial Crisis, Cambridge University Press, UK, pp. 28-49.
Over the last two decades there has been a notable increase in the number of corporate governance codes and principles, as well as a range of improvements in structures and mechanisms. Despite this, corporate governance failed to prevent a widespread default of fiduciary duties of corporate boards and managerial responsibilities in the finance industry, which contributed to the 20072010 global financial crisis. This book brings together leading scholars from North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East to provide fresh and critical analytical insights on the systemic failures of corporate governance linked to the global financial crisis. Contributors draw from a range of disciplines to demonstrate the severe limitations of the dominant corporate governance framework and its associated market-oriented approach. They provide suggestions on how the governance problems could be tackled to prevent or mitigate any future financial crisis and explore new directions for post-crisis corporate governance research and reforms.
Clarke, T. 2011, 'Corporate Governance and Reputation: A Disaster Story' in Burke, R.J., Canada, Martin, G. & Cooper, C.L. (eds), Corporate Reputation: Managing Opportunities and Challenges, Gower Publishing, Surrey, UK, pp. 267-280.
It is often commented that it may take a company generations to acquire a solid corporate reputation and only seconds to lose it. One of the fastest ways to lose a corporate reputation is enduring a disaster in corporate governance. The scale and contagion of the recent global financial crisis has starkly confirmed this, however episodic crisis and frequent corporate governance failures have punctuated the development of the market system (Clarke 2007). There are many explanations for the recent sustained and intense interest in corporate governance including the growth of international capital markets, the scale of the multinationals, the increasing proportion of individual wealth held in securities with the development of vast investment institutions, and the dawning awareness that if these investments are to be secure there must be effective monitoring and higher standards of corporate governance.
Clarke, T. 2011, 'The Globalisation of Corporate Governance: Irresistible Markets Meet Immovable Institutions' in Alexander Brink (ed), Corporate Governance and Business Ethics, Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 3-30.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
This paper challenges whether a universal corporate governance system is practical, necessary or desirable. The increasingly recognized premium for governance is considered in the context of a globalizing economy. The implications of the deregulation of finance and the globalization of capital markets are examined, with a focus on the growth of equity markets and the dominant position of the Anglo-American stock exchanges. In the inevitable contest between the insider, relationship based, stakeholder oriented corporate governance system (as experienced in different forms in countries of Europe and the Asia Pacific) and the outsider, market-based, shareholder value oriented system (as practiced in the US, UK and other Anglo-American economies), it is often implied that the optimal model is the dispersed market-based ownership with shareholder foci for achieving competitiveness and enhancing any economy in a globalized world. The validity of this convergence thesis is debated in the paper, examining different theoretical arguments for and against the inevitability of convergence of corporate governance systems. Finally, the future direction of corporate governance trends is questioned, with the likelihood of greater complexity rather than uniformity emerging from current developments. While capital markets have acquired an apparently irresistible force in the world economy, it still appears that institutional complementarities at the national and regional level represent immovable governance objects.
Clarke, T. 2011, 'Human Capital in Developing Countries: The Significance of the Asian Experience' in Burton-Jones, A. & Spender, J.C. (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Human Capital, Oxford University Press, UK, pp. 618-646.
The World Bank placed the advance or knowledge at the centre of the world economic development in their influential annual report 'Knowledge for Development' (1998). The emergence of economies based on the production, distribution and use of knowledge and information was charted by the OECD in their report 'The Knowledge-Based Economy' (1996). The determinants of the success of enterprises, and of national economies as a whole, are ever more reliant upon their effectiveness in gathering and utilizing knowledge. The development and sharing of knowledge is so rapid in the new economy that the OECD suggests that innovation has developed from a linear model to a more complex relationship-based model.
Clarke, T. 2010, 'Corporate governance and the Global Financial Crisis: The regulatory responses' in Tourani-Rad, A. & Ingley, C. (eds), Handbook on Emerging Issues in Corporate Governance, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, pp. 71-102.
The book highlights emerging topics in key areas of corporate governance with special emphasis on traditionally unexplored issues. It also aims to stimulate thinking and debate on vital aspects of practice and approaches to corporate governance. The topics covered in this book deal with timely subjects, written by eminent academics and renowned professionals with outstanding expertise in their respective fields, who bring to fore the latest theories and provide an up-to-date overview of the extant literature on each topic. More importantly, they draw readers attention to implications for future research and developments. The book not only contributes to the academic literature but also improves the decision making of regulators and investors. Aimed at advanced undergraduates and graduate students in business and management; investment professionals, policy makers, general business.
Clarke, T. 2010, 'The materiality of sustainability: Corporate social and environmental responsibility as instruments of strategic change?' in Moon, J., Orlitzky, M. & Whelan, G. (eds), Corporate Governance and Business Ethics, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Cheltenham, UK - Northampton, US, pp. 446-478.
This important volume re-integrates corporate governance and business ethics which are too often treated as separate entities. The editors have selected seminal works which refocus on the ethical import of corporate governance foundations. This collection also traces recent ways in which the ethics of corporate governance have been articulated through reviews of practice, ethical re-evaluations, agency theory, the stakeholder concept, and comparative and international developments. It brings together a range of alternative perspectives and new directions in this vital and dynamic field. The authoritative volume will be an essential source of reference for students and scholars concerned with the power and responsibility of corporations.
Clarke, T. 2009, 'Challenging the inevitability of the globalisation of corporate governance' in Young, S. (ed), Contemporary Issues in International Corporate Governance, Tilde University Press, Prahran, Victoria, pp. 207-224.
There has never been a better time for an insightful look at international corporate governance. This rather timely, up-to-date and authoritative text is based on the latest regional and international research, with contributions coming from a hand-picked team of experts. This exciting edited text explores and analyses the issues, trends and challenges for corporate governance in the future as well as today. Key features: Contributions from eminent international governance scholars Addresses corporate governance issues that cross national boundaries Issues situated within the context of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis
Clarke, T. & Klettner, A.L. 2009, 'Implementing corporate social responsibility: A creative tension between regulation and corporate initiatives?' in Aras, G. & Crowther, D. (eds), Global Perspectives on Corporate Governance and CSR, Gower Publishing/Ashgate, Surrey, England, pp. 269-312.
Clarke, T. & Chanlat, J. 2009, 'Introduction: A New World Disorder? The Recurring Crises in Anglo-American Corporate Governance and the Increasing Impact on European Economies and Institutions"' in Clarke, T. & Chanlat, J.F. (eds), European Corporate Governance, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 1-42.
The prolonged systemic crisis in international financial markets commencing in 2007/2008 was also a crisis in corporate governance and regulation. The most severe financial disaster sincethe Great Depression of the 1930s exposed the dangers of unregulated financial markets and nominal corporate governance. The crisis originated in Wall Street where de-regulation unleashed highly incentivized investment banks to flood world markets with toxic financial products.
Clarke, T. & Klettner, A.L. 2009, 'The development of corporate governance in Australia' in Jolly, A. & Burmajster, A. (eds), The Handbook of International Corporate Governance, Institute of Directors and Kogan Page, London and Philadelphia, pp. 334-345.
A well-established corporate governance framework should ensure that corporate boards effectively monitor managerial performance and achieve an equitable return for shareholders - reinforcing the values of fairness, transparency, accountability and responsibility. But new legislation - notably the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in the US, and the UK's Companies Act - means new duties and benchmarks for directors and senior managers, particularly for those with cross-jurisdictional responsibilities. With commentary from the World Bank, BP, 3i, PricewaterhouseCoopers and Watson Wyatt, "The Handbook of International Corporate Governance" looks at shareholder rights and directors' responsibilities, issues relating to control and disclosure, and the relevant legislation and codes of practice. There is a major section of the book that provides coverage of corporate governance practice for 21 separate jurisdictions, as well as five regional overviews, with each profile focusing on key areas such as the development of laws, models and codes; board structures; shareholder rights; disclosure and transparency; responsibility; directors; and, executive pay and performance.
Clarke, T. 2007, 'The materiality of sustainability: Corporate social and environmental responsibility as instruments of strategic change?' in Benn, S. & Dunphy, D. (eds), Corporate Governance and Sustainability: Challenges for Theory and Practice, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 219-251.
In recent years, as corporations and governments have increasingly been confronted with managing the expectations of a society newly alerted to the social and environmental risks of economic development, recognition is dawning that achieving a sustainable world is dependent upon the democratic management and equitable distribution of these risks for now, and for the future. This book, the first to explore the themes of corporate governance and sustainability, argues that a better system of governance on a number of levels holds the key.
Clarke, T. 2006, 'Privatising the world?' in Clarke, T. & dela Rama, M. (eds), Corporate Governance and Globalization, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 355-370.
Clarke, T. 2005, 'General introduction' in Clarke, T. (ed), Corporate Governance: Critical Perspectives on Business and Management, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 1-42.
Clarke, T. 2004, 'The stakeholder corporation: a business philosophy for the information age' in Clarke, T. (ed), Theories of Corporate Governance, Routledge, Oxon, pp. 189-201.
Clarke, T. & dela Rama, M.J. 2004, 'The impact of socially responsible investment upon corporate social responsibility' in Crowther, D. & Rayman-Bacchus, L. (eds), Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility, Ashgate Publishing, Adershot, pp. 161-185.
Clarke, T. 2004, 'Introduction: Theories of governance - reconceptualizing corporate governance theory after the Enron experience.' in Clarke, T. (ed), Theories of Corporate Governance, Routledge, Oxon, pp. 1-30.
Clarke, T. 2002, 'Crisis and reform in corporate governance in Asia' in Haley, U. & Richter, F.J. (eds), Asian post-crisis management: corporate and governmental strategies for sustainable competitive advantage, Palgrave, Basingstoke, pp. 226-251.
Clarke, T. & Clegg, S.R. 2002, 'Management paradigms for the new millennium' in Clegg, S. (ed), Central Currents in Organization Studies II - Contemporary Trends, Sage Publications Ltd, London, UK, pp. 371-394.
Clarke, T. & Clegg, S.R. 2002, 'Future paradigms for public service' in Jun, J.S. (ed), Rethinking Administrative Theory - the challenge of the new century, Praeger Publishers, Westport, pp. 171-186.

Conferences

Clarke, T. 2010, 'Out Of Control? The Impact Of Ceo Power And Reward On Economic Relationships And Inequality', European Academy of Management EURAM, European Academy of Management EURAM, Rome, Italy, pp. 1-39.
Out of control CEO power and reward concentrated in Anglo-American firms is correlated closely with recent financial crises. The arrogation of an increasing share of the wealth of the corporations by CEOs impacts upon relationships with other employees, shareholders, and the wider community. Excessive and unrestrained CEO compensation displaces CEOs objectives from the development and success of the company to individual strategies of how to maximise their personal reward. There is much evidence to support the view that presently in large corporations in the United States executive compensation has been completely out of control for some time; the disparity created with the rewards of other company workers is both morally unconscionable and functionally damaging; executives are taking an increasing share of the earnings of corporations, and are becoming significant shareholders in their own right; executive compensation in the past has often not been due to achieving results but has amounted to rewards for failure; the elaborate structures designed to link executive reward to performance have often compounded the problems rather than alleviating them; and that excessive and irresponsible executive incentivisation made a major contribution to the causes of the global financial crisis. There is a real danger that the inflated compensation secured by U.S. executives will become the benchmark for executive reward in other regions of the world where up till now executive rewards have remained modest in comparison, inducing similar economic instability and social inequality.
Clarke, T. 2010, 'Recurring Crises In Anglo-American Corporate Governance', European Academy of Management EURAM, European Academy of Management EURAM, Rome, Italy, pp. 1-41.
The recent prolonged systemic crisis in international financial markets was also a crisis in corporate governance and regulation. The apparent ascendancy of Anglo-American markets and governance institutions was profoundly questioned by the scale and contagion of the global financial crisis. Instead of risk being hedged, it had become inter-connected and international, and unknown. The market capitalisation of the stock markets of the world had peaked at $62 trillion at the end of 2007, but were by October 2008 in free fall, having lost $33 trillion dollars, over half of their value in12 months of unrelenting financial and corporate failures. A debate has continued for some time about the costs and benefits of the financialisation of advanced industrial economies. The long progression of financial crises around the world served as a reminder that the system is neither self-regulating or robust. The explanation of why investment banks and other financial institutions took such spectacular risks with extremely leveraged positions on many securities and derivatives, and the risk management, governance and ethical environment that allowed such conduct to take place is demands detailed analysis.
Clarke, T. 2010, 'Out of Control? The Impact of CEO Power and Reward on Economic Relationships and inequality', Academy of Management, Academy of Management, Montreal, Canada, pp. 1-39.
The arrogation of an increasing share of the wealth of corporations by CEOs impacts upon relationships with other employees, shareholders, and the wider community. Excessive and unrestrained CEO compensation displaces CEOs objectives from the development and success of the company to individual strategies of how to maximise their personal reward. There is much evidence to support the view that presently in large corporations in the United States executive compensation has been completely out of control for some time; the disparity created with the rewards of other company workers is both morally unconscionable and functionally damaging; executives are taking an increasing share of the earnings of corporations, and are becoming significant shareholders in their own right; executive compensation in the past has often not been due to achieving results but has amounted to rewards for failure; the elaborate structures designed to link executive reward to performance have often compounded the problems rather than alleviating them; and that excessive and irresponsible executive incentivisation made a major contribution to the causes of the global financial crisis. There is a real danger that the inflated compensation secured by U.S. executives will become the benchmark for executive reward in other regions of the world where up till now executive rewards have remained modest in comparison, inducing similar economic instability and social inequality.
Clarke, T. & Klettner, A.L. 2010, 'Corporate Governance: Investigating the Reform of Boards and Directors', 2010 European Academy of Management EURAM, European Academy of Management EURAM, Rome, Italy, pp. 1-39.
CHAIR TRACK 7: Corporate Governance and the crisis of financialisation This paper draws together the legal and management literature relevant to the theory and design of qualitative empirical research in the field of corporate governance. It goes on to provide a detailed description of an empirical project carried out by the authors. This project involved interviews with representatives of 67 Australian companies, ranging in size from large multinationals to small start-ups, and was designed to investigate the response of those companies to legal and regulatory developments in the area of corporate governance. This paper will discuss the theoretical issues and practical difficulties of qualitative empirical research as well as its value in better understanding complex regulatory systems. The later part of the paper will highlight some of the key findings of our project within the context of the relevant legal and regulatory environment.
Clarke, T. 2010, 'Recurring Crises in Anglo-American Corporate Governance', European Group on Organizational Studies EGOS, European Group on Organizational Studies EGOS, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 1-12.
The prolonged systemic crisis in international financial markets in 2007 and 2008 was also a crisis in corporate governance and regulation. The apparent ascendancy of Anglo-American markets and governance institutions was profoundly questioned by the scale and contagion of the global financial crisis. Instead of risk being hedged, it had become inter-connected and international, and unknown. The market capitalisation of the stock markets of the world had peaked at $62 trillion at the end of 2007, but were by October 2008 in free fall, having lost $33 trillion dollars, over half of their value in12 months of unrelenting financial and corporate failures. A debate has continued for some time about the costs and benefits of the financialisation of advanced industrial economies. The long progression of financial crises around the world served as a reminder that the system is neither self-regulating or robust. The explanation of why investment banks and other financial institutions took such spectacular risks with extremely leveraged positions on many securities and derivatives, and the risk management, governance and ethical environment that allowed such conduct to take place demands detailed analysis. This paper will analyse the central causes and consequences of the global financial crisis.
Clarke, T. 2010, 'Causes of the Global Financial Crisis: Recurring Crises in Anglo-American Corporate Governance', The Wharton School Philadelphia, Wharton Business School, Philadelphia, USA., pp. 1-24.
Clarke, T. 2010, 'Regulatory Responses to the Global Financial Crisis: The governance of Capital Markets and Financial Institutions', Wharton University of Pennsylvania, Wharton University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA, p. 1.
Clarke, T. 2009, 'PARALLEL OR COLLIDING UNIVERSES OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE? EUROPEAN AND ANGLOAMERICAN GOVERNANCE', Academy of Management Annual meeting 2009, Academy of management, Chicago, United States.
The European (insider) system of corporate governance and Anglo-American (outsider) system have been described as parallel universes. The international financial crisis exposed in high relief the different systems of corporate governance that exist in the United States and Europe. Though the financial institutions on both sides of the Atlantic succumbed to similar adventures with high yielding exotic financial instruments and pursued leverage to dangerous levels, there were important differences in the way European leaders and regulators responded to the ensuing financial crisis compared to their American counterparts. The commitment to reform the international financial regulatory structure was much greater among Europeans, which reflected their different approach to regulation and governance. Underpinning this divergence in regulatory and governance systems, was a different conception of the logic of capitalism and the role of markets. In preparing for the economic challenges ahead Europe is confronting two inescapable imperatives: the first is the necessity to rejuvenate mature industries and to create new, innovative industries; the second and much greater challenge - is to achieve sustainability in all economic activity. It is difficult to imagine how economic reforms directed simply at developing the market mechanisms and shareholder value of the Anglo-American corporate governance model could possibly contribute effectively to either of these challenges. http://program.aomonline.org/2009/submission.asp?mode=ShowSession&SessionID=1577
Clarke, T. 2009, 'CAUSES OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS? RECURRING CRISES IN ANGLOAMERICAN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE', Deeper Understanding of Financial/Capital Markets Financial/Capital Markets, Academy of management, United States.
The prolonged systemic crisis in international financial markets commencing in 2007 was also a crisis in corporate governance and regulation. The apparent ascendancy of Anglo-American markets and governance institutions was profoundly questioned by the scale and contagion of the global financial crisis. Instead of risk being hedged, it had become inter-connected and international, and unknown. The market capitalisation of the stock markets of the world had peaked at $62 trillion at the end of 2007, but were by October 2008 in free fall, having lost $33 trillion dollars, over half of their value in12 months of unrelenting financial and corporate failures. A debate has continued for some time about the costs and benefits of the financialisation of advanced industrial economies. The long progression of financial crises around the world served as a reminder that the system is neither self-regulating or robust. The explanation of why investment banks and other financial institutions took such spectacular risks with extremely leveraged positions on many securities and derivatives, and the risk management, governance and ethical environment that allowed such conduct to take place demands detailed analysis. http://program.aomonline.org/2009/submission.asp?mode=ShowSession&SessionID=1694
Clarke, T. 2009, 'RECOVERING GROWTH THOUGH GOVERNANCE: AN ANALYSIS OF THE FINANCIAL CRISIS FROM A GOVERNANCE PERSPECTIVE', Australian Council of Super investors ACSI, 8th Annual Conference 2009, ACSI, Australia.
Keynote presentation An analysis of the financial crisis from a governance perspective http://www.acsi.org.au/images/stories/ACSIDocuments/annual_conference_documents/conference_timetable_2009_final.pdf
Adriaanse, J.A. & Clarke, T. 2008, 'Why so few? Women in sport governance', International Convention on Science, Education and Medicine in Sport, People's Sports Publishing House, Guangzhou, pp. 335-335.
Clarke, T. 2008, 'The globalisation of corporate governance? Irresistible markets meet immovable institutions', Corporate Governance Congress, Witten/Herdecke University, Witten/Herdecke University, pp. 1-43.
http://www.cg-kongress.de/workshops_a_english.php?nav=programm#a06 June 20 - 21, 2008 Corporate Governance congress at Witten/Herdecke University addresses important questions of leadership, governance, culture and ethics with prominent guests Could the international financial crisis have been avoided by implementing better governance structures? How do social responsibility and profit maximization relate do we need new business ethics? Are German managers adequately compensated? Is a formal education as a supervisory board member necessary instead of having honorary offices?
Clarke, T. 2008, 'The international credit crisis and the corporate governance implications', 25th National Conference of the CSA, Chartered Secretaries Australia, Sydney.
This year CSAs National Conference, with the theme Governance. No limits, will provide an environment to encourage meaningful discussion and debate on the changes in governance in the public and private sectors. In recognising the increasingly interdependent and interconnected world in which organisations operate, this year the conference will address current global issues and their impact on Australian companies. As legal structures and associated accountability issues are changing, officers, directors and administrators are increasingly being held responsible for the success or otherwise of their organisations. As such, the need to keep abreast of the current issues and developments in governance has never been greater.
Clarke, T. 2007, 'Institutional Investors And Corporate Governance: The Wolf In Shareholder's Clothing?', EURAM Annual Conference, European Academy of Management, HEC School Of Management, Paris, France.
Management may be viewed as the art of collective action. As a relatively new field in the academic arena, it is a young science, still under construction, borrowing from Economics, Sociology, Psychology, History and many other long established fields. The Paris 2007 EURAM conference will aim at revisiting the complex and controversial relationships that Management has had with Social Sciences and Humanity. Researchers in management are invited to join us in Paris to reflect on the roots of Management, both as a scientific discipline and as a practice. In particular, Management's focus on organisational performance is one of the critical underpinnings that transform the discipline's borrowings from established social sciences into an autonomous field of academic investigation. This raises questions about the degree of subordination vs. emancipation of Management vis--vis the basic disciplines from which it draws. At stake in this discussion are the perspectives Management research can bring to such currently controversial topics as economic and corporate patriotism, the profitability of sustainable development, the fleeting or sustainable nature of competitive advantage, or the seemingly unstoppable trend toward globalisation and its consequences.
Clarke, T. 2007, 'The Globalisation Of Corporate Governance? Irresistible Markets Meet Immovable Institutions', 5th International Conference On Corporate Governance: Shareholders And Other Stakeholders, Birmingham Business School, University of Birmingham, UK.
This conference will appeal to academics, policy makers and business/industry professionals. The conference will provide a forum in which delegates can interact and network, with the topic areas being at the forefront of corporate governance developments in an international context.
Clarke, T. 2007, 'The Globalisation Of Corporate Governance? Irresistible Markets Meet Immovable Institutions', Academy of Management Annual Conference, Academy of Management, Briarcliff Manor, New York.
There are many ways to evaluate how well a firm is doing. Many of these are concerned (out of necessity) with the bottom line, focusing on stock prices and financial returns. But developments in other areas, such as the Balanced Scorecard, make it clear that there are multiple ways in which success can be gauged. Furthermore, any measure of success or performance must suffer from some degree of criterion deficiency, so that there are other indicators of performance that could be just as useful. One such indication of performance is the extent to which a firm improves the lives of its members and its stakeholders. Some have referred to this as Social Entrepreneurship but, whatever the name used, it represents the recognition that there is more to corporate success than the financial bottom line. More importantly, there is no reason to believe that a firm which spends it energies trying to improve the world around it, will necessarily suffer for those efforts. In fact, there is evidence that firms which do good are often the same firms that do well. Furthermore, many of the best practices our colleagues from all parts of the Academy have suggested can lead to both financial success and social success. Thus there would seem to be micro, macro and international research topics that are consistent with these ideas.
Clarke, T. 2007, 'Institutional Investors And Corporate Governance: The Wolf In Shareholder's Clothing?', Academy of Management Annual Conference, Academy of Management, Briarcliff Manor, New York.
There are many ways to evaluate how well a firm is doing. Many of these are concerned (out of necessity) with the bottom line, focusing on stock prices and financial returns. But developments in other areas, such as the Balanced Scorecard, make it clear that there are multiple ways in which success can be gauged. Furthermore, any measure of success or performance must suffer from some degree of criterion deficiency, so that there are other indicators of performance that could be just as useful. One such indication of performance is the extent to which a firm improves the lives of its members and its stakeholders. Some have referred to this as Social Entrepreneurship but, whatever the name used, it represents the recognition that there is more to corporate success than the financial bottom line. More importantly, there is no reason to believe that a firm which spends it energies trying to improve the world around it, will necessarily suffer for those efforts. In fact, there is evidence that firms which do good are often the same firms that do well. Furthermore, many of the best practices our colleagues from all parts of the Academy have suggested can lead to both financial success and social success. Thus there would seem to be micro, macro and international research topics that are consistent with these ideas.
Clarke, T. 2007, 'Convergence and Diversity in Corporate Governance: Different Governance Systems are Better at Doing Different Things', 27th Strategic Management Society Annual Conference, Strategic Management Society, Chicago, IL, USA.
Sessions at this year's conference will focus broadly on issues such as Market and Non-Market Strategies and Globalization, Competitive Strategies, Global Strategies, Knowledge and Innovation and the Practice of Strategy. Other sessions will focus on relationships between the conference theme and strategy process, corporate strategy and governance, and entrepreneurship and strategy. These are topics which, when combined with the influences of non-market forces, can produce discussions charged with sociological, political, ethical as well as economic debates.
Clarke, T. 2007, 'The Challenges of Corporate Governance Regulation', Strategic Leadership and Vision Beyond Finance, CFO Congress, Sydney.
Clarke, T. 2007, 'What is the Impact of Government Regulatory and Corporate Governance Requirements on Small Corporations?', Reforming the Regulation of Small Corporations, University of Canberra, University of Canberra.
Clarke, T. 2007, 'Corporate Social Responsibility: The New Business Imperatives?', 'Tip of the Iceberg? The Economics of Sustainability Risk Reporting, FINSIA Public Summit, Sydney, pp. 1-55.
The Summit examined the economic impact of sustainability risk reporting on companies, investors and the Australian economy. Finsia will also release unique economic modelling conducted by Econtech. The keynote address was presented by Professor Tim Flannery, 2007 Australian of the Year, internationally acclaimed scientist, explorer and conservationist, Professor at Macquarie University, Chair of the Copenhagen Climate Council and author of 'The Weather Makers'. Other high profile speakers include: Mr Richard Gibbs, Chief Economist, Macquarie Bank; Senator Grant Chapman, Chair of the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Corporations and Financial Services; Senator Penny Wong, Shadow Minister for Corporate Governance & Responsibility; Mr Chris Murphy, Director, Econtech; and Professor Thomas Clarke, Director, UTS Centre for Corporate Governance.
Clarke, T. 2006, 'The globalisation of corporate governance', Management: Pragmatism, Philosophy, Priorities - Proceedings of the 20th ANZAM Conference, ANZAM, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-40.
Clarke, T. 2006, 'The globalisation of corporate governance? Irresistible markets meet immovable institutions', Energizing European Management! European Academy of Management Annual Conference 2006, EURAM, Brussels, Belgium, pp. 1-34.
Clarke, T. 2006, 'The evolution of directors duties: bridging the divide between corporate governance and corporate social responsibility', Energizing European Management! European Academy of Management Annual Conference 2006, EURAM, Brussels, Belgium, pp. 1-40.
dela Rama, M.J. & Clarke, T. 2006, 'A tale of two stock exchanges: Globalisation, corporate govenance and convergence.', XVI ISA World Congress of Sociology: The Quality of Existence in Globalising World, ISA, Durban.
Clarke, T. 2004, 'Reconceptualising Corporate Governance Theory after the Enron Experience', -, -, -.
Clarke, T. 2004, 'Cycles of Governance : Crisis & Regulation in Corporate Governance', -, -, -.
Clarke, T. & dela Rama, M.J. 2004, 'Sustainable & Responsible Investment : Creating Knowledgeable Action', -, -, -.
Clarke, T. 2003, 'International corporate governance in crisis: new regimes and old dilemmas', Organization Analysis Informing SOcial and Global Development, EGOS, Frederiksberg, pp. 1-33.
Clarke, T. 2003, 'Knowledge management and elearning', Global Directions in eLearning: Assessing "Promising Practices" and the Future(s) of eLearning in Organizational Transformation, eLearn International, Edinburgh, UK, pp. 1-26.
Clarke, T. 2003, 'Cycles of crisis and regulation: the enduring agency and stewardship problems or corporate governance', SMS 23rd Annual International Conference - Intersections: Strategy Across Conventional Boundaries, Strategic Management Society, West Lafayette.
Clarke, T. 2003, 'Cycle of confidence: crisis and reform in corporate governance 1900-2002', Conference Proceedings ? Democracy in a Knowledge Economy (63rd Annual Meeting: The Academy of Management), Academy of Management, Briarcliff Manor.
Clarke, T. 2002, 'The knowledge economy, knowledge-based business and knowledge management: examining the business models of the new economy', KM challenge 2002: advanced models of knowledge management - practical approaches for implementation, Standards Australia International Ltd, Sydney, pp. 219-236.
Clarke, T. 2002, 'Sustainability: the new imperative for a viable future', CPA Congress Imagine, CPA, Sydney, pp. 31-44.
Clarke, T. 2002, 'Balancing the triple bottom line: financial, social and environmental performance consulting', Academy of Management, Academy of Management, Denver, USA.

Journal articles

Clarke, T. 2014, 'The Evolution of Corporate Governance in Japan: The Continuing Relevance of Berle and Means', Seattle University Law Review, vol. 37.
Accepted for publication on 9/9/2013 in December 2013 issue, yet to be published
Klettner, A.L., Clarke, T. & Boersma, M. 2014, 'Strategic and Regulatory Approaches to Increasing Women in Leadership: Multilevel Targets and Mandatory Quotas as Levers for Cultural Change', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. Online.
Klettner, A.L., Clarke, T. & Boersma, M. 2014, 'The Governance of Corporate Sustainability: Empirical Insights into the Development, Leadership and Implementation of Responsible Business Strategy', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 122(1), no. June (II), pp. 145-165.
Clarke, T. 2013, 'Deconstructing the Mythology of Shareholder Value', Accounting, Economics and Law A Convivium, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 15-42.
This review article seeks to celebrate the deconstruction of the mythology of shareholder value inspired by Lynn Stout, and to dismantle the hegemony of agency theory, which originated the concepts of shareholder value and shareholder primacy. In order to offer a contextualized, historical critique of the intellectual forces that created agency theory and the concept of shareholder value, the analysis presents a broad consideration of the financialization of the Anglo-American corporation in the later decades of the twentieth century. It was in this period that the Anglo-American corporation was crudely transformed from being a wealth-creating vehicle for the wider community of stakeholders and whole economy, into a bundle of assets with the sole purpose of benefiting shareholder interests.
Clarke, T. 2013, 'The advance of the MOOCs (massive open online courses): The impending globalisation of business education?', Education & Training, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 403-413.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse the rapid development of the massive open online courses (MOOCs) and the implications for business education, to critically examine the educational and business models of the MOOCs, to assess their present scale and scalability, and to explore the responses of the universities to this challenge. Design/methodology/approach The paper provides an analysis of the origins, structure and orientation of the MOOCs, assesses their future trajectory and compares this development with earlier waves of e-learning. Findings The massive open online courses have considerable potential for growth with high quality products supported by leading universities. However they still need to resolve issues other e-learning organisations have faced including assessment, high drop out rates, and how to maintain viability. Research limitations/implications The MOOCs remain at a developmental stage, and it is not yet apparent whether their growth trajectories will be as ambitious as anticipated. However they are a definite advance over earlier online learning systems, and are worthy of further research regarding their performance. Practical implications The recent origin of the MOOCs involves an idealistic phase that is inspiring, but the question is will it last? Have the MOOCs the resilience to continue to develop as the universities have done over many decades? Further research will be required on this.
Klettner, A.L., Clarke, T. & Boersma, M. 2013, 'The impact of soft law on social change: Measurable objectives for achieving gender diversity on board of directors', Australian Journal of Corporate Law, vol. 28, pp. 148-176.
In 2010 the Australian Securities Exchange's Principles of Corporate Governance were amended to include three new recommendations dealing with gender diversity in listed corporations. The recommendations suggest that companies implement a diversity policy, set measurable objectives for achieving gender diversity and measure the number of women at various levels of the organisation. This article examines companies early response to the amendments. It presents an empirical analysis of the disclosures made by ASX 200 companies in their 2011 annual reports. The article builds on and develops research carried out by the authors for the 2012 Australian Census of Women in Leadership which found that, although the number of women on corporate boards had increased since 2010, there was not a similar increase in women in senior executive teams. It presents evidence that there are positive changes being implemented in the majority of ASX 200 companies that should, over time, make a difference to the ability of women to reach positions of leadership. The Australian approach of encouraging change through organisation-wide policy improvements and targets will hopefully improve female representation along the length of the pipeline to leadership and not only at the top. The ASX policy was formulated in the context of an international debate regarding the relative benefits of quotas and targets in achieving gender diversity on boards. In major European countries mandatory quotas were adopted, while in Australia and other countries voluntary targets set. Quotas secure substantial change through compliance, while targets may encourage change through strategic initiatives. This research examines early evidence of the impact of both hard and soft law on social change
Clarke, T. 2013, 'Innovation, Finance and Governance - Investing in Long Term Innovation', Keeping Good Companies, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 11-15.
There is a vital relationship between financial institutions, modes of financing and modes of industrial innovation and growth. This is a critical interface between finance and the real economy.
Clarke, T. 2013, 'The Future of Business Schools and Business Education: Internationalisation, Innovation and Engagement', Education & Training, vol. 55, no. 4/5, pp. 313-322.
The business schools and business education have come a long way in less than a century. From their beginnings in accounting, finance and management they have grown to rival in scale and scope the greatest disciplines including medicine and law. However, they have never truly resolved the doubts surrounding their purpose and role in the economy and society. Now faced with the more insistent and confronting challenges of globalisation and technological transformation, the questions regarding the identity, character and future of business schools and business education have never been more pressing. Recently many efforts have been made to illuminate these dilemmas in business education and to search for sustainable solutions (Hawawini, 2005; Global Foundation for Management Education (GFME), 2010; AACSB, 2010, 2011; Pettigrew and Hommel, 2013). This Special Issue of Education and Training makes an original and significant contribution to this essential and ongoing debate. - See more at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.lib.uts.edu.au/journals.htm?issn=0040-0912&volume=55&issue=4&articleid=17090881&show=html#sthash.XiTC1oCE.dpuf
Klettner, A.L., Boersma, M. & Clarke, T. 2012, 'Women in Leadership', Keeping Good Companies, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 648-654.
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Launching the 2012 Australian Census of Women in Leadership, the Governor General of Australia Quentin Bryce was able to announce a significant increase in the number of women on ASX 200 boards to 12.3 per cent of directorships, up from 8.4 per cent in 2002. Successive earlier Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Agency (EOWA) censuses conducted over the ten years since 2002 had indicated no significant improvement in female board representation. However, now a breakthrough has occurred.
Klettner, A.L. & Clarke, T. 2011, 'Board Performance Evaluation Post-Financial Crisis', Keeping Good Companies, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 200-206.
Over the last ten years, the practice of conducting performance evaluations of boards of directors has become commonplace in large corporations. Not only is the process widely established but it is seen as an essential tool in achieving better board performance and effectiveness.
Klettner, A.L., Clarke, T. & Adams, M.A. 2010, 'Corporate governance reform: An empirical study of the changing roles and responsibilities of Australian boards and directors', Australian Journal of Corporate Law, vol. 24, pp. 148-176.
This article draws together some of the legal and management literature relevant to the theory and design of qualitative empirical research in the field of corporate governance. It goes on to describe the methodology used by the authors in a project involving interviews with representatives of 67 Australian companies. One of the aims of the project was to examine the changing roles and responsibilities of company boards and directors following legal and regulatory reform.It is only through improving our knowledge of the day to day processes occurring in board rooms that we can really understand the complex relationship between the regulatory framework and the control of corporations in practice. Our evidence was that with regard to the Australian corporate governance framework, over-regulation is not as critical an issue as often suggested, instead the comply or explain mechanism is well understood and permits sufficient flexibility for companies to find an acceptable cost-benefit balance.
Clarke, T. 2010, 'Recurring crises in Anglo-American corporate governance', Contributions to Political Economy, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 9-32.
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The prolonged systemic crisis in international financial markets commencing in 2007 was also a crisis in corporate governance and regulation. The apparent ascendancy of Anglo-American markets and governance institutions was profoundly questioned by the scale and contagion of the global financial crisis. Instead of risk being hedged, it had become inter-connected, international, and unknown. The market capitalisation of the stock markets of the world had peaked at $62 trillion at the end of 2007. By October 2008 they were in free fall, having lost $33 trillion, over half of their value, in 12 months of unrelenting financial and corporate failures. A debate has continued for some time about the costs and benefits of the financialisation of advanced industrial economies. The long progression of financial crises around the world served as a reminder that the system is neither self-regulating, nor robust. The explanation of why investment banks and other financial institutions took such spectacular risks with extremely leveraged positions on many securities and derivatives, and the risk management, governance, and ethical environment that allowed such conduct to take place demands detailed analysis.
Clarke, T. & Klettner, A.L. 2009, 'Regulatory responses to the global financial crisis - the next cycle of corporate governance reform?', Keeping Good Companies, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 280-286.
The causes of the global financial crisis are complex and multidimensional. A combination of factors including low interest rates, highly complex financial products, poor risk management and excessive incentive schemes contributed to the spectacular failure of many financial institutions, which in turn has damaged the wider international economy. The long-term policy response to deal with the crisis has focused on issues of transparency, disclosure, and risk management. The coordinated global effort to rebuild the financial system and restore economic growth has three essential dimensions: containing the contagion and restoring market operations coping with long-term systemic problems aligning international regulation and oversight of financial institutions.
Clarke, T. 2009, 'The Global Financial Crisis and the Implications for Corporate Governance Regulation', Keeping Good Companies, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 70-75.
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The prolonged systemic crisis In Internatlonal financial markets which commenced In mld 2007 and continues to develop, is also a crisis in corporate governance and regulation. The most severe financial disaster since the Great Depression has exposed the dangers of unregulated financial markets and nominal corporate governance. This financial crisis Is larger in scale than any crisis since the 1930s InvolVing losses estimated by the IMF In October 2008 as potentlalIy US$I,400 billion, eclipsing earlier crises in Asia, Japan and the US (see Figure 1).
Clarke, T. 2009, 'Guest Editorial: Computer Assisted Collaborative Learning: The New Generation of Simulations and Social Computing in the Business Curriculum', Education & Training, vol. 51, no. 5-6, pp. 337-342.
Guest editorial of journal on Web 2.0 technologies
Clarke, E. & Clarke, T. 2009, 'Born Digital? Pedagogy and computer assisted learning', Journal of Education and Training, vol. 51, no. 5/6, pp. 395-407.
The purpose of this article is to examine the impact of the shift to a knowledge society, where information and communication technology (ICT) and the widening spread of internationally distributed information are creating a skill revolution?, as O'Hara suggests, there is a widening culture mismatch between what members of the knowledge society need to succeed and what current systems of higher education are geared to offer and to adequately prepare people and communities to thrive in the global knowledge society.
Clarke, T. 2008, 'The business schools: 50 years on', Education & Training, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 52-54.
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Purpose - This paper aims to offer a critique of the development of university business schools over the last 50 years and provide a perspective on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of the journal Education + Training. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is critical and reflexive, reviewing the historical growth of business schools and focusing on questions relating to their changing rationale. Findings - The main themes of the analysis are that despite the considerable growth of business schools, this is not an unqualified success story, since recurrent doubts have been expressed regarding the central purposes and objectives of advanced business education. Originality/value - The paper is of value as a critical and succinct summary of the vibrant but heavily contested growth of business schools.
Clarke, T. 2007, 'The evolution of directors duties bridging the divide between corporate governance and corporate social responsibility', Journal of General Management, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 79-105.
The evidence that large corporations are beginning to take social and environmental responsibilities more seriously is reviewed, drawing on international surveys carried out by KPMG and the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). The emergence of a dynamic stakeholder model that is driving enlightened shareholder value is noted. The challenge enterprises face in pursuing market opportunities while maintaining accountability is discussed and the way in which the duty to promote the success of the company is taking companies beyond simple compliance with the law is explored. A similar process is seen to be guiding investment solutions to address environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues in their policies and processes. The importance of corporate reporting of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is highlighted and the principles developed by the Global reporting Initiative (GRI) are outlined.
Clarke, T. 2007, 'Ho (ed) Reforming Corporate Governance in Southeast Asia: Economics, Politics and Regulations', Journal of Asian Business, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 81-82.
This edited work by Ho Khai Leong looks at what has happened in the East Asia region since the 1997. The book is divided into two sections. The first half looks at issues common to the countries affected by the crisis: concentrated ownership and control, the close political ties sustaining the status quo, the underdeveloped institutions, and the nature of the banking system. The second half consists of country studies section with two contributions each for Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Philppines and Vietnam. For most countries in the region, a handful of families own and control the biggest corporations in East Asia. Further compounding this concentration of ownership are the political ties that many of these families have. The quality of corporate governance is largely related to the quality of each countrys political and economic institutions. If institutions are unwieldly, bureaucratic and corrupt, then genuine corporate governance reform will not occur. In the crisis-affected countries the number of banks in the region contracted substantially, and rebuilding financial institutions on firmer foundations takes time.
Klettner, A.L., Clarke, T. & Adams, M.A. 2007, 'Balancing Act - the Tightrope of Corporate Governance Reform', Keeping Good Companies, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 648-653.
Over the last five years, corporate governance has proved an insistent issue in the boardrooms of Australia. In March 2003, the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) Corporate Governance Council launched its Principles of Good Corporate Governance and Best Practice Recommendations (the guidelines). The following year amendments to the Corporations Act 2001 came into force, designed to improve corporate accountability and auditing practices. In annual reports for 2004-2005, Australian corporations were asked to disclose more information about their corporate governance practices than ever before. This prompted a review of existing governance structures and procedures against those recommended or required by the new regulation.
Clarke, T. 2005, 'Accounting for Enron: shareholder value and stakeholder interests', Corporate Governance-An International Review, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 598-612.
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The catastrophe caused by the failure of Enron could not compare with the damage this company would have caused if it had succeeded. The relentless emphasis on the importance of shareholder value in recent times has created the conditions for the disconn
Clarke, T. 2004, 'Cycles of Crisis and Regulation: the enduring agency and stewardship problems of corporate governance', Corporate Governance - An International Review, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 153-161.
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Bell, M., Martin, G. & Clarke, T. 2004, 'Engaging in the future of e-learning: a scenarios-based approach', Education and Training, vol. 46, no. 6/7, pp. 296-307.
Kenney, J.L., Hermens, A. & Clarke, T. 2004, 'The political economy of e-learning educational development: strategies, standardisation and scalability.', Education and Training, vol. 46, no. 6/7, pp. 370-379.
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Pitelis, C. & Clarke, T. 2004, '"Valuing" corporate governance: an introduction', Corporate Governance: An International Review, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 125-128.
Martin, G., Massy, J. & Clarke, T. 2003, 'When absorptive capacity meets institutions and (e)learners: adopting, diffusing and exploiting e-learning in organizations', International Journal of Training and Development, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 228-244.
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Clegg, S.R., Ibarra-Colado, E. & Clarke, T. 2001, 'Organization Studies Today: A Challenge for Management and Organization Studies in the Coming Century', Nankai Business Review, vol. 1, pp. 51-58.
Clegg, S.R., Clarke, T. & Ibarra, E. 2001, 'Millennium management, changing paradigms and organization studies', Human Relations, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 31-36.
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Many forms of knowledge may in practice enter management calculations. Many sites exist where they may be encountered: not only university courses but also popular books, training sessions, magazines, web-sites, the popular press, as well as the usual networks of sociability. There are many sites from which practical orientations might develop. The important point is that, in practical terms, university academics enjoy neither an exclusive nor a privileged role: they are not legislators of what is management knowledge but simply among its many interpreters (Bauman, 1987). For all intents and purposes, however, given the institutionalized norms of journal publication, many university academics continue to practise their craft as if they were legislators rather than particular interpreters. For others, the audiences in the lecture theatres and of the more popular journals and books, the craft of organization studies provides a set of popular recipes and tools that can serve as solutions to the problems of managing modern organizations, promoting a series of rules, representations, procedures and technologies of, and for, management thinking, rather than contingent scientific `proofs.
Clarke, T. & Hermens, A. 2001, 'Corporate developments and strategic alliances in e-learning', Education and Training, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 256-267.
Clarke, T. 2000, 'Haemorrhaging tigers: the power of international financial markets and the weaknesses of Asian modes of corporate governance', Corporate Governance: An International Review, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 101-116.
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Clarke, T. 1998, 'The stakeholder corporation: A business philosophy for the information age', Long Range Planning, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 182-194.
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Interest in stakeholder approaches to strategic management is growing around the world but at the sa me time top management's concern with shareholder value has never been greater, Managers in all kinds of firms are faced with the dilemma of how to satis
Clarke, T. 1988, 'Beyond the market and the state - New directions in community-development - Bruyn, ST; Meehan, J', Economic And Industrial Democracy, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 551-555.
Clarke, T. 1984, 'Alternative modes of co-operative production', Economic and Industrial Democracy, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 97-129.
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The growing self-management and producer co-operative literature tends to move from an idealized conception of the democratic possibilities of the market, through an analysis of the purely formal democratic structures of co-operative organizations, to a positivist analysis of the assumed changes in workers' attitudes towards the enterprise. This paper is devoted to showing the divergent possibilities for self-management and producer co-operatives at the economic level, organizational level, and in terms of workers' own expectations and experiences. At the level of the economy the plan versus market debate is considered; at the level of the organization stress is placed on the importance of changes in technology and the division of labour; the ambivalence revealed in self-managed enterprises towards trade unionism is examined; finally, with regard to workers involvement in self-managed organizations, the importance of participatory democracy is emphasized. In considering the range of co-operative philosophies, forms and activities, the possible directions of future co-operative development are presented.

Reports

Clarke, T. & Klettner, A.L. Financial Services Institute of Australasia (FINSIA) 2007, Tip of the Iceberg? Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability: The new business imperatives? An International Comparison, pp. 1-52, Sydney, Australia.
A substantial increase in the range, significance and impact of corporate social and environmental initiatives in recent years suggests the growing materiality of sustainability. Once regarded as a concern of a few philanthropic individuals and companies, corporate social and environmental responsibility is becoming established in many corporations as a critical element of strategic direction, and one of the main drivers of business development, as well as an essential component of risk management. Corporate social and environmental responsibility (CSR) is rapidly moving from the margins to the mainstream of corporate activity, with greater recognition of a direct and inescapable relationship between corporate governance, corporate responsibility, business performance and sustainable business development.
Clarke, T., Adams, M.A. & Klettner, A.L. Dibbs Abbot Stillman Lawyers 2007, The Changing roles and Responsibilities of Company Boards and Directors: Final Report, pp. 1-106, Sydney.