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Professor Stewart Clegg

Biography

Born in Bradford, England, Stewart Clegg was Reader at Griffith University (1976-84), Professor at the University of New England (1985-9), Professor at the University of St. Andrews (1990-3), Foundation Professor at the University of Western Sydney, Macarthur, (1993-6) before moving to UTS. He is Research Director of CMOS (Centre for Management and Organisation Studies) Research at UTS, and holds a small number of Visiting Professorships at prestigious European universities and research centres. He is one of the most published and cited authors in the top-tier journals in the Organization Studies field and the only Australian to be recognised a by a multi-method ranking, as one of the world’s top-200 “Management Gurus” in What's the Big Idea? Creating and Capitalizing on the Best New Management Thinking by Thomas H. Davenport, Laurence Prusak, and H. James Wilson (2003), Harvard: Harvard Business Review Press. Because the central focus of his theoretical work has always been on power relations he has been able to write on many diverse and ubiquitous topics – because power relations are everywhere! He is the author of two widely used textbooks on Management & Organizations: An Introduction to Theory and Practice (with Martin Kornberger andTyrone Pitsis) and Strategy: Theory and Practice (with Chris Carter, Martin Kornberger and Jochen Schweitzer), both published by Sage. He is also the chief editor of the Handbook of Organization Studies (with Cynthia Hardy, Walter F. Nord and Thomas B. Lawrence), Handbook of Power (with Mark Haugaard) and Handbook of Macro-Organizational Behaviour (with Cary Cooper), all published by Sage. In the last year he has published a book with Oxford University Press on The Virtues of Leadership: Contemporary Challenges for Global Managers (with Arménio Regio, and Miguel Pinha e Cunha), a book on Idea Work, published by Capellem Damm, with Arne Carlsen and Reidar Gjversik as well as a set of eight “Major Works” on Power and Organizations and Political Power and Organizations, jointly edited with Mark Haugaard. In addition, he is a prolific contributor to leading journals in the fields of Organization Studies, Political Power, and Management. Outside work he enjoys cultural pursuits, travel, and wide reading in politics, history, current affairs, music and art.

Professional

Professor Stewart Clegg was awarded the Academy of Management’s 2010 Practice Theme Committee (PTC) IMPACT award which ‘acknowledges good practice of impactful management scholarship’ The Academy of Management (AOM) is a leading professional association for scholars dedicated to creating and disseminating knowledge about management and organisations. It was founded in 1936 by two professors, the Academy of Management, and is the oldest and largest scholarly management association in the world. Today, the Academy is the professional home for 19799 members from 105 nations. The Practice Management Committee is focused on enhancing practice perspectives and issues within the Academy of Management. Professor’s contribution to the field is summed up by the academy: Stewart Clegg is a leading international researcher recognised in a number of fields in the social sciences for his work in organisation studies and on power. Practice, power, and ethics have been central to his engagements in research, teaching, and management education during the last 35 years. His enormous impact on research and teaching as well as management practice is undisputable. From the first edition of Power, Rule and Domination in 1975 to the latest edition of Managing and Organizations, Stewart has continued to provide a critical eye on organisational practices, and his eloquent pen has provided his insights with an overwhelmingly diverse audience on an international stage – in research, teaching and the world of business. Stewart Clegg is recognised, by a multi-method ranking, as one of the world’s top-200 Management Gurus (and the only Australian) in What’s the Big Idea? Creating and Capitalizing on the Best New Management Thinking by Thomas H. Davenport, Laurence Prusak, and H. James Wilson (2003), Harvard: Harvard Business Review Press. http://vimeo.com/13994105

Image of Stewart Clegg
Professor, Management Discipline Group
Research Director, CMOS Centre for Management and Organisation Studies
Core Member, Centre for Management and Organisation Studies
BSc (Hons) (Aston), PhD (Bradford)
Download CV  PDF 844Kb, 65 pages
Phone
+61 2 9514 3934
Room
CB05C.04.01B

Research Interests

Organisation and Management Theory, Power, Theory, and Projects

Can supervise: Yes

Research, Organisation Studies, Power, Theory

Book Chapters

Clegg, S.R. & Kreiner, K. 2013, 'Power and Politics in Construction Projects' in Drouin, N; Muller, R; Sankaran, S (eds), Novel Approaches to Organizational Project Management Research: Translational and Transformational, Copenhagen Business School Press, Copenhagen, pp. 268-293.
Clegg, S.R. 2013, 'Management' in Jeff Manza (ed), Oxford Bibliographies in Sociology, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 1-1.
Clegg, S.R. 2013, 'Power' in Jeff Manza (ed), Oxford Bibliographies in Sociology, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 1-1.
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Clegg, S.R. & Turcotte, M. 2013, 'Le cas de Magnola: la gestion du risqu versus le principe de prcaution' in Marie-France Turcotte (ed), Responsabilit Socitale de l+Organisation, Presses de L'Universite du Quebec, Montreal, pp. 109-122.
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Clegg, S.R. 2013, 'Foreword' in Jeff Manza (ed), Oxford Bibliographies in Sociology, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 17-18.
Clegg, S.R., Pina e Cunha, M. & Rego, A. 2013, 'To the Victor go the Spoils! Distributed Agencies, Inhumanities and the Case of Comrade Duch of the Khmer Rouge' in Francois de Vaujany and Nathalie Mitev (eds), Materiality and Space: Organizations, Artefacts and Practices, Palgrave Macmillan, United Kingdom, pp. 216-239.
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Rego, A., Clegg, S.R. & Pina e Cunha, M. 2012, 'The Positive Power of Character Strengths and Virtues for Global Leaders' in Kim S. Cameron and Gretchen M. Spreitzer (eds), The Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 366-384.
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In a globalized world, transnational companies are implicated in power relations with many other organizations, including states, and are responsible for millions of people's lives and livelihoods. Building positive organizational performance and contributing to the creation of a better planet requires having global leaders with positive qualities in senior positions in these organizations. In this chapter, using Peterson and Seligman's (2004) framework, we explore how the character strengths and virtues of global leaders can make them more effective and better able to develop flourishing organizations and people within and around them in the contexts in which they operate. We also explore how global leaders with such positive qualities are more motivated to accept and/or look for global leadership development opportunities, and better able to learn from such opportunities. Some research directions are also considered.
Clegg, S.R. 2012, 'The Language of Power and the Power of Language' in Grant, D., Hardy, C., and Putnam, L. (eds), Organizational Discourse Studies, Sage, London, pp. 29-38.
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In this paper earlier research by the author (Clegg 1975) is used as an occasion for reflecting more generally on the adequacy of approaches to the study of language and power in organization analysis. Three approaches, the ethnographic, conversation analysis and a materialist approach, are discussed. The limitations, both in practical and analytic terms, of a +language+ approach to power are drawn from a discussion of the +inclemency rule+ and other data.
Clegg, S.R. & Pitsis, T.S. 2012, 'Phronesis, Projects and Power Research' in B Flyvbjerg, T Landman, S Schram (eds), Real Social Science, Cambridge University Press, UK, pp. 66-91.
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Clegg, S.R. 2012, 'The Sociology of Organizations' in George Ritzer (ed), The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Sociology, Wiley-Blackwell, Malden, pp. 164-181.
The sociology of organizations is very largely a post-Second World War American invention but it built, initially, on Max Weber's work as it was translated in the post-war era . At the outset the sociological classics were a potent source of inspiration, especially Weber: today that is no longer the case (Adler 2009: 5). The critical function of the classics as being a signifier for disparate world views that encapsulate deep and compelling insights into the human condition has been largely abandoned (Alexander 1987). One refreshing sign of the times, however, is the recent publication of The Oxford Handbook of Sociology and Organization Studies, edited by Paul Adler, in 2009. The usual candidates, Marx, Weber, and Durkheim, are considered, as well as many others (some of whom might have been surprised to be called sociologists).
Clegg, S.R., Pina e Cunha, M. & Rego, A. 2012, 'The Evil of Utopia' in Carole L. Jurkiewicz (ed), Foundations of Organizational Evil, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 225-244.
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Adelstein, J. & Clegg, S.R. 2012, 'Negotiating a knowledge economy: Juggling knowledge, truth and power' in D Rooney, G Hearn, T Kastelle (eds), Handbook on the Knowledge Economy, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, pp. 38-53.
3 Negotiating a knowledge economy: juggling knowledge, truth and power Jennifer Adelstein and Stewart Clegg INTRODUCTION When Peter Drucker (1969, p. 349) identified knowledge as the central component of an innovative economy and society, in many ways he was echoing his fellow Austrian Joseph Schumpeter (1942) in recognizing the power of innovation. It took another 30 years or so for knowledge to be catapulted into a titular role in management. In large part, it was the failure of another project that prepared the path for Knowledge Management (KM). The failed path was Business Process Re-engineering (BPR), and its rethinking of old Tayloristic models unwittingly drove out much tacit knowledge that organizations did not know they had until they lost it. It was in the wake of the widespread failure of BPR projects that concerns with Knowledge with a capital K emerged as mainstream management fare. Knowledge became influential in discourses concerned with first-world social and economic development, such as the `knowledge economy+ (Adler, 2001; Machlup, 1962 [1980]; Mokyr, 2002), `knowledge society+ (Drucker, 1993; Hargreaves, 2003), `information economy+ (Boisot, 1998; Brown and Duguid, 1998; Wolff, 2005) and other similar terms. The rhetoric attached to the concepts of a knowledge economy and knowledge society situated the signifier as the basis of global world order. Knowledge began to influence economics discourses and become a constitutive part of the discourses of globalization (Jessop, 2004; Robertson, 2008). In all dominant discourses, particular truths attain a level of authority and legitimacy that transcends the specificity of...
Clegg, S.R. & Baumeler, C. 2012, 'From Life in Cages to Life in Projects: Metaphors for Moderns' in Davila, A., Elvira, M., Ramirez, J., and Zapata-Cantu, L. (eds), Understanding Organizations in Complex, Emergent and Uncertain Environments, Palgrave Macmillan, New York / Basingstoke, pp. 185-206.
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Clegg, S.R. 2012, 'Transforming Organizations' in Arnaud Sales (ed), Sociology Today: Social transformations in a Globalizing World, SAGE Publications, London, pp. 197-212.
In thi chapter I wilJ fust outline what was for much of the post-war era the dominant conventional approach to thinking about organizations, known as contingency theory. When contingen y theory was first developed in the 1960s, looser organic organizations were a novelty and the donlinant form was that of large mechanistic bUJ'eaucracie . How times change. Today, in U1e We t, bureaucra ies are giving way to new organizational fonns that are much closer to organic organizations. Many organizations today are increasing ly adopting a network form, with many of their inputs and ac tivi tie. hived off to other organizations with which they network. The most radical form of network is a rhizome, a freeflowing system of organic rools preading and colonizing available environments. As older form manufacturing is increasingly shifted to organizations in Asia, the best hope for organ izations and jobs in the West may weU be a network of rhizomalic organizations, focused on design, urrounding the global retailers and brand that disseminate the outsourced cheaply provided goods from Asia.
Pina e Cunha, M., Clegg, S.R. & Rego, A. 2012, 'Surprising Organization' in Pitsis, T.S., Simpson, A., Dehlin, E. (eds), The Handbook of Managerial and Organizational Innovation, Edward Elgar, London, pp. 295-316.
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Clegg, S.R. 2012, 'Foundations of Organizational Power' in Haugaard, M. and Kevin, R. (eds), Political Power: The Development of the Field, Barbara Budrich Publishers, Opladen, pp. 89-125.
Hardy, C., Phillips, N. & Clegg, S.R. 2012, 'Reflexivity in Organization and Management Theory: A Study of the Production of the Research 'Subject'' in Mills. A. and Durepros, G. (eds), Case Study Methods in Business Research, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks CA, pp. 185-212.
Clegg, S.R. & Gray, J. 2012, 'Organization Theory, Power and Changing Institutions' in Boje, D.M., Burnes, B. and Hassard, J. (eds), The Routledge Companion to Organizational Change, Routledge Companions, USA and Canada, pp. 245-260.
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Clegg, S.R. 2012, 'The End of Bureaucracy?' in Reinventing Hierarchy and Bureaucracy - from the Bureau to Network Organizations - Research in the Sociology of Organizations, Emerald, UK, pp. 59-84.
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Bureaucracy is under attack and has been for some time, specially these past 30 years. This chapter will outline the specific qualities of bureaucracy, the challenges to it that different critics have posed and the possible futures of bureaucracy that are being imagined. In the 1980s, as a key part of an extremely liberal and influential critique of bureaucracy, new imaginings of how to organize corporations and public sector organizations began to emerge. By the late 1990s these had morphed into a view of the network or hybrid organization as the way of the future. The chapter will suggest that the global future of bureaucracy is not as simple as some of these criticisms suggest when they see it left behind in the emergence of innovative new forms. Instead, it is suggested, there is a spatial disaggregation of organizations occurring that heralds some unsettling new futures of organizations emerging.
Clegg, S.R. 2012, 'The Politics of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change Summit' in Ivo Domingues (ed), Organizaes Controlo e Sustentabilidade, Humus, Minho, pp. 61-82.
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Clegg, S.R. 2011, 'Power, Legitimacy and Authority' in G. Delanty and S.P. Taylor and J. Soderlund (eds), The Routledge International Handbook of Contemporary Social and Political Theory, Routlege, London, pp. 215-225.
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Any sociological discussion of the relations between power, legitimacy, and authority must start with Max Weber, and some vexed issues of translation, for it was Weber who first developed a systematic account of these tertns as the cornerstone of his social theory. The chapter will begin with an outline of Weber's views of power, legitimacy, and authority, and the interpretation of these in translation. It will then move to consideration of the functionalist theoretical context into which Weber was translated and its extension in Parsons' work. Finally, the chapter will address the recent centrality of dimensional analysis to debates about power in which it is argued that the most subtle and profound power relations are those where actors assume the legitimacy of systems of belief that do not represent their real interests.
Clegg, S.R., Bjorkeng, K. & Pitsis, T.S. 2011, 'Innovating the Practice of Normative Control in Project Management Contractual Relations' in Peter W. G. Morris, Jeffrey K. Pinto, Jonas S+derlund (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Project Management, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford, pp. 410-437.
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In the chapter we begin by considering the institution of contract and approaches to it. We follow this with an analysis of an institutional innovation, the development of alliancing as a specific form of contract premised on a far more normative mode of control than the disciplinary mechanisms of surveillance which have traditionally been seen as more typically associated with conventional contracts. A new way of managing projects is evolving, as we report in this chapter. We consider some of its advantages as well as some of its disadvantages.
Clegg, S.R. 2011, 'Under Reconstruction: Modern Bureaucracy' in Harris, M., Hopfl, H., and Clegg, S.R. (eds), Managing Modernity: Beyond Bureaucracy, Oxford University Press, Oxford UK, pp. 202-229.
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Modern bureaucracies are under reconstruction. First, bureaucracy no longer being 'modern', those organizations formerly known as bureaucracies are seeking to become 'post'- bureaucratic, and second, as the ecology of the dot.com boom indicates, newly founded organizations often strive not to be bureaucratic. What, precisely, constitutes the post-bureaucratic is less clear. Often, the postbureaucratic is defined in terms of hybrid new organization forms.
Harris, M., Clegg, S.R. & Hopfl, H. 2011, 'Introduction: Managing Modernity: Beyond Bureacracy' in Clegg, S.R., Harris, M., and Hopfl, H. (eds), Managing Modernity: Beyond Bureaucracy, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 1-10.
Bureaucracy has long been seen as a cornerstone of the advanced industrial societies, and even as constitutive of modernity itself. Yet, one of the most striking features of contemporary debate is that this hitherto dominant form has been dismissed as outmoded by commentators of virtually all persuasions. Whilst 'post-bureaucratic' has become one of the most widely used terms to describe a new and emergent organizational type, other coinages employed in the same sense include 'the boundaryless corporation', 'the virtual organization', and the 'network enterprise'. A recurrent theme is the belief that we are seeing an historical 'end' to the era of large complex organizations (Davidow and Malone 1992; Dent 1995; Miles et al. 1997; Heckscher 1991, 1994; Heckscher and Applegate 1994; Kofman and Senge 1993; Child and McGrath 2001).
Clegg, S.R. 2011, 'Power' in Tadajewski, M., Maclaran, P., Parsons, E., Parker, M. (eds), Key Concepts in Critical Management Studies, Sage Publications, London, pp. 194-197.
The concept of power is probably the most contested term in social theory. The key contemporary literature that uses the term can be traced back to the early writings of Niccoli Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes. Hobbes saw power as equivalent to a causal relation, whereby, mechanically, some action causes another as a reaction, while Machiavelli was more inclined to discuss power in terms of strategy. Hobbes' influence has been most marked in debates about power in which the conception of it as a causal relation has been predominant. Hobbes has been more influential in discussions of power that see the concept in terms of a capacity that causes things to happen, while Machiavelli has been more influential on approaches to power that see it in terms of the overall structuring of social relations as a field of complex forces, strategies and tactics.
Clegg, S.R. & Kornberger, M.M. 2010, 'An Organizational Perspective on Space and Place Branding' in Go, F.M. & Govers, R. (eds), International Place Branding Yearbook 2010, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 3-11.
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Today, it is commonplace to say that we live in what has been called a society of organizations (Perrow 1991), one in which questions of power and control exercised by organizations become crucial. One consequence of this is the ubiquity of theories of organization that focussed on what economists had glossed as the "firm" - without really attending too much to what actually transpired within the great variety of organizations that this term might cover - as well as those many organizations that it might not cover. Economics was interested in the idea of a free market. Initially, the firm was seen as the home of hierarchy - the alternative to markets (Williamson 1975). But the more society, economics and organizations were studied, the greater became the gloss on what occurred within the firm: to accommodate networks, alliances, communities of practice, human and non-human assemblages, rhizomes ... until the idea of free market exchange became the exception, not the norm. This shift in perspective has important implications: free market models, known as neoclassical economics, implied that rational actors made decisions based on economic calculations. The social and the political were eliminated from the economic, as well as the cognitive, limits that produce "bounded rationality" (Simon 1982). Against the sterility of the models thus produced, organization theory, which began its career fixated on bureaucracy, developed various antithetical models. Central to all of these are notions of nonnecessity and of choice.
Clegg, S.R. 2009, 'Introduction: Why a handbook of marcro-organizational behavior' in Clegg S; Cooper, C (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Behavior, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 1-37.
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Most research in organizational behavior is micro in focus, beraying the deep embeddedness of the discourse in psychology, the study of individuals. Thus, the distinctive feature of micro-organizational behavior is that it is the study of the behavior of individuals and groups in the organization, as seen from a psychological perspective. If there are similar disciplinary auspices for macro-organizational behavior they relate to sociology, strategy and economics.
Clegg, S.R. & Carter, C. 2009, 'Globalization and organizational behaviour' in Clegg, S; Cooper, C (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Behavior, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 496-508.
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Haugaard, M. & Clegg, S.R. 2009, 'Introduction: Why power is the central concept of the social sciences' in Clegg, S; Haugaard, M (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Power, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 1-24.
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The concept of power is absolu0ely central to any understanding of society' The ubiquity of the concept can be seen by a comparative Google search. The score for 'social power' is 376 million hits, for 'political power' 194 million which compares with 334 million for .society', 253 million for 'politics', 52 million for 'sociology', 'social class'at 280 million and .political class' at 111 million. Of course, such measures are crude but the fact that the combined 470 million social and political power hits outstrip any of the other categories, including the combined hits for 'social' and 'political class', indicales the absolute centrality of theconcept. However, despitethis ubiquity itis arguably oneof themostdifficultconcepts to make sense of within the social sciences. Nonetheless, it has been a core concept for as long as there has been speculation about the nature of social order (Wolin 1960)'
Clegg, S.R. 2009, 'Managing power in organizations: The hidden history of its constitution' in Clegg, SR; Haugaard, M (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Power, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 310-331.
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Management as a practice of power involving the imposition of will is directed at framing not only the conduct of others but also oneself. It is a form of govemment linking how to mandate'with 'how to obey'. Managing implies power because it involves governing the conduct of oneself and others. Managing in any epoch will be a particular skill that involves execution and doing. It will be active, a practice. Moreover, it will not merely be a practice of the self - one doesn't just learn how to be a manager - but it is also a practice of the many others who are to be managed. Others must leam to be managed just as those who will manage them must leam that which constitutes managing in any given place and time.
Clegg, S.R. & Haugaard, M. 2009, 'Discourse of power' in Clegg, S; Haugaard, M (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Power, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 400-465.
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Writing a conclusion to such a large and varied volume as this was a task that demanded some consideration. Obviously, we had commissioned the pieces that we did because we thought that the authors invited were the best able to address the topics that they were invited to address. Yet, we wanted to engage with the contributors in this conclusion, not to treat them irreverently but not to teat tlem too reverently either. We wanted to engage in tribute and critique of their efforts, in the most positive and constructive sense of these terms; tribute as praise, review, as acknowledgement. In doing this we pay tribute to our contributors, in attempting to probe and understand the limitations Lotft of the concept itself and the contributors' understandings of it. We seek to deploy reasoned judgement in our readings, drawing on a broad background of analysis, one that is capable, we hope, of the interpretive leaps needed for seasoned and systematic inquiry into the conditions and consequences of the use of a concept as central and as contested as'power'. Having made this decision, there was the question of how we should organize our ideas.When we started to write the conclusion we were on opposite sides of the earth, so the opportunities for face-to-face discussion were precluded. Mark suggested that we might try *d conduct a conversation by e-mail, as a dialogue about the chapters, pulling out the points and implications that seemed significant. So this is what we did. The conversation started with Mark.
Clegg, S.R. 2009, 'The jungle and the academy' in Pullen, A; Rhodes, C (eds), Bits of Organization, Copenhagen Business School Press, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 56-66.
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Philadelphia was the home of F. W. Taylor, a noble forebear for management scholars, many might think. From the steel mills of that great city much of what is taken for granted as modern management began. Further to the north, in Chicago and Detroit, there are other fountainheads of management's truths. 1 want to take a journey through the industrial heartland of the US, starting in Chicago, a journey that will take us through two very different conceptions of what management is and should be, which 1 shall encompass as an orientation that accepts the nature of reality as is and seeks to create employees and knowledge that are 'work ready' to meet it, and an orientation that is 'future oriented', one thar looks at what is and thinks it could be better. Taylor and Ford, of Philadelphia and Detroit, reflect the first position; Sinclair and Ezra Park, of Chicago, the second. 1 shall narrate a journey linking these figures before arriving at the 'forward thinking, work ready' conclusion.
Pina e Cunha, M., Rego, A., Clegg, S.R. & Cabral-Cardoso, C. 2009, 'From "This job is killing me" to "I live the life I love and I love the life I live"' in Reddy, S (eds), Workaholism: Perspectives and Experiences, ICFAI Books, Punjagutta India, pp. 29-48.
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If we define efficiency in terms of maximizing output from a given - or lesser - number of workers, it can be considered that, in some cases, Frederick Taylor's science has achieved a remarkahle success. Contemporary organizations managed to create such a state of conmitment (be it spontaneous or hnposed), that people have adopted excessive working as lifestyte. Life is organized aroundwork, with work occupying - more and more territory from the tormer privale life. We discuss the notion of excessive worffing, present several forms of excessive working, contest the idea that excessive working is necessarily noxious, and challenge researchers critically to discuss their practical saccess. As the saying goes, there can be too much of a good thing.
Banerjee, S.B., Carter, C. & Clegg, S.R. 2009, 'Managing globalization' in Alvesson, M; Bridgman, T; Willmott, H (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Critical Management Studies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 186-212.
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THIs chapter discusses some approaches to globalization that contribute to a critical management studies (CMS) agenda. The vast majority of the literature in management and organization theory takes an inveterately mainstream approach to globalization and lacks a critical perspective. Articles in scholarly journals such as the lournal of International Business Studies and the Colombia Journal of World Business tend to focus on the opportunities and risks posed by globalization and how firms can leverage competitive advantage in a global market. Topics that are studied include entry strategies into developing markets, cross cultural marketing and management issues, outsourcing, technology transfer, and joint ventures. Few scholars question the naturalness or implied superiority of Western economic development models and their links to globalization, focusing instead on the problems with knowledge that either limit researchers' ability to recognize divergence or the inability of existing theories to explain or capture such divergence.
Clegg, S.R. 2009, 'Doing power work' in Buchanan, DA; Bryman, A (eds), The Sage Handbook of Organizational Research Methods, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 143-159.
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In this chapter, I will introduce the notion of the researcher, especially as a doctoral student, as someone who is expected to think for a living. Thinking for a living, it will be suggested, means following ideas - even if they take us out of what we define as our intellectual paddock and lead us to stray into neighbouring or even distant terrain' For organizational scholars, however' thinking for a living is not sufficient' We have to relate how our thinking for a living relates to the way that others are working for a living in relation to those organizations that employ them, that they relate to and work with. Thus, the second movement is to consider the relation between thinking for a living and working for a living'
Pina e Cunha, M., Vieira Da Cunha, J. & Clegg, S.R. 2009, 'Improvisational bricolage: A practice-based approach to strategy and foresight' in Costanzo, LA; MacKay, RB (eds), Handbook of Research on Strategy and Foresight, Edward Elgar, UK, pp. 182-199.
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Clegg, S.R. & Lounsbury, M. 2009, 'Weber: Sintering the iron cage' in Adler, PS (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Sociology and Organization Studies, Oxford University Press, New York, USA, pp. 118-145.
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Clegg, S.R. 2009, 'Time, organizations and pragmatism' in Zijlstra, F; Van Iterson, A; Ten Horn, L (eds), Time Changes Work: Liber Amoricum for Robert A Roe, Universitaire Pres Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands, pp. 166-173.
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It is in the scriphrres that it is stated, by Matthew (Matthew y, 20)' that "By their works ye shali know them.' I know Robert Roe persondY .as a fine man' a ,.r,rp.tl,orrs scholar, a man of broad interests; Uy E works I.know him for his concerns with the concepts of 'time'. And it is through the works, especially those on time, that I wish to approach the person.
Clegg, S.R. 2008, 'If people are strange, does organization make us normal?' in Barry, D; Hansen, H (eds), The SAGE Handbook of New Approaches in Management and Organization, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 436-446.
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Clegg, S.R., Hermel, P. & Foley, K. 2008, 'The power implications of qualilty management: Some first thoughts' in Foley, K; Hermel, P (eds), The Theories and Practices of Organization Excellence: New Perspectives, SAI Global, Sydney, Australia, pp. 295-334.
Carter, C., Clegg, S.R., Kornberger, M.M., Laske, S. & Messner, M. 2007, 'Introduction' in Carter, C., Clegg, S., Kornberger, M., Laske, S. and Messner, M. (eds), Business ethics as practice : representation, discourse and performance, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, pp. 1-9.
Clegg, S.R., Wang, K.Y. & Berrell, M. 2007, 'Business Networks and Strategic Alliances in China: An Introduction' in Stewart R. Clegg, Karen Wang and Mike Berrell (eds), Business Networks and Strategic Alliances in China, Edward Elgar Publishing, London, UK, pp. 3-27.
Pitsis, T.S. & Clegg, S.R. 2007, 'Interpersonal Metaphysics - "We live in a political world": The paradox of managerial wisdom' in E.H Kessler and J.R Bailey (eds), Handbook of Organizational and Managerial Wisdom, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, USA, pp. 399-421.
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Clegg, S.R. 2007, 'Bureaucracy and the public sector governmentality' in George Ritzer (ed), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, pp. 376-378.
Clegg, S.R. 2007, 'Ideal type' in George Ritzer (ed), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 2201-2202.
Carter, C. & Clegg, S.R. 2007, 'Institutional theory, new.' in George Ritzer (ed), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 2351-2352.
Clegg, S.R. & Carter, C. 2007, 'Management' in George Ritzer (ed), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, pp. 2710-2719.
Carter, C. & Clegg, S.R. 2007, 'Management fashion' in George Ritzer (ed), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, pp. 2729-2731.
Clegg, S.R. 2006, 'Bureaucracy' in Beilharz, P; Hogan, T (eds), Sociology: place, time & division, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 429-432.
Clegg, S.R., Gudergan, S., Kornberger, M.M. & Ray, T. 2006, 'Managing local practices in a networked world' in Kornberger, M; Gudergan, S (eds), Only Connect: neat words, networks & identities, Liber and Copenhagen Business School Press, Malmo, Sweden, pp. 190-209.
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Clegg, S.R. & Hardy, C. 2006, 'Representation & reflexivity' in Clegg, S; Hardy, C; Lawrence, T; Nord, W (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Organization Studies, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 425-443.
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Clegg, S.R. & Rhodes, C.H. 2006, 'Introduction: questioning the ethics of management practice' in Clegg, S; Rhodes, C (eds), Management Ethics: contemporary contexts, Routledge, Abingdon, UK, pp. 1-9.
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ARC Special Projects (ASSA)
Clegg, S.R. & Rhodes, C.H. 2006, 'Conclusions: possible ethics & ethical possibilities' in Clegg, S; Rhodes, C (eds), Management Ethics: contemporary contexts, Routledge, Abingdon, OX, UK, pp. 172-191.
ARC Special Projects (ASSA)
Hardy, C. & Clegg, S.R. 2006, 'Some dare call it power' in Clegg, S; Hardy, C; Lawrence, T; Nord, W (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Organization Studies, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 754-775.
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Nord, W.R., Lawrence, T.B., Hardy, C. & Clegg, S.R. 2006, 'Introduction' in Clegg, S; Hardy, C; Lawrence, T; Nord, W (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Organization Studies, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 1-15.
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Parker, B. & Clegg, S.R. 2006, 'Globalization' in Clegg, S; Hardy, C; Lawrence, T; Nord, W (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Organization Studies, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 651-674.
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Clegg, S.R. 2006, 'The bounds of rationality' in Schram, S; Caterino, B (eds), Making Political Science Matter: debating knowledge, research and method, New York University Press, New York, USA, pp. 171-187.
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Clegg, S.R. & Kornberger, M.M. 2006, 'Introduction: rediscovering space' in Clegg, S; Kornberger, M (eds), Space, Organization and Management Theory, Liber & Copenhagen Business School Press, Malmo, Sweden, pp. 8-16.
Clegg, S.R. & Kornberger, M.M. 2006, 'Organising space' in Clegg, S; Kornberger, M (eds), Space, Organization and Management Theory, Liber and Copenhagen Business School Pres, Malmo, Denmark, pp. 143-162.
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Clegg, S.R. & Pitsis, T.S. 2006, 'The art of alliancing: from imperative control to collaborative coordination' in Boyce, G; Macintyre, S; Ville, S (eds), How Organisations Connect: investing in communication, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 32-53.
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ARC LP0348816
Clegg, S.R., Pitsis, T.S., Marosszeky, M. & Rura-Polley, T. 2006, 'Making the future perfect: constructing the Olympic dream' in Hodgson, D; Cicmil, S (eds), Making Projects Critical, Palgrave Macmillan Ltd, Hampshire, UK, pp. 265-293.
Clegg, S.R. 2005, 'Globalizing business' in Calhoun, C; Rojek, C; Turner, B (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Sociology, SAGE Publications Ltd, London, UK, pp. 492-515.
Linstead, S., Clegg, S.R. & Sewell, G. 2005, 'Casting the other to the ends of the Earth: marginal identity in organisation studies' in Pullen, A; Linstead, S (eds), Organization and Identity, Routledge, Abingdon, UK, pp. 223-243.
Ray, T. & Clegg, S.R. 2005, 'Tacit knowing, communication and power: lessons from Japan' in Little, S; Ray, T (eds), Managing Knowledge: An Essential Reader, Sage Publications, London, UK, pp. 319-347.
Clegg, S.R., Ray, T. & Carter, C. 2004, 'Japan as institutional counterfactual: knowledge, learning and power' in Hodgson, D E; Carter, C (eds), Management Knowledge and the New Employee, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Aldershot, UK, pp. 84-102.
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Hardy, C. & Clegg, S.R. 2004, 'Power and change: a critical reflection' in Boonstra, J J (eds), Dynamics of Organization Change and Learning, John Wiley and Son Ltd, West Sussex, UK, pp. 343-365.
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Ray, T., Clegg, S.R. & Gordon, R.D. 2004, 'A new look at dispersed leadership: power, knowledge and context' in Storey, J (eds), Leadership in Organizations: current issues and key trends, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK, pp. 319-336.
Westwood, R. & Clegg, S.R. 2003, 'The discourse of organization studies: dissensus politics, and paradigms' in Westwood, R; Clegg, S (eds), Debating Organization: Point-Counterpoint in Organization Studies, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, London, pp. 1-42.
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Clegg, S.R. & Stokes, J.R. 2003, 'Bureaucracy, power and ethics' in Bishop, P; Connors, C; Sampford, C (eds), Management, Organisation and Ethics in the Public Sector, Ashgate Publishing Limited, London, UK, pp. 145-159.
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Clegg, S.R. & Kornberger, M.M. 2003, 'Modernism, postmodernism, management and organization theory' in Locke, E (eds), Postmodernism and Management: Pros, Cons and the Alternative, Elsevier Science, London, pp. 57-88.
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Modernism and postmodernism may be thought of as either moments or movements. We argue for thinking of them as moments, essentially related to each other, rather than movements that literally have historical specificity. From this perspective what is modern and what is postmodern is always shifting, such that their nature is problematic, essentially contested and shifting. Rather than use contemporary examples to make these points, we prefer to refer to quite historical examples, because the modalities become much sharper and can be seen in clearer focus. Hence, we discuss Machiavelli and Caravaggio as precursors of the postmodern and Hobbes and Boyle as precursors of the modern. Obviously, there is an irony in our intent: given the claims to currency of the debates with which we frame the paper then reference to some classical sources serves to hose down debate and fix it in a sharper, cleaner form. While it will become evident that our sympathies are not with +modernism+, it should become equally clear that we hold much of the representation of +postmodernism+ to be as much at error as we do the fixing of the modern in the frame of the empiricist, the positivist, and the scientific. For us, all these terms are equally problematic, and have been so ever since we began to first think we might be modern + whether in art, social science or science. We conclude by addressing why, in the present, these classical debates should have migrated to the study of organizations.
Clegg, S.R. 2003, 'Managing organization futures in a changing world of power/knowledge' in Tsoukas, H; Knudsen, C (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Organization Theory: Meta-Theoretical Perspectives, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 536-567.
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de Cunha, J.V., Clegg, S.R. & e Cunha, M.P. 2002, 'Management, paradox, and permanent dialectics' in Clegg S (ed), Management and Organization Paradoxes, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 11-40.
Clegg, S.R. 2002, 'Why distributed discourse matters' in Holmes L; Hosking DM; Grieco M (eds), Organising in the information age, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Aldershot, UK, pp. 4-12.
Clegg, S.R. 2002, 'Radical revisions: power, discipline and organizations' in Clegg S (ed), Central Currents in Organization Studies II - Contemporary Trends, Sage Publications Ltd, London, UK, pp. 162-179.
Clegg, S.R. 2002, 'Editor's introduction: contemporary trends' in Clegg S (ed), Central Currents in Organization Studies II - Contemporary Trends, Sage Publications Ltd, London England, pp. 9-31.
Hardy, C. & Clegg, S.R. 2002, 'Relativity without relativism: reflexivity in post-paradigm - organization studies' in Clegg S (ed), Central Currents in Organization Studies II - Contemporary Trends, Sage Publications Ltd, London, UK, pp. 144-162.
Clegg, S.R. 2002, 'Bounded rationalities and context dependence' in Clegg S (ed), Central Currents in Organization Studies i - Frameworks and Applications, Sage Publications Ltd, London, England, pp. 7-23.
Clarke, T. & Clegg, S.R. 2002, 'Future paradigms for public service' in Jun JS (ed), Rethinking Administrative Theory - the challenge of the new century, Praeger Publishers, Westport, pp. 171-186.
Clegg, S.R. 2002, 'Power' in Sorge A (ed), Organization, Thomson Learning, London, UK, pp. 299-313.

Books

Rego, A., Pina e Cunha, M. & Clegg, S.R. 2012, The Virtues of Leadership: Contemporary Challenge for Global Managers, 1, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Given the power of multinational organizations in developed and emerging economies, and their role in economic growth, their leaders face particular moral and business challenges in the contemporary global economy. Drawing on the Positive Organizational Scholarship movement, this book explores how virtues and character strengths may be put at the service of positive organizational performance, stressing that virtues represent the 'golden mean' between the extremes of excess and deficiency, and discussing the perverse consequences of 'excessive virtuousness'. The book shares theoretical, anecdotal, and empirical evidence on the convergence between good virtues and good results, aiming to disseminate the idea that managers can be competent and competitive, whilst doing 'good things right'.
Carlsen, A., Clegg, S.R. & Gjersvik, R. 2012, Idea Work, 1, Cappellen Damm, Oslo.
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Prepare to be surprised. This book on idea work significantly enriches how we see, understand and do the everyday work of making ideas transformative. The book is simultaneously simple and profound, playful and serious, practical and theoretical. No doubt it will be useful and used by anyone who is curious about how ideas become real in everyday activities. The book both makes the process of idea work accessible and mysterious at the same time. No matter what your interest is in idea work, read a page, read a chapter, read the whole book + any engagement with the book will excite novel thought and practical advice + a rare and pleasing combination
Clegg, S.R. & Haugaard, M. 2012, Power and Organizations, 1, Sage Publications, London.
Clegg, S.R. 2012, Power and Organizations, 2, Sage Publications, London.
Clegg, S.R. 2012, Power and Organizations, 3, Sage Publications, London.
Clegg, S.R. 2012, Power and Organizations, 4, Sage Publications, London.
Clegg, S.R. 2012, Power and Politics, 1, Sage Publications, London.
Clegg, S.R. 2012, Power and Politics, 2, Sage Publications, London.
Clegg, S.R. 2012, Power and Politics, 3, Sage Publications, London.
Clegg, S.R. 2012, Power and Politics, 4, Sage Publications, London.
Clegg, S.R., Carter, C., Kornberger, M.M. & Schweitzer, J. 2011, Strategy: Theory and Practice, 1, Sage Publications, London.
Written by a team of leading academics, this groundbreaking new text is an invaluable guide to the core elements of strategy courses, that will challenge conventional thinking about the field. Key features: - Provides a coherent and engaging overview of the established 'classics' of strategy, while taking an innovative approach to contemporary issues such as power and politics, ethics, branding, globalisation, collaboration, and the global financial crisis. - A unique critical perspective that encourages you to reflect on the strategy process and strategic decision-making. - Packed with learning features, including a wealth of international case studies and accompanying discussion questions. - A website offering a full Instructors' Manual, video cases, podcasts and full-text journal articles.
Clegg, S.R. & Cooper, C. 2009, The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Behavior: Macro Approaches, 1, Sage, London, UK.
This milestone Handbook brings together an impressive collection of international contributions on micro and macro research in organizational behavior. The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Behavior, Volume One provides students and scholars with an insightful and wide-reaching survey of the current state of the field and is an indispensible road map to the subject area. Volume Two of The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Behavior focuses on macro-organizational behaviour, revealing ways in which the person and group affect the organization.
Clegg, S.R., Courpasson, D. & Phillips, N. 2006, Power and Organizations, 1, SAGE Publications, London, UK.
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Kono, T. & Clegg, S.R. 2001, Trends in Japanese Management, 1, Palgrave, London, UK.

Conference Papers

Clegg, S.R., Rhodes, C.H. & Kornberger, M.M. 2003, 'Managers as moral subjects? decision making, undecidability and the organizational ego', 10th APROS International Colloquium 2003, Oxaca, Mexico, December 2003 in Proceedings - New World: Translating the Past, Narrating the Present & Organising the Future, ed Ibarra-Colado, E, Area de Estudios Organizacionales, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Iztapalapa, pp. 1-17.
Carter, C., Clegg, S.R., Kornberger, M.M. & Mueller, F. 2003, '"No guru, no method, no teacher" - no way!', 10th APROS International Colloquium 2003, Oaxaca, Mexico, December 2003 in Proceedings + New World: Translating the Past, Narrating the Present & Organising the Future, ed Ibarra-colado, E, Area de Estudios Organizacionales, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Iztapalapa, Mexico, pp. 1-36.
Pitsis, T.S., Clegg, S.R. & Marosszeky, M. 2002, 'Managing through the future perfect tense: a project odyssey', British Academy of Management Conference 2002, London, UK, September 2002 in Proceedings of the British Academy of Management Conference 2002, ed Viney H, Middlesex University, London, pp. 1-29.
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Pitsis, T.S., Rura-Polley, T. & Clegg, S.R. 2001, 'The Implications of 'Future Perfect Planning' for Quality Management', 5th International and 8th National research Conference on Quality and Innovation Management, Melbourne, February 2001 in Proceedings of 5th International and 8th National research Conference on Quality and Innovation Management, ed Terziovski M, The Euro-Australian Cooperation Centre Victoria, Melbourne, pp. 437-450.
Clegg, S.R. 2000, 'Taking stock: changing theoretical and executive paradigms for the 21st century', Montreal, Canada, July 2000 in ASAC - IFSAM 2000 - The 28th Annual ASAC Conference and 5th IFSAM World Congress, ed -, ASAC & IFSAM, Montreal, Canada, pp. 0-0.
Clegg, S.R. 2000, 'The vicissitudes of power', Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, Sydney, NSW, December 2000 in Managing for the New Millennium: The Leap Ahead - ANZAM 2000 Conference Proceedings, ed R Dunford, Australia & New Zealand Academy of Management, North Ryde, Australia, pp. 0-0.

Journal Articles

Josserand, E.L., Clegg, S.R., Mehra, A. & Pitsis, T.S. 2014, 'The innovative power of network dynamics', Organization Studies, vol. INPRESS.
Simpson, A.V., Clegg, S.R. & Pitsis, T.S. 2014, 'Normal compassion: A framework for compassionate decision making', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 473-491.
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In this empirical paper, we present a model of the dynamic legitimizing processes involved in the receiving and giving of compassion. We focus on the idea of being `worthy of compassion+ and show how ideas on giving and receiving compassion are highly contestable. Recognition of a worthy recipient or giver of compassion constitutes a socially recognized claim to privilege, which has ethical managerial and organizational implications. We offer a model that assists managers in fostering ethical strength in their performance by encouraging reflection on the ethical complexity involved in compassion relations. The model emphasizes the dynamics of both the givers and receivers of compassion and so can also be used by organizations to both assess how others may view the legitimacy of their compassion relations and also to develop a positive organizational ethic of compassionate conduct. Dear Authors, We are pleased to inform you that the Senior Editor for Special Issues of the Journal of Business Ethics has reviewed and accepted your paper for inclusion in the Special Issue on Positive Organizational Ethics. We thank you for your patience during the extended review process. "The dynamics of compassion: A framework for compassionate decision making" makes an important contribution to the Special Issue. Given an additional revision round for some authors, we expect the issue to go into production this summer. All the best, Leslie, Debbie, and Lindsey
Adelstein, J. & Clegg, S.R. 2014, 'And Rewind! Recycling Discourses of Knowledge Work and Knowledge Society', Management and Organizational History, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-23.
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While knowledge work is privileged by contemporary managerial discourse as a principal tenet of the present epoch, this paper examines an earlier knowledge society the Renaissance and argues that the contemporary designation of society as a `knowledge society+ is neither new nor unique. In contemporary discourse, much as during the Renaissance, institutional authorities sought to control unauthorized knowledge through disciplinary actions. There is also a parallel between the historical conditions that enabled the Renaissance to emerge and those preceding the emergence of a contemporary knowledge society. The paper argues that discourses of knowledge work and knowledge society may be seen as recycled, making what is old seem new again.
Smith, S., Winchester, D., Clegg, S.R. & Pang, V.Y. 2014, 'Collaboration as a Strategic Service in Government Online Communities', Journal of Change Management, vol. 0, no. 0, pp. 1-22.
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This study investigates strategic innovation changes designed to facilitate `Collaboration as a Service+ that were undertaken on information technology platform sites hosting online communities by NSW state government agencies in Australia. The initial platform hosted the Guardianship Tribunal site dealing with people that have disabilities. The second platform involved working groups (WGs). The third platform hosted knowledge resource centre user group sites. A WG focusing on climate change issues that collaborated within and across agencies, as well as with outside organizations was investigated. A feature of the climate change group is that it requires data and collaboration from many agencies with a future-oriented function and duration of 20+ years. Overall, the WGs perform better following the adoption and implementation of collaborative tools resulting in the benefits of there being a single-point document, reduced duplication of information and effort and a design that complements WG operational activities. Lessons were learned from changes in service delivery for the design of face-to-face services that drove pre-implementation factors and assisted change and collaboration in earlier platforms through enhancing later sites features and functionality limiting user resistance. However, the organizational change contributed to enhanced centralization and panopticism of organizational power relations.
Silva, T., Pina e Cunha, M., Clegg, S.R., Neves, P., Rego, A. & Rodrigues, R.A. 2014, 'Smells like Team Spirit: Opening a Paradoxical Black Box', Human Relations, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 1-24.
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Despite the common usage of the term, researchers and practitioners have not been able properly to explain what team spirit is and what benefits and drawbacks it might bring to teams. Several definitions have been proposed, but not in a consistent manner. Using a qualitative approach, we worked with one football team to shed light on how individuals experience and characterize team spirit. Our results suggest that team spirit is built around four paradoxes: these are a paradox of selfless egoism; a paradox of results; a paradox of conflict, and a paradox of relationships. Essentially, team spirit can be viewed as an inter-subjectively shared facility with which individual members of a team can balance opposing tensions in a consistent way, managing to maintain a healthy synthesis between individual and collective needs and expectations, preventing the team from dominating the individuals, as well as specific individuals from capturing the team.
Pina e Cunha, M., Clegg, S.R., Rego, A. & Story, J. 2014, 'From the Physics of Change to Realpolitik: Improvisational Relations of Power and Resistance', Journal of Change Management, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 460-476.
Simpson, A.V., Clegg, S.R. & Pitsis, T.S. 2014, '"I used to care but things have changed": A genealogy of compassion in organizational theory', Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. Online, pp. 1-13.
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This article has been published online on 23 February 2014
Simpson, A.V., Clegg, S.R., Lopes, M.P., e Cunha, M.P., Rego, A. & Pitsis, T.S. 2014, 'Doing compassion or doing discipline? Power relations and the Magdalene Laundries', Journal of Political Power, vol. Online.
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We address the Magdalene Laundries. On the one hand this institution was constituted as a compassionate response to managing troubled young women; on the other hand it was seen as a disciplinary apparatus imposing total institutional life on its inmates. The antinomy of views about the institution is evident in the analysis we make of 116 comments by 66 commenters on an online newspaper article about the Magdalene Laundries. We analyse these comments in the context of broader concerns about contemporary approaches to the topic of organizational compassion. We argue that organizational compassion is a complex social process embedded within power relations that can be disciplinary in nature and create ambivalent rather than wholly positive outcomes.
Baunsgaard, V.V. & Clegg, S.R. 2013, ''Walls and Boxes': The Effects of Professional Identity, Power and Rationality on Strategies for Cross-Functional Integration', Organization Studies, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1299-1325.
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Small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are recognized as drivers of economic growth, yet commonly face low innovation and organizational success due to insufficient cross-functional integration. We pose the simple question: what factors hinder cross-functional integration from occurring? We analyse crossfunctional integration at management level by developing the framework of dominant ideological modes of rationality, composing professional identity, power relations and rationalities and through the construct of `members+ categorization devices+ (MCDs). The article builds theory from a longitudinal in-depth empirical investigation of `everyday+ micro-political processes involved in cross-functional integration by drawing on political and ethnomethodological perspectives. It provides novel findings on the dynamics between power relations and cross-functional integration, the influence of `thought worlds+ of different functions involved in the innovation process, and contributes empirical evidence that professional identity produces power relations and rationality. Implications for theory, method and practice are considered.
Nikolova, N., Clegg, S.R., Fox, S., Bj+rkeng, K. & Pitsis, T.S. 2013, 'Uncertainty Reduction through Everyday Performative Language Work. The Case of Coaching', International Studies of Management & Organization, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 74-90.
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In this study, we focus on coaching in the context of small and medium-size enterprises in the creative industries. We draw on data collected from five business-coaching organizations over numerous coaching encounters with their clients. Using detailed conversational data drawn from these coaching encounters we analyze the ways in which business coaches practice "active listening" and "reflective questioning" in order to reduce the uncertainties they and their clients face when working together. We show that they do so through the strategy of positioning "performance" as central to their practice. Successful performances depend on the ability to convince clients that one's performance is what it represents itself to be: a performance that is brought off by detailed everyday language work, mimicking the client's language back on to the client. In this way, coaches demonstrate themselves as skilled analysts of everyday life and masters of listening.
Lancione, M. & Clegg, S.R. 2013, 'The chronotopes of change: Actor-networks in a changing Business School', Journal of Change Management, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 117-142.
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This article investigates how a leading business school is reshaping its identity through a process that includes, but is not limited to, the building of a new facility designed by the Canadian architect Frank Gehry, as well as a major revision of the teaching programmes, ethos and branding. By investigating this process in an actor-network theory fashion, and introducing the notion of chronotope, the article answers three central questions related to the notion of change: How does organizational change happen in the daily life of a project? What gives unity to a chain of small relational changes? How can processual change possibly be managed? Theoretically, the article argues that change emerges in the micro-dynamics of organizing, fragments that are stitched together by macro-dominant narratives, in a constant process of translations that occur between human and non-human actants. The management of change is pursued through a constant micro-politics of network maintenance and enactment.
e Cunha, M.P., Rego, A., Clegg, S.R. & Neves, P. 2013, 'The Case For Transcendent Followership', Leadership, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 87-106.
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Based on the model of transcendent leadership, we suggest that subordinates need to display competences that mirror those of their leaders and propose transcendent followership as a framework for the responsibilities of followers in contemporary organizational environments. A transcendent follower is someone who expresses competence in terms of their management of relations with self, others and organization. Competence in the domain of self refers to being self-aware and proactive in developing individual strengths. Competence in the domain of others refers to the processes of interpersonal impact, in relation to leaders and peers. Competence in the domain of organization refers to collective maintenance and change. The article offers an integrated view of the roles and responsibilities of followers in dynamic organizational environments, presenting them as fellows rather than subordinates.
Clegg, S.R., Cunha, M., Rego, A. & Dias, J. 2013, 'Mundane Objects And The Banality Of Evil: The Sociomateriality Of A Death Camp', Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 325-340.
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In this article, we study one organization that played a pivotal role in the Cambodian genocide of the 1970s: the S-21 extermination center. We analyze, in particular, how processes of sociomateriality in the death camp contributed to create order and normalcy in an extreme and abnormal organization. A more nuanced view of agency ensues from this analysis, one that helps the understanding of how the creation of material spaces critically influences organizing, including the organizing of genocide.
Clegg, S.R. 2013, 'Anyone and Everyone, Potentially: For a Political Philosophy for All Humans, Without Limits', Journal of Political Power, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 157-164.
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A complex normative political theory for liberalism; an ethnography of a life; reflections on the ontological nature of human being as consciousness, body and being in the world; a defence of the ideology of science as a norm of reason; a critique of identity politics, an opposition to all fundamentalisms; an account of the importance of manners for the civilising process and a reflexive account of being Jewish + these are the concerns of this book. Clearly, it ranges far and wide, something that hardly makes it an easy book to review. I shall begin this review with an overview of the themes of the book before entering into a more detailed discussion.
Simpson, A.V., Clegg, S.R. & Pina e Cunha, M. 2013, 'Expressing compassion in the face of crisis: Organizational practices in the aftermath of the Brisbane floods of 2011', Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 115-124.
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Compassion is almost universally acknowledged as an important issue in the crisis management literature. The dominant perspective, however, approaches compassion instrumentally. The findings of this study on the compassionate support offered (or not) to employees during and after the Brisbane flood crisis of January 2011 provide insight into crisis management as a continuous process rather than a reactionary response when disaster arises. Three significant policy implications are generated: First, compassionate discourses and categorization schemas should be clearly articulated within the organization before crisis. Second, compassionate policies and practices need to be embedded in ongoing organizational routines and policies. Third, initiatives framed as compassion responses should not be assumed to necessarily create positive outcomes; rather, outcomes should be assessed on an ongoing basis
Pina e Cunha, M., Clegg, S.R. & Rego, A. 2013, 'Lessons for Leaders: Positive Organization Studies Meets Niccolo Machiavelli', Leadership, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 450-465.
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Machiavelli should be a central and canonical text for management education, even in the age of positive organizational literatures. We give it this role by considering the case of the virtuous leader. Our proposition is simple: virtuous leaders live and act, like anybody else, in the power circuits that are constitutive of reality. Therefore, they participate in power dynamics that sometimes make them face the need to decide in ways that do not correspond to normative positive precepts. Machiavelli shows that even virtuous leaders must do what needs to be done, while trying to preserve one+s values and move in the direction of noble, high purpose goals.
Simpson, A.V., Freeder, D. & Clegg, S.R. 2013, 'Compassion, Power and Organization', Journal of Political Power, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 385-404.
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In this paper, we analyse the significance of compassion as an emotion in its relationship to various manifestations of power within the organisational context. We critique those theories of compassion that assume that compassion in organsational contexts is motivated only by a noble intent. The paper draws on a study of organisational responses to the flood that devastated the City of Brisbane Australia on the morning of 11 January 2011. We use a framework of `circuits of power+ to provide a triple focus on interpersonal, organisational and societal uses of power together with a model of coercive, instrumental and normative organisational power. We present our findings in a framework constructed by overlapping these frameworks. The unique contribution of this paper is to provide a conceptualisation of organisational compassion enmeshed with various modes of power exercised in and by organisations.
Clegg, S.R., Jarvis, W.P. & Pitsis, T.S. 2013, 'Making Strategy Matter: Social Theory, Knowledge Interests and Business Education', Business History, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 1247-1264.
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The tensions and challenges facing business education frame this paper, which takes a critical look at the historical evolution of business school education in the context of the present conjecture, with a particular emphasis on the role social theory can play in the analysis of strategy and ethics. Flyvbjerg's phronesis and Selznick's sociology are deployed to address the challenges facing business schools and their place in higher education. Kant's moral anthropology opens common grounds to both approaches. Our aim is to provide a platform from which business and university leaders can debate and discuss the current and future role and impact of business school education, particularly focusing on linking and cultivating ethical and strategic capabilities in management and organizational practices.
Orsato, R.J., Clegg, S.R. & Falco, H. 2013, 'The Political Ecology of Palm Oil Production', Journal of Change Management, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 444-459.
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The paper analyses the social and environmental issues involved in disputes relating to the sustainability of the palm oil industry. These disputes have been aired in and around the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil. We start by developing a review of types of voluntary environmental initiative or green clubs, as they have also been called, in this context. The study is based on extensive fieldwork in the setting of the disputes (the island of Borneo) and analysis of the different levels in the global value chain of the palm oil industry, including local organizations, the industry structure overall, as well as the local governments of Malaysia and Indonesia. The use of the political ecology framework for the analysis of the palm oil industry contributes not only to the development of a more institutional-power perspective, but also provides solid grounds for the understanding of green clubs + an increasingly important type of organization
Clegg, S.R. & Iterson, A. 2013, 'The Effects of Liquefying Place, Time and Organizational Boundaries on Employee Behavior: Lessons of Classical Sociology', M@n@gement, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 621-635.
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This paper explores how the liquefying of place, time, and organizational boundaries affects social control and self-regulation at the workplace. We address Norbert Elias+s civilizing process theory (Elias 2000), and some of the criticism it has evoked, to explore the effects of both physical proximity and distance on control and behavior in work organizations. We hold that the theory still has relevance for contemporary organization and management theory with roots in the more classical traditions of the sociological discipline. Assuming that physical proximity at work is decreasing because of increased telework, the geographical spread of firms, and growing interorganizational collaboration, there is much to be gained by maintaining classical perspectives.
Beriwal, M., Clegg, S.R., Collopy, F., McDaniel, R., Morgan, G., Sutcliffe, K., Kaufman, R., Marker, A. & Selwyn, N. 2013, 'Organizational Science', Educational Technology, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 42-52.
Courpasson, D., Dany, F. & Clegg, S.R. 2012, 'Resisters At Work: Generating Productive Resistance In The Workplace', Organization Science, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 801-819.
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Research has recognized the transformative dimension of resistance in the workplace. Yet resistance is still seen as an adversarial and antagonistic process that management can accept or reject; thus, understanding how resistance can actually influence w
Pina e Cunha, M., Clegg, S.R., Rego, A. & Lancione, M. 2012, 'The Organization (Angkar) as a State of Exception: The Case of the S-21 Extermination Camp, Phnom Phen', Journal of Political Power, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 279-299.
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Organization theory, Clegg pointed out, has failed to address the role of organizations in some of the crimes of/against humanity, suggesting that more attention should be given to the case of total institutions. With this paper we respond to Clegg+s invitation and study the S-21 extermination camp, in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We do so by engaging with the work of the Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben, with the aim of investigating the organizational patterns that constitute the camp as a `State of Exception+. Doing so shows us how organizations can become malign forces for evil. We explore the implications of this case for more general `Kafkaesque organization+, that sometimes reproduce, in more benign forms, many of the practices found at S-21
Boersma, K. & Clegg, S.R. 2012, 'Strategies for Conceptualizing, Organizing and Managing Resilience in the Globalizing City', Journal of Change Management, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 273-277.
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This Special Issue of Journal of Change Management addresses the idea that the development of a society of organizations (Perrow, 1991) is inextricably linked to an increasing prominence of the city. Cities gain their character as much from the organizations that are found in them as from the people who flow through the cityscape. Most significant organizations are embedded in major urban spaces and, even where they are located in more rural settings, they become major agents of change. More than 50% of all people already live in cities. Cities are thus complex sites in which are constituted the organizing and disorganizing of the everyday lives and (mis)fortunes of half the world's population. Future scenarios suggest that in the next 50 years the number of people living in cities will increase up to 75%, with most living in mega-cities of more than 20 million (Burdett and Sudjic, 2008). The city is increasingly the crucible of change in which organizations organize and are contested, where social movements articulate resistance and mobilize, where public policy issues are hammered out, agendas set and issues defined, where governance approaches are tried and tested, where businesses form networks, innovation occurs and ideas circulate with increasing velocity.
Johnston, J.L. & Clegg, S.R. 2012, 'Legitimate Sovereignty and Contested Authority in Public Management Organization and Disorganization: Barangaroo and the Grand Strategic Vision for Sydney as a Globalizing City', Journal of Change Management, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 279-299.
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This article takes an interpretive view of what `public management+ implies in the context of the strategies and processes involved in major infrastructure development, in this case, of prime harbourside public land, now known as Barangaroo, in the centre of the city of Sydney, New South Wales (NSW), Australia. This development, in part, is meant to position Sydney as a globalizing city, at the centre of financial services in the Asia Pacific region. The article uses Clegg's ideas of `circuits of power+ to develop an analytical framework and employs a qualitative, case study approach based on a wide range of documents and media reports in the public domain. It addresses the processes of public management in the Barangaroo development, focusing on strategic agenda setting and leadership; organizing by rules; contract relations; no-cost-to government policy; organizing by precedent, especially those embedded in institutional responsibilities and responses; and stakeholder management. It demonstrates that at each stage in the process these have been characterized less by the rhetoric of public management and more by a disorganization of this rhetoric by a complex politics flowing through distinct circuits of power. The critical finding is that public management in the context of a large economic infrastructure development, especially when government is attempting to position a city globally, is far more complex and political than the prevailing rhetoric of the New Public Management, of considered rationality, would suggest
Deroy, X. & Clegg, S.R. 2012, 'Contesting the Champs-Elysees', Journal of Change Management, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 355-373.
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World-renowned urban places struggle to retain the qualities that made them famous as the fabric of the city changes. Often their specific charms and qualities, indeed, their identity, are threatened by organization changes in the urban environment. This article shows how the `Champs-Elyses+ is fragmenting into anonymous subspaces that raise the risk of it becoming a non-place. We show the role of a specific institutional influence, the Comit des Champs-Elyses, which seeks to preserve the site despite the heterogeneity of its members. Two strategies emerge from their actions: deceleration of the flows of people is sought to slow and channel people on the Avenue within a modernized iconic space, while the constitution of events seeks to combine different sights and make them coexist together as a mosaic of experiences. The article concludes by showing the limits of influence of regulation that leaves the future of the space undetermined.
Clegg, S.R., Pina e Cunha, M. & Rego, A. 2012, 'The Theory and Practice of Utopia in a Total Institution: The Pineapple Panopticon', Organization Studies, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1735-1757.
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Genocide has been a constant presence in the history of humanity throughout the ages. Recently, calls to study the organization of genocide and genocidal organizations have been increasing. In this paper we study the functioning of the S-21 extermination camp, an instrument of -ngkar, `The Organization+, which imposed genocide on the Cambodian people in the 1970s. We analyse the conditions that enable the organization of genocide, showing that three pillars seem to play essential roles: a utopian vision; support of this vision by total institutional spaces, and the control commitments of the people caught in the utopian vortex. Genocide appears as a potential outcome of the particular type of organization combining these three processes.
Courpasson, D. & Clegg, S.R. 2012, 'The Polyarchic Bureaucracy: Cooperative Resistance In The Workplace And The Construction Of A New Political Structure Of Organizations', Research in the Sociology of Organizations, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 55-79.
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Many bureaucracies still exist, and not just in the public sector. Increasingly, however, we would argue that they are more likely to evolve towards polyarchic forms because of the growing centrality of stakeholder resistance, especially that which is premised on empowerment of key employees. We suggest that managerial responses to this resistance are transforming bureaucracies through process of accommodation: upper echelon managers invent responses to contentious acts and voices so as to reintegrate 'resisters' while rewarding them for contesting decisions in a cooperative way. Understanding these processes help us understand why traditional bureaucracy is currently transforming itself as a resuit of the emergence of new forms of resistance in the workplace.
Baunsgaard, V.V. & Clegg, S.R. 2012, 'Dominant Ideological Modes of Rationality: Organizations as Arenas of Struggle Over Members' Categorization Devices', Research in the Sociology of Organizations, vol. 34, pp. 199-232.
This chapter explores dominant ideologies theoretically in Gil organizational selling. A framework is developed to advance our understanding 0/ how 'dominant ideological modes 0/ rationality' reflect predictability through the reproduction of accepted truths, hence social order in organization. Dominant ideological modes of rationality constitute professional identity, power relations, and rationality andframe prevailing mentalities and social practices in organization. It is suggested that members' categorization devices structure and constrain social practices. Supplementing the existent power literature, the chapter concludes that professional identity produces rationality. power and truth - truth being the overarching concept assembled through the rationalities assembled in
Bardon, T., Clegg, S.R., Josserand, E.L. 2012, 'Exploring identity construction from a critical management perspective: A research agenda', M@n@gement, vol. 15, pp. 351-366.
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In contemporary western society, questions of identity concerning +who am I?+ and +how should I act?+ (Alvesson, 2000: 1105) are now a central concern in people+s lives. Indeed, the western, liquidly modern context (Bauman 2000; 2001; 2003; 2005; Bauman & Haugaard 2008; Bauman & Tester 2001) is characterized, precisely, by absences: the loss of traditional sources of authority, such as family, union, or religion, foundations that used to provide individuals with a collective sense of belonging around commonly taken-for-granted bases of identification (Collinson, 2003). The absent spaces are now occupied by a multitude of ephemeral bases of identification that blur old dualisms such as capital and labour, man and woman, married or single. Culturally tribal fashionable codes of speaking, dressing, playing, and so forth, mostly grounded in consumption rather than production, increasingly provide experiences of belonging. In such a fragmented context, constructing a distinctive identity becomes a constantly shifting project (Knights & Willmott, 1989; Giddens, 1991; McAdams, 1996). Consequently, individuals tend now to problematize identity through projects of the self more likely undertaken at an individual or group level rather than as a part of an organized collective process that is automatically reproduced.
Clegg, S.R. & Gordon, R.D. 2012, 'Accounting for Ethics in Action: Problems with Localised Constructions of Legitimacy', Financial and Accountability Management, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 417-436.
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Socially constituted systems of order emanate from tacit interaction. While they are reflected in an organization's culture, they do not necessarily align with the organization's authorised rules and codes of conduct. Such misalignment renders legitimacy in organizations problematic. The paper explores the relation between power and legitimacy by showing how such systems of order recursively establish, and are established by, forms of legitimacy that may not be formalised. Empirically, such forms of legitimacy thwarted a police organization's attempt to reform. Theoretically, an understanding of organizational change is connected to the relationship between power and legitimacy. The paper provides insights into how power influences the social construction of legitimacy within the context of public organizations.
Helin, S., Jensen, T., Sandstrom, J. & Clegg, S.R. 2011, 'On The Dark Side of Codes: Domination Not Enlightenment', Scandinavian Journal of Management, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 24-33.
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In this paper, we show how a middle manager interprets the action of two employees as problematic and how he solves it by using the company's code of ethics as the basis for firing them. Our telling of the story unmasks a darker side of codes and we conceptualize it in terms of power and domination. The paper contributes to the literature on corporate codes of ethics (CCEs) and corporate ethics programs by showing that such codes need not necessarily play an enabling role in organizations. Rather than being instruments of enlightenment and self-regulation, they may be used as instruments to further domination.
Deroy, X. & Clegg, S.R. 2011, 'When Events Interact with Business Ethics', Organization, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 637-653.
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The article analyses the dynamics of the interaction between events and business ethics within organizations. Events comprise those unpredictable things that happen. When they do, organizationally embedded managers will be responsible for making sense of these events. By being responsible, they are enacting ethics in the choices that they make for dealing with them. Events always raise ethical considerations because they are non-routine rather than a strict repetition of existing repertoires. Under certain circumstances, which we illustrate with a theory of the event, drawing on the work of Gilles Deleuze, we are able to investigate the de/institutionalizing of ethics theoretically. We draw on the new economic sociology to discuss the conditions of ethical and event de/institutionalization. Finally, we conceptualize the linkage between micro and macro dimensions framing the dynamics of business ethics in interaction with events.
Kornberger, M.M. & Clegg, S.R. 2011, 'Strategy as performative practice: The case study of Sydney 2030', Strategic Organization, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 136-162.
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This article focuses on the relation between strategy-as-practice and its power effects in the context of a strategy project (Sustainable Sydney 2030) undertaken by the City of Sydney. The following three interrelated questions guided the enquiry: How is strategy practised? What knowledge is it based upon? And what are its power effects? Based on a detailed empirical analysis of the strategy-making process, the article charts how strategy rendered the city knowable and how performative effects of strategizing mobilized the public and legitimized outcomes of the process while silencing other voices. The article+s theoretical contribution is threefold: first, it shows that strategizing is performative, constituting its subjects and shaping its objects; second, that strategizing has to be understood as aesthetic performance whose power resides in the simultaneous representation of facts (traditionally the domain of science) and values (the realm of politics); third, and consequently, that strategy is a sociopolitical practice that aims at mobilizing people, marshalling political will and legitimizing decisions. The article concludes with reflections on five practical implications of the study.
Carter, C., Clegg, S.R. & Wahlin, N. 2011, 'When Science Meets Strategic Realpolitik: The Case Of The Copenhagen Un Climate Change Summit', Critical Perspectives on Accounting, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 682-697.
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This paper argues that the impasse over tackling climate change at the 2009 climate change summit is a result of the outcome of the prevailing power and politics at the summit. The paper discusses the sociological literature on power and notes that the f
e Cunha, M.P., Rego, A. & Clegg, S.R. 2011, 'Pot, Alias Brother Number One: Leaders As Instruments Of History', Management and Organizational History, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 268-286.
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Pol Pot is one twentieth century leader with a specific place in history as the orchestrator of one of that century's many significant genocides. As the commander of the deadly Khmer Rouge, he orchestrated the genocide perpetrated in Cambodia between 197
Pina e Cunha, M., Rego, A. & Clegg, S.R. 2011, 'Beyond addiction: Hierarchy and other ways of getting strategy done', European Management Journal, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 491-503.
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Hierarchy is habitually presented as the right organizational infrastructure through which to deploy and achieve strategy. We analyze the strategy process, specifically the strategy/execution debate, from the perspective of hierarchy, and contrast the hierarchical mode where top management dominates by separating strategy/ formulation and execution with three alternative modes where the power circuits of strategy extend beyond the managerial elite and are shared by several strategic agents. These three possibilities are: (1) the porous hierarchical mode, in which the hierarchs/higher-ups transfer part of the power for shaping and informing the strategy to the base of the organization; (2) the distributed mode, in which the hierarchs have no direct influence but rather indirect moral authority over execution, and (3) the strategy as simple rules mode, in which strategy/execution is taken as a single iterative process where strategy evolves on the basis of a minimal structure that facilitates strategic interaction and prevents hierarchical control from stifling adaptation.
Kornberger, M.M., Kreiner, K. & Clegg, S.R. 2011, 'The value of style in architectural practice', Culture and Organization, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 139-153.
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To date, organization theory's attempts to understand architecture firms have focused by and large on debates about increasing managerialization and economization of the profession. This paper suggests an alternative approach by conceptualizing architecture as practice that does not adhere only to a narrow economic logic of value creation but also focuses on the production of aesthetic value. We will introduce the concept of style to understand how architecture practice routinely breaks routines and follows the rule of rule breaking. We will analyze architecture practice as a form of organized heresy - a hegemonic engine for the production of difference. In order to illustrate our points we will draw on qualitative empirical fieldwork with an architecture firm (synonym Earth Architects).
Rhodes, C.H., Pullen, A. & Clegg, S.R. 2010, ''If i should fall from grace...': Stories of Change and Organizational Ethics', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 457-614.
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Although studies in organizational storytelling have dealt extensively with the relationship between narrative, power and organizational change, little attention has been paid to the implications of this for ethics within organizations. This article addresses this by presenting an analysis of narrative and ethics as it relates to the practice of organizational downsizing. Drawing on Paul Ricoeur+s theories of narrative and ethics, we analyze stories of organizational change reported by employees and managers in an organization that had undergone persistent downsizing. Our analysis maintains that the presence of a dominant story that seeks to legitimate organizational change also serves to normalize it, and that this, in turn, diminishes the capacity for organizations to scrutinize the ethics of their actions. We argue that when organizational change narratives become singularized through dominant forms of emplotment, ethical deliberation and responsibility in organizations are diminished. More generally, we contend that the narrative closure achieved by the presence of a dominant narrative amongst employees undergoing organizational change is antithetical to the openness required for ethical questioning.
Pina e Cunha, M., Clegg, S.R. & Rego, A. 2010, 'An essay on archaic postmodernity: The case of Portugal', Management Research, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 191-201.
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In this paper, some peculiarities of a Southern European country are made explicit, namely, how the attraction of new, "global," management practices combines with deeply persistent, thus traditional, ways of imagining organization. The dominant Anglo-Saxon and Protestant models of management may not be fully adequate to characterize management and organization in the Latin Catholic countries of the south, or those postcolonial societies that they inscribed in Latin America. We present an interpretation of why what are glossed by moderns as dysfunctional management practices persist, sometimes despite their recognized inadequacy. The contributions advanced here may thus be relevant to researchers interested in the route of transition from closed to open societies and who are concerned that all models need to be appreciated in context.
Rhodes, C.H., Pullen, A., Vickers, M.H., Clegg, S.R. & Pitsis, A. 2010, 'Violence and workplace bullying: What are an organization's ethical responsiblities?', Administrative Theory & Praxis, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 96-115.
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Understood as an act of violence intentionally perpetuated by one person over another, bullying is a direct affront to ethics, especially when ethics is seen to be grounded in a primary relationship with and responsibility for other people. Existing research has attended largely to providing individualized rather than organizational explanations of bullying and has not adequately interrogated bullying in relation to ethics. With this paper, we address the question +What are organizations+ ethical responsibilities in responding to the bullying that occurs within them?+ We argue that although organizations cannot necessarily be held responsible for individual acts of bullying, they can be held responsible for asserting constant vigilance that seeks to address and minimize the presence of such acts. We call for organizations to act, not just to prevent or censure individual acts of bullying, but also to engage in an ongoing and active self-critique of all of their practices insofar as they support the institutionalization and normalization of bullying relationships.
Brown, A., Kornberger, M.M., Clegg, S.R. & Carter, C. 2010, 'The 'Invisible walls' and 'Silent hierarchies': A case study of power relations in an architecture firm', Human Relations, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 525-549.
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In this article we investigate how power relates to the production of creative identities and outcomes. We report on an in-depth case study of an award-winning creative architecture firm. Our data show how talk about creativity and the creative identities of architects can be analysed as effects of power. Theoretically, our study represents an investigation into the disciplining of professional architects+ discourse about their selves, their organization, and their work. This article adds to debates on creative industries, demonstrating that creativity is deeply embedded in organizationally based relations of power.
Cunha, M.P., Clegg, S.R. & Mendonca, S. 2010, 'On serendipity and organising', European Management Journal, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 319-330.
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Serendipity means the accidental discovery of something valuable. While it is sometimes presented as an element of organizational learning, it has rarely been addressed per se by organizational scholars. We discuss and elaborate the processes associated with serendipity in the organizational context. At its core, serendipity is a process of metaphorical association + seeing something in another thing. New ways of seeing may provide the necessary ingredients for creativity and exploratory learning, which will counter organizational tendencies towards inertia and the ossification of dominant mindsets and practices.
Carter, C., Clegg, S.R. & Kornberger, M.M. 2010, 'Re-framing strategy: Power, politics and accounting', Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 573-594.
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Purpose: This paper aims to analyse the rise and institutionalization of the discourse of strategic management. It seeks to advance an agenda for studying strategy from a sociologically informed perspective. Moreover, it aims to make a case for a critically informed, interdisciplinary approach to studying strategy. Design/methodology/approach: The paper provides an overview to studying strategy critically. It is a theoretically informed paper. Findings: The findings can be summarised as: first, strategy emerged as a major discipline in the 1970s; second, as a body of knowledge strategy has remained close to its industrial economics origins; and third, an agenda for the sociological study of strategy revolving around concerns of performativity and power is outlined. Originality/value: The paper offers a sociologically informed account of strategy.
Clegg, S.R. & Bier, C.A. 2010, 'Ethics and power in business schools and organizations', The Journal of Power, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 227-242.
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The history of the business school as an institution stretches back 127 years to its foundations in the Wharton School in Philadelphia. Initially, it was an explicitly ethical project, centred on an ethic of professionalism, an ethics that was never stabilized and settled. Instead, a managerial ethic of the organization man was established in the USA during the post-war ascendancy and mimesis of the institution. From the 1980s onwards, in a response to the emergence of neo-liberal governmental projects, two strong and antithetical tendencies emerged. On the one hand, there was an enormous growth in economic rationalism organized around market fundamentalism. On the other hand, there was a growth of critical management, initially Marxist in derivation but increasingly Foucauldian. Just as labour process analysis seemed to run out of steam with endless empirical accounts of resistance so the Foucault effect seems to have become fixated with the gaze of surveillance and the panopticon. What next, after the ethic of the organization man and the administered society, the ethic of disinterest of science, the ethic of the survival of the fittest of neo-liberalism and the ethic of resistance characterizing critical management? The paper outlines some ideas from the Portuguese sociologist Boaventura de Sousa Santos to suggest a possible `fifth way+ of building more positive power relations in the business school and thus rekindling an ethical spark.
Bj+rkeng, K. & Clegg, S.R. 2010, 'Becoming DragonBankers: Constructing practice through processes of socially situated learning', Society and Business Review, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 48-65.
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Purpose + The purpose of this paper is to explore organizational induction as socially situated learning processes. It presents an empirical study of inductees going through an induction program in a medium sized bank and discusses their induction as a dual process of becoming a practitioner and constructing practice. Design/methodology/approach + The research performed is qualitative: ethnographic methods including participant observation and interviews are used, and analysed through an interpretative methodology. Findings + The paper suggests that the divide between the teaching curricula in the induction course and the learning curricula in real life banking contribute to the inductees+ ability and desire to engage in the construction of customer service officer practice; the divide itself legitimizes differences in particularities of the practice, and enhances the inductees+ ability to enact, accomplish, and construct practice actively. Research limitations/implications + The paper suggests induction should be viewed as opportunities for organizational learning as much as the training of newcomers to adhere to organizational standards. Originality/value + The paper presents a novel empirical case exploring socially situated learning. Looking at the confluence of authoring and performative acts allows us to expose the agentic dimension of practices; thus emphasising the construction involved in any practising.
van Marrewijk, A., Veenswijk, M. & Clegg, S.R. 2010, 'Organizing reflexivity in designed change: The ethnoventionist approach', Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 212-229.
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Purpose + The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon the role of intervention-oriented scientists in the process of organisation development. The paper seeks to contribute to the growing interest in design studies for organisation development and argues that a focus on reflexivity is missing in current debate. The aim of the paper to develop critical reflexiveness for organization design studies by introducing the ethnoventionist approach. Design/methodology/approach + The paper discusses the ideal forms of clinical inquiry, participative action research, ethnography, and the ethnoventionist approach. The ethnoventionist approach is described by its central aspects: a focus on reflexivity, a management (but not managerialist) orientation, commitment to obtaining a deep understanding, connecting the multi-layered context, and studying in pre-arranged longitudinal intervals. Findings + The ethnoventionist approach uses organisational ethnographies to facilitate intervention strategies intended to improve organisations. An example of such an approach in the design of new collaborative practices in the Dutch construction sector is drawn on.
McKinlay, A., Carter, C., Pezet, E. & Clegg, S.R. 2010, 'Using Foucault to Make Strategy', Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1012-1031.
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Purpose - The premise of the paper is that Foucault's concept of governmentality has important but unacknowledged implications for understanding strategy. Highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the governmentality approach, the paper seeks to suggest how governmentality can be used to conceptualise strategy. More generally, the paper seeks to contribute to the body of research on governmentality articulated by authors such as Peter Miller, Ted O'Leary and Nikolas Rose. Design/methodology/approach + The paper reprises the argument that accounting is constitutive of social relations. It proceeds to discuss Peter Miller, Ted O'Leary and Nikolas Rose's seminal contributions to the conceptual development of governmentality. In outlining their work, the paper highlights the significance accorded to the emergence of standard costing and scientific management and its subsequent role in developing both the strategies and structures of managerial capitalism. The paper examines how this, in turn, was pivotal to the emergence of strategy as an important means through which organisations began to understand and conceive of themselves. The paper rehearses the standard criticisms made of governmentality within the accounting literature, before arguing that the concept emerges intact from the critique levelled against it. Proceeding to summarise Foucault's radical conception of power, the paper notes the elusiveness of Foucault's relationship with strategy. Elaborating on the nature of governmentality, the paper employs the concept to re-examine the managerial revolution. The objective is to explore its implications for understanding strategy.
Pina e Cunha, M., Rego, A. & Clegg, S.R. 2010, 'Obedience and Evil: From Milgram and Kampuchea to Normal Organizations', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 291-309.
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Obedience: a simple term. Stanley Milgram, the famous experimental social psychologist, shocked the world with theory about it. Another man, Pol Pot, the infamous leader of the Khmer Rouge, showed how far the desire for obedience could go in human societies. Milgram conducted his experiments in the controlled environment of the US psychology laboratory of the 1960s. Pol Pot experimented with Utopia in the totalitarian Kampuchea of the 1970s. In this article, we discuss the process through which the Khmer Rouge regime created an army of unquestioningly obedient soldiers + including child soldiers. Based on these two cases, we advance a framework on how obedience can be grown or countered.
Pina e Cunha, M., Guimaraes-Costa, N., Rego, A. & Clegg, S.R. 2010, 'Leading and following (un)ethically in Limen', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 189-206.
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We propose a liminality-based analysis of the process of ethical leadership/followership in organizations. A liminal view presents ethical leadership as a process taking place in organizational contexts that are often characterized by high levels of ambiguity, which render the usual rules and preferences dubious or inadequate. In these relational spaces, involving leaders, followers, and their context, old frames may be questioned and new ones introduced in an emergent way, through subtle processes whose evolution and implications may not be easy to grasp even by those participating in them.
Clegg, S.R. 2010, 'The State, Power, And Agency: Missing In Action In Institutional Theory?', Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 4-13.
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Issue is taken with the relative absence of the analysis of power from many leading institutional theory accounts of organizations. The category of institutional entrepreneurs is seen as a functionalist theory-saving device. The stress on norms, myths, a
Rhodes, C.H., Pullen, A. & Clegg, S.R. 2010, 'If I Should Fall From Grace...': Stories Of Change And Organizational Ethics', Journal Of Business Ethics, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 535-551.
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Although studies in organizational storytelling have dealt extensively with the relationship between narrative, power and organizational change, little attention has been paid to the implications of this for ethics within organizations. This article addr
Clegg, S.R. & Baumeler, C. 2010, 'Essai: From Iron Cages to Liquid Modernity in Organization Analysis', Organization Studies, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1713-1733.
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Historically, the metaphor of the iron cage, as a key component of Weber+s sociological imagination, has played a central role in organization studies. It did so both in its initial role in the sociology of bureaucracy and in its reinterpretation in institutional terms. More recently, there have been claims that the metaphors should change. The implications of this for the analysis of organization are the subject of this paper. To address these changes, we draw on debates that have been current in the sociology of consumption, where there is an emergent consensus that there has been a shift to an increasingly liquid modernity. We ask, what are the implications of liquid modernity when viewed not solely in the sphere of consumption but when we shift focus back to the sphere of production + to organizations?
Gustavs, J.L. & Clegg, S.R. 2010, 'Dna And The Politics Of Truth In Socially Organized Life', European Journal Of Cultural Studies, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 439-458.
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We apply a representation of the double helix to explain how truth is managed in the social organization of life. One chain, representing context, is made up of the three materialities through which we move - discourses, time and space.
Bjorkeng, K., Clegg, S.R. & Pitsis, T.S. 2009, 'Becoming (a) practice', Management Learning, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 145-159.
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This article presents findings from longitudinal ethnographic research of a mega-project alliance. For five years we followed the leadership team of a large Australian Alliance Program made up of a large public and several private organizations, analyzing 'practice' as novel patterns of interaction developed into predictable arrays of activities, changing and transforming while at the same time continuing to be referred to as 'the same'. In this article we focus on three such arrays of activities: authoring boundaries, negotiating competencies and adapting materiality. We suggest that these are essential mechanisms in becoming a practice. While most studies of practice deal with already established practices, the significance of our research is that we develop a notion of practice as it unfolds. In this way we can provide a better account of the constant change inherent in practices.
Clegg, S.R., Kornberger, M.M. & Gordon, R.D. 2009, 'Power, Rationality and Legitimacy in Public Organizations', Public Administration an international quarterly, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 15-34.
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In this paper we propose answers to the research question: how does power shape the construction of legitimacy in the context of public organizations? We suggest that while organizational structures of dominancy will be embedded, not all structures of dominancy align with those that are normatively presented as legitimate and authoritative. Such situations make the creation and sustenance of legitimacy problematic for organizational action. This paper advances our understanding of the relation between power, rationality and legitimacy by showing how structures of domination recursively constitute, and are constituted by, legitimacy that may not be authoritative. We show, empirically, how these relations prevented a police organization from reforming by breaking the recursive patterns of domination and legitimization. Theoretically, we argue that understanding organizational change must be connected to issues of power and legitimacy.
Clegg, S.R. 2009, 'The foundations of organization power', The Journal of Power, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 35-64.
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I shall argue that the foundations of organization power were laid down in practice through theories of power - in the sense that they sought to explain power - but through quite pragmatic practices that were not necessarily regarded as embodying a theory of power, which I shall maintain they most assuredly did. Thus, in a second move, I shall argue that while these practices began with a focus on the body of the employee they moved on to consider their consciousness and soul. Third, I shall briefly consider the main themes in organization theories' treatment of power, organized around notions of system rationality and uncertainty. These have an implicit idealism attached to them, I shall suggest. Fourth, I shall switch focus to the broader canvass of social theory in the post-war era and suggest that this has also displayed a strongly idealist streak, focusing especially on the celebrated structuralist account of power as a matter of layered dimension that Steven Lukes (1974, 2005) produced. Fifth, I shall contrast the idealism of this approach with a more pragmatic conception of power, one that can be found in the perspectives with which I opened the paper, perspectives that derive from more Foucauldian-influenced currents of contemporary social theory. Drawing on these, I will suggest a different way of understanding Lukes' radical third dimension of power as a means of organizing and rationalizing innovations in power relations, drawing on the literature of the 'dominant ideology thesis' (Abercrombie et al. 1980) to do so. Finally, I shall suggest switching from the structuralist metaphors of dimensions to an imagery of flows as a more appropriate model for understanding power relations.
Gordon, R.D., Clegg, S.R. & Kornberger, M.M. 2009, 'Embedded Ethics: Discourse and Power in the New South Wales Police Service', Organization Studies, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 73-99.
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In this paper we report an ethnographic research study conducted in one of the world's largest police organizations, the New South Wales Police Service. Our research question was, `How do forms of power shape organizational members' ethical practices?' We look at existing theories that propose the deployment of two interrelated arguments: that ethics are embedded in organizational practices and discourse at a micro-level of everyday organizational life, which is contrasted with a focus on the macro-organizational, institutional forces that are seen to have an impact on ethics. Resisting this distinction between the `micro' and the `macro', we build on these two bodies of knowledge to explain ethical change as deeply embedded in power relations that traverse the scale of social action.
Clegg, S.R. & Starbuck, W.H. 2009, 'Unplugged: Can we still fix M@n@gement? The narrow path towards a brighter future in organizing practices', M@n@gement, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 332-359.
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While global warming stimulates debate on how to make organizations greener, the overheating of the world economy urges us to reconsider the ways in which we conceive management and organizing practices both as researchers and teachers. Exploitation as we know it may be behind us, but does this entail ideating a revolution to prepare a brighter future? Or are we simply facing a time of evolution? To put it more simply: is it time to unplug an overheating system and start from scratch, or can we still fix management and organizing practices? The path between an abstract scientism disconnected from reality and our subjection to short-term managerial interests is a narrow one. Both criticisms offer insight into our responsibility as researchers and teachers in the world as it is today. They can help us to redefine our connection with managerial practices and define the path we can follow to play a part in securing a brighter future.
Clegg, S.R. 2009, 'Bueaucracy, the Holocaust and Techniques of Power at Work', Management Revue, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 326-347.
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The generational properties of organization theory are an increasing topic for analysis, usually in terms of what is addressed and how it is addressed. Some writers have alerted us to the importance of those social issues that are not addressed. Combining the idea of generational scholarship with the idea of those non-issues that remain unaddressed, this paper highlights how some of the events of the Second World War, which authorities agree was a generational defining and demarcating experience, have been neglected in organization theory. Nowhere is this more clearly demonstrated than in the Holocaust. Strangely, this practical experiment in organizational design and practice seems to have elided almost all interest by organization theorists, whether functionalist or critical. The paper addresses this elision and draws on the work of Goffman, Foucault and Bauman to address the very material conditions of organizational power and raise some ethical issues about the commitments of organization scholars.
Clegg, S.R. & Iterson, A. 2009, ''Dishing the dirt': Gossiping in organizations', Culture and Organization, vol. 15, no. 3-4, pp. 275-289.
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In an exercise in social theory, rather than an empirical investigation, we concentrate on the role of gossip - spreading 'news about the affairs of another' - in relation to the dynamics of power in organizations. Gossip has often been seen in functional terms, as both positive and negative for the organization. In this paper we challenge this functionalist approach. Gossip can be associated with what Freud called the narcissism of minor differences: the gossipers tend not to be too dissimilar from those gossiped about in terms of proximity. Propinquity may increase the animosity of gossip. We see formal organization as a self-regulating system that constantly refines its boundaries, and gossip is the dirt that trickles in and out of these boundaries, illegitimate, formally disdained and often destructive. The writer who has done most to encourage and clarify thinking about the nature of dirt is Mary Douglas, the anthropologist, especially her notion of expressive pollution. The paper concludes with some implications for ethics in practice viewed through power relations.
Peci, A., Vieira, M. & Clegg, S.R. 2009, 'Power, Discursive Practices and the Construction of the 'real'', Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 377-386.
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Starting with a critique of the epistemological and ontological bases of neo-institutionalism, in this article we defend the potential for the application of post-structuralist perspectives to the institutional approach. We contend that this theoretical approach, which incorporates an element, traditionally overlooked in institutional analyses, namely power, has the advantage of contributing to an enhanced comprehension of the dynamics of institutionalization. In conclusion, we believe that the area of organizational studies would benefit by a more all-encompassing vision of the processes of institutionalization, which would include power at its core, instead of considering institutions as non-changing variables. Undoubtedly, if we take empirical research into consideration, what we need is, from a historical perspective, understand the way by which the main discourses or narratives constitute, transform and are transformed by our objects of investigation, among which organizations certainly occupy a central place.
Carter, C., Clegg, S.R. & Kornberger, M.M. 2008, 'Strategy as practice?', Strategic Organization, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 83-99.
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Strategy is supposed to lead an organization through changes and shifts to secure its future growth and sustainable success, and it has become the master concept with which to address CEOs of contemporary organizations and their senior managers. Its talismanic importance can hardly be overstated. Thus, strategic management is increasingly understood as the task of the top management team. While seminal works on strategy bear the imprint of modernist rationality (Ansoff, 1965; Porter, 1980), there have been numerous contributions to the strategy literature that can be characterized as more reflexive and critical (e.g. Clegg et al., 2004). More expressly sociological in nature, they have placed emphasis on, inter alia, how power and politics shape the strategies that emerge (Mintzberg, 1987; Pettigrew, 1985); the strategic choices made (Child, 1972); the language games that constitute strategy (Barry and Elmes, 1997); as well as how strategy is best understood through interpretative approaches (Schwenk, 1989), structuration theory (Whittington, 1992) or epistemology (Knights and Morgan, 1991). Such works set out an alternative to the neat assumptions of ubiquitous rationality underpinning orthodox strategy.
van Marrewijk, A., Clegg, S.R., Pitsis, T.S. & Veenswijk, M. 2008, 'Managing public-private megaprojects: paradoxes, complexity, and project design', International Journal of Project Management, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 591-600.
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Recent studies show that despite their growing popularity, megaprojects + large-scale, complex projects delivered through various partnerships between public and private organisations + often fail to meet costs estimations, time schedules and project outcomes and are motivated by vested interests which operate against the public interest. This paper presents a more benign and theoretically-grounded view on what goes wrong by comparing the project designs, daily practices, project cultures and management approaches of two recent megaprojects in The Netherlands and Australia, showing how these projects made sense of uncertainty, ambiguity and risk. We conclude that project design and project cultures play a role in determining how managers and partners cooperate to achieve project objectives to a greater or lesser extent.
van Iterson, A. & Clegg, S.R. 2008, 'The politics of gossip and denial in inter-organizational relations', Human Relations, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 1117-1137.
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Organizational gossip has largely been discussed in terms of effects at the individual level. In this article we turn our attention to the organization level. The article makes a research contribution that addresses gossip that spreads fact-based rumours about organizations in terms of their shifting role in circuits of power. The research question asks what happens when organizations officially formulate themselves as doing one thing while other organizational actors that are influential in significant organizational arenas (in which these formulations circulate) counter that these formulations are patently false. Theoretically, we draw on the literature on organizational gossip and rumour as well as on the politics of non-decision-making. Our argument is advanced by reference to a case study of the Australian Wheat Board and UN Resolution 661. Basically, organizational gossip plays a key role in the production of interorganizational power dynamics, an insight previously neglected.
e Cunha, M.P., Cabral-Cardoso, C. & Clegg, S.R. 2008, 'Manna from Heaven: The Exuberance of Food as a Topic for Research in Management and Organization', Human Relations, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 935-963.
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Organizations have, in the past, often been discussed as if they were Cartesian mentalities, planning agendas, learning from doing, processing information, reducing equivocality, mimicking and copying, floating disembodiedly apart from the actors who work in these organizations. We are offered representations of organizations as organically grounded metaphors that minimize the biological facticity of employees: namely, their need for food. While the inputs to organizations conceived as if they were quasi-systems are well explored, and the emotional and `irrational' side of organizations is increasingly discussed, the necessity of inputs to the biological systems that staff them is not. Nonetheless, despite the lack of explicit scholarly attention to food at work, its importance guarantees its hidden presence in the organizational literature, often in the context of more `serious' themes. We identify four approaches to the relationship between food, work and organization. For dessert, we propose a research menu that aims to uncover several possibilities for making the role of food in organizational life more explicit.
Rhodes, C.H., Clegg, S.R. & Anandakumar, A. 2008, 'Ethical Vitality: Identity, Responsibility and Change in an Australian Hospital', International Journal of Public Administration, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1037-1057.
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This article reports and reflects on a narrative ethnographic account of organizational change in a large public hospital in Australia. We describe how the conduct and identity positions of people in the hospital were related to three prevalent discourses; one of authoritarian professionalism, one of collaboration and open disclosure, and one of inspection and retribution. We suggest that the presence of multiple and competing organizational discourses on which to base decisions, highlighted the need for managers to take a personal stake in deciding their own conduct. We propose the notion of ethical vitality as a means of registering the ways that ethical responsibility can only come alive in organizations when people take, and are in a position to take, a reflexive responsibility for their conduct. On this basis, we suggest that the presence of multiple ethical norms and rules in organizations, on a plural model, might actually make people in organizations more rather than less ethically responsible
Messner, M., Clegg, S.R. & Kornberger, M.M. 2008, 'Critical practices in Organizations', Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 68-82.
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This article deals with the phenomenon of criticism in organizations. Existing organizational literature, where it has addressed criticism, mostly tends to see it as an extraordinary phenomenon. By contrast, in this article, the authors argue that criticism may also originate from strongly embedded and more ordinary practices. Thus, there is a theoretical need for considering those critical practices that are structurally and/or formally institutionalized within the organization. They reflect the organizational status quo and promote a reproduction of existing structures of power/knowledge. Drawing on ideas from practice theory, institutional theory, and Foucault's analytics of power/knowledge regimes, the authors introduce a typology that distinguishes forms of criticism according to the degree to which they are coupled with particular organizational practices, their rationalities, and corresponding power relations. They then focus on those forms of criticism that are strongly linked to organizational practices and illustrate the ambiguous effects of such an 'organization of criticism'
Clegg, S.R. 2008, 'Bent Flyvbjerg: Power and project management an appreciation', International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 428-431.
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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a critique of Bent Flyybjerg's work that has high relevance to the project management (PM) literature. Design/methodology/approach + The paper takes the form of a narrative with argument and analysis. Findings + The paper challenges readers, PM academics and practitioners to view PM with a political perspective. This paper was delivered at the ICAN 2007 Conference (which is the focus of this issue), which was entitled +Mission Control: Power, Knowledge and Collaboration in Project Practice.+ Originality/value + This paper triggers and sustains the debate about the influence of power and its unintended consequences that may affect projects. The review raises PM issues worthy of consideration that are often neglected.
Turcotte, M., Antonova, S. & Clegg, S.R. 2008, 'Power and learning in managing a multi-stakeholder organization: an initiative to reduce air pollution in Ontario, Cananda, through trading carbon credits', The Journal of Power, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 317-337.
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The paper explores a case study of a multi-party collaboration that used learning in an inter-organizational context to address an environmental problem by experimenting with emission reduction credits trading. Learning was associated with politics: individual learning with non-decision-making or two-dimensional power, while inter-organizational learning with three-dimensional power and the construction of hegemony, while strategic institutional learning occurred through the creation of obligatory passage points.
Clegg, S.R. 2008, 'Ten propositions concerning security, terrorism and business', Global Business and Economics Review, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 184-196.
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The history of the present is assessed in terms of forecasts that proved to be spectacularly incorrect. Debate about power in the past was largely state-centred but the realisation that the opposite of the state is not a free market but a political anarchy seems to have been forgotten. The society of the spectacle, to use Guy Debord's concept, reigns supreme today, but in ways unimagined by European situationists. The spectacle ignites a new politics of identity, constituted in terms that depart radically from the older terms of class analysis. While some analysts have spoken of the rise of the risk society it is necessary today to add the state of insecurity to contemporary characterisations, whether represented in reality or rhetoric. Global identities constituted by religiosity sit uneasily within nation states as containers of identity and the attempts of states to reaffirm national identity in the face of its rejection by significant subsections of the population is most likely to achieve a rhetorical racheting up of tensions. Consequently, the state of insecurity leads to increasing surveillance and control as a societal project for which every failure is the guarantee of further resources, tighter surveillance and an increasing simulacrum of control.
Carter, C., Clegg, S.R. & Kornberger, M.M. 2008, 'S-A-P zapping the field', Strategic Organization, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 107-112.
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In their rejoinder, Jarzabkowski and Whittington do not concede one point. They even defend the resource-based view of the firm, despite its well-known limitations (the fact that some of its major limitations have been staked by someone labelled a `sociologist+ does not, from our perspective, make it any more palatable). Their defensiveness is surprising, though perhaps in keeping with Whittington+s (2007) pithy description of S-A-P (strategy as practice) as being akin to `a pushy younger sibling, making a lot of noise+.
Turcotte, M., Clegg, S.R. & Marin, J. 2008, 'Enacting Ecological and Collaborative Rationality through Multi-Party Collaboration', International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, vol. 3, no. 3/4, pp. 234-261.
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The article presents the case study of a partnership between a metallurgy company and an NGO concerned with environmental protection. The partnership constituted an attempt to reconcile the firm's economic objectives with those of the citizens who lived in the area on which it had an ecological impact. Driven by high ideals, the multistakeholder partnerships were an innovation inspired by the ideal speech situation theory and a focus on learning and innovation. The partnership seemingly created an arena defined by norms of 'disinterested rationality' with an objective of innovating and progressing toward sustainable development. The partnership had only a marginal influence on the firm's activities, which were mainly determined by market forces and economic logic. The article concludes with a rather critical perspective on the outcomes of the case in terms of learning, innovation and change, with a theoretical lens inspired by theories on learning, legitimacy and power. The article contributes to the understanding and definition of legitimacy in a polyphonic context, where different views coexist or confront. Legitimacy is neither an outside nor static institutional feature, but rather resembles a kaleidoscope of perceptions that are defined, temporarily granted and redefined through discursive interactions. In such a context, moral arguments are confronted with other moral arguments while actors redefine their knowledge and cognitive frameworks. Practical recommendations are formulated for the convenors of multistakeholders partnerships, activist groups and firms.
Wang, K.Y. & Clegg, S.R. 2007, 'Managing to lead in private enterprises in China: Work values, demography and the development of trust', Leadership, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 149-172.
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Carter, C., Clegg, S.R., Kornberger, M.M., Mueller, F. & Contardo, I. 2007, 'Sketches of Spain: the politics of fashion', Management Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 205-212.
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In this paper, we propose an understanding of what personnel professionals consume when they +adopt+ black-box management initiatives (Scarbrough, 1995; Wilson, 1992). Second, we explore the way in which professional associations and, hence, institutional actors pursue their own professional projects (Abbott, 1988) within a context of political legitimacies and illegitimacies. Thus, in a double move, we seek to explore the linkages between managerial methods used by institutions to increase their jurisdiction or their +authority to speak+ (Foucault, 1972) and the processes of isomorphism.
Clegg, S.R., Kornberger, M.M. & Rhodes, C.H. 2007, 'Business Ethics as Practice', British Journal of Management, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 107-122.
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In this article we develop a conceptualization of business ethics as practice. Starting from the view that the ethics that organizations display in practice will have been forged through an ongoing process of debate and contestation over moral choices, we examine ethics in relation to the ambiguous, unpredictable, and subjective contexts of managerial action. Furthermore, we examine how discursively constituted practice relates to managerial subjectivity and the possibilities of managers being moral agents. The article concludes by discussing how the 'ethics as practice' approach that we expound provides theoretical resources for studying the different ways that ethics manifest themselves in organizations as well as providing a practical application of ethics in organizations that goes beyond moralistic and legalistic approaches.
Clegg, S.R., Rhodes, C.H. & Kornberger, M.M. 2007, 'Desperately Seeking Legitimacy: Organizational Identity and Emerging Industries', Organization Studies, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 495-513.
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In this article we examine the process of organizational identity formation in emerging industries. We argue that organizational identity is best understood in terms of the relationship between temporal difference (i.e. the performance of a stable identity over time) and spatial difference (i.e. by locating organizational identity in relation to other firms, both similar and different). It is the relationship between these two forms of difference that enables the construction of a legitimate sense of organizational identity. Our discussion is illustrated using empirical material from a study of the emerging industry of business coaching in Australia.
Clegg, S.R., Kornberger, M.M. & Rhodes, C.H. 2007, 'Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability', Sociological Review, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 393-409.
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In this paper we develop a conceptualisation of organizational decision-making as a practice that is, necessarily, ethical. The paper starts with a discussion of the notion of decision-making as it relates to organizational rationality and the relationsh
Lopes, F.D., Clegg, S.R., Vieira, M. & Gudergan, S. 2007, 'Institutional Environments in the Formation of International Joint Ventures: A Brazillian Case Study', Revista Eletrnica deGesto Organizacional, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 171-197.
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Clegg, S.R. & Courpasson, D. 2007, 'The end of history and the future of power, 21st Century Society.', Twenty-First Century Society, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 131-154.
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Ray, T. & Clegg, S.R. 2007, 'Can we make sense of knowledge management's tangible rainbow? A radical constructivist alternative', Prometheus, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 161-185.
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Quist, J., Skalen, P. & Clegg, S.R. 2007, 'The power of quality models: The example of the SIQ model for performance excellence', Scandinavian Journal of Management, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 445-462.
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Most contemporary total quality management (TQM) practice is influenced, directly or indirectly, by structured, acontextual and standardized quality models. The present paper focuses on the strategic introduction of one such model, namely the Swedish Institute for Quality (SIQ) model for performance excellence, in a Swedish public-sector organization, which we refer to as 'the Authority.' We take our theoretical stance from Foucault's concept of 'power/knowledge.' In describing the case, we focus on the management team of one of the Authority's ten regions. Our analysis shows the members of the management team using the SIQ model to objectify both the organization and themselves as managers. However, contrary to many critical or managerial accounts, the SIQ model was not totalizing: management subjectivities changed but were not entirely reconstituted, and some resistance to them was generated by the members of the management team, in their role as professionals
Schwarz, G., Clegg, S.R., Cummings, T., Donaldson, L. & Miner, J.B. 2007, 'We see dead people?: The state of organization science', Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 300-317.
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This essay responds to John Miner's (1984) assessment of the state of organizational science. Slightly more than two decades ago, Miner found little evidence of a correlation between organizational scholars' ratings of the importance of a theory, its use, and its estimated validity. In response, he suggested the need for organizational science to readjust its goals, paradigms, and basic processes so that it develops as a discipline. Despite this challenge, the intervening years have seen the field become seemingly more paradigmatically fragmented, promoting discussion on its place in the social sciences. The essay presents four reviews in response to what has followed since Miner's original study. It offers a judgment on Miner's evaluation, a suggestion for the field's development, a position paper, and a response from Miner. Combined, the ensuing dialog offers practical suggestions to the problem of a seemingly perennially emerging organizational science
Clegg, S.R. & Courpasson, D. 2007, 'The futures of power', Revista de administracao de empresas, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 223-248.
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Some may recall, or have read about, those heady days when history allegedly ended, as the Berlin Wall collapsed(3). When the wall came down it seemed to may observers as if, with the end of communism + at least in Europe + the only threat to existing democratic political power was vanquished. Liberal, plural democracy, the open society and open organizations seemed to stretch as a vista into a future full of promise offering peace in our time, with all its assumed dividends, and the triumph neither of the will nor the state but of decent, ordinary democracy. Surely the chance to build a better world of organizations was imminent?
Ibarra-Colado, E., Clegg, S.R., Rhodes, C.H. & Kornberger, M.M. 2006, 'The ethics of managerial subjectivity', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 45-55.
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This paper examines ethics in organizations in relation to the subjectivity of managers. Drawing on the work of Michel Foucault we seek to theorize ethics in terms of the meaning of being a manager who is an active ethical subject. Such a manager is so i
Josserand, E.L., Teo, S.T. & Clegg, S.R. 2006, 'From bureaucratic to post-bureaucratic: the difficulties of transition', Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 54-64.
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Purpose - Modern bureaucracies are under reconstruction, bureaucracy being no longer modern; they are becoming post bureaucratic. Defining the post-bureaucratic organization as a hybrid form provides insight into the intrinsic difficulties involved in th
Courpasson, D. & Clegg, S.R. 2006, 'Dissolving the iron cages? Tocqueville, Michels, bureaucracy and the perpetuation of elite power', Organization, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 319-343.
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Modern management theory often forgets more than it remembers. What's new? is the refrain. Yet, we suggest, there is much that we should already know from which we might appropriately learn, Lest we forget. The current paper takes its departure from two
Clegg, S.R., Kornberger, M.M., Carter, C. & Rhodes, C.H. 2006, 'For management?', Management Learning, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 7-27.
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Over the past decades there have been persistent radical critiques of management. Previously the goal was to apply forms of Marxian analysis to the world of management and organizations, usually seeing it as a sphere of false consciousness distorted and
Clegg, S.R. 2006, 'The bounds of rationality: power/ history/ imagination', Critical Perspectives on Accounting, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 847-863.
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The paper takes the assumptions of bounded rationality as the premise for organization theorizing. It draws a distinction between a science of objects and a science of subjects, arguing the latter as the more appropriate frame for organization analysis. Organization studies, it suggests, are an example of the type of knowledge that Flyvbjerg, following Aristotle, terms phronesis. At the core of phronetic organization studies, the paper argues, there stands a concern with power, history and imagination. The core of the paper discusses power and the politics of organizing, to point up some central differences in approach to the key term in the trinity that the paper invokes. The paper concludes that organization theory and analysis is best cultivated not in an ideal world of paradigm consensus or domination but in a world of discursive plurality, where obstinate differences in domain assumptions are explicit and explicitly tolerated. A good conversation assumes engagement with alternate points of view, argued against vigorously, but ultimately, where these positions pass the criteria of reason rather than prejudice, tolerated as legitimate points of view. In so doing, it elaborates and defends criteria of reason.
Clegg, S.R. 2006, 'Why is organization theory so ignorant? The neglect of total institutions', Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 426-430.
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Organization theory has, on the whole, failed to adequately address the role that organizations have played in some of the crimes of humanity. The tools to do so have long been available to the discipline, in work by scholars such as Goffman on total institutions, Foucault on disciplinary mechanisms, and Bauman on the Holocaust. The article retrieves the work of these scholars to raise some important questions left begging by much contemporary scholarship.
e Cunha, M.P., Clegg, S.R. & Kamoche, K. 2006, 'Surprises in management and organization: concept, sources and A typology', British Journal of Management: challenging management theory and practice, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 317-329.
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We discuss why surprises, defined as events that happen unexpectedly or expected events that take unexpected shapes, are important to organizations and should be considered in the organization and management literature as an umbrella concept, encompassing a variety of related phenomena. The concept of organizational surprises is unpacked and a typology is built around the (un)expectedness of the issue and the (un)expectedness of the process. This typology uncovers the several types of surprising events that organizations may face, and contributes to the literature by identifying how different types of surprises require distinct managerial approaches.
Hollows, J. & Clegg, S.R. 2006, 'Brand development: institutional constraints on Chinese businesses', Management Research News, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 386-401.
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Purpose + This paper addresses the reasons why Chinese businesses have long been identified as subordinate to world-class brand owners; why +global+ own brand developments are considered to be beyond their competence. Design/methodology/approach + In this paper, we use an institutional perspective to examine the difficulties faced by Chinese firms in own brand development, using empirical data derived from a research project into the business strategies of Hong Kong firms, and contrasting these with the case of what is one of China's most successful foreign ventures, Haier. Findings + The familial form appears to be transforming, due to the employment of a growing stratum of professional middle managers and Chinese family business firms appear to be developing into fully functionally integrated hierarchies capable of product and market development of own branded products. Three institutional supports make this possible. First, the development of parts of the People's Republic of China (PRC) into a quasi-market economy created a regionally close and large market. Second, technology transfers from leading overseas consumer product brand owners+ supported the development of more sophisticated products and firm capabilities. Third, a steady supply of skilled graduates from Hong Kong and the mainland enabled firms to move further up the value chain and exert more control over their manufacturing and related activities. To go truly global, however, more is required: social capital that connects the firm to the local and national party elites, something that mainland firms may find easier than those from Hong Kong.
Kornberger, M.M., Clegg, S.R. & Carter, C. 2006, 'Rethinking the polyphonic organization: Managing as discursive practice', Scandinavian Journal of Management, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 3-30.
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Literary approaches problematize the practice of knowing in relation to managing. Drawing on Kafka, Lyotard, Rorty and others, our overarching objective here is to widen and deepen linguistic approaches to management and organization studies. We elaborate the concept of the polyphonic organization: starting from Kafka's reading of the story of the Tower of Babel, we reflect on polyphony and, using Lyotard's concept of the diffrend, we explore the linguistic gaps that constitute the polyphonic organization. Interpreting these different language games as a driving force behind organizational sensemaking, we theorize on the connection between change, power and language. Management as a discursive practice focuses linguistically on deconstructing and translating between language games divided by the differend.
Clegg, S.R., Kornberger, M.M. & Rhodes, C.H. 2005, 'Learning/becoming/organizing', Organization, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 147-167.
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In this paper we rethink and reframe organizational learning in terms of organizational becoming. We see these concepts as two mutually implicating ways of exploring and simultaneously constituting the phenomena of organization. Bearing in mind that the
Gustavs, J.L. & Clegg, S.R. 2005, 'Working the knowledge game? Universities and corporate organizations in partnership', Management Learning, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 9-30.
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As a result of changing conditions of funding, emanating in a sense of crisis about viability and the need to find new sources of revenue, many universities in Australia and elsewhere are moving into new areas of application in novel partnerships with co
Orsato, R.J. & Clegg, S.R. 2005, 'Radical reformism: Towards critical ecological modernization', Sustainable Development, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 253-267.
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According to a specialized research area within environmental sociology - ecological modernization theory - the shift towards seeking to protect the environment constitutes a broadly emergent sociological phenomenon: the radicalization of modernity. The
Clegg, S.R. 2005, 'A life in part', Organization Studies, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 291-309.
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Life, art and science are irremediably intertwined: how, where and with whom one shares the brief moments of existence necessarily affect what one thinks, how one writes, and what one will address. Being a scholar is a vocation, as Weber knew only too we
Clegg, S.R. 2005, 'Puritans, visionaries and survivors', Organization Studies, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 527-545.
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All readings take place in the here-and-now, even of texts written back there and then. Nowhere in management and organization theory has this been truer of anyone than Max Weber. Unread in English during his lifetime, it was nearly 30 years after his de
Clegg, S.R., Burdon, S.W. & Nikolova, N. 2005, 'The outsourcing debate: Theories and Findings.', Journal of the Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 37-52.
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This paper addresses the issue of services outsourcing by looking at both theoretical and empirical arguments. Previous debates have often concentrated on the motives for adopting the practice rather than the outcomes. These various themes can be discussed under the twin concepts of the cost and efficiency argument and the fashion and isomorphism approach. This research provides strong evidence to support the cost efficiency argument. On average, significant cost advantages were sought and delivered, as well as improvements in service levels and systems. A 10% net cost saving was considered necessary by an organization before embarking on an organizational change that was disruptive and in some cases involved downside risks. Even if other efficiency gains such as service levels or systems improvements were required, so were 10%+ cost savings. A number of the organizations thought their skills in managing outsourcing had improved considerably such that they were in a position to move from a client/server relationship to a partnership model.
Clegg, S.R. & Feldman, S. 2005, 'Questioning Morals and Moral Questions in Organizations: Review and Response', Organization, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 135-144.
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Steven Feldman+s introduction is prefaced by a short remark from William James extolling the importance of prayer to the establishing of a self that is responsible to the `higher tribunals+. From there on it becomes increasingly clear that Feldman+s task is to direct us toward such higher tribunals. In the preface Feldman advises us that he establishes a theory of moral tradition, designed to investigate the historical and cultural context of moral commitment. It should be clear that this is theorizing with definite auspices: the religious beliefs that Feldman `professes+ (and Weber+s caustic remarks on the professing of religion in his essay `Science as a Vocation+ are, I think, worth recalling here) are as central to the enterprise as they are absent. They are central in the grounding of the book as a moral project while they are absent because they are never spelled out clearly as a set of specific commitments.
Little, S. & Clegg, S.R. 2005, 'Recovering experience, confirming identity, voicing resistance: the Braceros, the Internet and counter-coordination', Critical Perspectives on International Business, vol. 1, no. 2/3, pp. 123-136.
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Purpose - This paper investigates how the learning trajectory of corporations utilising information and communication technologies has been matched by the labour movement and social movements associated with it. Design/methodology/approach + The paper investigates new communication dynamics of labour in the international setting. It then focuses on a broader and richer set of online practices by labour by drawing on material placed on the world wide web by members of and advocates for the Braceros (the strong arms) + migrant Mexican workers. These practices follow on a history of effective use of the new information communication technologies by the Zapatista movement in Mexico. Findings + The paper places these activities in the context of globalisation and the global movement of capital and labour. It argues that the practices of online communication associated with the Braceros can be harnessed to move beyond the reactive shadowing of capital by labour. Instead innovative and proactive forms of monitoring policies and critiquing outcomes become possible.
Clegg, S.R., Kornberger, M.M. & Rhodes, C.H. 2004, 'Noise, parasites and translation - theory and practice in management consulting', Management Learning, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 31-44.
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Kornberger, M.M. & Clegg, S.R. 2004, 'Bringing space back in: organizing the generative building', Organization Studies, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1095-1114.
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Clegg, S.R. & Courpasson, D. 2004, 'Political hybrids: Tocquevillean views on project organizations', Journal Of Management Studies, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 525-547.
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Clegg, S.R., Carter, C. & Kornberger, M.M. 2004, 'Get up, I feel like being a strategy machine', European Management Review, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 21-28.
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Clegg, S.R. 2004, 'Platyplus at play.', Management Communication Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 146-170.
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Porras, S.T., Clegg, S.R. & Crawford, J.D. 2004, 'Trust as networking knowledge: precedents from Australia', Asia Pacific Journal of Management, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 345-363.
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Clegg, S.R., Kornberger, M.M. & Rhodes, C.H. 2004, 'When the saints go marching in: a reply to Sturdy, Clark, Fincham and Handley.', Management Learning, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 341-344.
Josserand, E.L., Clegg, S.R., Kornberger, M.M. & Pitsis, T.S. 2004, 'Friends or foes? practicing collaboration - an introduction.', M@n@gement, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 37-45.
Pitsis, T.S., Kornberger, M.M. & Clegg, S.R. 2004, 'The art of managing relationships in interorganizational collaboration.', M@n@gement, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 47-67.
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Clegg, S.R., Carter, C. & Kornberger, M.M. 2004, 'A 'maquina estrategica': fundamentos epistemologicos e desenvolvimentos em curso.', Revista de administracao de empresas, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 21-31.
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Pitsis, T.S., Clegg, S.R., Marosszeky, M. & Rura-Polley, T. 2003, 'Constructing the Olympic dream: A future perfect strategy of project management', Organization Science, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 574-590.
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Kornberger, M.M. & Clegg, S.R. 2003, 'Reflections on space, structure and their impact on organisations', European Spatial Research and Policy, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 119-136.
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Clegg, S.R. & Ray, T. 2003, 'Power, rules of the game and the limits to knowledge management: lessons from Japan and Anglo-Saxon alarms', Prometheus, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 23-40.
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Much of the Knowledge Management (KM) literature assumes that all relevant knowledge can be represented as information and 'managed'. But the meaning of information is always context-specific and open to subsequent reinterpretation. Moving over time or between contexts affords scope for new meanings to emerge. Making sense of information signals (speech, body language, tone-of-voice or whatever)--Aand the absence of such signals--Ainvolves dimensions of individual and collective tacit knowledge that are frequently misrepresented or ignored in mainstream KM. By relating power and knowledge to 'rules of the game', it is possible to consider how the contexts in which information is rendered meaningful are bounded, as well as crucially related in the stretch between macro-level processes and micro-level practices. In the knowledge debate, Japan stands as a counterfactual to Anglo-Saxon expectations about formal rules, liberal individualism and market-rational entrepreneurship. While seminal accounts of knowledge creation in Japanese companies impelled the West towards KM, there has been no corresponding KM-boom in Japan. Our interpretation of the processes by which Japanese and Anglo-Saxon practices are situated suggests that KM is limited by the separation of knowledge from power and information from meaning.
Clegg, S.R. & Ross-Smith, A.E. 2003, 'Revising the boundaries: management education and learning in a postpositivist world', Academy of Management: Learning and Education, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 85-98.
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Clegg, S.R. 2003, 'Strange fruit hanging from the knowledge tree: or, carry on carping', Management Learning, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 375-378.
Kornberger, M.M. & Clegg, S.R. 2003, 'The architecture of complexity', Culture and Organization, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 75-91.
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In this paper we reflect on organizational space and its implications for organization and management. In contrast to dominant discourse in management and organization theory we address the ways in which corporate buildings, as social objects, provide a materiality to organization. Developing the concept of the architecture of complexity, we focus on space as the precondition of processes of organizing. The productive power of space lies in its potential to create and trigger complexity, as it pre-structures movement and flows of communication. Reflecting on two concrete spatial organizations (the fold and heterotopia) we suggest that the interplay of order and disorder and inside/outside relation, which these spaces provide, are spatial preconditions of organizational change and creativity.
Carter, C., Clegg, S.R., Hogan, J. & Kornberger, M.M. 2003, 'The polyphonic spree: the case of the Liverpool Dockers', Industrial Relations Journal, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 290-304.
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Clegg, S.R. 2003, 'Theorizing 'Globalization' Sociologically for Management', Revista Eletronica de Gestao Organizacional, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 5-26.
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Since the time of the earliest civilisations trade across frontiers and regions has occurred but it was only at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century that significant transnational activity emerged. The primary casualties of globalization appear to be low skilled workers in traditional manufacturing countries who either see their jobs slip away overseas, or experience a painful slide in their wage rates as their employers strive to reduce costs. Secondly, whole countries and regions find they have been sidelined by the forces of international trade and investment and, instead of experiencing a growing involvement and benefit from the global economy, may encounter a greater sense of dependence and isolation. Particularly vulnerable are the relatively unskilled and under-educated, especially in labour market systems that do not develop very active and interventionist labour market policies.
Wang, K.Y. & Clegg, S.R. 2002, 'Trust and decision making: are managers different in the People's Republic of China and in Australia?', Cross Culture Management, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 30-45.
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Orsato, R.J., den Hond, F. & Clegg, S.R. 2002, 'The political ecology of automobile recycling in Europe', Organization Studies, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 639-665.
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Bunzel, D., Clegg, S.R. & Teal, G. 2002, 'Disciplining customers at the grand seaside hotel', Journal of the Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management ANZAM, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 1-13.
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Clegg, S.R., de Cunha, J.V. & Pina e Cunha, M. 2002, 'Management paradoxes: a relational view', Human Relations, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 483-503.
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Chan, A. & Clegg, S.R. 2002, 'History, culture and organization studies', Culture and Organization, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 259-273.
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Clegg, S.R., Pitsis, T.S., Rura-Polley, T. & Marosszeky, M. 2002, 'Governmentality matters: designing an alliance culture of inter-organizational collaboration for managing projects', Organization Studies, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 317-337.
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Stokes, J.R. & Clegg, S.R. 2002, 'Once upon a time in the bureaucracy: power and public sector management', Organization, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 225-247.
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Clegg, S.R. 2002, 'Lives in the balance: a comment on Hinings and Greenwoods disconnects and consequences in organization theory', Administrative Science Theory, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 428-441.
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Clegg, S.R. & Kono, T. 2002, 'Trends in Japanese management: an overview of embedded continuities and disembedded discontinuities', Asia Pacific Journal of Management, vol. 19, pp. 269-285.
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Garrick, J. & Clegg, S.R. 2001, 'Stressed-out Knowledge Workers in Performative Times: A Postmodern Take on Project-based Learning', Management Learning, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 119-134.
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Tantoush, T. & Clegg, S.R. 2001, 'CADCAM Integration and the Practical Politics of Technological Change', Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 9-27.
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Pitsis, T.S., Rura-Polley, T., Clegg, S.R. & Marosszeky, M. 2001, 'From 'Quality Culture' to 'Quality Cult'', The Business Improvement Journal, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 22-24.
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Clegg, S.R. & Leung, A.S. 2001, 'The Career Motivation of Female Executives in the Hong Kong Public Sector', Women in Management Review, vol. 16, no. 1-2, pp. 12-20.
Reports a study of female executives (n = 30) working in the public sector in Hong Kong. The research captures a set of organisational practices in transition: from a colonial to a post-colonial setting, and from a bureaucracy that offered jobs for life to one that offers them on contract terms. The concept of career motivation is explored in the study through three dimensions of career resilience, career insight, and career identity. Overall, younger executives (n = 19) had higher levels of career motivation and were striving to attain additional responsibility and authority in work assignments, while senior executives (n = 11) were concerned with holding on to their previous accomplishments and competence in their occupational role. Moreover, the more ambiguity and uncertainty existing in the government office, the lesser the levels of career motivation. The results and their implications for future studies of career motivation are discussed.
Clegg, S.R. 2001, 'Changing Concepts of Power, Changing Concepts of Politics', Administrative Theory & Praxis, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 126-150.
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Hardy, C., Clegg, S.R. & Phillips, N. 2001, 'Reflexivity in Organization and Management theory: A study of the Production of the Research 'Subject'', Human Relations, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 531-560.
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In this article, we draw on actor-network theory (ANT) to re?exively investigate the role of the researcher and the research community in the production of a research subject. We review our earlier work, which explores how the dynamics of refugee systems help to produce the research subject + in this case, the refugee. We then use ideas from ANT to move beyond the more conventional institutional and discursive analyses that are used in these articles. We include not just the activities of actors in the refugee system in our analysis, but also our own activities as researchers, as well as those of the broader research community. We use the concept of translation to explore the role of these actors in the processes of social construction that produce refugees as a subject of academic study, which is related to, but distinct from, the `social+ subject produced in the social setting under study. Generalizing from our own research experience, we argue for a reconceptualization of re?exivity in organization and management theory, which moves beyond the common view of heroic individuals struggling to understand and manage their role in their research towards an understanding of reflexivity as involving the research community as a whole
Soliman, F., Clegg, S.R. & Tantoush, T. 2001, 'Critical Success Factors for Integration of CAD/CAM Systems with ERP Systems', International Journal of Operations and Production Management, vol. 21, no. 5/6, pp. 609-629.
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Current advances in information technology and, in particular, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and enterprise resources planning (ERP) systems, have led organisations to undertake significant investments in these systems. Next generation manufacturers require both systems to maintain or gain a competitive advantage, reduce risks and improve productivity and viability. In addition, recent attention to the implementation of CAD/CAM systems highlights their important role in automating complex design and next generation manufacturing processes. In the next millennium more manufacturers are likely to implement CAD/CAM and ERP systems and hence issues in the integration of CAD/CAM with ERP systems must become a major concern. Accordingly, this paper will: explore the problems of integration of CAD/CAM systems with ERP systems; study how the severity of these problems relates to CAD/CAM integration success; propose a set of critical success factors (CSF) for the integration of CAD/CAM with ERP systems; suggest hypotheses to study the relevance of these CSF for successful integration of CAD/CAM with ERP systems. In addition, the paper also demonstrates the importance of successful integration of CAD/CAM systems with other applications for next generation manufacturers. These findings suggest that integration of CAD/CAM systems with ERP systems is complex, involving many factors.
Clegg, S.R., Ibarra-Colado, E. & Clarke, T. 2001, 'Organization Studies Today: A Challenge for Management and Organization Studies in the Coming Century', Nankai Business Review, vol. 1, pp. 51-58.
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Courpasson, D. & Clegg, S.R. 2001, 'Hybrid Controls in Project Organisations', European Enterpreneurial Learning, vol. 13, pp. 1-28.
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Clegg, S.R., Clarke, T. & Ibarra, E. 2001, 'Millennium management, changing paradigms and organization studies', Human Relations, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 31-36.
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Many forms of knowledge may in practice enter management calculations. Many sites exist where they may be encountered: not only university courses but also popular books, training sessions, magazines, web-sites, the popular press, as well as the usual networks of sociability. There are many sites from which practical orientations might develop. The important point is that, in practical terms, university academics enjoy neither an exclusive nor a privileged role: they are not legislators of what is management knowledge but simply among its many interpreters (Bauman, 1987). For all intents and purposes, however, given the institutionalized norms of journal publication, many university academics continue to practise their craft as if they were legislators rather than particular interpreters. For others, the audiences in the lecture theatres and of the more popular journals and books, the craft of organization studies provides a set of popular recipes and tools that can serve as solutions to the problems of managing modern organizations, promoting a series of rules, representations, procedures and technologies of, and for, management thinking, rather than contingent scientific `proofs+.
Clegg, S.R., Linstead, S. & Sewell, G. 2000, 'Only penguins: a polemic on organization theory from the edge of the world', Organization Studies, vol. 21, no. 0, pp. 103-117.
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Jermier, J. & Clegg, S.R. 1994, 'Critical issues in organization science: A dialog', Organization Science, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-13.
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Clegg, S.R. 1989, 'Radical revisions: Power, discipline And organizations', Organization Studies, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 97-115.
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NA
Higgins, W. & Clegg, S.R. 1988, 'Enterprise calculation And manufacturing decline', Organization Studies, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 69-89.
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NA
Clegg, S.R. & Higgins, W. 1987, 'Against the current: Organizational sociology and socialism', Organization Studies, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 201-221.
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NA
Clegg, S.R. 1987, 'The Language Of Power And The Power Of Language', Organization Studies, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 61-70.
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NA

Other research activity

Kreiner, K. & Clegg, S.R. 2014, 'Fixing Concrete: Inquiries, Responsibility, Power and Innovation', Construction Management and Economics, Taylor & Francis, United Kingdom, pp. 1-17.
Clegg, S.R. & Rhodes, C.H. 2004, 'Ethics as practice - a study of organisational learning & management power in Australian society', ARC Discovery Grant.
Burdon, S.W. & Clegg, S.R. 2004, 'Outsourcing - leveraging productivity improvements and better performance from new approaches', ARC Linkage Grant.
Clegg, S.R. 2004, 'What is to be done with management ethics? addressing national needs & priorities', ARC Linkage - Learned Academies Special Projects (Academy of the Social Sciences Australia).
Clegg, S.R. & Marosszeky, M. 2003, 'Establishing best practice in interorganizational project collaboration', ARC Linkage Grant.
Clegg, S.R. & Rhodes, C.H. 2003, 'The business of business coaching: an analysis of the structure & practice of the business coaching industry in Australia', UTS Industry Link Seeding Research Grant.
Burdon, S.W. & Clegg, S.R. 2003, 'Outsourcing - leveraging productivity improvements & better performance from new approaches', Industry Link Seeding Grant.