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Professor Stephen Goodall

Biography

Stephen is a Health Economist and a Deputy Director of CHERE. He is also the manager of the economic evaluation research group. This role involves managing a group of health economists, and liaising, negotiating contracts and completing reports with commissioning agencies. His main areas of interest are; economic evaluation of health technologies, public health, primary care, access to health care and equity. He also provides postgraduate lectures on topics aligned with his research (to date: “Introduction to Health Economics” and “Planning and Evaluating Health Services”).

Stephen completed a Master of Health Economics from the University of York. His thesis, an econometric analysis of the HILDA (a large panel) dataset, titled “Is hospital treatment in Australia equitable?” was undertaken at the University of Melbourne. He has a PhD in Vascular Medicine from the University of Leicester, which focussed on health services research.

Prior to joining CHERE Stephen worked for 7 years within clinical development, where he helped design and managed national and international randomised clinical trials. He was also responsible for training and supervising medical colleagues during their research sabbatical. He spent two years in the Pharmaceutical Industry. At the University of Bristol he managed a large multi-centred UK Government sponsored evaluation of access to primary care. His work has led to numerous peer reviewed journal articles and conference presentations, as well as several commissioned reports.

Image of Stephen Goodall
Professor, Centre for Health Economics Research and Evaluation
Associate Professor, Centre for Health Economics Research and Evaluation
Core Member, CHERE - Centre for Health Economics and Research Evaluation
BSc, M.Sc, Doctor of Philosophy
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 4752
Can supervise: Yes

Conferences

Cronin, P.A., Reeve, R., Goodall, S., Viney, R. & McCabe, P. 2017, 'Labor market participation for caregiving mothers of children with language impairment [Conference presentation]', iHEA Boston World Congress, Boston, USA.
Meshcheriakova, O., Goodall, S. & Viney, R. 2017, 'Consumer preferences for food processing technologies: Evidence from a discrete choice experiment', iHEA Boston World Congress, Boston, USA.
Addo, R., Hall, J., Goodall, S. & Haas, M. 2017, 'The knowledge and perception of Ghanaian decision makers and researchers towards the use of health technology assessment for health decision making [Conference Presentation]', iHEA Boston World Congress, Boston, USA.
Saing, S., Haywood, P. & Goodall, S. 2016, 'Economic evaluation of contrast-enhanced liver MRI in the characterisation of suspected liver lesions', ISPOR Australia Chapter, Contemporary Economic Modelling: State of the Art, Sydney.
Luckett, T., Chenoweth, L., Brooks, D., Cook, J., Mitchell, G., Pond, D., Beattie, E., Davidson, P.M., Luscombe, G., Goodall, S., Allsopp, J., Grover, S. & Agar, S. 2016, 'Implementing facilitated case conferencing for people living in aged care with advanced dementia: benefits, barriers and facilitators', Palliative Care Nurses Australia Conference, Canberra.
Agar, M., Luckett, T., Luscombe, G., Phillips, J., Beattie, E., Pond, D., Mitchell, G., Cook, J., Davidson, P.M., Brooks, D., Houltram, J., Goodall, S. & Chenoweth, L. 2016, 'Pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial of facilitated family case conferencing versus usual care for people with advanced dementia living in aged care: effects on end of life care', Palliative Care Nurses Australia Conference, Canberra.
Kim, H., Liew, D. & Goodall, S. 2016, 'Clinical Trials for regulatory and reimbursement needs: Does one shoe fit all?', ISPOR 7th Asia-Pacific Conference, Singapore.
Scuffham, P., Viney, R. & Goodall, S. 2016, 'Risky Business: Decision making in Health Care with economic modelling', ISPOR 7th Asia-Pacific Conference, Singapore.
Goodall, S., Viney, R., Zhao, F.-.L. & Street, D. 2016, 'Estimating the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmacy only medicines using discrete choice experiments', ISPOR 7th Asia-Pacific Conference, Singapore.
Arora, S., Goodall, S., Einfeld, S. & Viney, R. 2016, 'Using Discrete Choice experiments to value informal care provided to children with intellectual disabilities', ISPOR 7th Asia-Pacific Conference, Singapore.
Goodall, S. 2016, 'Cost effectiveness of contrast-enhanced liver MRI in the characterisation of suspected liver lesions in patients with colorectal cancer', ISPOR 7th Asia-Pacific Conference, Singapore.
Saing, S., Haywood, P. & Goodall, S. 2016, 'Cost effectiveness of contrast-enhanced liver MRI in the characterisation of suspected liver lesions in patients with colorectal cancer', ISPOR Asia-Pacific Conference, Singapore.
Cronin, P.A., Reeve, R., Goodall, S., Viney, R. & McCabe, T. 2016, 'The implications of school quality on the academic achievements of children with language difficulties', 38th Annual Australian Health Economics Society Conference, Perth.
Arora, S., Goodall, S., Viney, R. & Einfeld, S. 2016, 'Using a discrete choice experiment to value informal care provided to children with intellectual disabilities', 38th Annual Australian Health Economics Society Conference, Perth.
Meshcheriakova, O., Goodall, S. & Viney, R. 2016, 'Consumer preferences for food processing technologies: evidence from a discrete choice experiment', 38th Annual Australian Health Economics Society Conference, Perth.
Prichard, R.A., Newton, P., Goodall, S., Kershaw, L., Davidson, P.M., Homer, T., McNeil, F. & Hayward, C.S. 2016, 'Establishing Institutional Costs in the Year Before and After VAD Implant and Before Heart Transplant', JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION, pp. S272-S272.
Prichard, R., Hayward, C., Davidson, P., Goodall, S. & Newton, P. 2016, 'Impact of Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation on Hospitalisation, and Readmissions Using a Linked Administrative Dataset', Heart Lung and Circulation, The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand, Elsevier, Adelaide, pp. S114-S114.
Cronin, P.A., Reeve, R., Goodall, S., Viney, R. & McCabe, P. 2016, 'The implications of school quality on the academic achievements of children with language difficulties', UTS Business School PhD Conference.
Cronin, P.A., Reeve, R., Goodall, S., Viney, R. & McCabe, P. 2016, 'A multilevel analysis of the role of academic school quality on academic outcomes for students with language difficulties', Longitudinal Data Conference, Canberra.
Parkinson, B., Viney, R.C., Goodall, S. & Haas, M. 2015, 'Real-world observational data in cost-effectiveness analyses: Herceptin as a case study', iHEA 11th World Congress on Health Economics, Milan, Italy.
Cronin, P., Reeve, R., Goodall, S., McCabe, P. & Viney, R.C. 2015, 'The impact of childhood language impairment on health service use and health care expenditure', IHEA, 11th World Congress on Health Economics, Milan, Italy.
Goodall, S., Kenny, P. & Mu, C. 2015, 'What influences the choice of General Practitioners? Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment in Australia and New Zealand', CAER Workshop.
Gardner, T., Refshauge, K., McAuley, J., Goodall, S., Huebscher, M. & Smith, L. 2015, 'Patient led goal setting in chronic low back pain: An effective approach', World Confederation for Physical Therapy Congress, Singapore.
McCluskey, A., Ada, L., Kelly, P.J., Middleton, S., Goodall, S., Grimshaw, J.M., Logan, P., Longworth, M. & Karageorge, A. 2015, 'The Out-and-About implementation program did not change the practice of community stroke teams or increase outings by stroke survivors: A cluster randomised controlled trial', Occupation Therapy Australia 26th National Conference.
Goodall, S., Kenny, P. & Mu, C. 2015, 'What influences the choice of General Practitioners? Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment in Australia and New Zealand', Primary Health Care Research Conference, Adelaide.
Goodall, S., Kenny, P. & Mu, C. 2015, 'What influences the choice of General Practitioners? Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment in Australia and New Zealand', iHEA 11th World Congress on Health Economics, Milan, July.
Cronin, P.A., Reeve, R., Goodall, S., McCabe, P. & Viney, R. 2015, 'The impact of childhood language impairment on health service use and health care expenditure-evidence from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children', Childhood Language Symposium, Warwick, UK.
McCluskey, A., Ada, L., Kelly, P.J., Middleton, S., Goodall, S., Grimshaw, J.M., Logan, P., Longworth, M. & Karageorge, A. 2015, 'The challenge of changing practice: Learning from the Out-and-About cluster randomised controlled trial involving community teams and stroke survivors', SSA/SmartStrokes, Melbourne.
Reeve, R., Butler, K., Burns, L., Viney, R.C., Arora, S., Goodall, S. & van Gool, K. 2015, 'Using multi-methods to evaluate clinical services: A case study', International Evaluation Conference, Melbourne.
Reeve, R., Butler, K., Burns, L., Viney, R.C., Arora, S., Goodall, S. & van Gool, K. 2015, 'The costs and consequences of targeting AOD patients presenting to Hospital Emergency Departments', APSAD Annual Scientific Alcohol and Drug Conference, Perth.
Kenny, P.M., Haas, M.R., Goodall, S., Wong, C. & De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2014, 'Patient preferences in General Practice: Important factors for choosing a GP', 2014 PHC Research Conference, Canberra.
Arora, S., Kecmanovic, M., Hall, J.P. & Goodall, S. 2013, 'The impact of financial incentives on primary care in Australia', iHEA 9th World Congress on Health Economics, Sydney.
Church, J., Reeve, R.D., Goodall, S. & Haas, M.R. 2013, 'Deconstructing the positive feedback loop between depression and obesity: can stressful life events be used as an instrument?', iHEA 9th World Congress on Health Economics, Sydney.
Parkinson, B.T., Viney, R.C., Goodall, S. & Haas, M.R. 2013, 'Clinician prescribing decisions and the economics of information', iHEA 9th World Congress on Health Economics, Sydney.
Kecmanovic, M., Arora, S., Hall, J.P. & Goodall, S. 2013, 'The impact of financial incentives on primary care in Australia', 2013 Primary Health Care Research Conference, Sydney.
Parkinson, B.T., Viney, R.C., Goodall, S. & Haas, M.R. 2013, 'Drivers of clinician prescribing decisions and the economics of information', 35th Australian Conference of Health Economists, Canberra.
Parkinson, B.T., Viney, R.C., Goodall, S. & Haas, M.R. 2013, 'Drivers of clinician prescribing decisions and the economics of information (PHP105)', ISPOR 16th Annual European Congress, Dublin, Ireland.
Haas, M.R., Goodall, S. & De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2013, 'Awareness and uptake among Australians of innovations in the delivery of primary care', 8th Health Services and Policy Research Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.
Hou, C., Goodall, S., Church, J. & High, H. 2013, 'Cost-effectiveness of genetic screening for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type2B to prevent childhood medullary thyroid cancer', 8th Health Services and Policy Research Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.
Goodall, S. 2013, 'The impact of digital breast tomosynthesis DBT on BreastScreen NSW services: Economic evaluation considerations', Workshop Cancer Institute NSW: Digital Breast Tomosynthesis - the potential for Clinical Trials in BreastScreen NSW Services, Sydney.
Cronin, P.A., Goodall, S., Lockett, T., O'Keefe, R., Norman, R. & Church, J. 2013, 'Cost-effectiveness of a mailed advance notification letter to increase colorectal cancer screening', ISPOR 18th Annual International Meeting, New Orleans, USA.
Goodall, S., Hou, C., Church, J. & High, H. 2013, 'Cost-effectiveness of genetic screening for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2b to prevent childhood medullary thyroid cancer', ISPOR 18th Annual International Meeting, New Orleans, USA.
Church, J., Goodall, S., Gurgacz, S., Whiteman, D. & Lord, R. 2013, 'Cost-effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation compared to endoscopic surveillance for patients with Barrett's esophagus with low grade dysplasia', ISPOR 18th Annual International Meeting, New Orleans, USA.
Goodall, S., Hou, C., Church, J. & High, H. 2013, 'PCN83 Cost-effectiveness of genetic screening for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2b to prevent childhood medullary thyroid cancer [conference abstract]', Value in Health, Elsevier, New Orleans, USA, pp. 1-1.
Church, J., Goodall, S., Gurgacz, S., Whiteman, D. & Lord, R. 2013, 'PGI19 Cost-effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation compared to endoscopic surveillance for patients with Barrett's esophagus with low grade dysplasia [conference abstract]', Value in Health, Elsevier, New Orleans, USA, pp. 1-1.
Goodall, S., Kenny, P.M., De Abreu Lourenco, R. & Haas, M.R. 2013, 'Understanding patients' preferences for primary care services: Have Discrete Choice Experiments helped?', 8th Health Services and Policy Research Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.
Kenny, P.M., Haas, M.R. & Goodall, S. 2013, 'Patient preferences in general practice: Important factors for choosing a GP', 8th Health Services and Policy Research Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.
Goodall, S., Lannin, N., Oates, J., Wakim, D., McCluskey, A., Lukersmith, S. & Cameron, I. 2012, 'Economic valuation of informal care: task based approach', ISPOR 5th Asia-Pacific Conference, Taipei, Taiwan.
Cronin, P.A., Hoggan, B., Goodall, S. & Cameron, A. 2012, 'Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment non-neurological soft tissue radiation injuries: A cost effectiveness analysis', ISPOR 5th Asia-Pacific Conference, Taipei, Taiwan.
Church, J., Goodall, S., Norman, R., Reeve, R.D. & Haas, M.R. 2012, 'Using panel data to inform economic evaluation', ISPOR 5th Asia-Pacific Conference, Taipei, Taiwan.
Church, J., Goodall, S., Norman, R., Reeve, R.D. & Haas, M.R. 2012, 'PRM19: Using panel data to inform economic evaluation [conference abstract]', Value in Health, Elsevier, Taiwan, pp. 1-1.
Cronin, P.A., Hoggan, B., Goodall, S. & Cameron, A. 2012, 'CE3: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment non-neurological soft tissue radiation injuries: A cost effectiveness analysis [conference abstract]', Value in Health, Elsevier, Taiwan, pp. 1-1.
Goodall, S., Lannin, N. & Oates, J. 2012, 'PRM 24: Economic valuation of informal care: task based approach [conference abstract]', Value in Health, Elsevier, Taiwan, pp. 1-1.
Ewing, J.E., Goodall, S., King, M.T., Smith, N.F. & Kenny, P.M. 2012, 'Preferences for support services among adolescents and young adults with cancer or a blood disorder: Results of a discrete choice experiment', COSA 39th Annual Scientific Meeting and IPOS 14th World Congress of Psycho-Oncology, Brisbane.
Ewing, J.E., Goodall, S., King, M.T., Smith, N.F. & Kenny, P.M. 2012, 'Preferences for support services among adolescents and young adults with cancer or a blood disorder: Results of a discrete choice experiment [conference abstract]', Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, COSA 39th Annual Scientific Meeting and IPOS 14th World Congress of Psycho-Oncology, Wiley, Brisbane, pp. 129-129.
Norman, R. & Goodall, S. 2012, 'Panel discussion - Integrating research and policy to safeguard fair distribution of health care resources: Incorporating an ethical and social value focus', Health Technology Assessment Conference, Sydney.
Church, J. & Goodall, S. 2011, 'Cost-Effectiveness of Radiofrequency Ablation relative to surveillance in low grade dysplastic Barrett's Oesophagus', Australian Conference of Health Economists, Melbourne.
Cronin, P.A., Reeve, R.D. & Goodall, S. 2011, 'Measuring the economic impact of early intervention of speech impairment on educational outcomes and wellbeing: a study of the longitudinal study of Australian children', iHEA 8th World Congress, Toronto, Canada.
Church, J., Norman, R. & Goodall, S. 2011, 'Relationship between body mass index and quality of life for application in economic evaluation', iHEA 8th World Congress, Toronto, Canada.
Cronin, P.A., Reeve, R.D. & Goodall, S. 2011, 'Measuring the economic impact of early intervention of speech impairment on educational outcomes and wellbeing: a study of the longitudinal study of Australian children', Longitudinal Study of Australian Children Conference, Melbourne.
Cronin, P.A., Reeve, R.D. & Goodall, S. 2011, 'Measuring the economic impact of early intervention of speech impairment on educational outcomes and wellbeing: a study of the longitudinal study of Australian children', 7th Health Services and Policy Research Conference, Adelaide.
Parkinson, B.T. & Goodall, S. 2010, 'Considering consumer choice in the economic evaluation of mandatory health programs', Emerging Health Policy, Sydney University.
Goodall, S. & Scott, T. 2009, 'Is hospital treatment in Australia inequitable? Evidence from HILDA, a large nationally representative household-based panel survey', iHEA 7th World Congress, Beijing, China.
Norman, R., Gallego, G., Goodall, S. & Hall, J.P. 2009, 'Equity weights for economic evaluation: Using Discrete Choice Experiments in an Australian population', iHEA 7th World Congress, Beijing, China.
Gallego, G., Casey, R., Norman, R. & Goodall, S. 2009, 'Introduction and uptake of new medical technologies in the Australian health care system: Hesitant, uneven or ill-informed?', 6th Health Services and Policy Research Conference 2009, Brisbane.
Cronin, P.A., Goodall, S., Norman, R. & Church, J. 2009, 'The impact of improving screening participation rate and diagnostic test sensitivity on colorectal cancer screening', 6th Health Services and Policy Research Conference 2009, Brisbane.
Gallego, G., Casey, R., Norman, R. & Goodall, S. 2009, 'Does the procedure matter? Differences in the funding of drugs and medical services in Australia', ISPOR 12th Annual European Congress, Paris.
Gallego, G., Goodall, S. & Norman, R. 2008, 'The implementation of economic evaluation for blood and blood products in Australia: the challenges ahead', Australian Conference of Health Economists, Adelaide.
Norman, R., Goodall, S., Gallego, G. & Hall, J.P. 2008, 'The trade-off between equality of outcome and efficiency in healthcare: A discrete choice experiment', Australian Conference of Health Economists, Adelaide.
Goodall, S., Vu, M. & Hall, J.P. 2008, 'Analysis of the economic evaluations conducted by the Medical Services Advisory Committee (MSAC)', Australian Conference of Health Economists, Adelaide.
Goodall, S., Norman, R. & Gallego, G. 2008, 'The Cost-effectiveness of Mandatory Iodine Fortification in Australia', Public Health Nutrition in Australia: Principles to Practice, reality to Rhetoric, Adelaide.
Goodall, S., Norman, R. & Gallego, G. 2008, 'The Cost-effectiveness of Iodine Fortification in Australia', Australian Academy of Science symposium: Iodine Deficiency in Australia: A Call for Action, Canberra.
Goodall, S., King, M.T., Ewing, J.E. & Smith, N.F. 2007, 'What support services do adolescents and young adults with a life threatening illness prefer? A discrete choice experiment of patients and their families', Australian Conference of Health Economists, Brisbane.

Journal articles

Cronin, P.A., Reeve, R., Viney, R., McCabe, P. & Goodall, S. 2017, 'The impact of childhood language difficulties on healthcare costs from 4 to 13 years: Australian longitudinal study', International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology.
Bagg, M.K., Hübscher, M., Rabey, M., Wand, B.M., O'Hagan, E., Moseley, L., Stanton, T.R., Maher, C.G., Goodall, S., Saing, S., O'Connell, N.E., Luomajoki, H. & McAuley, J.H. 2017, 'The RESOLVE Trial for people with Chronic Low Back Pain: Protocol for a randomised clinical trial', Journal of Physiotherapy, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 47-48.
Kenny, P.M., Goodall, S., Street, D. & Greene, J. 2017, 'Choosing a Doctor: Does presentation format affect the way consumers use health care performance information?', The Patient: Patient Centered Outcomes Research.
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Luckett, T., Chenoweth, L., Phillips, J., Brooks, D., Cook, J., Mitchell, G., Pond, D., Davidson, P., Beattie, E., Luscombe, G., Goodall, S., Fischer, T. & Agar, M. 2017, 'A facilitated approach to family case conferencing for people with advanced dementia living in nursing homes: Perceptions of Palliative Care Planning Coordinators and other health professionals in the IDEAL Study', International Psychogeriatrics.
Gardner, T., Refshauge, K., McAuley, J., Hübscher, M., Goodall, S. & Smith, L. 2017, 'Physiotherapists' beliefs and attitudes influence clinical practice in chronic low back pain: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies', Journal of Physiotherapy.
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Prichard, R., Hayward, C., Davidson, P., Newton, P., Goodall, S. & Kershaw, L. 2017, 'Left ventricular device implantation impacts on hospitalisation rates, length of stay and out of hospital time', Heart, Lung and Circulation.
Luckett, T., Agar, M., Luscombe, G., Phillips, J., Beattie, E., Pond, D., Mitchell, G., Davidson, P., Cook, J., Brooks, D., Houltram, J., Goodall, S. & Chenoweth, L. 2017, 'Effects of facilitated family case conferencing for advanced dementia: A cluster randomised clinical trial', PLoS ONE.
Saing, S., Haywood, P., Duncan, J., Ma, N., Cameron, A. & Goodall, S. 2017, 'Cost-effective imaging for resectability of liver lesions in colorectal cancer: An economic decision model', ANZ Journal of Surgery.
Kenny, P., De Abreu Lourenco, R., Wong, C.Y., Haas, M. & Goodall, S. 2016, 'Community preferences in general practice: important factors for choosing a general practitioner.', Health expectations : an international journal of public participation in health care and health policy, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 26-38.
Understanding the important factors for choosing a general practitioner (GP) can inform the provision of consumer information and contribute to the design of primary care services.To identify the factors considered important when choosing a GP and to explore subgroup differences.An online survey asked about the respondent's experience of GP care and included 36 questions on characteristics important to the choice of GP.An Australian population sample (n = 2481) of adults aged 16 or more.Principal components analysis identified dimensions for the creation of summated scales, and regression analysis was used to identify patient characteristics associated with each scale.The 36 questions were combined into five scales (score range 1-5) labelled: care quality, types of services, availability, cost and practice characteristics. Care quality was the most important factor (mean = 4.4, SD = 0.6) which included questions about technical care, interpersonal care and continuity. Cost (including financial and time cost) was also important (mean = 4.1, SD = 0.6). The least important factor was types of services (mean = 3.3, SD = 0.9), which covered the range of different services provided by or co-located with the practice. Frequent GP users and females had higher scores across all 5 scales, while the importance of care quality increased with age.When choosing a GP, information about the quality of care would be most useful to consumers. Respondents varied in the importance given to some factors including types of services, suggesting the need for a range of alternative primary care services.
Butler, K., Reeve, R., Arora, S., Viney, R., Goodall, S., van Gool, K. & Burns, L. 2016, 'The hidden costs of drug and alcohol use on hospital emergency departments', Drug and Alcohol Review, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 359-366.
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Cheng, Q., Church, J., Haas, M., Goodall, S., Sangster, J. & Furber, S. 2016, 'Cost-effectiveness of a population-based lifestyle intervention to promote healthy weight and physical inactivity in non-attenders of cardiac rehabilitation', Heart Lung and Circulation, vol. 25, pp. 265-274.
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Atukorale, Y.N., Church, J., Hoggan, B.L., Lambert, R.S., Gurgacz, S.L., Goodall, S. & Maddern, G.J. 2016, 'Self-expanding metallic stents for the management of emergency malignant large bowel obstruction: A systematic review', Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 20, pp. 455-462.
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McCluskey, A., Ada, L., Kelly, P., Goodall, S., Middleton, S., Grimshaw, J., Logan, P., Longworth, M. & Karageorge, A. 2016, 'A behaviour change program to increase outings delivered during therapy to stroke survivors by community rehabilitation teams: The Out-and-About trial', International Journal of Stroke, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 425-437.
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Gardner, T., Refshauge, K., McAuley, J., Huebscher, M., Goodall, S. & Smith, L. 2016, 'Patient led goal setting - a pilot study investigating a promising approach for the management of chronic low back pain', Spine, vol. 41, no. 18, pp. 1405-1413.
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Lee, B.S.B., Toh, S.-.L., Ryan, S., Simpson, J.M., Clezy, K., Bossa, L., Rice, S., Marial, O., Weber, G., Kaur, J., Boswell-Ruys, C., Goodall, S., Middleton, J., Tuderhope, M. & Kotsiou, G. 2016, 'Probiotics (LGG-BB12 or RC14-GR1) versus placebo as prophylaxis for urinary tract infection in persons with spinal cord injury (ProSCIUTTU): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial', BMC Urology, vol. 16:18.
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Parkinson, B., Viney, R.C., Haas, M., Goodall, S., Srasuebkul, P. & Pearson, S.A. 2016, 'Real world evidence: a comparison of the Australian Herceptin Program and clinical trials of trastuzumab for HER2+ metastatic breast cancer', PharmacoEconomics, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1039-1050.
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Reeve, R., Arora, S., Butler, K., Viney, R., Burns, L., Goodall, S. & van Gool, K. 2016, 'Evaluating the impact of hospital based drug and alcohol consultation liaison services', Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 68, pp. 36-45.
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Gardner, T., Refshauge, K., McAuley, J., Goodall, S., Hübscher, M. & Smith, L. 2015, 'Patient led goal setting in chronic low back pain-What goals are important to the patient and are they aligned to what we measure?', Patient education and counseling, vol. 98, no. 8, pp. 1035-1038.
To determine the extent of alignment between clinical outcome measures and patient-derived goals for the management of chronic low back pain (cLBP).A customised, patient-led goal setting intervention was implemented facilitated by a physiotherapist, in which participants identified problem areas and developed strategies to address them. Patient goals were compared to the most commonly used outcome measures in cLBP as well as research outcomes recommended by the IMMPACT consortium.From 20 participants, a total of 27 unique goals were identified, the most common goal related to physical activity (49%). Comparison of participant goals to the most common measures used by physiotherapists found none of the goals could be aligned. Comparison of goals and domains with IMPACCT outcome domains found 76% of the goals were aligned with physical functioning and 16% with emotional functioning.This study has identified goals important to patients in cLBP, these were varied, and most did not correspond with current clinical measures.Clinical outcome measures may not be providing accurate information about the success of treatments that are meaningful to the patient. Clinicians should consider a collaborative approach with cLBP patients to determine treatment interventions that are driven by patient preference.
Murray, S., Murchie, P., Campbell, N., Walter, F., Mazza, D., Habgood, E., Kutzer, Y., Martin, A., Goodall, S., Barnes, D. & Emery, J. 2015, 'Protocol for the CHEST Australia Trial: a Phase II randomised controlled trial of an intervention to reduce time to consult with symptoms of lung cancer', BMJ Open, vol. 5.
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Introduction Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, with 1.3 million new cases diagnosed every year. It has one of the lowest survival outcomes of any cancer because over two-thirds of patients are diagnosed when curative treatment is not possible. International research has focused on screening and community interventions to promote earlier presentation to a healthcare provider to improve early lung cancer detection. This paper describes the protocol for a phase II, multisite, randomised controlled trial, for patients at increased risk of lung cancer in the primary care setting, to facilitate early presentation with symptoms of lung cancer. Methods/analysis The intervention is based on a previous Scottish CHEST Trial that comprised of a primary-care nurse consultation to discuss and implement a self-help manual, followed by self-monitoring reminders to improve symptom appraisal and encourage help-seeking in patients at increased risk of lung cancer. We aim to recruit 550 patients from two Australian states: Western Australia and Victoria. Patients will be randomised to the Intervention (a health consultation involving a self-help manual, monthly prompts and spirometry) or Control (spirometry followed by usual care). Eligible participants are long-term smokers with at least 20 pack years, aged 55 and over, including ex-smokers if their cessation date was less than 15years ago. The primary outcome is consultation rate for respiratory symptoms. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from The University of Western Australia's Human Research Ethics Committee (RA/4/1/6018) and The University of Melbourne Human Research Committee (1441433). A summary of the results will be disseminated to participants and we plan to publish the main trial outcomes in a single paper. Further publications are anticipated after further data analysis. Findings will be presented at national and international conferences from late 2016.
Church, J., Goodall, S. & Haas, M. 2015, 'Cost-effectiveness of injury and falls prevention strategies for older adults living in residential aged care facilities', PharmacoEconomics, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1301-1310.
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McCluskey, A., Ada, L., Middleton, S., Kelly, P., Goodall, S., Grimshaw, J., Logan, P., Longworth, M. & Karageorge, A. 2015, 'Compliance with Australian stroke guideline recommendations for outdoor mobility and transport training by post-inpatient rehabilitation services: An observational cohort study', BMC Health Services Research, vol. 15.
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Agar, M., Beattie, E., Luckett, T., Phillips, J., Luscombe, G., Goodall, S., Mitchell, G., Pond, D., Davidson, P.M. & Chenoweth, L. 2015, 'Pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial of facilitated family case conferencing compared with usual care for improving end of life care and outcomes in nursing home residents with advanced dementia and their families: the IDEAL study protocol', BMC Palliative Care, vol. 14, no. 63.
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Hewitt, J., Refshauge, K., Goodall, S., Henwood, T. & Clemson, L. 2014, 'Does progressive resistance and balance exercise reduce falls in residential aged care? Randomised controlled trial for the 'sunbeam' program', Clinical Interventions in Aging, vol. 9, pp. 369-376.
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Introduction: Falls are common among older adults. It is reported that approximately 60% of residents of aged care facilities fall each year. This is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and a significant burden for health care providers and the health system. Among community dwelling older adults, exercise appears to be an effective countermeasure, but data are limited and inconsistent among studies in residents of aged care communities. This trial has been designed to evaluate whether the SUNBEAM program (Strength and Balance Exercise in Aged Care) reduces falls in residents of aged care facilities. Research question: Is the program more effective and cost-effective than usual care for the prevention of falls? Design: Single-blinded, two group, cluster randomized trial. Participants and setting: 300 residents, living in 20 aged care facilities. Intervention: Progressive resistance and balance training under the guidance of a physiotherapist for 6 months, then facility-guided maintenance training for 6 months. Control: Usual care. Measurements: Number of falls, number of fallers, quality of life, mobility, balance, fear of falling, cognitive well-being, resource use, and cost-effectiveness. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis: The number of falls will be analyzed using a Poisson mixed model. A logistic mixed model will be used to analyze the number of residents who fall during the study period. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. Discussion: This study addresses a significant shortcoming in aged care research, and has potential to impact upon a substantial health care problem. Outcomes will be used to inform care providers, and guide health care policies.
Goodall, S. & Church, J. 2014, 'Cost-Effectiveness of Colonic Stents for the Management of Malignant Large Bowel Obstruction.', Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, vol. 17, no. 7, p. A630.
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Parkinson, B.T., Goodall, S. & Thavaneswaran, P. 2013, 'The cost-effectiveness of lumbar artificial intervertebral disc replacement: driven by the choice of comparator', Anz Journal Of Surgery, vol. 83, no. 9, pp. 669-675.
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BACKGROUND: Lower back pain is a common and costly condition in Australia. This paper aims to conduct an economic evaluation of lumbar artificial intervertebral disc replacement (AIDR) compared with lumbar fusion for the treatment of patients suffering from significant axial back pain and/or radicular (nerve root) pain, secondary to disc degeneration or prolapse, who have failed conservative treatment. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness approach was used to compare costs and benefits of AIDR to five fusion approaches. Resource use was based on Medicare Benefits Schedule claims data and expert opinion. Effectiveness and re-operation rates were based on published randomized controlled trials. The key clinical outcomes considered were narcotic medication discontinuation, achievement of overall clinical success, achievement of Oswestry Disability Index success and quality-adjusted life-years gained. RESULTS: AIDR was estimated to be cost-saving compared with fusion overall ($1600/patient); however, anterior lumbar interbody fusion and posterolateral fusion were less costly by $2155 and $807, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness depends on the outcome considered and the comparator. CONCLUSIONS: AIDR is potentially a cost-saving treatment for lumbar disc degeneration, although longer-term follow-up data are required to substantiate this claim. The incremental cost-effectiveness depends on the outcome considered and the comparator, and further research is required before any firm conclusions can be drawn.
Norman, R., Church, J., Van den Berg, B. & Goodall, S. 2013, 'Australian health-related quality of life population norms derived from the SF-6D', Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 17-23.
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Objective: To investigate population health-related quality of life norms in an Australian general sample by age, gender, BMI, education and socioeconomic status. Method: The SF-36 was included in the 2009/10 wave of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey (n=17,630 individuals across 7,234 households), and converted into SF-6D utility scores. Trends across the various population subgroups were investigated employing population weights to ensure a balanced panel, and were all sub-stratified by gender. Results: SF-6D scores decline with age beyond 40 years, with decreasing education and by higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. Scores were also lower at very low and very high BMI levels. Males reported higher SF-6D scores than females across most analyses. Conclusions: This study reports Australian population utility data measured using the SF-6D, based on a national representative sample. These results can be used in a range of policy settings such as cost-utility analysis or exploration of health-related inequality. In general, the patterns are similar to those reported using other multi-attribute utility instruments and in different countries.
Rabovskaja, V., Parkinson, B.T. & Goodall, S. 2013, 'The cost-effectiveness of mandatory folic acid fortification in Australia', The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 59-66.
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The Australian government recently introduced mandatory folic acid fortification of bread to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). The economic evaluation of this policy contained a number of limitations. This study aimed to address the limitations and to reconsider the findings. Cost-effectiveness analysis was used to assess the cost and benefits of mandatory versus voluntary folic acid fortification. Outcomes measures were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), life-years gained (LYG), avoided NTD cases, and additional severe neuropathy cases. Costs considered included industry costs and regulatory costs to the government. It was estimated that mandatory fortification would prevent 31 NTDs, whereas an additional 14 cases of severe neuropathy would be incurred. Overall, 539 LYG and 503 QALYs would be gained per year of mandatory compared with voluntary fortification. Mandatory fortification was cost-effective at A$10,723 per LYG and at A$11,485 per QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that at A$60,000 and A$151,000 per QALY, the probability that mandatory fortification was the most cost-effective strategy was 79% and 85%, respectively. Threshold analysis of loss of consumer choice indicated that with a compensation value above A$1.21 [assuming a willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of A$60,000 per QALY] or A$3.19 (assuming a WTP threshold of A$151,000 per statistical life-year) per capita per year mandatory fortification would not be cost-effective. Mandatory fortification was found to be cost-effective; however, inclusion of the loss of consumer choice can change this result. Even with mandatory fortification, mean folate intake will remain below the recommended NTD preventive level.
Parkinson, B.T., Goodall, S. & Norman, R. 2013, 'Measuring the loss of consumer choice in mandatory health programs using discrete choice experiments', Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 139-150.
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BACKGROUND: Economic evaluation of mandatory health programmes generally do not consider the utility impact of a loss of consumer choice upon implementation, despite evidence suggesting that consumers do value having the ability to choose. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to explore whether the utility impact of a loss of consumer choice from implementing mandatory health programmes can be measured using discrete choice experiments (DCEs). RESULTS: Responses were provided by 535 participants (a response rate of 83 %). For the influenza vaccination and folate fortification programmes, the results suggested that some level of compensation may be required for introducing the programme on a mandatory basis. Introducing a mandatory influenza vaccination programme required the highest compensation (Australian dollars [A$] 112.75, 95 % CI -60.89 to 286.39) compared with folate fortification (A$18.05, 95 % CI -3.71 to 39.80). No compensation was required for introducing the trans-fats programme (-A$0.22, 95 % CI -6.24 to 5.80) [year 2010 values]. In addition to the type of mandatory health programme, the compensation required was also found to be dependent on a number of other factors. In particular, the study found an association between the compensation required and stronger libertarian preferences. CONCLUSIONS: DCEs can be used to measure the utility impact of a loss of consumer choice. Excluding the utility impact of a loss of consumer choice from an economic evaluation taking a societal perspective may result in a sub-optimal, or incorrect, funding decision.
Cronin, P.A., Goodall, S., Lockett, T., O'Keefe, C., Norman, R. & Church, J. 2013, 'Cost-effectiveness of an advance notification letter to increase colorectal cancer screening', International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 261-268.
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Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a patient-direct mailed advance notification letter on participants of a National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) in Australia, which was launched in August 2006 and offers free fecal occult blood testing to all Australians turning 50, 55, or 65 years of age in any given year. Methods: This study followed a hypothetical cohort of 50-year-old, 55-year-old, and 65-year-old patients undergoing fecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening through a decision analytic Markov model. The intervention compared two strategies: (i) advance letter, NBCSP, and FOBT compared with (ii) NBCSP and FOBT. The main outcome measures were life-years gained (LYG), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Results: An advance notification screening letter would yield an additional 54 per 100,000 colorectal cancer deaths avoided compared with no letter. The estimated cost-effectiveness was $3,976 per LYG and $6,976 per QALY gained. Conclusions: An advance notification letter in the NBCSP may have a significant impact on LYG and cancer deaths avoided. It is cost-effective and offers a feasible strategy that could be rolled out across other screening program at an acceptable cost.
Hewitt, J., Refshauge, K., Goodall, S., Henwood, T. & Clemson, L. 2013, 'Falls prevention research in Residential Aged Care is itself tripped up by medical clearance issues', Australian Journal of Ageing, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 247-247.
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McCluskey, A., Ada, L., Middleton, S., Kelly, P., Goodall, S., Grimshaw, J., Logan, P., Longworth, M. & Karageorge, A. 2013, 'Improving Quality Of Life By Increasing Outings After Stroke: Study Protocol For The Out-and-about Trial', International Journal of Stroke, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 54-58.
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Rationale Almost one-third of Australians need help to travel outdoors after a stroke. Ambulation training and escorted outings are recommended as best practice in Australian clinical guidelines for stroke. Yet fewer than 20% of people with stroke receiv
Church, J., Goodall, S., Norman, R. & Haas, M.R. 2012, 'The cost-effectiveness of falls prevention interventions for older community-dwelling Australians', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 241-248.
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Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of strategies designed to prevent falls among older people. Methods: A decision analytic Markov model of interventions designed to prevent falls was developed. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) using quality adjusted life year (QALYs) as the measure, were calculated for those interventions aimed at the general population (home exercise, group exercise, tai chi, multiple and multi-factorial interventions); high-risk populations (group exercise, home hazard assessment/modification and multi-factorial interventions); and specific populations (cardiac pacing, expedited cataract surgery and psychotropic medication withdrawal). Uncertainty was explored using univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Conclusion: In the general population, compared with no intervention the ICERs were tai chi ($44,205), group-based exercise ($70,834), multiple interventions ($72,306), home exercise ($93,432), multifactorial interventions with only referral ($125,868) and multifactorial interventions with an active component ($165,841). The interventions were ranked by cost in order to exclude dominated interventions (more costly, less effective) and extendedly dominated interventions (where an intervention is more costly and less effective than a combination of two other interventions). Tai chi remained the only cost-effective intervention for the general population. Implications: Interventions designed to prevent falls in older adults living in the community can be cost-effective. However, there is uncertainty around some of the model parameters which require further investigation.
Goodall, S., King, M.T., Ewing, J.E., Smith, N.F. & Kenny, P.M. 2012, 'Preferences for support services among adolescents and young adults with cancer or a blood disorder: A discrete choice experiment', Health Policy, vol. 107, no. 2-3, pp. 304-311.
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Life-threatening illnesses in young people are traumatic for patients and their families. Support services can help patients and families deal with various non-medical impacts of diagnosis, disease and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine which types of support are most valued by adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer or blood disorders and their families. Method: A discrete choice experiment (DCE). Separate experiments were conducted with AYA and their carers. Results: Completed surveys were returned by 83 patients and 78 carers. AYA preferred emotional support for themselves (either by counsellors and/or peers), emotional support for their family, financial support and assistance returning to school/work over services relating to cultural and spiritual needs. Covariate analysis indicated female AYA were more likely than males to prefer emotional support, while males were more likely to prefer assistance returning to work/school. Carers preferred emotional support for their AYA and assistance returning to school/work. Like AYA, they were indifferent about services relating to cultural and spiritual needs. Conclusion: Providing the types of support services that people prefer should maximise effectiveness. This study suggests that AYA patients require support services that included financial aid, assistance returning to work/study, emotional support for themselves and for their family.
McCluskey, A., Ada, L., Middleton, S., Grimshaw, J., Goodall, S., Kelly, P., Logan, P., Longworth, M. & Karageorge, A. 2012, 'A profile of non-inpatient rehabilitation services in NSW: Variations in waiting times, frequency and nature of therapy', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STROKE, vol. 7, pp. 22-22.
Parkinson, B.T. & Goodall, S. 2011, 'Considering consumer choice in the economic evaluation of mandatory health programmes: A review', Health Policy, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 236-244.
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Objective Governments are increasing their focus on mandatory public health programmes following positive economic evaluations of their impact. This review aims to examine whether loss of consumer choice should be included in economic evaluations of mandatory health programmes (MHP). Method A systematic literature review was conducted to identify economic evaluations of MHP, whether they discuss the impact on consumer choice and any methodological limitations. Results Overall 39 economic evaluations were identified, of which 10 discussed the loss of consumer choice and 6 attempted to place a value on the loss of consumer choice. Methodological limitations included: measuring the marginal cost of compliance, unavailability of price elasticity estimates, the impact of income effects, double counting health impacts, biased willingness-to-pay responses, and ½protest½ responses. Overall it was found that the inclusion of the loss of consumer choice rarely impacted on the final outcome of the study. Conclusion The impact of MHP on the loss of consumer choice has largely been ignored in economic evaluations. Its importance remains uncertain due to its infrequent inclusion and significant methodological limitations. Further research regarding which methodology is best for valuing the loss of consumer choice and whether it is important to the final implementation decision is warranted.
Gallego, G., Casey, R., Goodall, S. & Norman, R. 2011, 'Introduction and uptake of new medical technologies in the Australian health care system: a qualitative study', Health Policy, vol. 102, no. 2-3, pp. 152-158.
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Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the views and perceptions of stakeholders about the current national health technology assessment process conducted by the Medical Services Advisory Committee (MSAC) and its role in the uptake and diffusion of new medical technologies in Australia. Methods: Data collection occurred over a nine month period (August 2008April 2009). Twenty in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals from four stakeholders groups: (i) MSAC members and evaluators, (ii) academic and health technology assessment experts, (iii) medical industry representatives and (iv) medical specialists. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded using a constant comparative method.
Church, J., Goodall, S., Norman, R. & Haas, M.R. 2011, 'An economic evaluation of community and residential aged care falls prevention strategies in NSW', NSW Public Health Bulletin, vol. 22, no. 3-4, pp. 60-68.
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Aim: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of strategies designed to prevent falls amongst people aged 65 years and over living in the community and in residential aged-care facilities. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was conducted. The pooled fall rate ratio was used in a decision analytic model that combined a Markov model and decision tree to estimate the costs and outcomes of potential interventions and/or strategies. The resulting cost per quality-adjusted life year was estimated. Results: The most cost-effective falls prevention strategy in community-dwelling older people was Tai Chi. Expedited cataract surgery and psychotropic medication withdrawal were also found to be cost-effective; however, the effectiveness of these interventions is less certain due to small numbers of trials and participants. The most costeffective falls prevention strategies in residential aged-care facilities were medication review and vitamin D supplementation.
Gallego, G., Goodall, S. & Eastman, C. 2010, 'Iodine deficiency in Australia: is iodine supplementation for pregnant and lactating women warranted?', Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 192, no. 8, pp. 461-463.
Recent research has confirmed that Australian children and pregnant women are mildly iodine deficient. A considerable proportion of the pregnant population is moderately to severely iodine deficient.
Gallego, G., Goodall, S. & Eastman, C. 2010, 'Iodine deficiency in Australia: is iodine supplementation for pregnant and lactating women warranted? [Response Letter]', Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 193, no. 5, pp. 310-311.
Anderson, W.P., Zhou, S.J., Skeaff, S.A., Ryan, P., Makrides, M., Gallego, G., Goodall, S. & Eastman, C.J. 2010, 'Iodine deficiency in Australia: is iodine supplementation for pregnant and lactating women warranted? Comment.', The Medical journal of Australia, vol. 193, no. 5, p. 309.
Sampson, F., Pickin, M., O'Cathain, A., Goodall, S. & Salisbury, C. 2008, 'The impact of same day appointments on patient satisfaction with appointment systems', British Journal of General Practice, vol. 58, no. 554, pp. 641-643.
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Following recent concerns about patients' inability to book appointments in advance, this study examined the relationship between the proportion of GP appointments reserved for same-day booking, and patient satisfaction with appointment systems. In a survey of 12 825 patients in 47 practices, it was found that a 10% increase in the proportion of same-day appointments was associated with an 8% reduction in the proportion of patients satisfied. Practices should be wary of increasing the level of same-day appointments to meet access targets.
Salisbury, C., Montgomery, A., Simons, L., Sampson, F., Edwards, S., Baxter, H., Goodall, S., Smith, H., Lattimer, V. & Pickin, M. 2007, 'Impact of Advanced Access on access, workload and continuity: Controlled before-and-after study and simulated patient study', British Journal of General Practice, vol. 57, no. 541, pp. 608-614.
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BACKGROUND: Case studies from the US suggest that Advanced Access appointment systems lead to shorter delays for appointments, reduced workload, and increased continuity of care. AIM: To determine whether implementation of Advanced Access in general practice is associated with the above benefits in the UK. DESIGN OF STUDY: Controlled before-and-after and simulated-patient study. SETTING: Twenty-four practices that had implemented Advanced Access and 24 that had not. METHOD: Anonymous telephone calls were made monthly to request an appointment. Numbers of appointments and patients consulting were calculated from practice records. Continuity was determined from anonymised patient records. RESULTS: The wait for an appointment with any doctor was slightly shorter at Advanced Access practices than control practices (mean 1.00 day and 1.87 days respectively, adjusted difference -0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.51 to 0.004 days). Advanced Access practices met the NHS Plan 48-hour access target on 71% of occasions and control practices on 60% of occasions (adjusted odds ratio 1.61; 95% CI = 0.78 to 3.31; P = 0.200). The number of appointments offered, and patients seen, increased at both Advanced Access and control practices over the period studied, with no evidence of differences between them. There was no difference between Advanced Access and control practices in continuity of care (adjusted difference 0.003; 95% CI = -0.07 to 0.07). CONCLUSION: Advanced Access practices provided slightly shorter waits for an appointment compared with control practices, but performance against NHS access targets was considerably poorer than officially reported for both types of practice. Advanced Access practices did not have reduced workload or increased continuity of care.
Salisbury, C., Goodall, S., Montgomery, A., Pickin, M., Sampson, F., Edwards, S., Simons, L. & Lattimer, V. 2007, 'Does Advanced Access improve access to primary health care? Questionnaire survey of patients', British Journal of General Practice, vol. 57, no. 541, pp. 615-621.
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Background: General practices in England have been encouraged to introduce Advanced Access, but there is no robust evidence that this is associated with improved access in ways that matter to patients. Aim: To compare priorities and experiences of patients consulting in practices which do or do not operate Advanced Access. Design of study: Patient questionnaire survey. Setting: Forty-seven practices in 12 primary care trust areas of England. Method: Questionnaire administered when patients consulted. Results: Of 12 825 eligible patients, 10 821 (84%) responded. Most (70%) were consulting about a problem they had had for at least 'a few weeks'. Patients obtained their current appointment sooner in Advanced Access practices, but were less likely to have been able to book in advance. They could usually see a doctor more quickly than those in control practices, but were no more satisfied overall with the appointment system. The top priority for patients was to be seen on a day of choice rather than to be seen quickly, but different patient groups had different priorities. Patients in Advanced Access practices were no more or less likely to obtain an appointment that matched their priorities than those in control practices. Patients in both types of practice experienced problems making contact by telephone.
Goodall, S., Montgomery, A., Banks, J., Sampson, F., Pickin, M. & Salisbury, C. 2006, 'Implementation of advanced access in general practice: postal survey of practices', British Journal of General Practice, vol. 56, no. 533, pp. 918-923.
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Advanced Access has been strongly promoted as a means of improving access to general practice. Key principles include measuring demand, matching capacity to demand, managing demand in different ways and having contingency plans. Although not advocated by Advanced Access, some practices have also restricted availability of pre-booked appointments.
Goodall, S., Chalder, M. & Salisbury, C. 2004, 'Bureaucracy of Research Governance - Response to Ward DS "Bureaucracy of ethics applications"', British Medical Journal, vol. 329, no. 7460, pp. 282-284.
Goodall, S., Porter, K.E., Bell, P.F. & Thompson, M.M. 2002, 'Enhanced invasive properties exhibited by smooth muscle cells are associated with elevated production of MMP-2 in patients with aortic aneurysms', European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 72-80.
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Background: abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are associated with excessive vascular matrix remodelling. Recent findings suggest a systemic overproduction of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) by vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) may be pivotal aetiologically. SMC migration is facilitated by MMP mediated proteolysis of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix. Our aim was to see if enhanced MMP-2 production by these SMC exhibit increased invasion, in an in vitro model of migration. Method: SMC were derived from inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) harvested from patients undergoing aneurysm repair (n=6) or colectomy for diverticulosis (n=6, control). Using a modified Boyden chamber chemotaxis was measured towards platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and foetal calf serum (FCS) and invasion through a Matrigel layer. MMP-2 production was quantified by ELISA and gelatin zymography.
Goodall, S., Crowther, M., Bell, P.R. & Thompson, M.M. 2002, 'The association between venous structural alterations and biomechanical weakness in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms', Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 937-942.
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Objective: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are associated with generalized arterial dilation, torturosity, and altered matrix composition, which suggests a generalized systemic weakness throughout the entire vasculature. The aim of this study was to determine whether this phenomenon was present in the venous tissue of patients with AAA. Methods: A segment of inferior mesenteric vein was harvested from patients who underwent aneurysm repair (n = 11) or colectomy for diverticulosis (n = 11; control). Matrix composition of the vessel was determined with stereology, and dimensions were measured with a computerized image analysis system. Stress-strain measurements were calculated with elongation of inferior mesenteric vein tissue with a tensile-testing machine. Results: Histologic examination results showed fragmentation of elastin fibers within the medial layer of venous tissue obtained from patients with AAA. The medial elastin content in tissue from patients with aneurysms was 19.4%, compared with 26.8% in the control group (P = .018). Mechanical test results revealed a significant reduction in the tensile strength from 2.885 MPa in the control group to 1.405 MPa in the AAA group (P = .007). This reduction corresponded with a significant reduction of 59% in the stiffness of the vessel, with the mean Young's modulus of elasticity in the AAA group being 2.72 MPa, compared with 5.361 MPa in the control group (P = .0005). Conclusion: Reduction in tensile strength and stiffness in venous tissue from patients with AAA was associated with disruption and reduction of the elastin content of the vein wall. These changes are analogous to those observed in the arterial aneurysmal wall and confirm the systemic nature of this disorder.
Axisa, A., Loftus, I., Naylor, A., Goodall, S., Jones, L., Bell, P.F. & Thompson, M.M. 2002, 'Prospective, randomised, double-blind trial investigating the effect of doxycycline on matrix metalloproteinase expression within atherosclerotic carotid plaques', Stroke, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2858-2864.
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Background and PurposeElevated levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly MMP-1 and MMP-9, have been implicated in plaque rupture. It has been suggested that inhibition of MMPs may stabilize vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques and improve clinical outcome. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of doxycycline, a nonspecific MMP inhibitor, to reduce MMP concentration in carotid atheroma. MethodsThe study design was a prospective, double-blind randomized trial. One hundred patients requiring carotid endarterectomy were randomized to receive 200 mg/d doxycycline or placebo for 2 to 8 weeks before surgery. During endarterectomy, carotid plaques were retrieved. The concentrations of MMPs and doxycycline were determined in the atherosclerotic tissue by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Clinical events were recorded, as was the rate of preoperative embolization (transcranial Doppler).
Goodall, S., Crowther, M., Bell, P.F. & Thompson, M.M. 2001, 'Ubiquitous elevated expression of MMP-2 in the vasculature of patients with aortic aneurysms', Circulation (Baltimore), vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 304-309.
Goodall, S., Crowther, M., Hemingway, D.M., Bell, P.R. & Thompson, M.M. 2001, 'Ubiquitous elevation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression in the vasculature of patients with abdominal aneurysms.', Circulation, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 304-309.
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BACKGROUND: Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) exhibit arterial dilation and altered matrix composition throughout the vasculature. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is the dominant elastase in small AAAs, and overexpression of MMP-2 in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) may be a primary etiological event in aneurysm genesis. The aim of this study was to investigate MMP-2 production in vascular tissue remote from the abdominal aorta. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) was harvested from patients undergoing aneurysm repair (n=21) or colectomy for diverticular disease (n=13, control). Matrix composition of the vessels was determined by stereological techniques. MMPs were extracted from tissue homogenates and quantified by gelatin zymography and ELISA. MMP-2, membrane type-1 MMP (MT1-MMP), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases type 2 (TIMP-2) expression were determined by Northern analysis. SMCs were isolated from IMV, and the production and expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in the SMC lines were quantified. Tissue homogenates and isolated inferior mesenteric SMCs from patients with aneurysms demonstrated significantly elevated MMP-2 levels, with no difference in TIMP-2 or MT1-MMP. These differences were a result of increased MMP-2 expression. Histological examination revealed fragmentation of elastin fibers within venous tissue obtained from patients with AAA and a significant depletion of the elastin within the media. In situ zymography localized elastolysis to medial SMCs. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AAA have elevated MMP-2 levels in the vasculature remote from the aorta. This finding is due to increased MMP-2 expression from SMCs, a characteristic maintained in tissue culture. These data support both the systemic nature of aneurysmal disease and a primary role of MMP-2 in aneurysm formation.
Crowther, M., Goodall, S., Jones, J., Bell, P.F. & Thompson, M.M. 2000, 'Increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured from abdominal aortic aneurysms', Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 32, pp. 575-583.
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Crowther, M., Goodall, S., Jones, J., Bell, P.F. & Thompson, M.M. 2000, 'Localization of matrix metalloproteinase 2 within the aneurysmal and normal aortic wall', British Journal of Surgery, vol. 87, pp. 1391-1400.
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Loftus, I., Naylor, A., Goodall, S., Crowther, M., Jones, L., Bell, P.F. & Thompson, M.M. 2000, 'Increased MMP-9 activity in unstable carotid plaques: A potential role in acute plaque disruption', Stroke, vol. 31, pp. 40-47.
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Boyle, J., Goodall, S., Thompson, J., Bell, P.F. & Thompson, M.M. 2000, 'Endovascular AAA repair attenuates the inflammatory and renal responses associated with conventional surgery', Journal of Endovascular Therapy, vol. 7, pp. 359-371.
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Loftus, I.M., Naylor, A.R., Goodall, S., Crowther, M., Jones, L., Bell, P.R. & Thompson, M.M. 2000, 'Increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in unstable carotid plaques. A potential role in acute plaque disruption.', Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 40-47.
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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute disruption of atherosclerotic plaques precedes the onset of clinical syndromes, and studies have implicated a role for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process. The aim of this study was to establish the character, level, and expression of MMPs in carotid plaques and to correlate this with clinical status, cerebral embolization, and histology. METHODS: Plaques were obtained from 75 consecutive patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy and divided into 4 groups according to symptomatology (group 1, asymptomatic; group 2, symptomatic >6 months before surgery; group 3, symptomatic within 1 to 6 months; group 4, symptomatic within 1 month). All patients underwent preoperative and intraoperative transcranial Doppler monitoring. Plaques were subjected to histological examination and quantification of MMPs by zymography and ELISA. RESULTS: The level of MMP-9 was significantly higher in group 4 (median 125.7 ng/mL for group 4, median <32 ng/mL for all other groups; P=0.003), with no difference in the levels of MMPs 1, 2, or 3. Furthermore, the MMP-9 concentration was significantly higher in plaques undergoing spontaneous embolization (P=0.019) and those with histological evidence of plaque instability (P<0.03). In situ hybridization demonstrated increased MMP-9 expression in highly symptomatic plaques in areas of intense inflammatory infiltrate. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration, production, and expression of MMP-9 is significantly higher in unstable carotid plaques. If this proves to be a causal relationship, MMP-9 may be a strong candidate for pharmacotherapy aimed at stabilizing plaques and preventing stroke.
Treharne, G., Boyle, J., Loftus, I., Goodall, S., Bell, P.F. & Thompson, M.M. 1999, 'Marimastat inhibits elastin degradation and matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity in a model of aneurysm disease', British Journal of Surgery, vol. 86, pp. 1053-1058.
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Thompson, M.M., Boyle, J., Crowther, M., Goodall, S., Wills, A., Loftus, I. & Bell, P.F. 1999, 'Therapeutic options in small abdominal aneurysms: The role of in vitro studies', Annalsof the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 0, pp. 878-878.
Simpson, R., Hemingway, D., Crowther, M., Goodall, S. & Thompson, M.M. 1999, 'The gelatinases, their activators and inhibitors in the progression of colorectal cancer', Colorectal Disease, vol. 1, pp. 248-255.
Loftus, I., Goodall, S., Crowther, M., Jones, L., Bell, P.F., Naylor, A. & Thompson, M.M. 1999, 'Increased MMP-9 activity in acute carotid plaques: Therapeutic avenues to prevent stroke', Annalsof the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 0, pp. 878-878.
Thompson, M.M., Boyle, J.R., Crowther, M., Goodall, S., Wills, A., Loftus, I.M. & Bell, P.R. 1999, 'Therapeutic options in small abdominal aneurysms: the role of in vitro studies.', Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 878, pp. 724-727.
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Loftus, I.M., Goodall, S., Crowther, M., Jones, L., Bell, P.R., Naylor, A.R. & Thompson, M.M. 1999, 'Increased MMP-9 activity in acute carotid plaques: therapeutic avenues to prevent stroke.', Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 878, pp. 551-554.
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Boyle, J., Loftus, I., Goodall, S., Crowther, M., Bell, P.F. & Thompson, M.M. 1998, 'Calcium antagonists accelerate elastin degradation in a model of aneurysmal disease', British Journal of Surgery, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 685-685.
Boyle, J., Loftus, I., Goodall, S., Crowther, M., Bell, P.F. & Thompson, M.M. 1998, 'Amlodipine potentiates metalloproteinase activity and accelerates elastin degradation in a model of aneurysmal disease', European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 16, pp. 408-414.
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Thompson, M.M., Smith, J., Naylor, A., Nasim, A., Goodall, S., Evans, D. & Bell, P.F. 1997, 'Ultrasound-based quantification of emboli during conventional and endovascular aneurysm repair', Journal of Endovascular Surgery, vol. 4, pp. 33-38.
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Other

Parkinson, B.T., Goodall, S. & Norman, R. 2012, 'Measuring the loss of consumer choice in mandatory health programs using Discrete Choice Experiments. CHERE Working Paper 2012/04'.
Goodall, S., Haas, M.R., Viney, R.C. & Ward, J. 2010, 'General Practitioners knowledge, views and practices regarding cervical cancer screening in Australia. CHERE Working Paper 2010/6'.
Haas, M.R., Hall, J.P., Viney, R.C., Gallego, G., Goodall, S., Norman, R. & Van Gool, K. 2008, 'A model for best practice HTA, CHERE Working Paper 2008/1'.
Bird, A., Norman, R. & Goodall, S. 2007, 'Economic Evaluation of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), CHERE Working Paper 2007/6', CHERE Working Paper.
Haas, M., Hall, J., Viney, R., Gallego, G., Goodall, S., Norman, R. & van Gool, K., 'A model for best practice HTA'.
The aims of this paper are: to review and describe different approaches to HTA used in Australia and in other countries and to identify the features of best practice in HTA, particularly those likely to be most relevant to HTA at a local (ie state/regional) level. There are a number of well-developed models of HTA at the national and local levels. Most information about the operation of these models, particularly about the type and number of evaluations conducted, the recommendations/decisions made and the reasons for these is available for national processes, but there is much less readily available documentation about local level HTA. Most HTA processes that operate nationally and internationally can be categorised in one of three ways: guidance (provides structured information about appropriate technologies), mandatory (provides mandatory information about technologies to be implemented) and funding and implementation (provides structured evidence-based advice about which technologies should be implemented, the level of funding required to implement them and the source of these funds). The main factors which distinguish a high quality HTA process are that i) it is efficient in terms of setting priorities, the scope of the technologies to be assessed, avoidance of duplication and overall cost of the process, ii) the overall impact on utilisation and health budget is calculated as part of the HTA and iii) procedural justice occurs and is seen to occur; iv) it includes a comprehensive assessment of the impact on issues such as workforce, credentialing of providers and the ethical dimension of the technology; v) it influences decision making by being communicated appropriately and using trusted methods; vi) it influences adoption and diffusion of technology by ensuring that there is no diffusion prior to HTA, the results are incorporated into guidelines or recommendations, funding is linked to the decision, and remuneration arrangements and other characteristics o...
Goodall, S. & Scott, A., 'Is Hospital Treatment in Australia Inequitable? Evidence from the HILDA Survey'.
The pursuit of equity is a key objective of many health care systems, including Australia's Medicare. Using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, we measured the extent of inequity in the utilisation of hospital services. We used methodology developed by the ECuity project for measuring horizontal inequity indices. We examine income-related health care inequities in both inpatient and day patient access and utilisation, whilst controlling for morbidity, demographic and socio-economic variables. The probability of hospital inpatient admission appeared equitable, but the probability of a day patient visit demonstrated a pro-rich distribution. Even more pronounced were the findings on the quantity of visits. The positive horizontal inequality indices indicate a degree of inequity favouring the rich, especially for inpatient utilisation. The pro-rich distribution of the probability of a day patient visit was associated with whether individuals held private health insurance. These results suggest that in Australia, which has a universal and comprehensive health system, the rich and poor are not treated equally according to need. Further research should investigate whether the causes of inequities lie in the preferences of individuals or the preferences of health care providers.

Reports

Goodall, S., Kenny, P., Mu, C., Hall, J.P., Norman, R., Cumming, J., Street, D., Greene, J. & REFinE Team Australian National University 2016, REFinE-PHC: Preferences and choice in primary care Consumers and providers, Canberra.
Church, J., Goodall, S., Norman, R. & Haas, M.R. NSW Ministry of Health 2011, An economic evaluation of community and residential aged care falls prevention strategies in NSW, Sydney.
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Goodall, S. & Cameron, A. Medicare Services Advisory Committee 2011, Matrix-induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (MACI) and Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI): MSAC Application 1140, pp. 1-121.
Cronin, P.A., Goodall, S., Cameron, A. & Hoggan, B. MSAC 2011, Review of interim funded services - Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment (HBOT) for the treatment of chronic non-diabetic wounds and non-neurological soft tissue radiation injuries. MSAC Reference 1054.1, Canberra.
Parkinson, B.T., Goodall, S. & Cameron, A. MSAC 2011, Review of interim funded services: Artificial Intervertebral Disc Replacement - Lumbar: MSAC Reference 1090.1, Canberra.
Parkinson, B.T., Goodall, S. & Cameron, A. MSAC 2011, Artificial intervertebral disc replacement in patients with cervical degenerative disc disease. MSAC Application 1145, Canberra.
Cronin, P.A., Goodall, S., Norman, R., Church, J. & Gallego, G. CHERE University of Technology, Sydney 2010, The impact of improving screening participation rate on bowel screening for colorectal cancer: Final report part A, Sydney.
Cronin, P.A., Goodall, S., Norman, R. & Church, J. CHERE University of Technology, Sydney 2010, The impact of a new bowel cancer screening test on detection of colorectal cancer: Part B Replacing FOBT with new test, Sydney.
Cronin, P.A., Goodall, S., Norman, R. & Church, J. CHERE University of Technology, Sydney 2010, The impact of a new bowel cancer screening test on detection of colorectal cancer: Part B2 FOBT + New screening test in a triage model.
Gurgacz, S., Church, J., Cameron, A. & Goodall, S. MSAC 2010, Radiofrequency Ablation for Barrett's Oesophagus with Dysplasia: MSAC Application 1143, pp. 1-85, Canberra.
Church, J., Goodall, S. & Cameron, A. MSAC 2010, Middle ear implant for sensorineural, conductive and mixed hearing losses: MSAC Application 1137, pp. 1-194.
Goodall, S. & Cameron, A. MSAC 2010, Computer-navigated total knee arthroplasty: Application 1123, pp. 1-137, Canberra.
Norman, R., Goodall, S. & Cameron, A. MSAC 2010, Second Generation Contrast Agents for Use in Patients with Suboptimal Echocardiograms: MSAC Application 1129, pp. 1-137.
Goodall, S., Norman, R. & Haas, M.R. NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research 2008, The costs of NSW Drug Court, Crime and Justice Bulletin, pp. 1-35, Sydney, Australia.
In 2001, the Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research (BOCSAR) and the Centre for Health Economics Research and Evaluation (CHERE) undertook an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of the NSW Drug Court. In the intervening years, a number of changes have been made to the system, and the role the Drug Court undertakes has changed as the population it serves has changed. The aim of this report is to estimate the cost of these changes to the NSW Drug Court.
Goodall, S. & Scott, A. Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne 2008, Is Hospital Treatment in Australia Inequitable? Evidence from the HILDA Survey Melbourne Institute Working Paper 5/08, pp. 1-36, Melbourne, Australia.
The pursuit of equity is a key objective of many health care systems, including Australia&acirc;s Medicare. Using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, we measured the extent of inequity in the utilisation of hospital services. We used methodology developed by the ECuity project for measuring horizontal inequity indices. We examine income-related health care inequities in both inpatient and day patient access and utilisation, whilst controlling for morbidity, demographic and socio-economic variables. The probability of hospital inpatient admission appeared equitable, but the probability of a day patient visit demonstrated a pro-rich distribution. Even more pronounced were the findings on the quantity of visits. The positive horizontal inequality indices indicate a degree of inequity favouring the rich, especially for inpatient utilisation. The pro-rich distribution of the probability of a day patient visit was associated with whether individuals held private health insurance. These results suggest that in Australia, which has a universal and comprehensive health system, the rich and poor are not treated equally according to need. Further research should investigate whether the causes of inequities lie in the preferences of individuals or the preferences of health care providers.
Haas, M.R., Hall, J.P., Gallego, G., Goodall, S., Norman, R., Van Gool, K. & Viney, R.C. CHERE, University of Technology, Sydney 2008, Development of an evaluation framework and methodology for national blood supply change proposals: Final report, pp. 1-105, Sydney.
Haas, M.R., Hall, J.P., Gallego, G., Goodall, S., Norman, R., Van Gool, K. & Viney, R.C. CHERE, University of Technology, Sydney 2008, Framework and methodology for national blood supply change proposals: Part 2, pp. 1-33, Sydney.
Gallego, G., Goodall, S. & Cameron, A. MSAC 2008, Sacral nerve stimulation for urinary indications: Application 1115, pp. 1-120, Canberra.
Goodall, S. & Cameron, A. MSAC 2008, Endovenous laser therapy for varicose veins: Application 1113, pp. 1-124, Canberra.
Norman, R., Goodall, S. & Cameron, A. MSAC 2008, Deep brain stimulation for essential tremor and dystonia: Application 1109, pp. 1-190, Canberra.
Goodall, S. & Cameron, A. MSAC 2008, Endoscopic argon plasma coagulation of gastrointestinal bleeding and oesophageal stents: Application 1106, pp. 1-184, Canberra.
Goodall, S., Norman, R. & Gallego, G. CHERE 2007, Cost-effectiveness analysis of alternate strategies to address iodine deficiency in Australia, CHERE Project Report for the Department of Health and Ageing, Australian Government, pp. 1-99, Sydney.
Salisbury, C., Banks, J. & Goodall, S. NHS 2006, Evaluation of Advanced Access in General Practice. NHS Service Delivery and Organisation Research and Development Programme Report, London.