Darcy, S.A. 2013, 'Sydney for All' in Cooper, I. (ed), The World Leisure International Innovation Prize-Winning Projects 2006-2012, World Leisure Organisation, USA, pp. 97-103.
Sydney for All is the outcome of a visitor accessibility and destination managen1ent project that sought to create accessible destination experiences for those with access needs, People with access needs arc part of all tourism markets including seniors and people with disabilities who have been defined as the "accessible tourism market." It is recognized in the literature that signiflcant barriers constrain the tourism experiences of this group. 'l1,e overall approach to developing accessible destination experiences was based on the experience economy and a geographic hierarchy of accessible attractions that sought to provide the market with a "sense of place:' For the accessible destination experiences, a template was developed to address these conceptual ideas, Although the project's basis can be found in the relevant building codes and Australian standards for access and mobility, this project sets itself apart by focusing on accessible destination experiences rather than the individual facilitators of access, Quite simply, what arc the accessible destination experiences that are quintessentially Sydney? The methodology was informed by universal deSign, the experience economy, and the geographies of disability, which sought to understand how people experienced space and place, 'Ille preliminary work involved access/management information systen1 reviews of stakeholders within the precinct area) in-depth interviews with key informants, review of other potential experience providers discovered by the interviews, and further snowballed interviews, Upon completion, a list of possible experiences was identified that haclthe potential to provide tourists with disabilities a sense of the Sydney experience, '1l1C experiences were then access audited and ohserved, and participants were observed to validate their selection,
Darcy, S.A. & Dominguez Vila, T. 2013, 'Australia and Spain as accessible tourism destinations' in Jutila, S. & Ilola, H. (eds), Matkailua kaikille? Nkkulmia matkailun ennakointiin, osa ii (Tourism for all? Insights to tourism, Finnish Network of Tourism Foresight, Finland, pp. 19-25.
Tourism is an activity very important socially and financially for many countries; it has a high priority within governments for economic management (Hall & Wall 1994; Veal 2011). Tourism has become an important sector where nations compete against each other for market share. Many countries are seeking a competitive advantage in international marketing of destinations through the development of specific customer service segments. These new segments are based on a series of socio-demographic and psychographic considerations to differentiate market needs of groups.
Darcy, S.A. & Taylor, T.L. 2013, 'Managing Olympic Venues' in Frawley, S. & Adair, D. (eds), Managing the Olympics, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 99-126.
Olympic sport venues arc the stage upon which Olympic athletes perform and are a critical component for both athletes and spectators at Olympic Games, Venues built or rnodified sp('cifically to host the Olympic Games have become a focus of international media attention in the years leading up to these events for a combination of their design, aesthetic impact, construction time frames, operational logistics, cost and questions regarding longer-term usc and sustainability. Venues are sport specific, rnulti-sport and also include support venues sllch as the athlete village. The venues thal have been able to reflect the local historic cultural context and aspirations of the host nation in their design, such as Barcelona's swimming pool (Piscina Municipal de Montjui'c) with its panoramic views over Barcelona, or Beijing's 'BinI's Nest' National Stadium, have achieved iconic status and represent a strong architectural and cultural signature. This chapter begins by reviewing the history and development of Olympic Games venues and then focuses on the key contemporary issues in managing Olympic venues. In doing so, venue management considerations for bidding and host cities afe outlined. Historical documents from host cities, academic and social critiques of Olympic city venue management and other source documentation provide the basis for these discussions. The chapter first reviews the historical context of venues and Olympic cities before investigating the costs of infrastructure investment. With this background, venue life cycle and Olympic life cycle planning are examined. This is followed by an examination of iconic design that represents the best of what the host city wants to showcase to the world.
Darcy, S.A., Cameron, B. & Schweinsberg, S.C. 2012, 'Accessible Tourism in Australia' in Buhalis, D., Darcy, S. & Ambrose, I. (eds), Best Practice in Accessible Tourism: Inclusion, Disability, Ageing Population and Tourism, Channel View Publications, United Kingdom, pp. 79-113.
Over recent years there has been an increasing body of work on the intersections between disability, ageing and tourism. This research aims to provide a review of the last 30 years of the Australian accessible tourism industry.
Cameron, B. & Darcy, S.A. 2012, 'Wheelchair Travel Guides' in Buhalis, D., Darcy, S. & Ambrose, I. (eds), Best Practice in Accessible Tourism: Inclusion, Disability, Ageing Population and Tourism, Channel View Publications, United Kingdom, pp. 265-284.
This chapter is based on a travel guide which was first published in Australia in 1995, Easy Access Australia-- A Travel Guide to Australia (Cameron, 1995, 2000). Easy Access Australia (EM) reflects an individual's need for accessible information during the planning stage and while travelling. The author is a wheelchair user following a swimming accident in 1976. Travelling in Europe, he met one of the Rough Guide's founders and suggested that an access guide to the UK be written. The Rough Guides did not pick up the idea, but EM was born.
Dickson, T.J. & Darcy, S.A. 2012, 'Australia: The Alpine Accessible Tourism Project and Disabled Winter Sport' in Buhalis, D., Darcy, S. & Ambrose, I. (eds), Best Practice in Accessible Tourism: Inclusion, Disability, Ageing Population and Tourism, Channel View Publications, United Kingdom, pp. 339-364.
This chapter provides an examination of the process and outcomes of a project on Alpine Accessible Tourism (MT) conducted in Australia from 2006 to 2008. The project was unique in that it sought to provide a systematic approach to accessible tourism across all alpine areas in Australia. Alpine areas in Australia are found in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania, each area having its own state and local government jurisdictions as well as separate protected-area management agencies. The project was theoretically informed through social approaches to disability, the geographies of disability, destination management and the experience economy.
Ambrose, I., Darcy, S.A. & Buhalis, D. 2012, 'Conclusions: Best Accessible Tourism Practice' in Buhalis, D., Darcy, S. & Ambrose, I. (eds), Best Practice in Accessible Tourism: Inclusion, Disability, Ageing Population and Tourism, Channel View Publications, United Kingdom, pp. 377-379.
In concluding the book, it is timely to reinforce the themes that have guided the examination of best case accessible tourism practice. They were: (1) Policies and Strategies; (2) Networks and Partnerships; (3) The Accessible Tourism Value Chain; (4) Destination Development; and (5) Accessible Tourism Experiences. While not suggesting a linear progression in the themes, there is no doubt an inherent logic to the way that the themes were sequenced and discussed.
Ambrose, I., Darcy, S.A. & Buhalis, D. 2012, 'Introduction' in Buhalis, D., Darcy, S. & Ambrose, I. (eds), Best Practice in Accessible Tourism: Inclusion, Disability, Ageing Population and Tourism, Channel View Publications, United Kingdom, pp. 1-16.
Accessible tourism is gaining momentum across many different areas and activities within the tourism sector for both its inherent sensibility as a human rights issue and for its growing recognition as an important contribution to the economics of triple bottom line sustainability amid the general recession. This collection of accessible tourism best practice chapters is the companion volume to the first book, Accessible Tourism: Concepts and Issues (Buhalis & Darcy, 2011). While Accessible Tourism: Concepts and Issues sets out to explore and document the current theoretical approaches, foundations and issues in the study of accessible tourism, the focus of this book is on policy and best practice, reflecting the 'state-of -the-art' as expressed in a selection of international study chapters.
Darcy, S.A. & Ravinder, R. 2012, 'Air Travel for People with Disabilities' in Buhalis, D., Darcy, S. & Ambrose, I. (eds), Best Practice in Accessible Tourism: Inclusion, Disability, Ageing Population and Tourism, Channel View Publications, United Kingdom, pp. 207-221.
Darcy, S.A. & Buhalis, D. 2011, 'Introduction: From Disabled Tourists to Accessible Tourism' in Buhalis, D. & Darcy, S. (eds), Accessible Tourism, Channel View Publications, UK, pp. 1-20.
Taylor, T.L., Lock, D.J. & Darcy, S.A. 2011, 'The Janus face of diversity in Australian sport' in Toohey, K. & Taylor, T. (eds), Australian Sport: Antipodean Waves of Change, Routledge, London, pp. 25-39.
In this essay, Janus is used as a metaphor for examining the nature of cultural diversity in Australian sport. It does so by firstly presenting a historical context for sport in Australia and the relative lack of cultural diversity found in sport. Within a country dominated by the running codes of football and cricket, the position of soccer in Australia was somewhat unique as it became a bastion for many non-Anglo migrant groups. However, in the I 980s and 1990s soccer's lack of organizational success at the slate and national level was negatively ascribed to the tensions between the ethnically affiliated clubs. the same clubs that were ironically the stalwarts driving the growing popularity of the sport. We examine the initiatives used to restructure the game in Australia to make football more appealing to mainstream (i.e. non-ethnically aligned) spectators. The contemporary situation is explored through secondary documentation and the results of a survey of 3,056 spectators undertaken during the first season of the new A-League are presented. The essay concludes with a discussion about the relative success of the restructure in terms of changing the face of Australian soccer.
Small, J. & Darcy, S.A. 2011, 'Understanding tourist experience through embodiment: The contribution of critical tourism and disability studies' in Buhalis, D. & Darcy, S. (eds), Accessible Tourism: Concepts and Issues, Channel View Publications, UK, pp. 73-97.
This chapter seeks to understand the tourist experiences of people with disabilities, including the seniors who also constitute the accessible tourism market. Tourism experiences can be viewed through many approaches. The following discussion is situated within the framework of critical theory in tourism studies and critical disability studies theory, both of which focus on ends rather than means, examining social power structures with a commitment to emancipation. The lived experience of the person is the subject matter and within the approaches of critical tourism and critical disability studies, the lived experience is a bodily experience. This chapter examines the embodied experience of those with disabilities within the tourism context.
Dwyer, L.M. & Darcy, S.A. 2011, 'Economic contribution of tourists with disabilities: An Australian approach and methodology' in Buhalis, D. & Darcy, S. (eds), Accessible Tourism: Concepts and Issues, Channel View Publications, UK, pp. 214-240.
This chapter presents the findings of a study into the economic contribution of tourists with disabilities to the Australian economy. The importance of including economic modelling within the research project is that rudimentary market estimates of tourists with disabilities in Australia were undertaken over a decade ago (Darcy, 1998). These estimates used a basic gross demand approach without having any detailed understanding of the expenditure patterns of the group. Further, while more detailed work has been undertaken in the US (HarrisInteractive Market Research, 2003, 2005) and Europe (Buhalis et al., 2005; Neumann & Reuber, 2004) these continued to use basic gross demand estimates rather than any form of sophisticated economic modelling.
Darcy, S.A., Cameron, B. & Pegg, S. 2011, 'Developing a Business Case for Accessible Tourism' in Buhalis, D. & Darcy, S. (eds), Accessible Tourism: Concepts and Issues, Channel View Publications, UK, pp. 241-259.
Inclusion, disability, an ageing population and tourism are increasingly important areas of study due to their implications for both tourism demand and supply. This book therefore sets out to explore and document the current theoretical approaches, foundations and issues in the study of accessible tourism. In drawing together the contributions to this volume the editors have applied broader social constructionist approaches to understanding the accessible tourism phenomena. Accessible tourism, as with any area of academic study is an evolving field of academic research and industry practice. As with other areas of tourism, the field is multidisciplinary, and is influenced by various disciplines including geography, disability studies, economics, public policy, psychology and marketing
Darcy, S.A., Ambrose, I., Schweinsberg, S.C. & Buhalis, D. 2011, 'Conclusion: Universal Approaches to Accessible Tourism' in Buhalis, D. & Darcy, S. (eds), Accessible Tourism: Concepts and Issues, Channel View Publications, UK, pp. 300-316.
This book aimed to explore and document the current theoretical approaches, foundations and issues in the study of accessible tourism. As has already been alluded to in a number of chapters, the tourism industry interest in accessible tourism has accelerated in recent years as stakeholders wrestle with notions of accessibility, `tourism for all, and the way in which these ideas can be incorporated into business practices. What should become apparent from a reading of the chapters is that accessible tourism is by its very nature multifaceted, which is conceptualised through a range of diverse theoretical discourses and networks. Due to this, it would be hubris for us to suggest in the course of this concluding chapter that a book such as this can ever hope to offer a comprehensive appraisal of the scope of accessible tourism as a developing and dynamic field.
Darcy, S.A. & Buhalis, D. 2011, 'Conceptualising Disability' in Buhalis, D. & Darcy, S. (eds), Accessible Tourism: Concepts and Issues, Channel View Publications, UK, pp. 21-45.
Disability is a social construct with approaches to and concepts of disability changing over history, between societies within historical periods and having cultural contexts (Gleeson, 1999). At different times and places, the dominant worldview affects the position of disability within the social context. It is important to understand these conceptual approaches and the implications they have for the treatment of people with disabilities in a tourism context. This chapter reviews the contemporary models and discourses of disability to provide a theoretical base on which to understand tourism from a disability perspective and, hence, the development of accessible tourism.
Darcy, S.A. & Appleby, L. 2011, 'Sydney 2000: Moving from Post-Hoc Legacy to Strategic Vision and Operational Partnerships' in Legg, D. & Gilbert, K. (eds), Paralympic Legacies, Common Ground Publishing, Champaign, Illinois, pp. 75-98.
Legacy remains one of the most important issues relating to multisport mega-events across the globe and it could be argued that the development of legacy is one of the most urgent imperatives in elite sport. In this regard the Paralympics is no exception to the quest for long term legacy; however, little in the way of documentation appears to be forthcoming from the International Paralympic community in this regard. This book reviews the concept of legacy across previous Paralympic Games by providing a series of chapters under the headings of `The Paralympic Legacy Debate, `Paralympic City Legacies, `Emerging Issues of Paralympic Legacy and `Reconceptualising Paralympic Legacies. The issues arising are discussed in terms of a meta-analysis of the authors work and offer interesting ideas which if taken up by the International Paralympic Committee, International Olympic Committee, Bid Committees, OCOGs and major sports could change the face of Paralympic legacy towards the positive forever.
Collins, J., Darcy, S.A. & Jordan, K. 2010, 'Multi-method research on ethnic cultural tourism in Australia' in Richards, G. & Munsters, W. (eds), Cultural Tourism Research Methods, CABI, UK, pp. 87-103.
Small, J. & Darcy, S.A. 2010, 'Tourism, disability and mobility' in Cole, S. & Morgan, N. (eds), Tourism and Inequality, Problems and Prospects, CABI, UK, pp. 1-20.
In more economically developed countries, tourism is considered part of the modern experience with all people having the right to travel. None the less, there are many groups of people who do not take holidays or do not fully participate in the holiday experience for reasons such as low income, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender, body size and disability. This chapter focuses on disability, in particular mobility, and argues that people with disabilities should expect the same rights to citizenship and the same quality of life as the non-disabled, which include the right to travel and participate in leisure activities (United Nations , 1993).
Lock, D.J., Taylor, T.L. & Darcy, S.A. 2008, 'Soccer and social capital in Australia: Social networks in transition' in Nicholson, M. & Hoye, R. (eds), Sport and Social Capital, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, pp. 317-338.
This chapter starts with the general premise that sport clubs have the potential to build social capital. Following on from this assumption, we specifically examine the role that soccer played in Australian society in relation to social capital development in the last century. Prior to 2003 the term soccer was officially used to describe football in Australia. We then discuss the present situation, recent governance and strategic positioning challenges implemented in the sport of soccer, and the impact these initiatives have had on the sport's social capital and its constituent communities.
Darcy, S.A. 2008, 'Disability access' in Michael Luck (ed), Encyclopedia of Tourism and Recreation in Marine Environments, Elsevier, London, pp. 134-134.
Darcy, S.A. 2008, 'User fee' in Michael Luck (ed), Encyclopedia of Tourism and Recreation in Marine Environments, Elsevier, London, pp. 497-497.
Darcy, S.A., Taylor, T.L., Cuskelly, G. & Hoye, R.S. 2008, 'Case 28 professional rugby, community rugby clubs and volunteers: Creating advantage through better volunteer management' in Chadwick, S. & Arthur, D. (eds), International Cases in the Business of Sport, Elsevier, London, pp. 404-422.
The case examines the volunteer management practices within the Australian Rugby Union and its community clubs based based on the authors' ARC Linkage grant research.
Cashman, R. & Darcy, S.A. 2008, 'Introduction' in Cashman, R. & Darcy, S. (eds), Benchmark Games, Walla Walla Press, Sydney, pp. 1-18.
The chapter presents the framework of the book, sets the thematic direction and outlines each of the chapters.
Darcy, S.A. 2008, 'Planning for the Games' in Cashman, R. & Darcy, S. (eds), Benchmark Games, Walla Walla Press, Sydney, pp. 74-98.
The chapter draws together the planning and organisational considerations of hosting the Sydney Paralympic Games.
Darcy, S.A. 2008, 'Infrastructure' in Cashman, R. & Darcy, S. (eds), Benchmark Games, Walla Walla Press, Sydney, pp. 161-182.
This chapter presents the research evidence about the infrastructure requirements for holding the Sydney Paralympic Games.
Darcy, S.A. & Cashman, R. 2008, 'Paralympic research agendas' in Cashman, R. & Darcy, S. (eds), Benchmark Games, Walla Walla Press, Sydney, pp. 232-243.
The chapter the draws together the research presented in the book, other contributing research and presents a Paralympic research agenda for the future.
Darcy, S.A. & Small, J. 2008, 'Theorizing precincts: Disciplinary perspectives' in Hayllar, B., Griffin, T. & Edwards, D. (eds), City Spaces - Tourist Places: Urban Tourism Precincts, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, pp. 63-91.
Darcy, S.A. 2008, 'Marine events and festivals' in Michael Luck (ed), Encyclopedia of Tourism and Recreation in Marine Environments, Elsevier, London, pp. 299-300.
Cashman, R. & Darcy, S.A. 2008, 'Paralympic benchmarks before 2000' in Cashman, R. & Darcy, S. (eds), Benchmark Games, Walla Walla Press, Sydney, pp. 35-53.
Darcy, S.A. & Cashman, R. 2008, 'Legacy' in Cashman, R. (ed), Benchmark Games, Walla Walla Press, Sydney, pp. 218-231.
The chapter draws together the research in the book, presents new evidence for legacy in the Sydney Paralympic Games and provides a lead in for future research agendas.
Darcy, S.A. 2006, 'Sydney paralympics' in Albrecht, G. (ed), Encyclopedia of Disability, Sage Publications Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, pp. 1538-1540.
Darcy, S.A. 2004, 'Special Olympics' in Jenkins John, M. & Pigram John, J. (eds), Encyclopedia of leisure and outdoor recreation, Routledge, New York; London, pp. 475-476.
Encyclopaedia of leisure and outdoor recreation with 400 hundred entries. 200 word entry.
Darcy, S.A. 2004, 'Disability' in Jenkins, J. & Pigram, J. (eds), Encyclopaedia of leisure and outdoor recreation, Routledge, New York; London, pp. 114-117.
An encyclopaedia with 400 entries on leisure and outdoor recreation. The disability entry was 2200 words
Darcy, S.A. 2004, 'Paralympics' in Jenkins, J. & Pigram, J. (eds), Encyclopaedia of leisure and outdoor recreation, Routledge, New York; London, pp. 350-351.
An encyclopaedia of leisure and recreation with over 400 entries. Paralympic entry 220 words
Darcy, S.A. & Daruwalla, P. 2002, 'Inclusive special event planning for people with disabilities' in Harris, R. & Allen, J. (eds), Regional Event Management Handbook, The Australian Centre for Event Management (UTS) and the Department of Industry, Science and Resourc, Sydney, Australia, pp. 91-103.
Regional event management handbook aimed specifically at local government level
Darcy, S.A. 2001, 'People with physical disabilities and leisure' in Patterson, I. & Taylor, T. (eds), Celebrating Inclusion and Diversity in Leisure, HM Leisure Planning, Victoria, pp. 59-80.
A book that brought together temporary research on diversity and leisure
Weiler, B. & Darcy, S.A. 1998, 'Beach Access for Persons with Disabilities' in Wearing Stephen (ed), Planning Recreation and Tourism with Australian Communities, HM Leisure Planning Pty Ltd, Melbourne, pp. 103-113.
Griffin, T. & Darcy, S.A. 1997, 'Australia: Consequences of the newly adopted pro-Asia orientation' in Frank, G. & Jenkins, C. (eds), Tourism and Economic Development in Asia and Australasia, Cassell Publishers, Hong Kong, pp. 67-90.
A book that brings together tourism and economic development literature for Asia and Australasia
Dalton, B., Green, J. & Darcy, S. 2014, 'Oligopoly in Monopsony: The rise of Big Charity in Australia', Published Proceedings of the 28th ANZAM Conference 3-5 December 2014 UTS Sydney.
Gains in voice and public leverage have mainly accrued to a group of large,
multi-service, national social service organisations, a group we refer to as Big Charity. Big Charity appears to exert disproportionate influence on policy and its role in recent policy debates suggests sympathy with neoliberal policy framings.
Darcy, S.A. 2010, 'Volunteer Sustainability in a major sport in context: The case of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Games', Australia and New Zealand Third Sector Research, 10th Biennial Research Conference, Queensland University of Technology, Australia, pp. 28-29.
Darcy, S.A. 2009, 'Accommodation accessibility criteria: Towards improving accessible accommodation information formats', Travel and Tourism Research Association 4th Annual Conference Proceedings, TTRA, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, pp. 1-10.
Thomson, A.K. & Darcy, S.A. 2009, 'Examining rationales for government involvement in sport events', Sustainable development and events proceedings of ACEM 5th international event management summit, Australian Centre for Event Management, Sydney, Australia, pp. 243-258.
It is recognised that government involvement in sport events is based on various rationales, and these rationales influence the potential outcomes a city may experience from hosting such an event (Gleeson & Low, 2000; Searle & Bounds, 1999; Veal, 2002). Over the last few decades, the economic potential that sport events offer a city has seen increased government interest and governments have been criticised for neglecting the social outcomes (Carrire & Demazire, 2002; Misener & Mason, 2006; Searle, 2002). Yet there is limited research that has empirically investigated government involvement in sport events. This paper aims to address two main objectives: to develop an understanding of rationales for government involvement in sport events and to understand how these rationales influence subsequent event outcomes.
Griffin, T., Darcy, S.A., Moore, S. & Crilley, G. 2008, 'Visitor Data Needs of Protected Area Agencies (Paper 148)', The Australian Protected Areas Congress 2008 - protected areas in the, The Australian Protected Areas Congress, Australia.
Darcy, S.A., Cameron, B. & Taylor, T.L. 2008, 'Rights of access: Visitor accessibility in the Sydney CBD through the case of Sydney for All', The 4Rs - Rights, Respect, Reconciliation, Responsibility - Planning for a socially inclusive future for Australia, Cosmopolitan Civil Societies, University of Technology, Sydney, pp. 36-36.
Publication of abstract proceedings
Darcy, S.A. & Cameron, B. 2008, 'Accessible tourism and community based entrepreneurship - the case of O'Carolyns at Port Stephens', The 4Rs - Rights, Respect, Reconciliation, Responsibility - Planning for a socially inclusive future for Australia, Cosmopolitan Civil Societies, University of Technology, Sydney, pp. 72-73.
Griffin, T., Moore, S., Darcy, S.A. & Crilley, G. 2008, 'Developing a National Approach to Visitor Data Collection, Management and Use for Protected Areas: Thoughts from Australian Research and Practice', The Fourth International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas: Management for Protection and Development, Pacini Editore Industrie Grafiche Ospedaletto, Pisa, Italy, pp. 305-309.
Abstract Information on visitor numbers, activities, expectations and satisfaction is vital for protected areas managers on two counts: to assist in the provision of the services and facilities that visitors need and want; and to determine if managers have been efficient and effective in meeting these demands. This paper builds on a recently completed national study in Australia of visitor data collection and usage, and the future visitor data needs, of protected area management agencies. Australia is a federation of states and provides a challenging backdrop for developing a national approach as most responsibilities for protected areas rest with the states rather than the national government. Thus, the success of such an approach rests on cooperation rather than an overarching national regulatory responsibility. The study found that all protected area agencies collected visitor data, however, their approaches were highly variable in what was measured, how the measurements were applied and how data were managed and used. This variability was problematic because it becomes very difficult to determine issues of general importance for protected area management or to benchmark performance across areas. Based on these findings and knowledge of the institutional settings for protected area management in Australia, this paper poses some ideas for progressing a national approach for standardising the measures and measurement of key variables so that comparisons and benchmarking become possible and reliable. Core and supplementary visitor data variables can be identified, with the former being of national interest and hence requiring collection and storage under national coordination and guidance. Implementing such an approach will require working creatively and collaboratively within the current institutional settings.
Moore, S., Darcy, S.A., Griffin, T. & Crilley, G. 2008, 'Collecting and using visitor information in protected area management: core needs and issues'.
Darcy, S.A. & Ravinder, R. 2008, '"Last out of the plane": Air travel for people with disabilities', Conference Proceedings on 'Tourism in India - Challenges ahead', Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode, Kozhikode, India, pp. 501-505.
The low-cost airline business model is predicated on an application of Porter's cost-leadership strategy wherein the aim is to be THE low-cost producer in the broad aviation market. On the one hand, from the supply side, it involves the elimination of, or a reduction in cost in, all of the elements of the (airline) product that do not directly contribute to provision of the core service of air transportation, or increasing revenue. From the airlines perspective, such elements could involve aspects like reservations and booking, checking-in, baggage handling, in-flight services and disembarking. The emphasis is also on maximizing capacity (aircraft) utilization and load factors and satisfying the safety and security requirements for airline operation in the countries within which they operate.
Darcy, S.A. & Cameron, B. 2008, ''Accessible tourism and community based entrepreneurship - the case of O'Carolyns at Port Stephens', The 4Rs - Rights, Respect, Reconciliation, Responsibility - Planning for a socially inclusive future for Australia, UTS Cosmopolitan Civil Societies, Sydney, pp. 72-73.
Lock, D.J., Taylor, T.L. & Darcy, S.A. 2008, 'Identity Development: The Case of a New Football Team', 16th EASM Conference, 16th EASM Conference, Bayreuth/Heildelberg, pp. 30-35.
Lock, D.J., Taylor, T.L. & Darcy, S.A. 2007, 'What changed the minds of Australia's football supporters?', The 15th Congress of the European Association for Sport Management Sport Events and Sustainable Development, The European Association of Sport Management, Finland, pp. 205-206.
Small, J., Darcy, S.A. & Packer, T. 2007, 'Beyond a visual gaze: Tourist experiences of individuals with vision impairment', The Critical Turn in Tourism Studies: Promoting an Academy of Hope: Proceedings of the Second International Critcal Tourism Studies Conference, UWIC, Waginenen University and Institute for Tourism, Zagreb, Zagreb, pp. 348-355.
Darcy, S.A. 2007, 'Flying With Impairments: Improving Airline Practices By Understanding The Experiences Of People With Disabilities', Beating the Odds with Tourism Research!, The Travel and Tourism Research Association, USA, pp. 61-70.
This paper presents an understanding of the air travel experiences of people with disabilities and draws implications for improving airline management practices. The theoretical foundation for the paper is based on applying a social approach to disability to the airline sector. The research design used a modified grounded and phenomenological qualitative approach that sought to understand the experiences of people with disabilities in their own words. These experiences were contrasted to the policies, procedures and operations of the three major Australian domestic airlines. The methods used to understand the experiences involved semi-structured, in-depth interviews that were part of a larger study into the tourism experiences of people with disabilities. Fifteen in-depth interviews were undertaken together with an analysis of the qualitative responses to a broader quantitative study on the same topic. The interviews were supplemented with complaint cases taken against airlines through the Australian Disability Discrimination Act, 1992. What emerged as the essence of experience was that airline procedures created a newly disembodied experience that transformed a person's impairment into socially constructed disability. The social construction was a product of international air regulations, airline procedures, pressures brought about by the introduction of low-cost airlines into Australia and a new wave of occupational health and safety considerations. The resultant experience for many was one of heightened anxiety, helplessness and, in too many cases, humiliation.
Darcy, S.A. 2007, 'A Methodology for Testing Accessible Accommodation Information Provision Formats', CAUTHE: Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference, University of Technology, Sydney., Lindfield, pp. 1-18.
The combined effects of the increased ageing of the population, the relationship between ageing and disability rates and the proportion of the population who have a disability have significant implications for global tourism. Numerous studies have identified that the foundation of any tourism experience for people with mobility disabilities is locating appropriate accommodation. Such studies have identified serious issues with the way that accommodation information is documented, promoted and marketed by the accommodation sector. Other studies have identified that there is a considerable difference between the accommodation sectors understanding of access and that of people with disabilities. This research seeks to understand the 'discourse of access between the demand and supply of accessible accommodation. To this point in time, no research has sought to assess the preferred accessible accommodation information formats for this group. This exploratory study presents a methodology for market testing four information formats for the mobility dimension of accessible accommodation. The information formats are based on current practice and proposed information formats. They are: AAA Tourism access icons; Spinal Cord Injury Australias representation of AS1428; floorplan representation; and virtual tours/OSSATE. It is believed that the outcomes of this methodology will provide a suitable foundation for including access considerations as part of the broader Australian Tourism Data Warehouse; developing a business case for this class of accommodation through improved occupancy rates; and satisfaction with the presented information formats.
Darcy, S.A., Griffin, T., Craig, M., Moore, S. & Crilley, G. 2007, 'Protected Area Visitor Data Collection and Management: Emerging Issues and Gaps in Current Australian Practices', CAUTHE: Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference, University of Technology, Sydney, Lindfield, pp. 1-14.
Protected area agencies are charged with the preservation, conservation and management of areas including wilderness, national parks and forests. These agencies are faced with increasing visitor numbers and decreasing budgets at a time where activities like tourism have to be managed alongside their traditional roles as natural resource managers. This paper reports on the outcomes of the first stage of a research project that seeks to guide a nationally consistent approach to visitor use data collection for protected area agencies. First, the paper provides a background literature review of approaches to visitor use data collection for protected area agencies. Second, the paper outlines the participatory action research approach used in the study where thirteen protected area agencies are collaborators in the research process. This approach ensures that the protected areas agencies data needs are central to the research outcomes and recognises the pragmatic organisational cultural issues associated with visitor data collection, management and use. The research process incorporates organisational networking at all levels from head office, regions, branches and individual parks involving management information systems, interviews, focus groups, presentations, briefings and follow-up contact. Third, the paper then presents the emergent themes that examine the issues and gaps in current visitor data collection, management and use systems. The paper concludes with discussion of the challenges to developing a national system of visitor data collection and use.
Schweinsberg, S.C., Wearing, S.L. & Darcy, S.A. 2007, 'Exploring community sustainability potential in nature based tourism: The far south coast nature tourism and recreation plan', Proceedings of the 17th Annual CAUTHE Conference, University of Technology, Sydney, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-13.
Often nature tourism development is viewed as a path to changing the economic industry base, security, and by implication towards creating community sustainability in rural areas. This paper argues that a sole focus on economic growth is too narrow a representation of the linkages between the tourism industry and host communities. It asserts that community sustainability is better seen as an integrating, encompassing concern for the cultural, social, economic and environmental sustainability potential of the community in a particular locality. The objectives of the 2004 Far South Coast Nature Tourism and Recreation Plan are presented as a means of illustrating the challenge in developing a sustainable future for Australian rural communities.
Hoye, R.S., Kuskelly, G., Taylor, T.L. & Darcy, S.A. 2007, 'Volunteer motives and satisfaction with management practices in community sport organizations', The 15th Congress of the European Association for Sport Management Sport Events and Sustainable Development, The European Association of Sport Management, Finland, pp. 141-142.
Taylor, T.L., Cuskelly, G., Hoye, R.S. & Darcy, S.A. 2006, 'A taxonomy of volunteer management practice in community sport organisations', Knowledge, Action and the Public Concern - 2006 Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings, AoM, Briarcliff Manor, USA, pp. 1-32.
Taylor, T.L., Darcy, S.A., Hoye, R.S. & Cuskelly, G. 2006, 'Psychological contract theory and volunteer management', Knowledge, Action and the Public Concern - 2006 Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings, AoM, Briarcliff Manor, USA, pp. 1-34.
Smith, K., Darcy, S.A. & Carmody, M. 2006, 'Using narrative and biography in the rehabilitation process: The disAbility Leisure, Arts, Sports and Lifestyle Web project.', Australian and New Zealand Spinal Cord Society 2006 Annual Scientific Meeting 2006, ScienceCare Inspiration, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 50-50.
Darcy, S.A. 2006, 'A professional development module for disability and inclusive academic practice at UTS: reflections on implementation', Pathways VIII: Toward 2020 - What We Do Now Will Make the Difference, Pathways VIII, Hobart, Australia, pp. 28-28.
Darcy, S.A. 2006, 'Why I feel like Hannibal Lecter: Air travel and people with mobility disabilities', Critical Tourism Downunder Conference, University of Technology Sydney, Australia, pp. 28-28.
Lock, D.J., Taylor, T.L. & Darcy, S.A. 2006, 'Sport fan identity and the new kid on the block.', Sport World United, European Academy of Sport Management, Jyvaskyla, Finland, pp. 135-136.
Darcy, S.A. & Wearing, S.L. 2005, 'Contested cultural heritage: an analysis of media representation of stakeholder views in local and regional newspapers on the NSW quarantine station', Kangaroo and Kiwi Kulture: Impacts on the Leisure Experience - 7th ANZALS Biennial Conference, ANZALS, Canterbury, New Zealand, pp. 20-20.
Darcy, S.A. & Veal, A.J. 2005, 'Leisure constraints: the case of disability and tourism', Kangaroo and Kiwi Kulture: Impacts on the Leisure Experience - 7th ANZALS Biennial Conference, ANZALS, Canterbury, New Zealand, pp. 19-19.
Darcy, S.A., Bolton, C. & Veal, A.J. 2005, 'Evaluation of NSW maritime major special aquatic events: 2003 boat owner/ skipper survey', The Impacts of Events - Event Management Research Conference, ACEM, Sydney, pp. 203-215.
Cameron, B., Foggin, E. & Darcy, S.A. 2004, 'Towards barrier-free tourism: initiatives in the Asia Pacific region', Refereed Conference Proceedings of "Developing New Markets for Traditional Destinations" - Travel and Tourism Research Association (TTRA) Canada Conference 2003, TTRA-Canada, Ottawa, pp. 1-14.
Darcy, S.A. & Cohen, D. 2004, 'Don't call it training: A professional development module for disability and inclusive academic practice.', -, Tertiary education disability council of Australia Ltd. Victoria, Victoria, Australia, pp. 211-217.
Darcy, S.A. 2004, 'Keynote Address for Access and Inclusion Workshop - Citizen, Leisure of and Disability', Leisure Matters, World Leisure, Singapore.
Darcy, S.A. 2003, 'Disabling journeys: the tourism patterns of people with impairments in Australia', Riding the Wave of Tourism and Hospitality Research - Proceedings of the Council of Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education Conference, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia, pp. 1-9.
Darcy, S.A. 2003, 'Disablity, community and citizenship', Making Connections: NSW Premier's forum on spinal cord injury and conditions, --, --.
Darcy, S.A. 2003, 'Barrier free tourism in the Asia-Pacific region', Asia Pacific Tourism Association 9th Annual conference - Current Research, Future Strategies, Bridging Uncertainty, Univeristy of Technology, Sydney, Sydney, pp. 857-857.
Darcy, S.A. 2003, 'Superman's flying visit: special event planning for people with disabilities at the making connections spinal forum', 6th ANZALS Biennial Conference: Leisure, Change and Diversity, --, --.
Darcy, S.A. 2002, 'People with disabilities and tourism in Australia: a human rights analysis', Tourism and Well being: The 2nd Tourism Industry and Education Symposium, Jyvaskyla Polytechnic, Finland, pp. 137-166.
Darcy, S.A. 2002, 'Keynote address: E-learning, disability and equity in education', Pathways V1 Congress Sydney Exhibition & Convention Centre, ADCET, Sydney.
Darcy, S.A. & Harris, R. 2002, 'Inclusive and accessible special events planning; an Australian perspective', Australian Centre for Event Management: Events and Place Making, Australian Centre for Events Management, Sydney, pp. 533-553.
Darcy, S.A. 2002, 'Disability politics and the Sydney 2000 games', 7th World Leisure Congress, Kuala Lumpur.
Misener, L. & Darcy, S.A. 2014, 'Managing disability sport: From athletes with disabilities to inclusive organisational perspectives', Sport Management Review, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-7.
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Edwards, M., Onyx, J., Maxwell, H., Darcy, S., Bullen, P. & Sherker, S. 2014, 'A Conceptual Model of Social Impact as Active Citizenship', VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations.
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Darcy, S., Maxwell, H., Edwards, M., Onyx, J. & Sherker, S. 2014, 'More than a sport and volunteer organisation: Investigating social capital development in a sporting organisation', Sport Management Review, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 395-406.
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This paper presents the findings of a study that examines the development of social capital within an Australian sporting organisation, Surf Life Saving Australia (SLSA). The study draws on the social capital literature across the not-for-profit sector and specific sport management social capital research. The research design incorporated an interpretive approach with data collected nationally from eight focus groups with key SLSA staff, board members and 'toes in the sand' volunteers. The findings provide fresh insights into the development and understanding of social capital within a sporting organisation. Both bonding and bridging were important social capital outcomes of the organisation's activities, albeit with important implications for antecedents and process. The data presented strong evidence for arguing that within the organisation bonding within the club comes first, which importantly provides a very strong sense of belonging and mutual support for club members, from volunteers through to the board. The strength of bonding provides a powerful base for subsequent bridging capital to the local, regional and national stakeholder communities that are associated with the organisation. Further, social capital develops in both the collective and individual, with leveraging of individual skills contributing to human capital development, which is closely connected to and inseparable from social capital. The paper concludes by discussing the theoretical implications for social capital generally and social capital in a sporting context.
Domnguez Vila, T., Darcy, S. & Aln, E. 2014, 'Juegos olmpicos y paralmpicos en Brasil: aprendiendo de Barcelona y Sidney', Revista de Administrao de Empresas, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 222-230.
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Darcy, S.A. & Dowse, L. 2013, 'In search of a level playing field - the constraints and benefits of sport participation for people with intellectual disability', Disability & Society, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 393-407.
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This paper presents the results of a study seeking to examine the experiences of people with intellectual disability in a sporting context. The research design employed an online, interviewer-completed questionnaire in both a standard and an easy English version designed for administration by a third party for those requiring assistance to respond. Questions sought both quantitative responses about levels of participation and qualitative responses about constraints experienced and benefits received from participation. The results of the study show high levels of participation reported by people who are independent or have lower to moderate support needs, whereas people with high to very high support needs had substantially lower levels of participation. Constraints are examined for both those who participate in sport and those who do not. For those who do participate, the benefits were identified as overwhelmingly social in nature, including belonging, companionship and achievement.
Misener, L., Darcy, S.A., Legg, D. & Gilbert, K. 2013, 'Beyond Olympic Legacy: Understanding Paralympic Legacy Through a Thematic Analysis', Journal of Sport Management, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 329-341.
Over the last decade a great deal of work has examined major sport event legacies and event leverage. Much of this work has involved Olympic studies and this paper seeks to add to the body of knowledge surrounding major sport event legacies by examining the largely overlooked area of the Paralympic Games. The Paralympic Games are the second largest multisport event after the Olympic Games depending upon which parameters are used and since Sydney 2000 there has been an `operational partnership where bid cities are required to host both Games. Yet, few studies have evaluated the comparative outcomes, legacies and event leverage that Paralympic games have generated. This paper addresses this absence by conducting a thematic analysis of Paralympic legacy research. The thematic analysis used a combination of keywords involving event legacy across 13 major academic databases. Of the 43 articles identified as having Paralympic legacy related content only 13 articles empirically investigated Paralympic legacy. In reviewing the research, it is noted that the bulk of the research has focused on Summer Paralympic Games with little interest in the Winter Paralympic Games. The major findings for legacy-based research include: infrastructure; sport; information education, and awareness; human capital; and managerial changes. However, while these findings may seem congruent with major event legacies frameworks conceptually, an examination of the detailed findings shows that Paralympic legacy research is isomorphic and adds a new component to existing legacy dimensions.
Singleton, J. & Darcy, S.A. 2013, ''Cultural life', disability, inclusion and citizenship: Moving beyond leisure in isolation', Annals of Leisure Research, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 183-192.
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We reside within a global village, with approximately 10% of the worlds population or 650 million people (including about 200 million children) living with some form of disability (United Nations 2011). This has been estimated to rise to 1.2 billion by 2050 (United Nations 2011). The World Health Organization and the United Nations have recognized that people with disability have a right to access services from all areas of citizenship. The purpose of this special issue of Annals of Leisure Research was to seek contributions examining the inclusion and citizenship of people with disability in `cultural life, defined by the United Nations (2006) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability (CRPWD) to include recreation, leisure, the arts, sport and tourism. In particular, the issue aimed to: (1) clarify what the terms inclusion and citizenship mean in different cultures; (2) place inclusion to and citizenship of `cultural life across discourses relating to economic, social and environmental contexts that affect people with disabilities participation; and (3) discuss the terms inclusion and citizenship from the ideological frameworks of government, researchers, providers of service or disability advocacy groups
Darcy, S.A. 2012, '(Dis)Embodied Air Travel Experiences: Disability, Discrimination and the Affect of a Discontinuous Air Travel Chain.', Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, vol. 18, no. e8, pp. 1-11.
This article presents an investigation of the embodied air travel experiences of people with disability. The study was informed by human rights frameworks, social approaches to disability and critical tourism. The research design included a review of newspaper articles, human rights complaint cases, open-ended responses to a survey on the tourism experiences of people with disabilities and semistructured in-depth interviews. The findings revealed that the air travel practices routinely contravened disability discrimination legislation and identified a series of socially constructed constraints across the air travel chain from the preplanning of trips through to disembarking after a flight.What emerged from these experiences was that the embodied individuals became (dis)embodied at each stage of the air travel chain. The inequitable, inaccessible, undignified and dependent practices resulted in heightened anxiety, increased helplessness and, in some cases, humiliation to which they were not subjected in their everyday lives.
Small, J., Darcy, S.A. & Packer, T. 2012, 'The embodied tourist experiences of people with vision impairment: Management implications beyond the visual gaze.', Tourism Management, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 941-950.
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This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study that investigated the embodied tourist experiences of 40 people who are vision impaired. The study, informed by the concept of "embodied ontology", explored the corporeal and socially constructed experience of tourism. The findings highlighted the benefit of holidays for the participants and de-centred the "visual gaze" in the tourist experience. The quality of the tourist experience related to participants' feelings of inclusion or exclusion in terms of their access to information, experience of wayfinding, travelling with a guide dog, and the knowledge and attitudes of others. It was evident that participants needed to manage their tourist experiences closely and constantly. The paper concludes that the tourism industry and community must understand the multi-sensory nature of the tourist experience if quality accessible experiences are to be available for tourists with vision impairment. Provision of multi-sensory experiences also enhances the experiences of sighted tourists.
Darcy, S. 2012, 'Disability, access, and inclusion in the event industry: A call for inclusive event research', Event Management, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 259-265.
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The article sets a context of the United Nations (2006) Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities as an international agreement that in principle guarantees people with disability an equality of experience in all areas of citizenship including the event industry. The remainder of the article provides an understanding of the demographics of the group, the research literature in event specific journals, market arguments examples, and an overview of disability-specific events that the industry may not have previously considered. The article concludes with a call for the events industry to develop a culture of inclusive practice and for academic event researchers to place disability, access, and inclusion on the research agenda. 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Schweinsberg, S.C., Leslie Wearing, S. & Darcy, S. 2012, 'Understanding communities' views of nature in rural industry renewal: The transition from forestry to nature-based tourism in Eden, Australia', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 195-213.
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This scoping paper examines the complex issue of assessing and understanding community views about the restructuring towards nature-based rural tourism of traditional agriculture and forestry rural economies and their activities that had hitherto shaped local identities. It shows how individual resident perceptions can be included within social impact assessment through the use of psychological methods and discusses the relative merits of using personal construct theory -based repertory grids. Ten repertory grid interviews were completed in Eden, New South Wales, Australia. The findings present both the resulting repertory grids and a more detailed discussion of the interpretation of the grids through two narratives that focus on residents considering what, in their opinion, constitutes a sustainable utilisation of local forest land. The discussion examines how the results of this type of analysis can be used to understand individual residents' decisions to support or reject nature-based tourism proposals in favour of traditional extractive forest-industry sectors. It shows how this assessment system could aid planners in reconciling stakeholder conflict over the ideal usage of public forest land by offering a structured means of giving heterogeneous rural communities a formal voice in tourism-planning processes. 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Lock, D., Taylor, T.L., Funk, D. & Darcy, S.A. 2012, 'Exploring the development of team identification: the contribution of social identity and the psychological continuum model', Journal of Sport Management, vol. 26, pp. 283-294.
Individuals strive to attach themselves to social groups that reflect positively on the way they view themselves (Tajfel, 1972, 1982; Tajfel & Turner, 1979). While social categories span a myriad of activities, pursuits and organizations, sport teams provide a pertinent example of social categories from which individuals derive social identity benefits (Cialdini & Richardson, 1980). As a result, social identity theory has been extensively applied to sport consumers as a framework contributing to understanding of identity formation (Fisher & Wakefield, 1998; James, 2001), strength (Wann & Branscombe, 1993, 1995), structure (Heere & James, 2007) and management for sport fans (Cialdini et al., 1976; Cialdini & Richardson, 1980; Snyder, Lassegard, & Ford, 1986).
Patterson, I., Darcy, S.A. & Mnninghoff, M. 2012, 'Attitudes and experiences of tourism operators in Northern Australia towards people with disabilities', World Leisure Journal, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 215-229.
The last decade has seen an increasing interest in disability, access and tourism. This has culminated in the emergence of a body of work on ``accessible tourism. Disability and access have been the subject of a great deal of government regulation and coordination through building codes, awareness training and state-based tourism marketing authorities and policy engagement. Yet, the supply-side perspective of industry responses to this consumer group has been under researched (Darcy & Pegg, 2011). This study seeks to redress this omission through examining the attitudes and experiences of tourism operators. The area chosen for the study was Queensland, Australia. In-depth interviews were conducted with 32 tourism operators across five major regional tourism locations. The interviews investigated the level of engagement with the consumer group, their motivations for catering for the group and their experiences with the service provision to the group. The results of the study showed that, while the macro policy environment is conducive to having an accessible built environment, transport and service sector, the level of engagement by the tourism industry still involves an ad hoc process of trial and error on the part of individual operators. In comparison with previous decades, tourism operators are now making significant efforts to make their products and services more accessible to people with disabilities. However, most operators in the study noted that there is still a weak demand from the accessible tourism market and low recognition of their existing product offerings.
Edwards, M., Onyx, J., Maxwell, H. & Darcy, S.A. 2012, 'Meso level Social Impact: Meaningful Indicators of Community Contribution', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 18-37.
Social impact measures are not widely agreed, nor implemented by third sector organisations. Meso level indicators of social impact are underdeveloped. Financialised methods such as Social Return on Investment can only account for direct outcomes of defined programs and activities. The broader societal impacts of any such activities are undervalued. This paper outlines the findings of a grounded theoretical approach to determining measures of social impact within a large Australian iconic third sector organisation. Several key factors revealed in this study are discussed in regards to their potential for attributing social impact to organisational activities outside of a program specific outcome. Based on these findings the paper concludes that the development of a tool to measure meso level organisational social impact of third sector organisations may be attainable.
Wearing, S.L. & Darcy, S.A. 2011, 'Inclusiveness of the `Othered' in Tourism', Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 18-34.
This paper highlights that tourism, due to the fact it is a multi-faceted activity and by implication its management has similar multiple contexts, often leads to the exclusion of many who are part of that tourism context. One area that has been left on the fringes of tourism is how contemporary tourism management has othered those regarded as being removed from the neoliberal business foundation of tourism. One such group is the host communities in developing countries. The failure to involve and engage with host communities and develop collaboration in the process of planning and management for tourism is and has in the past been detrimental to the sustainability of tourism. In many cases, host communities have been ignored by the industry, with few or no mechanisms or processes put in place to enable them to participate in the management of tourism. This paper presents an overview of how this engagement of host communities can expand the market for tourism and lead to more satisfying visitor experiences, enhance the sustainability of these experiences and, thus, be considered good management practice within the industry.
Lock, D., Taylor, T.L. & Darcy, S.A. 2011, 'In the Absence of Achievement: The Formation of New Team Identification', European Sport Management Quarterly, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 171-192.
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Motives to attend sport and form identification with sporting teams attract considerable attention in the literature. Previous research has determined that vicarious achievement is a key construct leading to attendance and identification. Conceptual and theoretical development has focused on established sport teams, and has not been inclusive of the formation of identification in a new team context. New sport teams do not have a history of achievement or well established traditions through which to attract fans, thus the constructs that influence the formation of identification with new sport teams may be conceivably different. In this study a mixed-method approach was used to explore key themes leading to the formation of new team identification with a new football team in Australia. Findings illustrated that vicarious achievement is less relevant in a new team, new league context. New team identification was characterized by a strong desire to support the sport of football in an Australian league. The home city of members and the match day occasion were also important themes in the formation of new team identification.
Darcy, S.A. 2011, 'Developing Sustainable Approaches to Accessible Accommodation Information Provision: A Foundation for Strategic Knowledge Management.', Tourism Recreation Research, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 141-157.
The research consistently shows that the constraints to accessible accommodation identified by people with disability are firmly grounded in information provision. Information is the foundation on which people make their travel planning decisions and the provision of detailed and accurate accessible accommodation information is critical to the decision-making process for people with disability. To improve upon this current situation, this paper seeks to make the connection between accessible tourism, consumer needs, supply-side perspectives, government regulation/ coordination, sustainability, accessible accommodation information provision and strategic knowledge management. First, demand research is examined to understand the specific constraints identified by consumers with disability and the specific accommodation criteria they seek when planning their trips. Second, the paper presents a summary of the supply-side research that presents the industry perspective on the consumer group and their accessible accommodation stock. Third, as with any tourism market development government regulation and coordination have very important roles to play brokering an industry-wide approach to accessible tourism. While tourism has been predominantly a market-driven sector with government support for infrastructure and marketing, an avenue to improve accessible accommodation information provision can be fostered through their coordination role to offer a more sustainable approach for consumers and the supply sector while progressing human rights outcomes. The paper concludes by presenting a case study of an Accessible Accommodation Assessment Template as a foundation to information provision on which to base a strategic knowledge management framework.
Darcy, S.A. & Pegg, S. 2011, 'Towards Strategic Intent: Perceptions of disability service provision amongst hotel accommodation managers', International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 468-476.
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The tourism sector globally has become increasingly mindful of how an ageing population is reshaping service provision forms and offerings. This being particularly true of accommodation operations where there is a now a growing recognition of the commercial value for providing market groups with exceptional service. With this in mind, this study sought to ascertain the perceptions of managers in the accommodation sector towards disability service provision with a view to identifying any current service gaps or failings. An inductive, qualitative approach was used with the data collection phase incorporating a series of one on one interviews and a focus group. The in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 managers of hotels deemed to have accessible rooms that complied with the relevant building codes and standards. A focus group comprised 22 managers of hotels located in the Sydney central business district, Australia. Study findings revealed five key themes that had not been previously discussed in the literature. They were: inclusive attitudinal approach; safety; the responsibility of people with a disability to communicate their needs to the hotel; perceptions of accessible rooms by the general public; and operational processes. Related themes that emerged from the data analysis that had previously been aligned with the literature included: legislative responsibility, policy and building codes; disability as a market segment; staff awareness/training; and language, marketing, and promotion information. Implications with respect to management of accessible rooms in the accommodation sector are outlined and further areas of research are proposed.
Diversity involves coming to terms with alterity (otherness) and negotiating inclusion (togetherness). That goal is more likely, philosopher Emmanuel Levinas argues, when people usually separated socially culturally, politically, economically geographically are brought together in consensual face-to-face contact and in social contexts where equitable interpersonal co-operation and group cohesion are fostered (Burggraeve, 2002, 2008). Such a quest for consensus about diversity and mutuality, as opposed to discordance through disdain for difference (Grillo, 2007), is a challenge (but also an opportunity) in a range of normative environments, such as business, education and sport (Kostogriz & Doecke, 2007; Lim, 2007; Sykes, 2006). In an overarching sense, the management of diversity and the policies that underpin mutuality are arguably contributions to cosmopolitanism, which Vertovec and Cohen (2002, p. 4) argue incorporates `variously complex repertoires of allegiance, identity and interest. They conclude that cosmopolitanism, as an applied philosophical position, `seems to offer a mode of managing cultural and political multiplicities (2002, p. 4).
Thomson, A.K., Darcy, S.A. & Pearce, S.J. 2010, 'Ganma theory and third-sector sport-development programmes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth: Implications for sports management', Sport Management Review, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 313-330.
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Sport-development programmes provide opportunities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth to excel and overcome social inequities. In Australia, all levels of government have identified sport-development programmes in their policy responses as a method to redress inequity amongst this population. Yet, a recent report has shown that national sport organisations have been more reactive in establishing anti-discrimination policy and less proactive in cultivating culturally inclusive programmes and meaningful sporting experiences (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, 2007). At the same time, neo-liberal approaches to policy in Australia have seen the emphasis on grassroots community sport-development shift to third-sector organisations. However, little research has examined how the third-sector organisations operate with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and how culturally inclusive the programmes they deliver are for the communities in which they operate. Three case studies with the objectives of analysing organisational approaches to: structure and governance; sport-development philosophies; and cultural inclusiveness of the programmes, are presented here. The case studies were informed by the cultural lens of Ganma, a theory belonging to the Yolngu community of Yirrkala (Marika, Ngurruwutthun,&White, 1992). The case study method included in-depth interviews with programme leaders, reviews of management information systems and programme observation. The findings provided evidence of the importance of culturally inclusive programmes through governance and an informal lived approach to philosophy andculture.
Darcy, S.A., Cameron, B. & Pegg, S. 2010, 'Accessible tourism and sustainability: a discussion and case study', Journal of Sustainable Tourism (Building a Decommodified Research Paradigm in Tourism: The Contribution of NGOs), vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 515-537.
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This paper explores the concept of accessible tourism and its links with triple-bottomline (TBL) sustainability. Accessible tourism is reviewed through some of its central features including dimensions of access, universal design and the nexus between ageing and disability. The TBL is then examined to better understand the financial, environmental and social considerations that arise from accessible tourism. The research design used in this explorative research incorporated a case study approach, where a business case study instrument was developed. Methods included a Delphi group, review of management information systems, in-depth interviews with key informants, observation and participant observation. The study results revealed that rather than accessible tourism being a single construct, it forms one critical dimension of a series of interrelated, overlapping and interdependent business arrangements that extend beyond the business entity through a series of social networks within the destination region. It is argued that to properly satisfy the accessible tourism market, a more sophisticated understanding of accessible destination experiences is needed by tourism operators. The case study illustrates the considerable size and multi-niche markets served by accessible tourism destinations, the good fit between accessible tourism and TBL sustainable tourism, and the need for further research.
Darcy, S. 2010, 'Inherent complexity: Disability, accessible tourism and accommodation information preferences', Tourism Management, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 816-826.
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Studies have identified constraints with the way that accessible accommodation information is documented and marketed. Yet, no research has investigated the criteria that people with disabilities determine as 'important' to selecting accommodation and their preference for presenting this information. This paper presents the results of a survey (n = 566) to determine the relative importance of room selection criteria through the development of a 55-item Hotel Accessibility Scale. Four information formats were then presented to ascertain the preferences of the respondents. The results suggest that while sociodemographic variables offered some insight into criteria selection, the most significant explanation for criteria selection and information preferences were the dimensions of disability and level of support needs. The preferred format of accessible accommodation information provision was based on a combination of textual, floorplan and digital photography. The management implications suggest that detailed information provision using this format has benefits for accommodation stock yield and social sustainability. 2009.
Darcy, S. & Dickson, T.J. 2009, 'A whole-of-life approach to tourism: The case for accessible tourism experiences', Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 32-44.
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This article examines the concept of a whole-of-life approach to tourism through presenting the case for 'accessible tourism'. The importance of this approach is that it has been estimated that 30% of a population will have access requirements at any point in time, and most people will have a disability at some stage during their life. This article presents the case for proactively developing a strategic accessible tourism approach by presenting a brief background to the area. First, the article outlines the relationship between access, disability, ageing and tourism. Second, it reviews the development of easy access markets and accessible tourism, and places these in context to universal design. Third, the article overviews pertinent legislation that shapes the accessible tourism environment in Australia. Fourth, accessible environments are placed within context to destination management and accessible destination experiences. The article concludes by presenting four contemporary Australian examples of accessible destination experiences within broader destination management approaches.
Lock, D.J., Darcy, S.A. & Taylor, T.L. 2009, 'Starting with a clean slate: An analysis of member identification for a new sports team', Sport Management Review, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 15-25.
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Soccer in Australia underwent a series of changes following a Federal Government inquiry into its future. A report into the Structure, Governance and Management of Soccer in Australia (2003) recommended a process of structural change, aimed at repositioning and re-branding soccer as association football. The restructure yielded the replacement of the National Soccer League with the A-League, five new Australian teams and a concerted attempt to separate soccer from its ethnic ties in the antipodes. This paper examines member identification in relation to a specific A-League clubs members. Using the Sports Spectator Identity Scale (Wann & Branscombe, 1993) to measure sport fan identity in a new team context, a survey of club members of Sydney FC (n = 510), was undertaken. Survey findings indicated that members of Sydney FC reported relatively strong team identification in the first year of the new competition, with some nuanced differences based on age and income. The SSIS demonstrated a good level of fit in relation to a new sports team, although it is evident that rivalries and identification with a new team need time to develop fully.
In this paper, Janus is used as a metaphor for examining the nature of cultural diversity in Australian sport. It does so by firstly presenting a historical context for sport in Australia and the relative lack of cultural diversity found in sport. Within a country dominated by the running codes of football and cricket, the position of soccer in Australia was somewhat unique as it became a bastion for many non-Anglo migrant groups. However, in the 1980s and 1990s soccer's lack of organizational success at the state and national level was negatively ascribed to the tensions between the ethnically affiliated clubs, the same clubs that were ironically the stalwarts driving the growing popularity of the sport. We examine the initiatives used to restructure the game in Australia to make football more appealing to mainstream (i.e. non-ethnically aligned) spectators. The contemporary situation is explored through secondary documentation and the results of a survey of 3,056 spectators undertaken during the first season of the new A-League are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion about the relative success of the restructure in terms of changing the face of Australian soccer.
Darcy, S.A. & Wearing, S.L. 2009, 'Public-private partnerships and contested cultural heritage tourism in national parks: a case study of the stakeholder views of the North Head Quarantine Station (Sydney, Australia)', Journal of Heritage Tourism, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 181-199.
This paper examines the public perceptions of stakeholders towards a proposed cultural heritage public-private partnership (PPP) within a national park in Sydney, Australia. Governments in Australia are initiating PPPs for the purposes of designing, planning, constructing and operating projects that would traditionally be regarded as 'public goods'. The North Head Quarantine Station (Sydney, Australia) was one of the first proposed PPPs in national parks that moved beyond the licensing of private sector operations within park boundaries. The Quarantine Station is used as a case study to offer insights into the PPP process because of its place in the cultural heritage of Australia, its prime a facie tourism position within Sydney Harbour and its prolonged history of development. The case study provides a mechanism for examining public opinion on cultural heritage tourism issues in national parks through understanding stakeholder perspectives presented in newspaper media accounts. The accounts are analysed on political and environmental considerations with implications drawn for future developments.
Darcy, S. & Taylor, T. 2009, 'Disability citizenship: An Australian human rights analysis of the cultural industries', Leisure Studies, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 419-441.
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Research on disability and cultural life (the arts, leisure, recreation, sport and tourism) in the Australian context has largely been captured by medical approaches to disability. In contrast, this paper takes direction from social approaches to disability that place the experience of people with disabilities (PwD) at the centre of the research paradigm by examining this population's human rights' experiences. The paper is framed by reviewing the United Nations' disability initiatives including the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. The research then analyses the implementation and operation of Australia's Disability Discrimination Act, 1992 in respect to the cultural life of PwD. The research design uses a mixed method interpretive approach drawing on the management information systems of the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission and the Federal Court. The analysis of 420 complaint cases and 80 Federal court actions show a relationship between the types of discrimination experienced in cultural life and gender, disability type and industry sector. The recurring themes of discrimination demonstrate an ongoing struggle by PwD to assert their rights of citizenship. 2009 Taylor & Francis.
Hoye, R.S., Cuskelly, G., Taylor, T.L. & Darcy, S.A. 2008, 'Volunteer motives and retention in community sport: A study of Australian rugby clubs', Australian Journal on Volunteering, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 40-48.
The retention of volunteers has been identified as a significant organisational challenge for community sport organisations. However, little is known about the relationship between volunteer motives and their intentions to remain with an organisation. In this study, 402 volunteers from community rugby clubs were surveyed about their motivations to volunteer and intention to remain as volunteers. The results indicate that while volunteer motivations are primarily based on altruistic values, intentions of volunteers to remain with their club are only moderately affected by these motives.
Darcy, S.A., Cameron, B., Dwyer, L.M. & Taylor, T.L. 2008, 'Understanding the notion of accessible spaces and places: Sydney CBD Visitor Accessibility Web portal www.sydneyforall.com', Australasian Parks and Leisure Journal, vol. 2008, no. Spring, pp. 28-34.
The paper presents an approach to understanding the accessibility of spaces and places for people with disabilities and seniors. For these groups, the challenges associated with recreational access are compounded by the cultural context, fragmented approaches to wayfinding and a lack of collaboration by providers to promote accessible experiences. The paper presents the outcome of the research project that sought to collaboratively promote accessible experiences within the Sydney CBD and Sydney Harbour environs. The Sydney for All web portal was developed in conjunction with three industry partners: Tourism NSW; Tourism and Transport Forum; and NSW Dept of Environment and Climate Change. The research engaged in participatory action research with the major stakeholders, attractions and the destination experience providers. The Web portal complies with the highest W3C web accessibility standards as evidenced through the compliance testing by Vision Australia. The paper outlines the research approach, underlying philosophy and the major accessibility features of the portal through a case study of the North Head Lookout. As will be demonstrated, the portal is a starting point to understanding accessible experiences through focusing on universal design, destination experience and management frameworks rather than using constraints based approaches that dominate mainstream access auditing.
Darcy, S.A. & Cameron, B. 2008, 'Accommodating Tourism: Hotel accommodation, accessible tourism and market principles - Evidence-based research', Independent Living: Official journal of Independent Living Centres Australia, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 24-28.
Darcy, S.A. 2007, 'Disablity awareness - Are you losing business?', Our Hotel, vol. Summer, pp. 41-43.
Pegg, S. & Darcy, S.A. 2007, 'Sailing on Troubled Waters: Diversional Therapy in Australia', Therapeutic Recreation Journal, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 132-140.
This paper seeks to explore the notion of Therapeutic Recreation (TR) in an Australian context. It does so through first reviewing the historical development of Diversional Therapy (DT) services in Australia and then examining the impact on service delivery of ongoing national reform in the health and community care sectors. The paper suggests that such reforms have created a somewhat fluid state of affairs whereby DT staff need decide whether or not they effectively embrace change and the challenges that such reforms have brought, or accept a substantially lesser role in the overall scheme of Australian health services in the not-too-distant future. With this need for positive (and immediate) action in mind, the paper concludes with a discussion of what it is that DT staff need do to establish a valued place in the Australian health care mainstream.
Lock, D.J., Taylor, T.L. & Darcy, S.A. 2007, 'Fan identity formation in a revamped league: A-League (Australia)', Sport Marketing Europe, vol. 2007, no. Spring.
Taylor, T.L., Darcy, S.A., Hoye, R.S. & Cuskelly, G. 2006, 'Using psychological contract theory to explore issues in effective volunteer management', European Sport Management Quarterly, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 123-147.
Psychological contract theory is used here to explore the set of expectations and obligations that community sport club volunteers regard as part of their volunteering experience. In the first phase of the research, focus group interviews were conducted with 98 community sports club administrators about the methods used to manage volunteers and the organisational expectations of the volunteers. In phase two, 48 general volunteers were interviewed about their expectations and perceptions of the club's volunteer management practices. The findings indicate that club administrators and volunteers place different emphases on the transactional, assurance of good faith and fair dealing, and intrinsic job characteristic components of the psychological contract. Notably, club administrators had substantial expectations of volunteers in relation to adherence to professional, legal and regulatory standards. Volunteers were primarily concerned with doing rewarding work in a pleasant social environment that was able to fit within their often tight time restrictions. The implications of these findings for volunteer management processes and practice in community sport clubs are discussed.
Darcy, S.A. 2006, 'Book review: Principles and Practice of Sport Management (2nd edition); Lisa Pike Masteralexis, Carol A Barr & Mary A Hume; Jones & Bartlett (USA); 2005', Australian Leisure Management, vol. 50, no. February, pp. 50-50.
Cuskelly, G., Taylor, T., Hoye, R. & Darcy, S. 2006, 'Volunteer Management Practices and Volunteer Retention: A Human Resource Management Approach', Sport Management Review, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 141-163.
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This study used a human resource management (HRM) approach to examine the efficacy of volunteer management practices in predicting perceived problems in volunteer retention. Participants were a sample of 375 Australian Rugby Union clubs from across the country. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the properties of a hypothesised reflective measurement model with seven volunteer management constructs (planning, recruitment, screening, orientation, training and support, performance management, and recognition). The efficacy of volunteer management practices was tested using regression analysis. 2006 Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand.
Daruwalla, P. & Darcy, S.A. 2005, 'Personal and societal attitudes to disability', Annals Of Tourism Research, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 549-570.
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The research addresses theoretical and conceptual frameworks dealing with the formation and change of attitudes, cognitive dissonance, positive and negative prejudice, the concept of spread, overt and covert attitudes and their formation, and the nexus b
Darcy, S.A. 2005, 'Accessing all areas: the potential of the draft access to premises standard', Australasian Leisure Management, vol. -, no. March/April, pp. 44-46.
Fullager, S. & Darcy, S.A. 2004, 'Critical points against an Australasian therapeutic recreation association: towards community leisure through enabling justice.', Annals of Leisure Research, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 95-103.
Darcy, S.A. 2004, 'Harmony and certainty? the status of the draft access to premises standard', Annals of Leisure Research, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 158-167.
Darcy, S.A. 2004, 'Book review: Inclusive and special recreation', Annals of leisure research, vol. 7, no. 3.
Darcy, S.A. 2004, 'Statistical Note : Australian Bureau of Statistics (2004) Disability, Ageing and Carers Survey', Annals of Leisure Research, vol. 7, no. 2.
Cashman, R., Toohey, K.M., Darcy, S.A., Symons, C. & Stewart, B. 2004, 'When the carnival is over: evaluating the outcomes of mega sporting events in Australia', Sporting Traditions, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1-32.
Darcy, S.A. 2004, 'The Development & Management of Visitor Attractions - Book review', Australian Leisure Management, vol. -.
Darcy, S.A. & Harris, R. 2003, 'Inclusive and accessible special event planning: an Australian perspective', Event Management: An International Journal, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 39-47.
Darcy, S.A. & Taylor, T.L. 2003, 'Management and inclusion in leisure services', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 2-2.
Darcy, S.A. 2003, 'The disability discrimination act, parks and leisure services and people with disabilities: Part 2 beyond complaint cases', Parks and Leisure, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 45-45.
Foggin, E., Cameron, B. & Darcy, S.A. 2003, 'Vers un tourisme sans barrieres: initiatives dans la region Asie-Pacifique', Teoros, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 16-19.
Darcy, S.A. 2003, 'The politics of disability and access: the Sydney 2000 Games experience', Disability & Society, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 737-757.
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Foggin, E.S., Cameron, B. & Darcy, S.A. 2003, 'Vers un tourisme sans barrieres: Initiatives dans la region Asie-Pacifique', TOROS: Revue de recherche en tourisme, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 16-19.
Given the growing numbers of consumers of leisure-oriented products and services for whom barrier-free travel (BFT) would be welcomed, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) identified Barrier-Free Tourism as presenting market potential for the Asia-Pacific region. The research, subsequently commissioned to demonstrate an economic rationale and to develop guidelines for the development of a BFT industry, fulfilled these and other objectives through the use of a literature review, secondary data, questionnaires and web-based searches. The final report submitted to ESCAP incorporated numerous examples of best practice and recommendations in conjunction with the conclusion that BFT indeed presents a significant, market potential.
Darcy, S.A. 2002, 'Marginalised participation: physical disability, high support needs and tourism', Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 61-72.
Darcy, S.A. 2002, 'Legal Notes: the disability discrimination act: recreation services and people with disabilities', Australasian Parks and Leisure, vol. 5, pp. 41-42.
Darcy, S.A. 2001, 'The Games for Everyone? Planning for Disability and Access at the Sydney 2000 Paralympic & Olympic Games', Disability Studies Quarterly, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 70-84.
Wearing, S.L. & Darcy, S.A. 1998, 'Ecotourism Options In Coastal Protected Area Management: A Case Study Of North Head Quarantine Station', Environmentalist, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 239-250.
The challenges faced by coastal protected areas in both promoting highly attractive sites and preserving the natural attributes of these sites have been given a new dimension with the opportunities presented by ecotourism. Realising the market potential of a protected area and, at the same time, conserving the unique features of an area is a difficult task. This paper explores the possibilities that backpacker tourism may offer the Quarantine Station in Sydney Harbour National Park, in Australia. The Quarantine Station is a signicant cultural heritage site that is located in a sensitive coastal national park within Sydney's metropolitan area.
McDonnell, I.G. & Darcy, S.A. 1998, 'Tourism precincts: a factor in Bali's rise in fortune and Fiji's fall from our - an Australian perspective', Journal of Vacation Marketing: an international journal for the tourism and hospitality industries, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 353-367.
If Coca-Cola lost more than half of its Australian market share to Pepsi over a ten-year period marketers of fast moving consumer goods would be amazed at such a change in market share. Marketers of tourism destinations might be expected to be similarly amazed by the more than halving of Fiji's share of the Australian international tourism market between 1982 and 1996 and an approximately similar increase in Bali's market share. This study investigates one of the possible factors underlying Fiji's loss of market share by using Crompton's and Leiper's theory of tourist motivation in the context of Clare Gunn's' c'oncept of clustering of tourist attractions into tourism precincts .
Darcy, S.A. & Veal, A.J. 1994, 'The Sydney 2000 Olympic Games: the story so far', Leisure Options: The Australian Journal of Leisure and Recreation, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 5-14.
Darcy, S.A., Taylor, T.L., Murphy, A.J. & Lock, D. Canberra: Australian Sport Commission. 2011, Getting Involved in Sport: The Participation and non-participation of people with disability in sport and active recreation, pp. 1-78, Canberra.
Griffin, T., Moore, S., Crilley, G., Darcy, S.A. & Schweinsberg, S.C. Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Council 2010, Protected Area Management: Collection and Use of Visitor Data. Volume 1: Summary and Recommendations, pp. 1-50, Brisbane.
The technical reports present data and its analysis, meta-studies and conceptual studies, and are considered to be of value to industry, government or other researchers. Unlike the Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centres (STCRCs) Monograph series, these reports have not been subjected to an external peer review process. As such, the scientific accuracy and merit of the research reported here is the responsibility of the authors, who should be contacted for clarification of any content. Author contact details are at the back of this report. The views and opinions of the authors expressed in the reports or by the authors if you contact them do not necessarily state or reflect those of the STCRC.
Moore, S., Crilley, G., Darcy, S.A., Griffin, T., Taplin, R. & Tonge, J. Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Council 2009, Designing and Testing a Park-Based Visitor Survey, Gold Coast.
This report presents the composition of a generic park visitation survey instrument based on the core data variables that can be employed in multiple park level jurisdictions throughout Australia. Its focus is to identify the considerations for the future development of software-based solutions for data collection, aggregation, dissemination and reporting of park-based activity across the 14 protected area agencies.
Moore, S., Crilley, G., Darcy, S.A., Griffin, T., Taplin, R. & Tonge, J. STCRC 2009, Designing and Testing a Park-Based Visitor Survey, Australia.
Moore, S., Crilley, G., Darcy, S.A., Griffin, T., Taplin, R., Tonge, J., Wegner, A. & Smith, A. CRC For Sustainable Tourism 2009, Designing and Testing a Park-Based Visitor Survey, pp. 1-42, Sydney, Australia.
This technical report is part of a broader national project `Systematic and strategic collection and use of visitor information in protected area management, funded by Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre (STCRC), and conducted in partnership with protected area agencies across Australia. The aim of this report is to provide a systematic approach to using a set of core variables to collect data in a way that can be consistently applied across Australian protected areas. This information is most relevant to park-level management, but is also of central interest for corporate reporting. An associated aim was to develop and test a questionnaire for collecting these data.
Darcy, S.A., Cameron, B., Dwyer, L., Taylor, T.L., Wong, E. & Thomson, A.K. Sustainable Tourism CRC 2008, Visitor accessibility in urban centres (Technical Report 90040), pp. 1-110, Sydney, Australia.
The research project was sponsored by the STCRC NSW state node to examine visitor accessibility in urban areas. Visitor accessibility encompasses all tourism markets including seniors and people with disabilities who have been identified as the accessible tourism market. It is recognised in the literature that there are significant barriers that constrain the tourism experiences of the group. As determined by the Industry Reference Group (IRG) the precinct study area was the main Sydney tourism precinct that incorporated: the transport hub from Central to Circular Quay East and West Circular Quay The Rocks Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney Harbour environs and Sydney Harbour National Park Manly Ferry, Manly boardwalk and North Head Lookout.
Collins, J., Darcy, S.A., Jordan, K., Skilbeck, R., Faulkner, S., Peel, V., Dunstan, D., Lacey, G. & Firth, T. Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre 2008, Cultural landscapes of tourism in New South Wales and Victoria, pp. 1-91, Gold Coast, Queensland.
The field of cultural landscapes tourism is under-developed in Australia at the level of theory, research and policy development. Yet international research suggests that cultural landscapes tourism has significant potential in attracting new tourists. This research project is a scoping study designed to set out the parameters involved in cultural landscapes tourism research in Australia. It aims to identify how cultural heritage and contemporary cultural diversity impact on visitor experience and on local communities. The objective is to assist the Australian tourism industry particularly those located in regional and rural areas in understanding the growing importance of cultural tourism, by developing a number of case studies of cultural landscapes tourism in two Australia states. These case studies provide examples of existing tourism in a range of different cultural landscape sites, enabling the development of a process by which to identify change in cultural heritage tourism regions, including examining how multicultural precincts can operate as sustainable tourism destinations. Fieldwork with tourists and stakeholders will enable the development of industry strategies to increase tourism in the future. In addition, this fieldwork will facilitate the development of an innovative, multi-disciplinary theory of cultural landscapes tourism. This will set the stage for future research and policy development.
Darcy, S.A., Cameron, B., Pegg, S. & Packer, T. Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre 2008, Developing business case studies for accessible tourism, pp. 1-64, Gold Coast, Queensland.
The aim of the research was to bring the insights and interdisciplinary expertise of the research team to develop best business practice case studies in accessible tourism. This project builds upon the STCRC-funded workshop held on 12 July 2005: SydneySetting a Research Agenda for Accessible Tourism. Key findings are contained in the subsequent report (Darcy, 2006). This research project seeks to address the third prioritised outcome from that workshop: Industry EngagementThe Business Case for Accessible Tourism, by documenting the business case for accessible tourism through the development of business based, case studies of successful operators.
Packer, T., Small, J. & Darcy, S.A. Sustainable Tourism Co-Operative Research Centre 2008, Tourist experiences of individuals with vision impairments, pp. 1-37, Gold Coast, Australia.
People with visual disabilities Travel Australia. Tourism Research Australia.
Packer, T., Small, J. & Darcy, S.A. 2008, Technical Report 90044: Tourist Experiences of Individuals with Vision Impairment, Gold Coast: Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney.
Darcy, S.A., Cameron, B., Pegg, S. & Packer, T. Sustainable Tourism CRC 2008, Developing Business Cases for Accessible Tourism (Technical Report 90042), pp. 1-64, Sydney, Australia.
The research project was an STCRC scoping project to study a procedure for undertaking accessible tourism business cases. The project sought to case study examples of high standard accessible tourism product, facility or experience. The accessible tourism market is comprised of seniors and people with disabilities with access needs. It is recognised in the literature that there are significant barriers that constrain the tourism experiences of the group. A key component in the constraint is the supply of accessible tourism product and the understanding of the elements of business success with the market by the tourism industry. The methodology was informed by a case study approach and the triple bottom line scorecard. The research design sought to expand the thinking in general business performance more broadly than financial measures. The evaluation of environmental and social benefits has become part of core corporate practice. The preliminary work utilised a Delphi group to identify a range of high standard of accessible product, across states, segments and reflecting a range of ownership structures.
Collins, J., Darcy, S.A., Jordan, K., Skilbeck, R., Peel, V., Dunstan, D., Lacey, G. & Firth, T. STCRC 2008, Cultural landscapes of tourism in New South Wales and Victoria, Gold Coast, Australia.
Darcy, S.A., Cameron, B., Pegg, S. & Packer, T. STCRC 2008, Developing business case studies for accessible tourism, Gold Coast.
Cuskelly, G., Taylor, T.L., Hoye, R.S. & Darcy, S.A. Australian Rugby Union 2006, Volunteers in community rugby: A report to the Australian rugby union on the results of a national study on volunteer management practices in club rugby., Sydney, Australia.
Darcy, S.A. STCRC 2006, Setting a research agenda for accessible tourism., pp. 1-48, Gold Coast, Australia.
On 12 July 2005, a Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre Research workshop was held at the New South Wales Department of State and Regional Development, titled Setting a Research Agenda for Disability and Tourism. The Australia-wide workshop involved key academic researchers, industry partners, community organisations and government authorities interested in disability and tourism, and was attended by 45 invited participants. While broadly looking at dimensions, approaches and issues surrounding disability and tourism, the workshop recognised the broad context of accessible tourism initiatives recently commissioned by Tourism Australia, the incorporation of universal design principles in new buildings, and the development of Easy Access Markets.
Darcy, S.A. UTS 2005, Disability and Tourism Bibliography, Sydney.
Darcy, S.A. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Faculty of Business, University of Technology 2004, Disabling Journeys: The social relations of tourism for people with impairments in Australia 'an explanation of people with impairments' experiences through the discourses of government tourism authorities and the tourism industry, Sydney.
Cameron, B., Darcy, S.A. & Foggin, E.S. UN ESCAP 2003, Barrier-Free Tourism for People with Disabilities in the Asian and Pacific Region, Barrier-Free Tourism for People with Disabilities in the Asian and Pacific Region, pp. 1-113, New York, USA.
The production of this study on barrier-free tourism for people with disabilities in the Asian and Pacific region was undertaken with financial assistance from the Government of Japan. The study was prepared by Mr. Bruce Cameron, Mr. Simon Darcy and Ms. Elizabeth Foggin, consultants
Darcy, S.A. Australian Centre for Event Management 2002, Inclusive event planning for people with disabilities, pp. 91-102, UTS.