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Professor Simon Buckingham Shum


Simon Buckingham Shum is Professor of Learning Informatics, and Director of the Connected Intelligence Centre (CIC). CIC works at the intersection of research and teaching/learning, to break new ground in the use of data and analytics within UTS to improve the student experience.

Prior to joining UTS (Aug 2014) Simon was Professor of Learning Informatics and Associate Director (Technology) at the the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute, which he joined at its launch in 1995. KMi is now a 70-person lab developing and researching the future internet for the knowledge society.


Simon has a background in Psychology (B.Sc., York), Ergonomics (M.Sc., UCL) and Human-Computer Interaction (Ph.D., York/Rank Xerox EuroPARC. This informs his  human-centred; computing perspective to the challenge of building analytics, collective intelligence and sensemaking tools. Simon is a co-founder and a Vice-President of the Society for Learning Analytics Research; which catalyses dialogue at the intersection of data science and education, among researchers, educators, policymakers and vendors.

He is committed to developing research-informed tools that practitioners can use, and is a founding member of the Compendium Institute (global user forum for the Compendium knowledge cartography application) and Learning Emergence (advancing complex systems thinking about deep learning through leadership development and technology). He was Co-Founder and General Editor of the award-winning Journal of Interactive Media in Education, one of the earliest open access e-journals. He was one of the Investigators on the OpenLearn programme which published thousands of hours of OU; courses as Creative Commons;resources along with open; sensemaking;tools, and was Director of the;OU’s  SocialLearn  R&D project (2009-12).

In a schools (K-12) context he served as Chair of Governors at Bushfield School and advises Sydney high schools on learning futures. In the UK he secured >£1.8M continuous funding for this team 1997-2014 from the UK Research Councils, European Union, industry, public sector and philanthropic bodies. He is currently on two projects funded by the Australian Office for Learning & Teaching.
He has co-edited Visualizing Argumentation and Knowledge Cartography, and most recently Constructing Knowledge Art. View his research publications, and past projectsprior to joining UTS.

Image of Simon Buckingham Shum
Director Connected Intelligence Centre, Connected Intelligence Centre
Director, Connected Intelligence Centre
Core Member, Connected Intelligence Centre
B.Sc. (Hons) Psychology, M.Sc. Ergonomics, D.Phil. Psychology
+61 2 9514 4524

Research Interests

Simon's research sits at the intersection of Learning Analytics, Sensemaking and Collective Intelligence: the design of human-centred computation to...

  • make visible the dynamics of learning
  • develop analytics that provide insight into 21st century graduate attributes
  • scaffold social dialogue and rigorous argumentation with collaborative tools 
  • conduct reflective, collective deliberation on complex sociotechnical problems at a range of different scales

He is currently funded by the UK's Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) on the Election Debate Visualization Project, and the European Union on the Catalyst Project.

Can supervise: Yes

Simon lectures at postgraduate and professional levels on Learning Analytics and Argument Visualization. CIC runs the transdisciplinary Masters of Data Science & Innovation and Arguments, Evidence & Intuition. At the UK Open University, he worked on the world's first MBA program in Managing Knowledge, writing online distance teaching materials on Human-Centred Knowledge Management Technologies.


Selvin, A.M., Buckingham Shum, S. & Aakhus, M. 2013, 'The Practice Level in Participatory Design Rationale: Studying Practitioner Moves and Choices.' in Carroll, J.M. (ed), Creativity and Rationale, Springer, London, pp. 287-326.
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Most research in design rationale focuses on specific tools, methods, models, or artifacts. There has been relatively little attention to the practice level of design rationale work: the human experience of working with the tools and methods to create rationale artifacts. This paper explores a particular juncture of creativity and design rationale that is found in the special case of helping groups of people construct representations of rationale within live meetings. Such work poses challenges and requires skills different from those of individuals working alone. We describe the role of practitioners who perform caretaking and facilitative functions in collaborative or participatory design rationale sessions, and present a set of analytical tools aimed at making the practice level more visible. We locate the analysis in a theoretical framework aimed at understanding the experiential dimensions of such practice, including sensemaking, narrative, aesthetics, ethics, and improvisation.
Ferguson, R. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2012, 'Towards a Social Learning Space for Open Educational Resources' in Okada, A., Connolly, T. & Scott, P. (eds), Collaborative Learning 2.0: Open Educational Resources, Information Science Reference (IGI Global), Hershey PA, pp. 309-327.
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This chapter examines the meaning of open in terms of tools, resources, and education, and goes on to explore the association between open approaches to education and the development of online social learning. It considers why this form of learning is emerging so strongly at this point, what its underlying principles are, and how it can be defined. Openness is identified as one of the motivating rationales for a social media space tuned for learning, called SocialLearn, which is currently being trialed at The Open University in the UK. SocialLearn has been designed to support online social learning by helping users to clarify their intention, ground their learning and engage in learning conversations. The emerging design concept and implementation are described here, with a focus on what personalization means in this context, and on how learning analytics could be used to provide different types of recommendation that support learning.
Okada, A., Buckingham Shum, S., Bachler, M., Tomadaki, E., Scott, P., Little, A. & Eisenstadt, M. 2009, 'Knowledge media tools to foster social learning' in Hatzipanagos, S. & Warburton, S. (eds), Handbook of Research on Social Software and Developing Community Ontologies, IGI Global, Hershey, PA, USA, pp. 357-380.
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The aim of this chapter is to overview the ways in which knowledge media technologies create opportunities for social learning. The Open Content movement has been growing rapidly, opening up new opportunities for widening participation. One of the Open Educational Resources (OER) initiatives is the OpenLearn project, launched by the Open University, which integrates three knowledge media technologies: Compendium, FM and MSG. In this chapter, the authors analyse some examples, which show how these tools can be used to foster open sensemaking communities by mapping knowledge, location and virtual interactions. At the end, they present some questions and future horizons related to this research
Sierhuis, M. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2008, 'Human-agent knowledge cartography for e-science: NASA field trials at the Mars Desert Research Station' in Okada, A., Buckingham Shum, S. & Sherborne, T. (eds), Knowledge Cartography: Software Tools and Mapping Techniques, Springer, London, pp. 287-306.
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This chapter describes the sociotechnical embedding of a knowledge cartography approach (Conversational Modelling) within a prototype e-science work system. This was evaluated over two 2-week field trials, simulating collaborative Mars-Earth geological exploration. We believe this work is the first demonstration of a knowledge mapping tool embedded within a human/software multiagent work system, with humans and agents reading and writing structures amenable to agent understanding and autonomous agent execution, and human understanding, annotation and argumentation. Secondly, in terms of the applied problem, we have demonstrated how human and agent plans, data, multimedia documents, metadata, discussions, interpretations and arguments can be mapped in an integrated manner, and successfully deployed in field trials which simulated aspects of mission workload pressure.
Buckingham Shum, S. 2007, 'Hypermedia Discourse: Contesting networks of ideas and arguments' in Priss, U., Polovina, S. & Hill, R. (eds), Conceptual Structures: Knowledge Architectures for Smart Applications, Springer, Berlin, pp. 29-44.
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This invited contribution motivates the Hypermedia Discourse research programme, investigating the reading, writing and contesting of ideas as hypermedia networks grounded in discourse schemes. We are striving for cognitively and computationally tractable conceptual structures: fluid enough to serve as augmentations to group working memory, yet structured enough to support long term memory. I will describe how such networks can be (i) mapped by multiple analysts to visualize and interrogate the claims and arguments in a literature, and (ii) mapped in real time to manage a team's information sources, competing interpretations, arguments and decisions, particularly in time- pressured scenarios where harnessing collective intelligence is a priority. Given the current geo-political and environmental context, the growth in distributed teamwork, and the need for multidisciplinary approaches to wicked problems, there has never been a greater need for sensemaking tools to help diverse stakeholders build common ground.
Buckingham Shum, S., Selvin, A.M., Sierhuis, M., Conklin, J., Haley, C.B. & Nuseibeh, B. 2006, 'Hypermedia support for argumentation-based rationale: 15 years on from gIBIS and QOC' in Dutoit, A., McCall, R., Mistrik, I. & Paech, B. (eds), Rationale Management in Software Engineering, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 111-132.
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Having developed, used and evaluated some of the early IBIS-based approaches to design rationale (DR) such as gIBIS and QOC in the late 1980s/mid-1990s, we describe the subsequent evolution of the argumentation-based paradigm through software support, and perspectives drawn from modeling and meeting facilitation. Particular attention is given to the challenge of negotiating the overheads of capturing this form of rationale. Our approach has maintained a strong emphasis on keeping the representational scheme as simple as possible to enable real time meeting mediation and capture, attending explicitly to the skills required to use the approach well, particularly for the sort of participatory, multi-stakeholder requirements analysis demanded by many design problems. However, we can then specialize the notation and the way in which the tool is used in the service of specific methodologies, supported by a customizable hypermedia environment, and interoperable with other software tools. After presenting this approach, called Compendium, we present examples to illustrate the capabilities for support security argumentation in requirements engineering, template driven modeling for document generation, and IBIS-based indexing of and navigation around video records of meetings.
Buckingham Shum, S. 2003, 'The roots of computer supported argument visualization' in Kirschner, P.A., Buckingham Shum, S.J. & Carr, C.S. (eds), Visualizing Argumentation: Software Tools for Collaborative and Educational Sense Making, Springer-Verlag, London, pp. 3-24.
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Buckingham Shum, S., Uren, V., Li, G., Domingue, J. & Motta, E. 2003, 'Visualizing internetworked argumentation' in Kirschner, P.A. & Buckingham Shum, S.J.A. (eds), Visualizing Argumentation: Software Tools for Collaborative and Educational Sense Making, Springer-Verlag, London, pp. 185-204.
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Sumner, T., Buckingham Shum, S. & Yates, S. 2003, 'Interactive peer review in the Journal of Interactive Media in Education: processes, tools, and techniques for managing persistent discourse' in Jones Wayne (ed), E-serials: Publishers, Libraries, Users, and Standards, The Hawthorn Information, Binghamton, NY, pp. 197-216.
Buckingham Shum, S., Domingue, J. & Motta, E. 2001, 'Ontology-Driven Knowledge Management: Philosophical, Modelling and Organizational Issues' in Roy, R. (ed), Industrial Knowledge Management. A Mirco Level Approach, Springer-Verlag, London, pp. 265-280.
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Our approach to knowledge management, called Ontology-Driven Document Enrichment, aims to support knowledge creation and sharing by enriching documents through formal models. These reflect a particular viewpoint over a set of resources, which is shared by a community of practice. In the first part of this chapter we describe the basic tenets of the approach and we briefly illustrate the technologies which we have developed to support it and the application domains in which it has been applied. In the second part of this chapter we evaluate our approach in terms of a number of issues, which have been raised in the research community. These pose important research questions for designers of knowledge management technologies that make use of formal knowledge models. These questions address issues of epistemology (what happens to the knowledge as it is formalized?), socio-technology (how to integrate knowledge technologies into work practice?), and usability (do end-users understand, and use, the formal scheme?). In the chapter we show how these issues are tackled in our approach and we emphasize the multi-faceted nature of knowledge management solutions.
Buckingham Shum, S. 1998, 'Negotiating the Construction of Organisational Memories' in Borghoff, U.M. & Pareschi, R. (eds), Information Technology for Knowledge Management, Springer, Berlin, pp. 55-78.
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This chapter describes an approach to capturing organisational memory, which serves to ground an analysis of human issues that knowledge management (KM) technologies raise. In the approach presented, teams construct graphical webs of the arguments and documents relating to key issues they are facing. This supports collaborative processes which are central to knowledge work, and provides a group memory of this intellectual investment. This approach emphasises the centrality of negotiation in making interdisciplinary decisions in a changing environment. Discussion in the chapter focuses on key human dimensions to KM technologies, including the cognitive and group dynamics set up by an approach, the general problem of preserving contextual cues, and the political dimensions to formalising knowledge processes and products. These analyses strongly motivate the adoption of participatory design processes for KM systems.
Buckingham Shum, S. & Sumner, T. 1998, 'New Scenarios in Scholarly Publishing and Debate' in Eisenstadt, M. & Vincent, T. (eds), The Knowledge Web: Learning and Collaborating on the Net, Kogan, London, pp. 135-151.
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This chapter describes how we are seeking to exploit the potential of interactive Web media through user-centred analysis of a mode of working that defines academic lifecritical, structured debate about documents. We are as interested in supporting school and university students critiquing course texts and publishing essays, as in professional scholars and researchers engaged in journal peer review and publishing. We question the replication of papyrocentric models which do not stop to question whether the new media make possible new modes of working, and new forms of document. We then describe the design principles underpinning the environments for reading and critiquing Web documents that the D3E Publishing Toolkit generates, and illustrate how things might be different by working through two scenarios of academic document-centred discourse, as supported by D3E. We conclude by pointing to directions in which future work could develop.
Buckingham Shum, S. 1996, 'Analyzing the Usability of a Design Rationale Notation' in Moran, T.P. & Carroll, J.M. (eds), Design Rationale: Concepts, Techniques, and Use, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 185-215.
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Semiformal, argumentation-based notations are one of the main classes of formalism currently being used to represent design rationale (DR). However, our understanding of the demands on designers of using such representations has to date been drawn largely from informal and anecdotal evidence. One way to tackle the fundamental challenge of reducing DRs representational overheads, is to understand the relationship between designing, and the idea structuring tasks introduced by a semiformal DR notation. Empirically based analyses of DR in use can therefore inform the design of the notations in order to turn the structuring effort to the designers advantage. This is the approach taken in this chapter, which examines how designers use a DR notation during design problem solving. Two empirical studies of DR-use are reported, in which designers used the QOC notation (MacLean et al., this volume) to express rationale for their designs. In the first study, a substantial and consistent body of evidence was gathered, describing the demands of the core representational tasks in using QOC, and the variety of strategies which designers adopt in externalising ideas. The second study suggests that an argumentation-based design model based around laying out discrete, competing Options is inappropriate during a depth-first, `evolutionary mode of working, centered around developing a single, complex Option. In addition, the data provide motivation for several extensions to the basic QOC notation. The chapter concludes by comparing the account of the QOCdesign relationship which emerges from these studies, with reports of other DR approaches in use.
Buckingham Shum, S. 1996, 'Design Argumentation as Design Rationale' in Kent, A. & Williams, J.G. (eds), The Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology, Vol 35, Supplement 20, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp. 95-128.
A design rationale (DR) is a representation of the reasoning behind the design of an artifact. In recent years, the use of semiformal notations for organising arguments about design decisions has attracted much interest within the software engineering and human-computer interaction communities, leading to the development of a number of DR notations and tool environments. This article begins by reviewing the motivation for expressing DR as design argumentation, and then surveys evidence from design studies to show when and how it can be productive to construct explicit design argumentation during design. The article then discusses practical cognitive, organizational and technological factors which could facilitate the uptake of design rationale systems.
MacLean, A., Bellotti, V. & Buckingham Shum, S. 1993, 'Developing the Design Space with Design Space Analysis' in Byerley, P.F., Barnard, P.J. & May, J. (eds), Computers, Communication and Usability: Design Issues, Research and Methods for Integrated Services, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 197-219.
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Buckingham Shum, S., Knight, S., McNamara, D., Allen, L., Betik, D. & Crossley, S. 2016, 'Critical Perspectives on Writing Analytics'.
Shum, S.B., Sándor, Á., Goldsmith, R., Wang, X., Bass, R. & Mcwilliams, M. 2016, 'Reflecting on reflective writing analytics: Assessment challenges and iterative evaluation of a prototype tool', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 213-222.
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© 2016 ACM.When used effectively, reflective writing tasks can deepen learners' understanding of key concepts, help them critically appraise their developing professional identity, and build qualities for lifelong learning. As such, reflecting writing is attracting substantial interest from universities concerned with experiential learning, reflective practice, and developing a holistic conception of the learner. However, reflective writing is for many students a novel genre to compose in, and tutors may be inexperienced in its assessment. While these conditions set a challenging context for automated solutions, natural language processing may also help address the challenge of providing real time, formative feedback on draft writing. This paper reports progress in designing a writing analytics application, detailing the methodology by which informally expressed rubrics are modelled as formal rhetorical patterns, a capability delivered by a novel web application. This has been through iterative evaluation on an independently humanannotated corpus, showing improvements from the first to second version. We conclude by discussing the reasons why classifying reflective writing has proven complex, and reflect on the design processes enabling work across disciplinary boundaries to develop the prototype to its current state.
Kitto, K., Bakharia, A., Lupton, M., Mallet, D., Banks, J., Bruza, P., Pardo, A., Shum, S.B., Dawsony, S., Gaševícy, D., Siemensg, G. & Lynch, G. 2016, 'The connected learning analytics toolkit', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 548-549.
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© 2016 Copyright held by the owner/author(s).This demonstration introduces the Connected Learning An- Alytics (CLA) Toolkit. The CLA toolkit harvests data about student participation in specified learning activities across standard social media environments, and presents information about the nature and quality of the learning interactions.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Anderson, T., Shum, S.B. & Knight, S. 2016, 'Towards supporting awareness for content curation: The case of food literacy and behavioural change', CEUR Workshop Proceedings, pp. 42-46.
Copyright © 2016 for the individual papers by the papers' authors.This paper presents a theoretical grounding and a conceptual proposal aimed at providing support in the initial stages of sustained behavioural change. We explore the role that learning analytics and/or open learner models can have in supporting life-long learners to enhance their food literacy through a more informed curation process of relevant-content. This approach grounds on a behavioural change perspective that identifies i) knowledge, ii) attitudes, and iii) self-efficacy as key factors that will directly and indirectly affect future decisions and agency of life-long learners concerning their own health. The paper offers some possible avenues to start organising efforts towards the use of learning analytics to enhance awareness in terms of: knowledge curation, knowledge sharing and knowledge certainty. The paper aims at triggering discussion about the type of data and presentation mechanisms that may help life-long learners set a stronger basis for behavioural change in the subsequent stages.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Schneider, B., Charleer, S., Buckingham Shum, S., Klerkx, J. & Duval, E. 2016, 'Interactive surfaces and learning analytics: data, orchestration aspects, pedagogical uses and challenges', LAK '16 Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge, Sixth International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge, ACM, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, pp. 124-133.
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The proliferation of varied types of multi-user interactive surfaces (such as digital whiteboards, tabletops and tangible interfaces) is opening a new range of applications in face-to-face (f2f) contexts. They offer unique opportunities for Learning Analytics (LA) by facilitating multi-user sensemaking of automatically captured digital footprints of students' f2f interactions. This paper presents an analysis of current research exploring learning analytics associated with the use of surface devices. We use a framework to analyse our first-hand experiences, and the small number of related deployments according to four dimensions: the orchestration aspects involved; the phases of the pedagogical practice that are supported; the target actors; and the levels of iteration of the LA process. The contribution of the paper is twofold: 1) a synthesis of conclusions that identify the degree of maturity, challenges and pedagogical opportunities of the existing applications of learning analytics and interactive surfaces; and 2) an analysis framework that can be used to characterise the design space of similar areas and LA applications.
Simsek, D., Sándor, Á., Buckingham Shum, S., Ferguson, R., De Liddo, A. & Whitelock, D. 2015, 'Correlations between automated rhetorical analysis and tutors' grades on student essays', http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2723576&picked=prox&cfid=677454654&cft..., Proceedings of LAK15: Fifth International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge, ACM, Poughkeepsie, New York, pp. 355-359.
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When assessing student essays, educators look for the students' ability to present and pursue well-reasoned and strong arguments. Such scholarly argumentation is often articulated by rhetorical metadiscourse. Educators will be necessarily examining metadiscourse in students' writing as signals of the intellectual moves that make their reasoning visible. Therefore students and educators could benefit from available powerful automated textual analysis that is able to detect rhetorical metadiscourse. However, there is a need to validate such technologies in higher education contexts, since they were originally developed in non-educational applications. This paper describes an evaluation study of a particular language analysis tool, the Xerox Incremental Parser (XIP), on undergraduate social science student essays, using the mark awarded as a measure of the quality of the writing. As part of this exploration, the study presented in this paper seeks to assess the quality of the XIP through correlational studies and multiple regression analysis.
Taibi, D., Sandor, A., Simsek, D., Buckingham Shum, S., De Liddo, A. & Ferguson, R. 2013, 'Visualizing the LAK/EDM literature using combined concept and rhetorical sentence extraction', Proceedings of the LAK Data Challenge, 3rd Int. Conf. on Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK '13), Leuven, Belgium.
Knight, S., Buckingham Shum, S. & Littleton, K. 2013, 'Tracking epistemic beliefs and sensemaking in collaborative information retrieval', Collaborative Information Seeking Workshop 2013 (CIS'13): Consolidating the Past, Creating the future, co-located with the 16th ACM Conference on Computer Support Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW 2013), San Antonio, Texas.
Knight, S., Buckingham Shum, S. & Littleton, K. 2013, 'Collaborative sensemaking in learning analytics', CSCW and Education Workshop (2013): Viewing education as a site of work practice, co-located with the 16th ACM Conference on Computer Support Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW 2013),, San Antonio, Texas.
De Liddo, A. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2013, 'Improving online deliberation with argument network visualizatio', Digital Cities 8, Munich, Germany..
De Liddo, A. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2013, 'The Evidence Hub: Harnessing the Collective Intelligence of Communities to Build Evidence-Based Knowledge', Large Scale Ideation and Deliberation Workshop, 6th International Conference on Communities & Technologies, 6th International Conference on Communities and Technologies, Munich, Germany.
Conventional document and discussion websites provide users with no help in assessing the quality or quantity of evidence behind any given idea. Besides, the very meaning of what evidence is may not be unequivocally defined within a community, and may require deep understanding, common ground and debate. An Evidence Hub is a tool to pool the community collective intelligence on what is evidence for an idea. It provides an infrastructure for debating and building evidence-based knowledge and practice. An Evidence Hub is best thought of as a filter onto other websites a map that distills the most important issues, ideas and evidence from the noise by making clear why ideas and web resources may be worth further investigation. This paper describes the Evidence Hub concept and rationale, the breath of user engagement and the evolution of specific features, derived from our work with different community groups in the healthcare and educational sector.
Knight, S., Buckingham Shum, S. & Littleton, K. 2013, 'Epistemology, Pedagogy, Assessment and Learning Analytics', Proc. 3rd International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge, pp. 75-84.
Schreurs, B., Teplovs, C., Ferguson, R., De Laat, M. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2013, 'Visualizing Social Learning Ties by Type and Topic: Rationale and Concept Demonstrator', Proc. 3rd International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge, Third Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK 2013), Leuven, Belgium, pp. 33-37.
Social Learning Analytics (SLA) are designed to support students learning through social networks, and reflective practitioners engage in informal learning through a community of practice. This short paper reports work in progress to develop SLA motivated specifically by Networked Learning Theory, drawing on the related concepts and tools of Social Network Analytics and Social Capital Theory, which provide complementary perspectives onto the structure and content of such networks. We propose that SLA based on these perspectives needs to devise models and visualizations capable of showing not only the usual SNA metrics, but the types of social tie forged between actors, and topic-specific subnetworks. We describe a technical implementation demonstrating this approach, which extends the Network Awareness Tool by automatically populating it with data from a social learning platform SocialLearn. The result is the ability to visualize relationships between people who interact around the same topics.
Ferguson, R., Wei, Z., He, Y. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2013, 'An Evaluation of Learning Analytics to Identify Exploratory Dialogue in Online Discussions', Proc. 3rd International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge., Third Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK 2013), Leuven, Belgium, pp. 85-93.
Social learning analytics are concerned with the process of knowledge construction as learners build knowledge together in their social and cultural environments. One of the most important tools employed during this process is language. In this paper we take exploratory dialogue, a joint form of co-reasoning, to be an external indicator that learning is taking place. Using techniques developed within the field of computational linguistics, we build on previous work using cue phrases to identify exploratory dialogue within online discussion. Automatic detection of this type of dialogue is framed as a binary classification task that labels each contribution to an online discussion as exploratory or non-exploratory. We describe the development of a self-training framework that employs discourse features and topical features for classification by integrating both cue-phrase matching and k-nearest neighbour classification. Experiments with a corpus constructed from the archive of a two-day online conference show that our proposed framework outperforms other approaches. A classifier developed using the self-training framework is able to make useful distinctions between the learning dialogue taking place at different times within an online conference as well as between the contributions of individual participants.
Buckingham Shum, S., De Laat, M., De Liddo, A., Ferguson, R., Kirschner, P., Ravenscroft, A., Sándor, A. & Whitelock, D. 2013, 'DCLA13: 1st International Workshop on Discourse-Centric Learning Analytics', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, p. 282.
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This workshop anticipates that an important class of learning analytic will emerge at the intersection of research into learning dynamics, online discussion platforms, and computational linguistics. Written discourse is arguably the primary class of data that can give us insights into deeper learning and higher order qualities such as critical thinking, argumentation, mastery of complex ideas, empathy, collaboration and interpersonal skills. Moreover, the ability to write in a scholarly manner is a core competence, often taking the form of discourse with oneself and the literature. Computational linguistics research has developed a rich array of tools for machine interpretation of human discourse, but work to develop these tools in the context of learning is at a relatively early stage. Moreover, there is a significant difference between designing tools to assist researchers in discourse analysis, and their deployment on platforms to provide meaningful analytics for the learners and educators who are conducting that discourse. This workshop aims to catalyse ideas and build community connections among those who want to shape this field. © 2013 Authors.
Buckingham Shum, S., Hawksey, M., Baker, R.S.J.D., Jeffery, N., Behrens, J.T. & Pea, R. 2013, 'Educational data scientists: A scarce breed', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 278-281.
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The Educational Data Scientist is currently a poorly understood, rarely sighted breed. Reports vary: some are known to be largely nocturnal, solitary creatures, while others have been reported to display highly social behaviour in broad daylight. What are their primary habits? How do they see the world? What ecological niches do they occupy now, and will predicted seismic shifts transform the landscape in their favour? What survival skills do they need when running into other breeds? Will their numbers grow, and how might they evolve? In this panel, the conference will hear and debate not only broad perspectives on the terrain, but will have been exposed to some real life specimens, and caught glimpses of the future ecosystem. © 2013 Authors.
Buckingham Shum, S. & Deakin Crick, R. 2012, 'Learning Dispositions and Transferable Competencies: Pedagogy, Modelling and Learning Analytics', Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Learning Analytics & Knowledge, ACM Press, Vancouver, BC.
Ferguson, R. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2012, 'Social Learning Analytics: Five Approaches', Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Learning Analytics & Knowledge, ACM Press, Vancouver, BC.
De Liddo, A., Buckingham Shum, S., McAndrew, P. & Farrow, R. 2012, 'The Open Education Evidence Hub: A Collective Intelligence Tool for Evidence Based Policy', Cambridge 2012: Joint OER12 and OpenCourseWare Consortium Global 2012 Conference, Cambridge, UK.
De Liddo, A., Buckingham Shum, S., Convertino, G., Sándor, A. & Klein, M. 2012, 'Collective intelligence as community discourse and action', Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW, pp. 5-6.
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Collective Intelligence (CI) research investigates the design of infrastructures to enable collectives to think and act intelligently, and intriguingly, more intelligently than individuals. Technologies such as idea management or argumentation tools, blogs, wikis, chats, forums, Q&A sites, and social networks provide unprecedented opportunities for entire communities or organizations to express a discourse and act at a massive scale. This workshop seeks to understand the forms of CI that can be constructed through discourse and action, which enables advanced forms of collective sensemaking such as idea generation and prioritization, argumentation, and deliberation. When does effective discourse help a collective outperform individuals? What functions should the next generation of social platforms support? How can we allow communities to efficiently manage many diverse ideas, argument, and deliberate? What patterns in discourse and action can be modeled computationally? © 2012 Authors.
De Liddo, A., Sándor, A. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2012, 'Cohere and XIP: Human annotation harnessing machine annotation power', Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW, pp. 49-50.
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In this video we demonstrate the practical application of research on human and machine annotation of online documents to support reflective reading and collective sensemaking of online documents. We present an innovative research prototype which integrate a discourse analysis software (XIP) with an open source Web Annotation and Knowledge-Mapping tool (Cohere). We visualize an interactive scenario of use of the two integrated technologies in a unique user experience. This dynamic scenario will give an inspiring vision of future CSCW systems, which combine human annotation to harness machine analysis and reasoning power. © 2012 Authors.
De Liddo, A., Buckingham Shum, S., Quinto, I., Bachler, M. & Cannavacciuolo, L. 2011, 'Discourse-Centric Learning Analytics', Proc. 1st International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge, ACM Press, Banff, Alberta.
Ferguson, R. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2011, 'Learning Analytics to Identify Exploratory Dialogue Within Synchronous Text Chat', LAK 2011: 1st International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge, ACM Press, Banff, Alberta.
Buckingham Shum, S., Sierhuis, M., Park, J. & Brown, M. 2010, 'Software agents in support of human argument mapping', Computational Models of Argument: Proceedings of COMMA 2010: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications Series, IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp. 123-134.
De Liddo, A. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2010, 'Capturing and representing deliberation in participatory planning practices', Fourth International Conference on Online Deliberation (OD2010), Leeds, UK.
De Liddo, A. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2010, 'Cohere: A prototype for contested collective intelligence', ACM Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2010) - Workshop: Collective Intelligence In Organizations - Toward a Research Agenda, Savannah, Georgia, USA.
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Buckingham Shum, S. & Ferguson, R. 2010, 'Towards a social learning space for open educational resources', OpenEd2010: Seventh Annual Open Education Conference, Barcelona, Spain.
Buckingham Shum, S. & De Liddo, A. 2010, 'Collective intelligence for OER sustainability', Proceedings OpenEd2010: Seventh Annual Open Education Conference, Barcelona, Spain.
Quinto, I., Buckingham Shum, S., De Liddo, A. & Iandoli, L. 2010, 'A debate dashboard to enhance on-line knowledge sharing', IFKAD Conference - Intellectual Capital in a Complex Business Landscape, Matera, Italy.
Buckingham Shum, S. 2008, 'Cohere: Towards web 2.0 argumentation', Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, pp. 97-108.
Students, researchers and professional analysts lack effective tools to make personal and collective sense of problems while working in distributed teams. Central to this work is the process of sharing-and contesting- interpretations via different forms of argument. How does the 'Web 2.0' paradigm challenge us to deliver useful, usable tools for online argumentation? This paper reviews the current state of the art in Web Argumentation, describes key features of the Web 2.0 orientation, and identifies some of the tensions that must be negotiated in bringing these worlds together. It then describes how these design principles are interpreted in Cohere, a web tool for social bookmarking, idea-linking, and argument visualization. © 2008 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.
Benn, N., Buckingham Shum, S., Domingue, J. & Mancini, C. 2008, 'Ontological foundations for scholarly debate mapping technology', Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, pp. 61-72.
Mapping scholarly debates is an important genre of what can be called Knowledge Domain Analytics (KDA) technology-i.e. technology which combines both quantitative and qualitative methods of analysing specialist knowledge domains. However, current KDA technology research has emerged from diverse traditions and thus lacks a common conceptual foundation. This paper reports on the design of a KDA ontology that aims to provide this foundation. The paper then describes the argumentation extensions to the ontology for supporting scholarly debate mapping as a special form of KDA and demonstrates its expressive capabilities using a case study debate. © 2008 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.
De Liddo, A., Concilio, G. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2007, 'Advancing knowledge management and exchange between collaborative environments: A tool integration perspective', CEUR Workshop Proceedings, pp. 58-69.
This paper focuses on supporting knowledge management and exchange between web-based and traditional collaborative environments. In particular we discuss the integration between a tool (CoPe-it!) supporting collaborative argumentation and learning in web-based Communities of Practices and a hypermedia and sense making tool (Compendium) acting as a personal and collective Knowledge Management (KM) system in traditional collaborative environments. We focus on the general applicability of this integration for supporting Communities of Practices and, more generally, collaborative works, and discuss the main objectives and challenges to be addressed.
Clancey, W.J., Sierhuis, M., Alena, R.L., Berrios, D., Dowding, J., Graham, J.S., Tyree, K.S., Hirsh, R.L., Brent Garry, W., Semple, A., Buckingham Shum, S.J., Shadbolt, N. & Rupert, S.M. 2005, 'Automating CapCom using mobile agents and robotic assistants', A Collection of Technical Papers - 1st Space Exploration Conference: Continuing the Voyage of Discovery, pp. 835-874.
We have developed and tested an advanced EVA communications and computing system to increase astronaut self-reliance and safety, reducing dependence on continuous monitoring and advising from mission control on Earth. This system, called Mobile Agents (MA), is voice controlled and provides information verbally to the astronauts through programs called "personal agents." The system partly automates the role of CapCom in Apollo-including monitoring and managing EVA navigation, scheduling, equipment deployment, telemetry, health tracking, and scientific data collection. EVA data are stored automatically in a shared database in the habitat/vehicle and mirrored to a site accessible by a remote science team. The program has been developed iteratively in the context of use, including six years of ethnographic observation of field geology. Our approach is to develop automation that supports the human work practices, allowing people to do what they do well, and to work in ways they are most familiar. Field experiments in Utah have enabled empirically discovering requirements and testing alternative technologies and protocols. This paper reports on the 2004 system configuration, experiments, and results, in which an EVA robotic assistant (ERA) Followed geologists approximately 150 m through a winding, narrow canyon. On voice command, the ERA took photographs and panoramas and was directed to move and wait in various locations to serve as a relay on the wireless network. The MA system is applicable to many space work situations that involve creating and navigating from maps (including configuring equipment for local topology), interacting with piloted and unpiloted rovers, adapting to environmental conditions, and remote team collaboration involving people and robots.
Domingue, J., Motta, E., Buckingham Shum, S., Vargas-Vera, M., Kalfoglou, Y. & Farnes, N. 2001, 'Supporting ontology driven document enrichment within communities of practice', Proceedings of the First International Conference on Knowledge Capture, pp. 30-37.
Formative work by Lave and Wenger has articulated how practices emerge through the interplay of informal processes with symbolic codifications and artifacts. In this paper, we describe how ontologies can serve as symbolic tools within a community of practice supporting communication and knowledge sharing. We show that when a community's perspective on an issue is stable, it opens the possibility for introducing knowledge services, based on an ontology co-constructed by knowledge engineers with stakeholders. Using a case study we describe our approach, ontology driven document enrichment, looking at how ontology construction and population can be supported by web based technologies.
Mancini, C. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2001, 'Cognitive coherence relations and hypertext: From cinematic patterns to scholarly discourse', Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Hypertext, pp. 165-174.
In previous work we argued that cinematic language may provide insights into the construction of narrative coherence in hypertext, and we identified in the shot juxtaposition of rhetorical patterns the source of coherence for cinematic discourse. Here we deepen our analysis, to show how the mechanisms that underpin cinematic rhetorical patterns are the same as those providing coherence in written text. We draw on computational and psycholinguistic analyses of texts which have derived a set of relationships that are termed Cognitive Coherence Relations (CCR). We validate this by re-expressing established cinematic patterns, and relations relevant to scholarly hypertext, in terms of CCR, and with this conceptual bridge in place, present examples to show how cinematic techniques could assist the presentation of scholarly discourse. This theoretical work also informs system design. We describe how an abstract relational layer based on CCR is being implemented as a semantic hypertext system to mediate scholarly discourse.

Journal articles

Knight, S., Buckingham Shum, S., Ryan, P., Sándor, Á. & Wang, X. 2017, 'Academic Writing Analytics for Civil Law: Participatory Design Through Academic and Student Engagement', International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education.
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Research into the teaching and assessment of student writing shows that many students find academic writing a challenge to learn, with legal writing no exception. Improving the availability and quality of timely formative feedback is an important aim. However, the time-consuming nature of assessing writing makes it impractical for instructors to provide rapid, detailed feedback on hundreds of draft texts which might be improved prior to submission. This paper describes the design of a natural language processing (NLP) tool to provide such support. We report progress in the development of a web application called AWA (Academic Writing Analytics), which has been piloted in a Civil Law degree. We describe: the underlying NLP platform and the participatory design process through which the law academic and analytics team tested and refined an existing rhetorical parser for the discipline; the user interface design and evaluation process; and feedback from students, which was broadly positive, but also identifies important issues to address. We discuss how our approach is positioned in relation to concerns regarding automated essay grading, and ways in which AWA might provide more actionable feedback to students. We conclude by considering how this design process addresses the challenge of making explicit to learners and educators the underlying mode of action in analytic devices such as our rhetorical parser, which we term algorithmic accountability.
Iandoli, L., Quinto, I., De Liddo, A. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2014, 'Socially-augmented argumentation tools: rationale, design and evaluation of a debate dashboard', International Journal Of Human-computer Studies, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 298-319.
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Buckingham Shum, S. & Ferguson, R. 2012, 'Social Learning Analytics', Journal of Educational Technology & Society, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 3-26.
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We propose that the design and implementation of effective Social Learning Analytics (SLA) present significant challenges and opportunities for both research and enterprise, in three important respects. The first is that the learning landscape is extraordinarily turbulent at present, in no small part due to technological drivers. Online social learning is emerging as a significant phenomenon for a variety of reasons, which we review, in order to motivate the concept of social learning. The second challenge is to identify different types of SLA and their associated technologies and uses. We discuss five categories of analytic in relation to online social learning; these analytics are either inherently social or can be socialised. This sets the scene for a third challenge, that of implementing analytics that have pedagogical and ethical integrity in a context where power and control over data are now of primary importance. We consider some of the concerns that learning analytics provoke, and suggest that Social Learning Analytics may provide ways forward. We conclude by revisiting the drivers and trends, and consider future scenarios that we may see unfold as SLA tools and services mature.
De Liddo, A., Sandor, A. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2012, 'Contested Collective Intelligence: Rationale, Technologies, and a Human-Machine Annotation Study', Computer Supported Cooperative Work: the journal of collaborative computing, vol. 21, no. 4-5, pp. 417-448.
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We propose the concept of Contested Collective Intelligence (CCI) as a distinctive subset of the broader Collective Intelligence design space. CCI is relevant to the many organizational contexts in which it is important to work with contested knowledge, for instance, due to different intellectual traditions, competing organizational objectives, information overload or ambiguous environmental signals. The CCI challenge is to design sociotechnical infrastructures to augment such organizational capability. Since documents are often the starting points for contested discourse, and discourse markers provide a powerful cue to the presence of claims, contrasting ideas and argumentation, discourse and rhetoric provide an annotation focus in our approach to CCI. Research in sensemaking, computer-supported discourse and rhetorical text analysis motivate a conceptual framework for the combined human and machine annotation of texts with this specific focus. This conception is explored through two tools: a social-semantic web application for human annotation and knowledge mapping (Cohere), plus the discourse analysis component in a textual analysis software tool (Xerox Incremental Parser: XIP). As a step towards an integrated platform, we report a case study in which a document corpus underwent independent human and machine analysis, providing quantitative and qualitative insight into their respective contributions. A promising finding is that significant contributions were signalled by authors via explicit rhetorical moves, which both human analysts and XIP could readily identify. Since working with contested knowledge is at the heart of CCI, the evidence that automatic detection of contrasting ideas in texts is possible through rhetorical discourse analysis is progress towards the effective use of automatic discourse analysis in the CCI framework.
Buckingham Shum, S., Aberer, K., Schmidt, A., Bishop, S., Lukowicz, P., Anderson, S., Charalabidis, Y., Domingue, J., de Freitas, S., Dunwell, I., Edmonds, B., Grey, F., Haklay, M., Jelasity, M., Karpistsenko, A., Kohlhammer, J., Lewis, J., Pitt, J., Sumner, R. & Helbing, D. 2012, 'Towards a global participatory platform: Democratising open data, complexity science and collective intelligence', The European Physical Journal. Special Topics, vol. 214, no. 1, pp. 109-152.
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The FuturICT project seeks to use the power of big data, analytic models grounded in complexity science, and the collective intelligence they yield for societal benefit. Accordingly, this paper argues that these new tools should not remain the preserve of restricted government, scientific or corporate élites, but be opened up for societal engagement and critique. To democratise such assets as a public good, requires a sustainable ecosystem enabling different kinds of stakeholder in society, including but not limited to, citizens and advocacy groups, school and university students, policy analysts, scientists, software developers, journalists and politicians. Our working name for envisioning a sociotechnical infrastructure capable of engaging such a wide constituency is the Global Participatory Platform (GPP). We consider what it means to develop a GPP at the different levels of data, models and deliberation, motivating a framework for different stakeholders to find their ecological niches at different levels within the system, serving the functions of (i) sensing the environment in order to pool data, (ii) mining the resulting data for patterns in order to model the past/present/future, and (iii) sharing and contesting possible interpretations of what those models might mean, and in a policy context, possible decisions. A research objective is also to apply the concepts and tools of complexity science and social science to the projects own work. We therefore conceive the global participatory platform as a resilient, epistemic ecosystem, whose design will make it capable of self-organization and adaptation to a dynamic environment, and whose structure and contributions are themselves networks of stakeholders, challenges, issues, ideas and arguments whose structure and dynamics can be modelled and analysed.
Iandoli, L., Quinto, I., De Liddo, A. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2012, 'A Debate Dashboard to Enhance Online Knowledge Sharing.', VINE The Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 67-93.
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Brown, M., Downie, A. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2012, 'Mapping the matrix: using compendium as a tool for recording the analytic group', Group Analysis, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 99-115.
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This paper describes the application of Compendium, a knowledge cartography software tool, for the recording of group process. As a hypertext tool, it enables analysts to visualise connections between people, ideas and information, establishing an evidence base within and across contexts (such as group sessions). After customising its visual language, templates and keyword system, it has been piloted as a research tool for the measurement of group process. This would appear to hold the promise of providing a digital substrate for recording, discussing and analysing long term group dynamics in new ways. While the project is in its early stages, early indications are that it is a useful tool which can highlight group process and record change over time. In the longer term, it seems plausible that group processes such as multiple mirroring and identification, and such complex structures as the matrix, could be made visible and researchable through this methodology.
Johnson, J., Buckingham Shum, S., Willis, A., Bishop, S., Zamenopoulos, T., Swithenby, S., MacKay, R., Merali, Y., Lorincz, A., Costea, C., Bourgine, P., Louca, J., Kapenieks, A., Kelly, P., Caird, S., Bromley, J., Crick, R.D., Goldspink, C., Collet, P., Carbone, A. & Helbing, D. 2012, 'The FuturICT education accelerator', The European Physical Journal. Special Topics, vol. 214, pp. 215-243.
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Education is a major force for economic and social wellbeing. Despite high aspirations, education at all levels can be expensive and ineffective. Three Grand Challenges are identified: (1) enable people to learn orders of magnitude more effectively, (2) enable people to learn at orders of magnitude less cost, and (3) demonstrate success by exemplary interdisciplinary education in complex systems science. A ten year `man-on-the-moon project is proposed in which FuturICTs unique combination of Complexity, Social and Computing Sciences could provide an urgently needed transdisciplinary language for making sense of educational systems. In close dialogue with educational theory and practice, and grounded in the emerging data science and learning analytics paradigms, this will translate into practical tools (both analytical and computational) for researchers, practitioners and leaders; generative principles for resilient educational ecosystems; and innovation for radically scalable, yet personalised, learner engagement and assessment. The proposed Education Accelerator will serve as a `wind tunnel for testing these ideas in the context of real educational programmes, with an international virtual campus delivering complex systems education exploiting the new understanding of complex, social, computationally enhanced organisational structure developed within FuturICT
Buckingham Shum, S., Cannavacciuolo, L., De Liddo, A., Iandoli, L. & Quinto, I. 2011, 'Using Social Network Analysis to Support Collective Decision-Making Process', International Journal of Decision Support System Technology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 15-31.
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Current traditional technologies, while enabling effective knowledge sharing and accumulation, seem to be less supportive of knowledge organization, use and consensus formation, as well as of collaborative decision making process. To address these limitations and thus to better foster collective decision-making around complex and controversial problems, a new family of tools is emerging able to support more structured knowledge representations known as collaborative argument mapping tools. This paper argues that online collaborative argumentation has the rather unique feature of combining knowledge organization with social mapping and that such a combination can provide interesting insights on the social processes activated within a collaborative decision making initiative. In particular, the authors investigate how Social Network Analysis can be used for the analysis of the collective argumentation process to study the structural properties of the concepts and social networks emerging from users interaction. Using Cohere, an online platform designed to support collaborative argumentation, some empirical findings obtained from two use cases are presented.
Selvin, A.M., Buckingham Shum, S. & Aakhus, M. 2010, 'The practice level in participatory design rationale: studying practitioner moves and choices', Human Technology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 71-105.
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Most research in design rationale  focuses on specific  tools, methods, models,  or  artifacts.  There  has  been  relatively little  attention  to  the  practice level  of  design  rationale  work:  the  human  experience  of  working  with  the  tools  and  methods to create rationale artifacts. This paper explores a particular juncture  of  creativity and  design  rationale  that is  found in  the  special  case  of  helping  groups of people construct representations of rationale in live meetings. Doing  such  work  poses  challenges  and  requires  skills  different  than  those  of  indi- viduals  working  alone.  We  describe  the  role  of  practitioners,  who  perform  caretaking  and  facilitative  functions  in  collaborative  or  participatory  design  rationale  sessions,  and  present  a  set  of  analytical  tools  aimed  at making  the  practice level more visible. We locate the analysis in a theoretical  framework  aimed at understanding  the experiential dimensions of such practice, includ- ing sensemaking, narrative, aesthetics, ethics, and improvisation
Bailey, H., Bachler, M., Buckingham Shum, S., Le Blanc, A., Popat, S., Rowley, A. & Turner, M. 2009, 'Dancing on the Grid: Using e-Science Tools to Extend Choreographic Research', Royal Society of London. Philosophical Transactions A. Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol. 367, no. 1898, pp. 2793-2806.
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This paper considers the role and impact of new and emerging e-Science tools on practice-led research in dance. Specifically it draws on findings from the e-Dance project. This two-year project brings together an interdisciplinary team combining research aspects of choreography, next generation of video conferencing, and Human-Computer Interaction analysis incorporating hypermedia and non-linear annotations for recording and documentation.
Okada, A. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2008, 'Evidence-Based Dialogue Maps as a Research Tool to Investigate the Quality of School Pupils Scientific Argumentation', International Journal of Research and Method in Education, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 291-315.
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This pilot study focuses on the potential of Evidence-based Dialogue Mapping as a participatory action research tool to investigate young teenagers scientific argumentation. Evidence-based Dialogue Mapping is a technique for representing graphically an argumentative dialogue through Questions, Ideas, Pros, Cons and Data. Our research objective is to better understand the usage of Compendium, a Dialogue Mapping software tool, as both (1) a learning strategy to scaffold school pupils argumentation and (2) as a method to investigate the quality of their argumentative essays. The participants were a science teacher-researcher, a knowledge mapping researcher and 20 pupils, 12-13 years old, in a summer science course for gifted and talented children in the UK. This study draws on multiple data sources: discussion forum, science teacher-researchers and pupils Dialogue Maps, pupil essays, and reflective comments about the uses of mapping for writing. Through qualitative analysis of two case studies, we examine the role of Evidence-based Dialogue Maps as a mediating tool in scientific reasoning: as conceptual bridges for linking and making knowledge intelligible; as support for the linearisation task of generating a coherent document outline; as a reflective aid to rethinking reasoning in response to teacher feedback; and as a visual language for making arguments tangible via cartographic conventions.
Okada, A., Tomadaki, E., Buckingham Shum, S. & Scott, P. 2008, 'Fostering Open Sensemaking Communities by Combining Knowledge Maps and Videoconferencing', Upgrade: the European journal for the informatics professional, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 27-36.
Buckingham Shum, S., Uren, V., Li, G., Sereno, B. & Mancini, C. 2007, 'Modelling naturalistic argumentation in research literatures: representation and interaction design issues', International Journal of Intelligent Systems, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 17-47.
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Mancini, C., Scott, D. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2006, 'Visualising Discourse Coherence in Non-Linear Documents', TAL: Traitement Automatique des Langues, vol. 47, no. 2.
Mancini, C. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2006, 'Modelling discourse in contested domains: A semiotic and cognitive framework', International Journal Of Human-computer Studies, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 1154-1171.
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Uren, V., Buckingham Shum, S., Bachler, M. & Li, G. 2006, 'Sensemaking tools for understanding research literatures: design, implementation and user evaluation.', International Journal Of Human-computer Studies, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 420-445.
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Selvin, A.M. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2005, 'Hypermedia as a productivity tool for doctoral research', New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 91-101.
Buckingham Shum, S.J. 2005, 'Introduction to scholarly hypermedia', New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-6.
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Buckingham Shum, S. 2004, 'Contentious, dynamic, multimodal domains and ontologies?', IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 80-81.
Selvin, A.M. & Buckingham Shum, S. 2002, 'Rapid knowledge construction: a case study in corporate contingency planning using collaborative hypermedia', Knowledge and Process Management, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 119-128.
Buckingham Shum, S. & Sumner, T. 2001, 'JIME: An Interactive Journal for Interactive Media', Learned Publishing, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 273-285.
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Buckingham Shum, S., Motta, E. & Domingue, J. 2000, 'ScholOnto: An Ontology-Based Digital Library Server for Research Documents and Discourse', International Journal on Digital Libraries, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 237-248.
Motta, E., Buckingham Shum, S. & Domingue, J. 2000, 'Ontology-Driven Document Enrichment: Principles, Tools and Applications', International Journal Of Human-computer Studies, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1071-1109.
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Buckingham Shum, S. 2000, 'Carol Tenopir and Donald King (1999) Towards Electronic Journals: Realities for Scientists, Librarians and Publishers . Book review by Simon Buckingham Shum', Journal of Interactive Media in Education, vol. 2000, no. 4, pp. 4-4.
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Blandford, A. & Buckingham Shum, S. 1998, 'Training Software Engineers in a Novel Usability Evaluation Technique', International Journal Of Human-computer Studies, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 245-279.
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Buckingham Shum, S.C. 1997, 'World Wide Web Usability: Introduction to this Special Issue', International Journal Of Human-computer Studies, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 1-4.
Buckingham Shum, S. 1997, 'Negotiating the Construction and Reconstruction of Organisational Memories', Journal of Universal Computer Science, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 899-928.
Buckingham Shum, S., MacLean, A., Bellotti, V. & Hammond, N. 1997, 'Graphical Argumentation and Design Cognition', Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 267-300.
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Buckingham Shum, S. & Hammond, N. 1994, 'Argumentation-Based Design Rationale: What Use at What Cost?', International Journal Of Human-computer Studies, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 603-652.
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Buckingham Shum, S. & Hammond, N. 1994, 'Delivering HCI Modelling to Designers: A Framework and Case Study of Cognitive Modelling', Interacting With Computers, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 311-341.
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Buckingham Shum, S. 1990, 'Real and Virtual Spaces: Mapping from Spatial Cognition to Hypertext', Hypermedia, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 133-158.


Gibson, A., Knight, S., Aitken, A., Buckingham Shum, S., Ryan, P., Jarvis, W., Nikolova, N., Tsingos-Lucas, C., Parr, A., White, A., Sutton, N. & Tsingos-Lucas, C. 2016, 'Using Writing Analytics For Formative Feedback'.
The Open University UK, University of Bristol UK