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Dr Ross Jeffree

Biography

From 2004 - 2007 I led the IAEA Marine Radioecology Laboratory in Monaco, the only marine laboratory in the UN system. Prior to this I led ANSTO's Coastal Zone Project and Environmental Biology Group. I was also Counsellor Nuclear at the Australian High Commission, London, for three years and subsequently Coordinator of the Environmental Impact Statement for ANSTO’s Replacement Research Reactor.
As a result of my work at the UN I plan to facilitate and initiate a network of projects that will seek to find possible solutions to environmental problems through socio-economic valuation of impact of high atmospheric Carbon Dioxide levels.

At UTS I am an Adjunct Professor within The Plant Functional Biology and Climate Change Cluster (C3)

Professional

Planning committee of the 2nd International Workshop of the Monaco Environment and Economics Group (MEEG) on the Economic Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Aquaculture, San Diego 2012

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Visiting Fellow, Climate Change Cluster
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 7533

Research Interests

  • Ocean acidification
  • Natural resource economics
  • Impacts of uranium mining in tropical environments on the bioaccumulation of radionuclides and metals in aquatic foods.
  • applications of radiotracers and other nuclear-based technologies to the development of bioaccumulation models
  • the use of biota as contemporary and archival monitors of water quality
  • the effect of oceanic biological productivity on the biogeochemical cycling of radionuclides.

Conferences

Hilmi, N., Allemand, D., Jeffree, R. & Orr, J. 2009, 'Future Economic Impacts Of Ocean Acidification On Mediterranean Seafood: First Assessment Summary', Medcoast 09: Ninth International Conference On The Mediterranean Coastal Environment, Vols 1 And 2, 9th International Conference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment, Mediterranean Coastal Foundation-medcoast Foundation, Sochi, RUSSIA, pp. 597-608.
There is increasing concern with regard to future impacts of ocean acidification on marine biodiversity and the seafood products that are dependent on it. Hence, deleterious effects of OA on fisheries and aquaculture are likely to have significant econom
Lacoue-Labarthe, T., Warnau, M., Oberhaensli, F., Teyssie, J.-.L., Jeffree, R. & Bustamante, P. 2008, 'First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis', MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN, pp. 826-831.
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Cachet, N., Thomas, O.P., Al-Mourabit, A., Oberhaensli, F., Teyssie, J.L. & Jeffree, R. 2008, 'Biosynthesis of bromopyrrole alkaloids in Agelas oroides', PLANTA MEDICA, pp. 1165-1165.
Jeffree, R., Twining, J. & Lawton, M. 2000, 'Rum Jungle Mine Site Remediation: Relationship Between Changing Water Quality Parameters And Ecological Recovery In The Finniss River System', Icard 2000, Vols I And Ii, Proceedings, 5th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD 2000), Soc Mining Metallurgy And Exploration Inc, DENVER, CO, pp. 759-764.
The Finniss River system in tropical northern Australia has received 'acid-drainage' contaminants from the Rum Jungle uranium/copper mine site over the past 4 decades. Following mine-site remediation that began in 1981-82 the annual contaminant loads of
Ferris, J., Jeffree, R., Prince, K., Hoffman, E. & Heijnis, H. 1995, 'Plutonium Immobilization By Lichens At Maralinga, A Former Nuclear Test Site In Semi-arid South Australia', Environmental Impact Of Radioactive Releases, International Symposium on Environmental Impact of Radioactive Releases, Int Atomic Energy Agency, VIENNA, AUSTRIA, pp. 710-712.
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Poletiko, C., Twining, J. & Jeffree, R. 1994, 'Comparison Of Concentrations Of Natural And Artificial Radionuclides In Plankton From French Polynesian And Australian Coastal Waters', 9th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference - Nuclear Energy, Science & Technology Pacific Partnership, Proceedings, Vols 1 And 2, 9th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference on Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Pacific Partnership, Inst Engineers Australia, SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA, pp. 989-993.
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Zuk, W., Jeffree, R., Levins, D., Lowson, R. & Ritchie, A. 1994, 'From Rum Jungle To Wismut - Reducing The Environmental Impact Of Uranium Mining And Milling', 9th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference - Nuclear Energy, Science & Technology Pacific Partnership, Proceedings, Vols 1 And 2, 9th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference on Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Pacific Partnership, Inst Engineers Australia, SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA, pp. 935-940.
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Brown, P., Markich, S.J. & Jeffree, R. 1994, 'Migration Of Uranium: Integrating Geochemistry With Biomonitoring To Evaluate And Predict Its Environmental Impact', Chemistry And Migration Behaviour Of Actinides And Fission Products In The Geosphere, 4th International Conference on Chemistry and Migratory Behaviour of Actinides and Fission Products, R Oldenbourg Verlag, CHARLESTON, SC, pp. 355-361.
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Journal articles

Reveillac, E., Lacoue-Labarthe, T., Oberhaensli, F., Teyssie, J.-.L., Jeffree, R., Gattuso, J.-.P. & Martin, S. 2015, 'Ocean acidification reshapes the otolith-body allometry of growth in juvenile sea bream', JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY, vol. 463, pp. 87-94.
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Jeffree, R.A., Oberhansli, F., Teyssie, J.-.L. & Fowler, S.W. 2015, 'Maternal transfer of anthropogenic radionuclides to eggs in a small shark', Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, vol. 147, pp. 43-50.
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Jeffree, R., Markich, S.J. & Twining, J.R. 2014, 'Diminished metal accumulation in riverine fishes exposed to acid mine drainage over five decades', PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 3, p. e91371.
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Hilmi, N., Allemand, D., Cinar, M., Cooley, S.R., Hall-Spencer, J.M., Haraldsson, G., Hattam, C., Jeffree, R., Orr, J.C., Rehdanz, K., Reynaud, S., Safa, A. & Dupont, S. 2014, 'Exposure of Mediterranean Countries to Ocean Acidification', Water, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1719-1744.
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This study examines the potential effects of ocean acidification on countries and fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. The implications for seafood security and supply are evaluated by examining the sensitivity of the Mediterranean to ocean acidification at chemical, biological, and macro-economic levels. The limited information available on impacts of ocean acidification on harvested (industrial, recreational, and artisanal fishing) and cultured species (aquaculture) prevents any biological impact assessment. However, it appears that non-developed nations around the Mediterranean, particularly those for which fisheries are increasing, yet rely heavily on artisanal fleets, are most greatly exposed to socioeconomic consequences from ocean acidification.
Färber Lorda, J., Fowler, S.W., Miquel, J., Rodriguez y Baena, A. & Jeffree, R. 2013, '210Po/210Pb dynamics in relation to zooplankton biomass and trophic conditions during an annual cycle in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters', Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 43-52.
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Monthly sampling in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters was undertaken to better understand the relationship between zooplankton biomass and the cycling of the natural radionuclide 210Po/210Pb pair during a one-year period (October 1995eNovember 1996). In conjunction with mesozooplankton collections and 210Po/210Pb measurements in seawater, zooplankton and their fecal pellets, the biochemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) was also examined at three depths (0, 20 and 50 m) as an indicator of trophic conditions. During May 1996, a strong zooplankton âbloomâ was observed which was preceded by a prolonged increase in POM (protein þ carbohydrates þ lipids) starting at the end of March, and further demonstrated by a concomitant increase in the concentration of smaller particles, two features that are typical of mesotrophic waters. Simultaneous measurements of 210Po in sea water and zooplankton showed an inverse trend between these two parameters during the sampling period, with the two lowest 210Po concentrations in the dissolved phase of seawater coincident with the highest radionuclide concentrations in the zooplankton; however, this apparent relationship was not statistically significant over the entire year. Freshly excreted mesozooplankton and salp fecal pellets, which have been strongly implicated in the removal and downward transport of these radionuclides from the upper water column, contained 210Po and 210Pb levels ranging from 175 to 878 and 7.5 e486 Bq kg1 dry weight, respectively. Salp pellets contained 5 and 10 times more 210Po and 210Pb than in fecal pellets produced by mixed zooplankton, a finding most likely related to their different feeding strategies. During the zooplankton biomass peak observed in May, the 210Po concentration in zooplankton was at a minimum; however, in contrast to what has been reported to occur in some open sea oligotrophic waters, over the year no statistically significant inverse relationship was found...
Jeffree, R., Oberhaensli, F. & Teyssie, J. 2013, 'Marine radionuclide transfer factors in chordates and a phylogenetic hypothesis', Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, vol. 126, pp. 388-398.
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Previous radiotracer experiments that compared multi-elemental whole organism: water transfer factors among chondrichthyan and teleost fishes, including an ICRP reference flatfish Psetta maxima, demonstrated distinctive contrasts in their bioaccumulation characteristics, with generally elevated bioaccumulation in chondrichthyans. These results supported a hypothesis that phylogenetic divergence may influence marine radionuclide transfer factors. This notion has been further evaluated in an amphioxus species Branchiostoma lanceolatum, sub-phylum Cephalochordata. This taxon diverged about 800 MYBP from a common ancestor of the teleosts and the chondrichthyans, which in turn diverged from each other around 500 MYBP. Our experimental results indicate that amphioxus is indeed more divergent in its multi-elemental bioaccumulation patterns from teleosts and chondrichthyans than they are from each other, consistent with our hypothesis. The experimental comparisons with the ICRP reference flatfish P. maxima also revealed an unexpectedly enhanced capacity in amphioxus to accumulate all eight tested trace elements from seawater, and for some by more than two orders of magnitude. These results have practical applications for the strategic selection of marine biota for further radioecological investigations to better guarantee the radiological protection of marine biodiversity. Such seemingly anomalous results for understudied biota like amphioxus and chondrichthyans suggest that more effort in marine radioecology be directed to assessing the bioaccumulatory capacities of other phylogenetic groups that have received less attention so far, particularly those that are phylogenetically more remote from commonly investigated taxa and those nominated as ICRP marine reference organisms.
Reinardy, H.C., Syrett, J.R., Jeffree, R., Henry, T.B. & Jha, A.N. 2013, 'Cobalt-induced genotoxicity in male zebrafish (Danio rerio), with implications for reproduction and expression of DNA repair genes', Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 126, pp. 224-230.
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Although cobalt (Co) is an environmental contaminant of surface waters in both radioactive (e.g. 60Co) and non-radioactive forms, there is relatively little information about Co toxicity in fishes. The objective of this study was to investigate acute and chronic toxicity of Co in zebrafish, with emphasis on male genotoxicity and implications for reproductive success. The lethal concentration for 50% mortality (LC50) in larval zebrafish exposed (96 h) to 050 mg l-1 Co was 35.3 ± 1.1 (95% C.I.) mg l-1 Co. Adult zebrafish were exposed (13 d) to sub-lethal (025 mg l-1) Co and allowed to spawn every 4 d and embryos were collected. After 12-d exposure, fertilisation rate was reduced (6% total eggs fertilised, 25 mg l-1) and embryo survival to hatching decreased (60% fertilised eggs survived, 25 mg l-1). A concentration-dependent increase in DNA strand breaks was detected in sperm from males exposed (13 d) to Co, and DNA damage in sperm returned to control levels after males recovered for 6 d in clean water. Induction of DNA repair genes (rad51, xrcc5, and xrcc6) in testes was complex and not directly related to Co concentration, although there was significant induction in fish exposed to 15 and 25 mg l-1 Co relative to controls. Induction of 4.0 ± 0.9, 2.5 ± 0.7, and 3.1 ± 0.7-fold change (mean ± S.E.M. for rad51, xrcc5, and xrcc6, respectively) was observed in testes at the highest Co concentration (25 mg l-1). Expression of these genes was not altered in offspring (larvae) spawned after 12-d exposure. Chronic exposure to Co resulted in DNA damage in sperm, induction of DNA repair genes in testes, and indications of reduced reproductive success.
Hilmi, N., Allemand, D., Dupont, S., Safa, A., Haraldsson, G., Nunes, P.A., Moore, C., Hattam, C., Reynaud, S., Hall-Spencer, J.M., Fine, M., Turley, C., Jeffree, R., Orr, J., Munday, P.L. & Cooley, S.R. 2013, 'Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts', Marine Biology, vol. 160, pp. 1773-1787.
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Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research.
Lacoue-Labarthe, T., Martin, S., Oberhänsli, F., Teyssié, J., Jeffree, R., Gattuso, J. & Bustamante, P. 2012, 'Temperature and pCO2 effect on the bioaccumulation of radionuclides and trace elements in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis', Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 413, pp. 45-49.
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The increasing release of CO2 by human activities leads to ocean acidification and global warming. Both those consequences (i.e., increase in seawater pCO(2) and temperature) may drastically affect the physiology of marine organisms. The effects of low pH and elevated temperature on the bioaccumulation of radionuclides (Am-241, Cs-134) and trace elements (Co-60, Mn-54 or Se-75) were studied during the embryonic development of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. The lowered accumulation of essential Co-60 and Mn-54 with decreasing pH was larger at 16 degrees C than at 19 degrees C. Se was not detected in the embryo whereas it penetrated through the eggshell, suggesting that an alternative pathway ensures the supply of this essential metal for the embryo. Am-241 was totally retained by the eggshell irrespective of pH and temperature. Finally, the amount of Cs found in the peri-vitelline fluid increased with decreasing pH likely because of an enhanced swelling of the cuttlefish egg under elevated.
Houlbreque, F., Rodolfo-Metalpa, R., Jeffree, R., Oberhansli, F., Teyssie, J.-.L., Boisson, F., Al-Trabeen, K. & Ferrier-Pages, C. 2012, 'Effects of increased pCO2 on zinc uptake and calcification in the tropical coral Stylophora pistillata', Coral Reefs, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 101-109.
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Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for corals. We investigated the effects of ocean acidification on zinc incorporation, photosynthesis, and gross calcification in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Colonies were maintained at normal pH(T) (8.1) and at two low-pH conditions (7.8 and 7.5) for 5 weeks. Corals were exposed to Zn-65 dissolved in seawater to assess uptake rates. After 5 weeks, corals raised at pHT (8.1) exhibited higher Zn-65 activity in the coral tissue and skeleton, compared with corals raised at a lower pH. Photosynthesis, photosynthetic efficiency, and gross calcification, measured by Ca-45 incorporation, were however unchanged even at the lowest pH.
Howard, B.J., Beresford, N.A., Copplestone, D., Telleria, D., Proehl, G., Fesenkoc, S., Jeffree, R., Yankovich, T.L., Brown, J.E., Higley, K., Johansen, M.P., Mulye, H., Vandenhove, H., Gashchak, S., Wood, M.D., Takata, H., Andersson, P., Dale, P., Ryan, J., Bollhöfer, A., Doering, C., Barnett, C.L. & Wells, C. 2012, 'The IAEA handbook on radionuclide transfer to wildlife', Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, vol. 121, pp. 55-74.
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An IAEA handbook presenting transfer parameter values for wildlife has recently been produced. Concentration ratios (CRwo-media) between the whole organism (fresh weight) and either soil (dry weight) or water were collated for a range of wildlife groups (classified taxonomically and by feeding strategy) in terrestrial, freshwater, marine and brackish generic ecosystems. The data have been compiled in an on line database, which will continue to be updated in the future providing the basis for subsequent revision of the Wildlife TRS values. An overview of the compilation and analysis, and discussion of the extent and limitations of the data is presented. Example comparisons of the CRwo-media values are given for polonium across all wildlife groups and ecosystems and for molluscs for all radionuclides. The CRwo-media values have also been compared with those currently used in the ERICA Tool which represented the most complete published database for wildlife transfer values prior to this work. The use of CRwo-media values is a pragmatic approach to predicting radionuclide activity concentrations in wildlife and is similar to that used for screening assessments for the human food chain. The CRwo-media values are most suitable for a screening application where there are several conservative assumptions built into the models which will, to varying extents, compensate for the variable data quality and quantity, and associated uncertainty.
Martin, S., Richier, S., Pedrotti, M., Dupont, S., Castejon, C., Gerakis, Y., Kerros, M., Oberhaensli, F., Teyssie, J., Jeffree, R. & Gattuso, J. 2011, 'Early development and molecular plasticity in the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus exposed to CO2-driven acidification', Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 214, no. 8, pp. 1357-1368.
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Ocean acidification is predicted to have significant effects on benthic calcifying invertebrates, in particular on their early developmental stages. Echinoderm larvae could be particularly vulnerable to decreased pH, with major consequences for adult populations. The objective of this study was to understand how ocean acidification would affect the initial life stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a common species that is widely distributed in the Mediterranean Sea and the NE Atlantic. The effects of decreased pH (elevated PCO2) were investigated through physiological and molecular analyses on both embryonic and larval stages. Eggs and larvae were reared in Mediterranean seawater at six pH levels, i.e. pHT 8.1, 7.9, 7.7, 7.5, 7.25 and 7.0. Fertilization success, survival, growth and calcification rates were monitored over a 3 day period. The expression of genes coding for key proteins involved in development and biomineralization was also monitored. Paracentrotus lividus appears to be extremely resistant to low pH, with no effect on fertilization success or larval survival. Larval growth was slowed when exposed to low pH but with no direct impact on relative larval morphology or calcification down to pHT 7.25. Consequently, at a given time, larvae exposed to low pH were present at a normal but delayed larval stage. More surprisingly, candidate genes involved in development and biomineralization were upregulated by factors of up to 26 at low pH. Our results revealed plasticity at the gene expression level that allows a normal, but delayed, development under low pH conditions.
Lacoue-Labarthe, T., Réveillac, E., Oberhaensli, F., Teyssie, J., Jeffree, R. & Gattuso, J. 2011, 'Effects of ocean acidification on trace element accumulation in the early-life stages of squid Loligo vulgaris', Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 105, no. 1-2, pp. 166-176.
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The anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere leads to an increase in the CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in the ocean, which may reach 950 atm by the end of the 21st century. The resulting hypercapnia (high pCO2) and decreasing pH (ocean acidification) are expected to have appreciable effects on water-breathing organisms, especially on their early-life stages. For organisms like squid that lay their eggs in coastal areas where the embryo and then paralarva are also exposed to metal contamination, there is a need for information on how ocean acidification may influence trace element bioaccumulation during their development. In this study, we investigated the effects of enhanced levels of pCO2 (380, 850 and 1500 atm corresponding to pHT of 8.1, 7.85 and 7.60) on the accumulation of dissolved 110mAg, 109Cd, 57Co, 203Hg, 54Mn and 65Zn radiotracers in the whole egg strand and in the different compartments of the egg of Loligo vulgaris during the embryonic development and also in hatchlings during their first days of paralarval life. Retention properties of the eggshell for 110mAg, 203Hg and 65Zn were affected by the pCO2 treatments. In the embryo, increasing seawater pCO2 enhanced the uptake of both 110mAg and 65Zn while 203Hg showed a minimum concentration factor (CF) at the intermediate pCO2. 65Zn incorporation in statoliths also increased with increasing pCO2.
Houlbreque, F., Herve-Fernandez, P., Teyssie, J., Oberhaensli, F., Boisson, F. & Jeffree, R. 2011, 'Cooking makes cadmium contained in Chilean mussels less bioaccessible to humans', Food Chemistry, vol. 126, pp. 917-921.
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In Chile, upwellings occur periodically along the coasts, resuspending metals from the seafloor and reintroducing them to the food web. Chilean blue mussels, Mytilus chilensis, accumulate these toxic compounds and show high concentrations of cadmium. An in vitro simulated digestion method has been applied to specimens of M. chilensis previously contaminated with 109Cd, to measure the bioaccessibility of cadmium for humans. The effects of the cooking process on the cadmium content of this species and on the resulting change in dietary bioaccessibility have also been evaluated. While cooking resulted in an increase in cadmium concentration in mussel flesh, cadmium remaining in the cooked flesh was also significantly less bioaccessible than cadmium occurring in the raw tissue. Estimations made in this study show that the intake of Cd from mussels by the Chilean population does not exceed the toxicological reference values established by the FAO/WHO; consequently, a health risk situation is not indicated.
Genta-Jouve, G., Cachet, N., Holderith, S., Oberhänsli, F., Teyssié, J., Jeffree, R., Al Mourabit, A. & Thomas, O.P. 2011, 'New insight into marine alkaloid metabolic pathways: Revisiting oroidin biosynthesis', ChemBiochem, vol. 12, no. 15, pp. 2298-2301.
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A highly sensitive in vivo protocol based on 14C radiolabeled precursors and beta-imager autoradiography allowed the unraveling of the origin of the pyrrole 2-aminoimidazole-containing key biosynthetic intermediate oroidin. Proline and lysine are now proposed as the early precursors of the pyrrole and the 2-aminoimidazole moieties of oroidin respectively.
Reinardy, H.C., Teyssie, J., Jeffree, R., Copplestone, D., Henry, T.B. & Jha, A.N. 2011, 'Uptake, depuration, and radiation dose estimation in zebrafish exposed to radionuclides via aqueous or dietary routes', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 409, pp. 3771-3779.
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Understanding uptake and depuration of radionuclides in organisms is necessary to relate exposure to radiation dose and ultimately to biological effects. We investigated uptake and depuration of a mixture of radionuclides to link bioaccumulation with radiation dose in zebrafish, Danio rerio. Adult zebrafish were exposed to radionuclides (54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se, 109Cd, 110mAg, 134Cs and 241Am) at tracer levels (< 200 Bq g-1) for 14 d, either via water or diet. Radioactivity concentrations were measured in whole body and excised gonads of exposed fish during uptake (14 d) and depuration phases (47 d and 42 d for aqueous and dietary exposures respectively), and dose rates were modelled from activity concentrations in whole body and exposure medium (water or diet). After 14-day aqueous exposure, radionuclides were detected in decreasing activity concentrations: 75Se > 65Zn > 109Cd > 110mAg > 54Mn > 60Co > 241Am > 134Cs (range: 1758 Bq g1). After dietary exposure the order of radionuclide activity concentration in tissues (Bq g-1) was: 65Zn > 60Co > 75Se > 109Cd > 110mAg > 241Am > 54Mn > 134Cs (range: 911 Bq g-1). Aqueous exposure resulted in higher whole body activity concentrations for all radionuclides except 60Co.
Rodolfo-Metalpa, R., Houlbrèque, F., Tambutté, E., Boisson, F., Baggini, C., Patti, F.P., Jeffree, R., Fine, M., Foggo, A., Gattuso, J. & Hall-Spencer, J.M. 2011, 'Coral and mollusc resistance to ocean acidification adversely affected by warming', Nature Climate Change, vol. 1, pp. 308-312.
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Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are expected to decrease surface ocean pH by 0.3-0.5 units by 2100 (refs 1,2), lowering the carbonate ion concentration of surface waters. This rapid acidification is predicted to dramatically decrease calcification in many marine organisms(3,4). Reduced skeletal growth under increased CO2 levels has already been shown for corals, molluscs and many other marine organisms(4-9). The impact of acidification on the ability of individual species to calcify has remained elusive, however, as measuring net calcification fails to disentangle the relative contributions of gross calcification and dissolution rates on growth. Here, we show that corals and molluscs transplanted along gradients of carbonate saturation state at Mediterranean CO2 vents are able to calcify and grow at even faster than normal rates when exposed to the high CO2 levels projected for the next 300 years. Calcifiers remain at risk, however, owing to the dissolution of exposed shells and skeletons that occurs as pH levels fall. Our results show that tissues and external organic layers play a major role in protecting shells and skeletons from corrosive sea water, limiting dissolution and allowing organisms to calcify(10,11). Our combined field and laboratory results demonstrate that the adverse effects of global warming are exacerbated when high temperatures coincide with acidification.
Lacoue-Labarthe, T., Villanueva, R., Rouleau, C., Oberhaensli, F., Teyssie, J.-.L., Jeffree, R. & Bustamante, P. 2011, 'Radioisotopes Demonstrate the Contrasting Bioaccumulation Capacities of Heavy Metals in Embryonic Stages of Cephalopod Species', PLOS ONE, vol. 6, no. 11.
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Jeffree, R., Oberhaensli, F. & Teyssie, J. 2010, 'Phylogenetic consistencies among chondrichthyan and teleost fishes in their bioaccumulation of multiple trace elements from seawater', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, no. 16, pp. 3200-3210.
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Multi-tracer experiments determined the accumulation from seawater of selected radioactive trace elements (Mn-54, Co-60, Zn-65, Cs-134, Am-241, Cd-109, Ag-110m, Se-75 and Cr-51) by three teleost and three chondrichthyan fish species to test the hypothesis that these phylogenetic groups have different bioaccumulation characteristics, based on previously established contrasts between the carcharhiniform chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula (dogfish) and the pleuronectiform teleost Psetta maxima (turbot). Discriminant function analysis on whole body: water concentration factors (CFs) separated dogfish and turbot in two independent experiments. Classification functions grouped the perciform teleosts, seabream (Sparus aurata) and seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), with turbot and grouped the chondrichthyans, undulate ray (Raja undulata; Rajiformes) and spotted torpedo (Torpedo marmorata; Torpediniformes), with dogfish, thus supporting our hypothesis. Hierarchical classificatory, multi-dimensional scaling and similarity analyses based on the CFs for the nine radiotracers, also separated all three teleosts (that aggregated lower in the hierarchy) from the three chondrichthyan species. The three chondrichthyans were also more diverse amongst themselves compared to the three teleosts. Particular trace elements that were more important in separating teleosts and chondrichthyans were Cs-134 that was elevated in teleosts and Zn-65 that was elevated in chondrichthyans, these differences being due to their differential rates of uptake rather than loss. Chondrichthyans were also higher in Cr-51, Co-60, Ag-110m and Am-241, whereas teleosts were higher only in Mn-54.
Herve-Fernandez, P., Houlbreque, F., Boisson, F., Mulsow, S., Teyssie, J., Oberhaensli, F., Azemard, S. & Jeffree, R. 2010, 'Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways', Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 448-456.
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The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from 109Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with 109Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of 109Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 &plusmn; 0.175 ng g-1 (mean &plusmn; asymptotic standard error, p < 0.001) after 78 &plusmn; 9 days. The depuration rate for 109Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total 109Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.
Comeau, S., Jeffree, R., Teyssie, J.-.L. & Gattuso, J.-.P. 2010, 'Response of the Arctic Pteropod Limacina helicina to Projected Future Environmental Conditions', PLOS ONE, vol. 5, no. 6.
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Jeffree, R. 2009, 'Ocean acidification: A prognosis and treatment for this eclipsing issue in marine ecotoxicology', Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, vol. 5, no. 13, pp. 173-181.
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In the face of the near-future loss of significant calcified ecosystems (e.g., corals) and valuable commercial shellfish species, should ecotoxicologists continue to study, for example, the nuances of using bivalves for monitoring, when in the near future those bivalves won't be able to adequately grow shells? Reducing Uncertainty in Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA): Clearly Defining Acute and Chronic Toxicity Tests, by Torsten Hahn, Jenny Stauber, Stuart Dobson, Paul Howe, Janet Kielhorn, Gustav Koennecker, Jerry Diamond, Chris Lee-Steere, Uwe Schneider, Yoshio Sugaya, Ken Taylor, Rick Van Dam, and Inge Mangelsdorf. An international comparison of ecological hazard-assessment methodologies for aquatic systems indicates that a key factor explaining why different hazard ratings are derived by different investigators using the same data is the decision about whether those data are acute or chronic.
Lacoue-Labarthe, T., Martin, S., Oberhaensli, F., Teyssie, J., Markich, S.J., Jeffree, R. & Bustamante, P. 2009, 'Effects of increased pCO(2) and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis', Biogeosciences, vol. 6, pp. 2561-2573.
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Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and pH are two critical factors that affect the metabolism of marine organisms in the coastal shallow waters. In this study, we investigated the effects of pH and temperature through a crossed (32; pH 8.1 (pCO2, 400 ppm), 7.85 (900 ppm) and 7.6 (1400 ppm) at 16 and 19&deg;C, respectively) laboratory experiment. Seawater pH showed a strong effect on the egg weight and non-significant impact on the weight of hatchlings at the end of development implying an egg swelling process and embryo growth disturbances. The lower the seawater pH, the more 110 mAg was accumulated in the tissues of hatchlings. The 109Cd concentration factor (CF) decreased with decreasing pH and 65Zn CF reached maximal values pH 7.85, independently of temperature. Our results suggest that pH and temperature affected both the permeability properties of the eggshell and embryonic metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on the consequences of ocean acidification and ocean warming on metal uptake in marine organisms, and our results indicate the need to further evaluate the likely ecotoxicological impact of the global change on the early-life stages of the cuttlefish
Metian, M., Charbonnier, L., Oberhaensli, F., Bustamante, P., Jeffree, R., Amiard, J. & Warnau, M. 2009, 'Assessmen tof metal, metalloid, and radionuclide bioaccessibility from mussels to human consumers, using centrifugation and simulated digestion methods coupled with radiotracer techniques', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 1499-1502.
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The dietary bioaccessibility of seven elements (241Am, Cd, Co, Cs, Mn, Se, and Zn) in the Mediterranean mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819) was assessed for human consumers. In this respect, we assessed and compared the proportion of elements associated with the cellular cytosolic (soluble) fraction vs. the bioaccessible fraction derived, respectively, from (1) the differential centrifugation method and (2) the simulated digestion method. Comparisons were carried out on both raw and cooked mussels. Results showed that (1) the centrifugation method systematically underestimated (up to a factor 4) element bioaccessibility in raw mussels compared with the in vitro digestion method (e.g., 10% vs. 42% for 241Am), and (2) the cooking process (5 min at 200 &deg;C) leads to concentrating the elements in mussel tissues (e.g., by a factor 2 for Zn) and reducing their bioaccessibility. Overall, the simulated in vitro digestion method appears as a powerful tool for seafood safety assessment and cooking could contribute in reducing substantially the global trace element intake from mussel tissues (up to 65% for Cd and Cs).
Comeau, S., Gorsky, G., Jeffree, R., Teyssie, J. & Gattuso, J. 2009, 'Impact of ocean acidification on a key Arctic pelagic mollusc (Limacina helicina)', Biogeosciences, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 1877-1882.
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Thecosome pteropods (shelled pelagic molluscs) can play an important role in the food web of various ecosystems and play a key role in the cycling of carbon and carbonate. Since they harbor an aragonitic shell, they could be very sensitive to ocean acidification driven by the increase of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The impact of changes in the carbonate chemistry was investigated on Limacina helicina, a key species of Arctic ecosystems. Pteropods were kept in culture under controlled pH conditions corresponding to pCO2 levels of 350 and 760 &micro;atm. Calcification was estimated using a fluorochrome and the radioisotope 45Ca. It exhibits a 28% decrease at the pH value expected for 2100 compared to the present pH value. This result supports the concern for the future of pteropods in a high-CO2 world, as well as of those species dependent upon them as a food resource. A decline of their populations would likely cause dramatic changes to the structure, function and services of polar ecosystems.
Mathews, T., Fisher, N.S., Jeffree, R. & Teyssie, J. 2008, 'Assimilation and retention of metals in teleost and elasmobranch fishes following dietary exposure', Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 360, no. 1, pp. 1-12.
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In a radiotracer study designed to evaluate the fate of metals from fish prey to predator fish, we measured the trophic transfer of 7 trace elements (Am, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Mn, Zn) from juvenile Mediterranean sea bream Sparus auratus to 3 predator species, the teleosts Psetta maxima and Sparus auratus, and the elasmobranch Scyliorhinus canicula. Prey S. auratus were labeled by exposure to metal radioisotopes in solution for a period of 3 wk and were then fed to predators, after which the metal retention in the predator was assessed. Mean assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of ingested metals in the predator fishes ranged from 6 to 15% for Am, to 63 to 74% for Cs; significant differences in AEs were noted between species for Co and Mn only. Efflux rate constants (ke) of assimilated metal did not differ consistently among predators for any metals. The mean ke ranged from 0.003 d1 for Mn in S. canicula to 0.02 d1 for Cd and Cs in all 3 species and for Co in S. canicula. Trophic transfer factors (TTF) for each metal were determined in predator fishes to assess the potential for metal biomagnification. TTF, calculated by dividing the product of metal AE and ingestion rate (IR) by ke, exceeded 1 only for Mn, Zn and Cs. For most likely scenarios of IR and AE, TTF was <1 for these metals, suggesting that these metals will not biomagnify in piscivorous fishes.
Jeffree, R., Oberhaensli, F. & Teyssie, J. 2008, 'The accumulation of lead and mercury from seawater and their depuration by eggs of the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthys)', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 451-461.
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Radiotracer experiments using Pb-210 and Hg-203 demonstrated that eggs of the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula absorbed lead and inorganic mercury directly from seawater over 21 days of experimental exposure, attaining total egg concentration factors (CFs) relative to water of approximately 400 for Pb and 180 for Hg, predominantly (>= 98%) due to their accumulation by the collagenous egg case. The rates of accumulation of both Pb and Hg by the total egg were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced by its increasing age since parturition, whereas only the rate of depuration of Pb was reduced (P < 0.0001) with increasing age; these effects indicate a declining chemical reactivity of the egg case that may be due to the continued tanning of the case following parturition. The egg case per se, attained average CFs of about 1,500 and 850 for Pb and Hg, respectively. Both Pb and Hg showed declining concentration gradients from the exterior to the interior membranes of the wall of the egg case; CFs for Pb declined from 3,500 to 2,000 and for Hg from 5,000 to 500. Comparison of concentrations in separate membranes also demonstrated significant (P <= 0.01) depurations of Hg from the external and internal membranes during the loss experiments.
Lacoue-Labarthe, T., Warnau, M., Oberhaensli, F., Teyssie, J., Jeffree, R. & Bustamante, P. 2008, 'First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis', Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 57, no. 6-12, pp. 826-831.
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The aim of this study was to provide a first insight on the incorporation of eight metals in the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis via maternal transfer, using radiotracer techniques (110mAg, 241Am, 109Cd, 60Co, 134Cs, 54Mn, 75Se and 65Zn). The cuttlefish was fed daily with radiolabelled crabs for two weeks; it then started to spawn every three days. Among the eight tracers, only 110mAg, 75Se and 65Zn were significantly transferred to the eggs. The radiotracer distribution among the egg compartments showed that 75Se and 65Zn were accumulated mainly in the vitellus whereas 110mAg was found in similar proportion in the vitellus and the eggshell. During the embryonic development, 75Se and 65Zn contained in the vitellus were progressively transferred to the embryo, likely to supply its metabolic needs in these essential elements. Although it has no known biological functions, Ag contained in both vitellus and eggshell was also transferred to the embryo. Overall, our results showed that transfer of Ag, Se, and Zn does actually occur from a female cuttlefish to its eggs, at least during the last two weeks before spawning.
Jeffree, R., Oberhaensli, F. & Teyssie, J. 2007, 'Accumulation and transport behaviour of (241)americium, (60)cobalt and (134)cesium by eggs of the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula', Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 54, pp. 912-920.
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An experimental study examined the 96-h net influx from seawater of the anthropogenic radionuclides 241Am, 60Co and 134Cs through the egg-case of the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. Net influx directly through the wall of the egg-case was greatest for 134Cs, then 241Am and lastly 60Co. Within the egg-case wall itself the measured concentration factors (CFs) and their gradients in the external, median and internal layers showed that for both 241Am and 60Co they were >103 in the external layer and declined by an order of magnitude in the interior layer. In contrast 134Cs had a CF of only about three in the external layer which declined by a factor of 2 towards the two more internal layers of the egg-case.
Jeffree, R., Warnau, M., Oberhaensli, F. & Teyssie, J. 2006, 'Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and radionuclides from seawater by encased embryos of the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula', Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 52, pp. 1278-1286.
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Encased embryos of spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula absorbed six radio-isotopes (241Am, 109Cd, 57Co, 134Cs, 54Mn and 65Zn) directly from seawater during short-term experimental exposure, demonstrating the permeability of the egg-case to these contaminants. Embryo to water concentration factors (CFs) ranged from 0.14 for 134Cs to 7.4 for 65Zn. The 65Zn and 57Co CFs increased exponentially with embryo length, whereas the CF for 109Cd declined with length. Among different components of the encased embryo the egg case was the major repository (6999%) of all six radio-isotopes that were distributed throughout its wall. Egg-case CFs were as high as 103 for 57Co and 65Zn, making it the major source of gamma radiation exposure to the embryo and potentially of radio-isotopes for continued absorption by the embryo, following the uptake phase of the experiment. The patterns of uptake by the egg-case approximated linearity for most isotopes and loss rates were isotope-specific; egg-case biokinetics were not greatly affected by the viability of the contained embryo. Within the embryo initial data on radio isotopic distribution show that the skin is their major site of uptake, as previously demonstrated for juveniles.
Jeffree, R., Warnau, M., Teyssie, J. & Markich, S.J. 2006, 'Comparison of the bioaccumulation from seawater and depuration of heavy metals and radionuclides in the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthys) and the turbot Psetta maxima (Actinopterygii: Teleostei)', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 368, no. 2-3, pp. 839-852.
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The bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals and radionuclides (241Am, 109Cd, 57Co, 51Cr, 134Cs, 54Mn and 65Zn) from seawater was experimentally compared in the Chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula (spotted dogfish) and the Actinopterygian Teleost Psetta maxima (turbot), of comparable size, age and benthic feeding habits. The speciation of these elements in seawater (salinity 38, pH 8.1, temperature 16.5 &deg;C) was also calculated to determine their potential bioavailability. The uptake rates, measured over 14 days, varied greatly among isotopes and between species. Concentration factors (CFs) in P. maxima varied 5-fold between ca. 0.2 for 51Cr and 2.5 for 65Zn and 134Cs, whereas in S. canicula they varied by a much greater factor of 350, with CFs for 51Cr and 241Am ranging from ca. 0.4 to 140, respectively. With the exception of 134Cs, all radiotracers were accumulated at a faster rate in S. canicula than in P. maxima, particularly for 241Am and 65Zn where the CFs attained during the uptake phase were, two and one order of magnitude greater in S. canicula, respectively. In contrast, 134Cs reached a CF of about 2.5 in P. maxima, which was 5-fold greater than in S. canicula. Patterns of loss from the experimental depuration phase over 29 days showed greater similarities between species, compared to the uptake phase that highlighted the greater differences between elements.
Jeffree, R. 2006, 'Searching for bioaccumulation patterns in aquatic biota', Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 29-35.
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The following two `framing questions are being pursued with regard to increasing understanding of the bioaccumulation of metals and radionuclides in marine and freshwater biota, viz; i) Are there general underlying chemical principles that can explain and predict their patterns of bioaccumulation? and ii) Are there modes of bioaccumulation that are characteristic of particular phylogenetic groupings of organisms? With regard to question i), a relationship has been established between the rate of accumulation of a metal and its relative solubility as a phosphate for calcium phosphate deposits. This relationship has been found for the ?esh of several species of freshwater bivalves, where metals are predominantly deposited in extracellular granules, and more recently in the osteoderms (dermal bones) of the freshwater crocodile Crocodylus johnstoni. The constancy of this relationship, among contrasting Ca accumulation regimes associated with divergent taxa, points to a potential underlying principle that warrants investigation in a greater range of biota.
Jeffree, R. & Teyssie, J. 2006, 'Is There A Chondrichthyan Bioaccumulation Paradigm?', Cybium, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 113-117.
This paper is a synthesis of our current investigations to evaluate bioaccumulatory characteristics of chondrichthyans. The bioaccumulation of seven heavy metals and radionuclides (Am-241, Cd-109, Co-57, Cr-51, Cs-134, Mn-54 and Zn-65) from seawater were
Jeffree, R., Markich, S.J. & Tucker, A.D. 2005, 'Patterns of metal accumulation in osteoderms of the Australian freshwater crocodile, Crocodylus johnstoni', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 336, no. 1-3, pp. 71-80.
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The concentrations of 15 metals were measured in the osteoderms (dermal bones) of 30 freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni) from a single population in the Lynd River, northeastern Australia (17j50VS, 144j20VE), that were well characterised with respect to site fidelity, reproductive status and age. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the effects of crocodile size (snout-vent length, 25128 cm), age (0.762.7 years), gender (male or female) and reproductive status (sexually mature or immature) on osteoderm metal concentrations. Gender and reproductive status were not significant ( P>0.05) co-predictors of the osteoderm concentration of any metal. In contrast, size, age and osteoderm calcium concentration were highly significant ( P < 0.001) systematic predictors of the osteoderm concentrations of all metals, except Na and K. Osteoderm metal concentrations were inversely related ( P < 0.001) to both size (r2 = 0.520.92) and age (r2 = 0.520.84), but positively related ( P < 0.001) to osteoderm calcium concentration (r2 = 0.670.92). Relative to calcium concentration, the rates of metal accumulation in the osteoderms of C. johnstoni were inversely related to the solubility constant (log Ksp) of the metal as a phosphate; however this relationship was not linear. This finding is consistent with that previously established for the flesh of freshwater bivalves, which like the crocodilian osteoderm, have a calcium phosphate repository in the form of extracellular granules. The constancy of this relationship between rate of metal accumulation and relative solubility for calcium phosphate deposits, despite contrasting Ca accumulation regimes and taxonomic dissimilarity, points to a potential underlying principle that warrants investigation in a greater range of biota. The implications for using the osteoderms of C. johnstoni as an indicator of metal levels in freshwater ecosystems are also discussed.
Jeffree, R. 2004, 'The international atomic energy agency (IAEA) and the management of coastal contaminants in the Asia-Pacific Region', Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology, vol. 10, pp. 75-76.
Markich, S.J., Brown, P.L., Jeffree, R. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'The effects of pH and dissolved organic carbon on the toxicity of cadmium and copper to a freshwater bivalve: Further support for the extended free ion activity model', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 479-491.
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Hammerton, K.M., Jayasinghe, N., Jeffree, R. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'Experimental Study Of Blood Lead Kinetics In Estuarine Crocodiles (Crocodylus Porosus) Exposed To Ingested Lead Shot', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 390-398.
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A previous study of lead (Pb) contamination in estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Kakadu National Park, Australia, found elevated Pb levels in bone and flesh from individuals caught in habitats where hunting with lead ammunition had occurred. L
Gale, S.A., Smith, S.V., Lim, R.P., Jeffree, R. & Petocz, P. 2003, 'Insights into the mechanisms of copper tolerance of a population of black-banded rainbowfish (Melanotaenia nigrans) (Richardson) exposed to mine leachate, using Cu-64/67', Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 135-153.
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Jeffree, R. 2003, 'Lead poisoning of Kakadu Crocodile', Australasian Science, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 36-37.
Orlic, I., Siegele, R., Hammerton, K., Jeffree, R. & Cohen, D.D. 2003, 'Nuclear microprobe analysis of lead profile in crocodile bones', Nuclear Instruments & Methods In Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions With Materials And Atoms, vol. 210, pp. 330-335.
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Elevated concentrations of lead were found in Australian free ranging saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) bone and flesh. Lead shots were found as potential source of lead in these animals. ANSTOs heavy ion nuclear microprobe was used to measure the distribution of Pb in a number of bones and osteoderms. The aim was to find out if elevated Pb concentration remains in growth rings and if the concentration is correlated with the blood levels recorded at the time. Results of our study show a very distinct distribution of accumulated Pb in bones and osteoderms as well as good correlation with the level of lead concentration in blood. To investigate influence of ion species on detection limits measurements of the same sample were performed by using 3 MeV protons, 9 MeV He ions and 20 MeV carbon ions. Peak to background ratios, detection limits and the overall quality of obtained spectra are compared and discussed.
Markich, S.J., Jeffree, R. & Harch, B.D. 2002, 'Catchment-specific element signatures in estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) from the Alligator Rivers Region, northern Australia', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 287, pp. 83-95.
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The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, Se, U and Ti were determined in the osteoderms andor flesh of estuarine crocodiles Crocodylus porosus. captured in three adjacent catchments within the Alligator Rivers Region ARR. of northern Australia. Results from multivariate analysis of variance showed that when all metals were considered simultaneously, catchment effects were significant P0.05.. Despite considerable within-catchment variability, linear discriminant analysis LDA. showed that differences in elemental signatures in the osteoderms andor flesh of C. porosus amongst the catchments were sufficient to classify individuals accurately to their catchment of occurrence. Using cross-validation, the accuracy of classifying a crocodile to its catchment of occurrence was 76% for osteoderms and 60% for flesh. These data suggest that osteoderms provide better predictive accuracy than flesh for discriminating crocodiles amongst catchments. There was no advantage in combining the osteoderm and flesh results to increase the accuracy of classification i.e. 67%.. Based on the discriminant function coefficients for the osteoderm data, Ca, Co, Mg and U were the most important elements for discriminating amongst the three catchments. For flesh data, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Ni and Pb were the most important metals for discriminating amongst the catchments.
Markich, S.J., Jeffree, R. & Burke, P.T. 2002, 'Freshwater bivalve shells as archival indicators of metal pollution from a copper-uranium mine in Tropical Northern Australia', Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 821-832.
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Freshwater bivalves (Velesunio angasi) were sampled in 1996 from the Finniss River in tropical northern Australia at 10 sites a priori exposed and nonexposed to acid rock drainage (ARD), containing elevated metal concentrations, from the rehabilitated Rum Jungle copper-uranium mine. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to measure Cu, Mn, Zn, U, Ni, Co, Pb, and Fe/Ca ratios across the annual shell laminations of the longest-lived bivalves found at each site, with the aim of evaluating the ability of the shells to archive measured annual metal inputs and their temporal patterns. At sites not contaminated by ARD, relatively constant and similar (baseline) SIMS signals were found for all metals in the shell laminations of V. angasi, dating as far back as 1965. At sites contaminated by ARD, relatively constant, but variably elevated, SIMS signals were evident for Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, and Co in the shell, which extended back to the end of rehabilitation (1986) only. Since rehabilitation, the temporal patterns of Cu, Zn, and Mn observed in the shells at the most contaminated sites reflected those of the measured annual dissolved loads in the surface waters.
Orlic, I., Siegele, R., Menon, D.D., Markich, S.J., Cohen, D.D., Jeffree, R., McPhail, D.C., Sarbutt, A. & Stelcer, E. 2002, 'Heavy metal pathways and archives in biological tissue', Nuclear Instruments & Methods In Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions With Materials And Atoms, vol. 190, no. 1-4, pp. 439-444.
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Nuclear milli and microprobes at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) were used to determine lead accumulation in native Australian plants and animals. Three species of eucalypt plants (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus lesouefii), one species of salt bush (Atriplex burbhanyana) and one species each of acacia (Acacia saligna) and estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) were investigated. Experimentally grown plants were subjected to a nutrient solution with a pH of 5 and spiked with a 200 lmol concentration of Pb. Lead concentrations in leaves of both E. globulus and E. camaldulensis showed an almost exponential decrease from the base of the main vein to the tip. Similarly, Pb concentrations decreased from the main vein to secondary veins. Concentrations of essential elements such as K, Fe, Zn and Br in the main and secondary veins were constant within experimental uncertainty. In contrast, the concentrations of Pb in the leaf veins of E. lesouefii were much lower and showed no systematic pattern. In stem and root samples the highest concentration of Pb was found in roots and stem of E. globulus and A. burbhanyana followed by E. camaldulensis. Some Pb was found in roots of A. saligna and only very low concentration in stem of the same plant. More detailed analysis of thin cross-sectional samples of roots and stem showed that Pb is present in much higher concentration in the growth area of the plant structure (i.e. meristemic region) and in relatively low concentration within the pith region and outer cortex. The osteoderms (dermal bones) of estuarine crocodiles, exposed to lead ammunition in food from the hunting activities of traditional Aboriginal owners, were sampled at two sites in Kakadu National Park, northern Australia. PIXE analyses showed enhanced, but relatively constant, ratios of Pb/Ca in the annual laminations.
Siegele, R., Orlic, I., Cohen, D.D., Markich, S.J. & Jeffree, R. 2001, 'Manganese profiles in freshwater mussel shells', Nuclear Instruments & Methods In Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions With Materials And Atoms, vol. 181, pp. 593-597.
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The heavy ion microprobe in combination with particle-induced X-ray emission was used to measure the distribution of manganese in freshwater mussel shells (Hyridella depressa) from the Nepean river in south-eastern Australia. Close to the ventral edge, bands with an elevated manganese content have been detected. These are correlated with growth bands in the mussels containing increased amounts of organic material, relative to the calcium carbonate matrix. Calcium minima, which were correlated to the annual growth rings, were measured close to the umbo region of the shells.
Markich, S.J., Brown, P.L. & Jeffree, R. 2001, 'Divalent metal accumulation in freshwater bivalves: an inverse relationship with metal phosphate solubility', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 275, pp. 27-41.
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Whole soft tissue concentrations of Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and U were measured in two species of freshwater unionid. bivalves Hyridella depressa and Velesunio ambiguus. from a minimally polluted site in the Hawkesbury- Nepean River, south-eastern Australia. Although the mean concentrations of metals in the tissue were similar for each bivalve species, their patterns of accumulation were dissimilar. For each metal, positive linear relationships between tissue concentration and shell length r 20.370.77; P0.001. and tissue dry weight r 20.290.51; P0.01. were found in H. depressa, but not in V. ambiguus. However, for both species, positive linear relationships were found between the tissue concentration of each divalent metal and Ca tissue concentration r 20.590.97; P0.001.. For both bivalve species, the normalised rates of accumulation of the metals relative to increasing Ca concentration andor size, were UCdPbMnCoZnCuNi. The differential rates of accumulation of divalent metals are interpreted as being predominantly governed by their varying loss rates, which are controlled by the differing solubilities log Ksp values. of the metals in the phosphatic extracellular granules, the demonstrated major sites of metal deposition in the tissue of H. depressa and V. ambiguus. The rates of accumulation of Mn, Co, Zn, Cu and Ni were linearly and inversely related r 20.910.97; P0.001. to their solubilities as hydrogen phosphates, a finding consistent with the bioaccumulation model previously developed for the alkaline-earth metals. However, for U, Cd and Pb, this linear inverse relationship did not continue to hold, i.e. their rates of accumulation did not increase with decreasing solubility.
Jeffree, R., Markich, S.J. & Twining, J.R. 2001, 'Element concentrations in the flesh and osteoderms of estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) from the Alligator rivers region, Northern Australia: Biotic and geographic effects', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 40, pp. 236-245.
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The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, Se, U, and Ti were determined in the flesh and osteoderms of estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) captured in three adjacent catchments of Kakadu National Park, within the Alligator Rivers Region of northern Australia. This study provides, for the first-time, baseline concentrations of elements in both flesh and osteoderms of wild crocodiles.
Jeffree, R., Twining, J.R. & Thomson, J. 2001, 'Recovery of fish communities in the Finniss River, Northern Australia, following remediation of the rum jungle uranium/copper mine site', Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 35, pp. 2932-2941.
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In this study we compare fish diversity and abundances in the impacted region of the FR, with sites unexposed to elevated water concentrations of contaminants, both before and after remediation. Our results show both the preremedial impact of unabated contaminants from RJ on fishes and their postremedial recovery. Their recovery is explained as primarily due to measured reductions in annual contaminant loads and, more particularly, the reduced occurrence of their elevated water concentrations in the FR, that diminishes the likelihood of fish kills at the beginning of the wet season.
Markich, S.J., Brown, P.R., Jeffree, R. & Lim, R.P. 2000, 'Valve Movement Responses of Velesunio angasi (Bivalvia: Hyriidae) to Manganese and Uranium: An Exception to the Free Ion Activity Model', Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 51, no. 0, pp. 155-175.
Jeffree, R. & Szymczak, R. 2000, 'Enhancing effect of marine oligotrophy on environmental concentrations of particle-reactive trace elements', Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 34, pp. 1966-1969.
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A biogeochemical model has been previously developed that explains the inverse and nonlinear relationship between Po-210 concentration in zooplankton and their biomass, under oligotrophic conditions in French Polynesia. In this study the model structure was reviewed to determine a set of biogeochemical behaviors of Po-210, proposed to be critical to its environmental enhancement under oligotrophy: this set was then used to identify 25 other elements with comparable behaviors to Po-210. Field investigation in the Timor Sea showed that four of these a priori identified elements, viz. Cd, Co, Pb, and Mn as well as Cr and Ni, showed elevated water concentrations with reduced particle removal rates in the euphotic zone, results that are consistent with those previously obtained for Po-210 and the proposed explanatory model. These findings point to the enhanced susceptibility to contamination with particlereactive elements of oligotrophic marine systems, whose degree and geographic extent may be enhanced by projected increases in sea surface temperatures from global warming.
Aarkrog, A., Baxter, M.S., Bettencourt, A., Bojanowski, R., Bologa, A., Charmasson, S., Cunha, I., Delfanti, R., Duran, E., Holm, E., Jeffree, R., Livingston, H.D., Mahapanyawong, S., Nies, H., Osvath, I., Pingyu, L., Povinec, P.P., Sanchez, A., Smith, J.N. & Swift, D. 1997, 'A comparison of doses from 137Cs and 210Po in marine food: A major international study', Journal Of Environmental Radioactivity, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 69-90.
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Radioactivity levels of natural 210 Po and anthropogenic 137 Cs in sea water and biota (fish and shellfish) have been estimated for the FAO fishing areas on the basis of measurements carried out in recent years. Collective doses resulting from seafood consumption are calculated for each FAO area using radioactivity data for water and biota. Good agreement is observed between the results calculated by these two methods, with the exception of the doses from 2/0 Po via shellfish consumption. The collective effective dose commitment from 137 Cs in marine food in 1990 has been estimated at 160 man Sv with an uncertainty of 50%. The corresponding dose from 2/0 Po is 30 000 man Sv with an estimated uncertainty of a factor of 5. The results confirm that the dominant contribution to doses derives from natural 210 Po in fish and shellfish and that the contribution from anthropogenic 137CS (mainly originating from nuclear weapons tests) is negligible.
Jeffree, R., Carvalho, F., Fowler, S.W. & Farber-Lorda, J. 1997, 'Mechanism for enhanced uptake of radionuclides by zooplankton in French Polynesian oligotrophic waters', Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 31, pp. 2584-2588.
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A study of natural radionuclides in zooplankton collected during 1990-1992 from the low productivity waters of French Polynesia has demonstrated the presence of enhanced uptake of Po-210 by zooplankton when zooplankton biomass is low. Po-210 in zooplankton increases exponentially to previously unreported levels up to 3200 Bq/kg dry weight, as their biomasses decline to levels as low as 0.14 mg dry weight/cubic meter. A validated mathematical model, incorporating the established role of zooplankton in the removal of Po-210 from the water column, captures the shape of this empirical relationship and also explains this biomassrelated mechanism that increases Po-210 concentrations in zooplankton. Our results and analysis point to the enhanced vulnerability of such low productivity marine systems to environmental contamination following potential leakage of radionuclides from former weapons test sites and radioactive waste repositories that have been recently proposed for the Pacific.
Aarkrog, A., Baxter, M.S., Bettencourt, A.O., Bojanowski, R., Bologa, A., Charmasson, S., Cunha, I., Delfanti, R., Duran, E., Holm, E., Jeffree, R., Livingston, H.D., Mahapanyawong, S., Nies, H., Osvath, I., Li, P.Y., Povinec, P.P., Sanchez, A., Smith, J.N. & Swift, D. 1997, 'A comparison of doses from Cs-137 and Po-210 in marine food: A major international study', JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 217-218.
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Brown, P.L., Jeffree, R. & Markich, S.J. 1996, 'Kinetics of 45Ca, 60Co, 210Pb, 54Mn and 109Cd in the tissue of the freshwater bivalve VeZesunio angusi: further development of a predictive and mechanistic model of metal bioaccumulation', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 188, pp. 139-166.
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Abstract A theoretical and experimental study was performed to determine the kinetics of 45Ca, 6oCo, `Pb, 54Mn and lo9Cd in the whole soft tissue of the unionid bivalve G/elesunio angasi. This investigation further tested the hypothesis, developed previously for the alkaline-earth metals, that the biological half-life of a metal in soft tissue is related to its solubility when deposited in the extracellular granules of the bivalve. This hypothesis was tested for the above radionuclides (tracers of the stable metals) by a comparison of (a) a qualitative a priori prediction of their biological half-lives in bivalve tissue, based on critically evaluated log KS,, values for their respective hydrogen phosphate salts, and calibrated to previous experimentally determined rates of loss for 45Ca and 226Ra, with (b) their empirical biological half-lives that were investigated experimentally using the radionuclides 45Ca, 6oCo, 210Pb, 54Mn and `09Cd. The results of the experimental investigation showed that the mean values calculated for the biological half-lives of 4SCa and 6oCo in the tissue were 106 and 121 days, respectively, but there was no significant (P > 0.05) loss of 20Pb, 54Mn or `Cd from the soft tissue over 160 days, when bivalves were exposed to radionuclide-free water. A chemical model was developed from first principles that quantitatively explains the kinetic mechanisms that underlie the differential rates of loss of divalent metals from the extracellular granules of K angasi. The experimental results were consistent with the predictions of the model; however, some investigational limitations were evident, and these are discussed. The uptake of each radionuclide into the bivalve tissue tended to be linear, but the variation in tissue concentration.
Markich, S.J., Brown, P. & Jeffree, R. 1996, 'The Use Of Geochemical Speciation Modelling To Predict The Impact Of Uranium To Freshwater Biota', Radiochimica Acta, vol. 74, no. NA, pp. 321-326.
Uranium is the prime potential contaminant in mine waste waters that may be released from the Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) into the receiving waters of the Magela Creek, Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Australia. The potential ecological impact of the mig
Jeffree, R., Markich, S.J. & Brown, P.L. 1995, 'Australian freshwater bivalves: Their applications in metal pollution studies', Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 33-41.
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ABSTRACT: Australian freshwater bivalves possess a variety of attributes which make them particularly useful in both fundamental and applied studies of metal and radionuclide pollution. This paper focuses on the capacity of several species of freshwater bivalves (lile.sunio angasi, lilesunio amb&pound;guuJ and HyrideOa depTeJfa) to bioaccumulate a variety of metals, in the context ofa mechanistic and predictive model of metal kinetics, which has demonstrated that (a) many metals are absorbed from the aquatic medium as metabolic analogues of Ca, to be deposited in extracellular calcium phosphate granules, and (b) that their differential rates ofloss from the soft tissue are controlled by their solubilities in the granules .. Several environmental applications that follow from these findings are that: (a) Ca water concentration is a major variable controlling the bioavailability of many metals in the aquatic medium. The implication of these results, which are also consistent with those for a variety of metals and freshwater phyla, is that the water quality criteria for the protection of freshwater life should employ Ca water concentration, rather than total water hardness, as the major variable that can ameliorate the toxicity of many metals in freshwater environments; and (b) Ca tissue concentration can be used to explain up to 98% of the variability between individuals in their tissue concentrations of a variety of metals .. This permits the establishment of background or preoperational metal levels, against which future increases can be readily discerned. Investigations that have commenced on the use of the shell micro laminations (i .. e .. nacre tablets) of two species offreshwater bivalves (Micrvanodonta anodontaiform&pound;s and H. depwsa) as archival monitors of metal concentrations in water have shown:
Jeffree, R., Markich, S.J., Lefebvre, F., Thellier, M. & Ripoll, C. 1995, 'Shell Microlaminations Of The Fresh-water Bivalve Hyridella-depressa As An Archival Monitor Of Manganese Water Concentration - Experimental Investigation By Depth Profiling Using Secondary-ion Mass-spectrometry (sims)', Experientia, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 838-848.
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Specimens of the freshwater unionid bivalve Hyridella depressa were experimentally exposed to a synthetic river water containing an elevated Mn water concentration (20 mg l(-1)) for 2 or 6 days. SIMS depth profiles through the incremental nacre microlami
Markich, S.J. & Jeffree, R. 1994, 'Absorption of divalent trace metals as analogues of calcium by Australian freshwater bivalves: an explanation of how water hardness reduces metal toxicity', Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 29, pp. 257-290.
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A competitive inhibition experimental design, incorporating radiotracer labelling of metals and the geochemical simulation of their speciation at two varying Ca water concentrations, was employed to conclusively demonstrate that the divalent trace metals Pb, Mn, Cd and Co, were absorbed from the aquatic medium as metabolic analogues of Ca by two species of Australian freshwater bivalves (Hyridella depressa and Velesunio ambiguus). Several important implications stem from this mechanistic interpretation of metal uptake by aquatic organisms. Because of the general positive empirical relationship established between metal uptake/accumulation and acute/sub-chronic toxicity, the ameliorative effect of an increased water hardness on metal toxicity most likely results from the competitive binding of Ca (>Mg) at the Ca channels of the cell membrane. This conclusion is consistent with empirical studies and also with the basic chemical properties of Ca and Mg, that are relevant to their behaviour at the Ca channel. It follows that Ca water concentration, rather than total water hardness, should be utilised in water quality guidelines as the variable that governs the maximum permissible concentration of certain trace metals that can be sustained by freshwater life.
Brown, P., Markich, S.J. & Jeffree, R. 1994, 'Migration Of Uranium - Integrating Geochemistry With Biomonitoring To Evaluate And Predict Its Environmental-impact', Radiochimica Acta, vol. 66-7, no. NA, pp. 351-357.
The potential ecological impact of the migration of uranium, at concentrations elevated above background, in receiving waters downstream of a uranium mine site has been investigated by integrating geochemical and biomonitoring techniques. This study conc
Twining, J.R., Markich, S.J., Prince, K.E. & Jeffree, R. 1993, 'Osteoderms of estuarine crocodiles record their enhanced Pb exposure in Kakadu National Park', Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 33, pp. 4396-4400.
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Pb exposure in wild crocodiles, as recorded in their dermal bones (osteoderms). Riverine habitats of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, in Kakadu National Park, northern Australia, have been exposed to anthropogenic Pb since the mid-1950s, due mainly to replacement of traditional spear by guns using lead ammunition for the hunting of wildlife by the Aboriginal owners. Resident crocodiles ingest waterfowl, flying foxes, and pigs killed or crippled by Pb ammunition, also commonly found in crocodile stomachs. Among 40 wild crocodiles sampled, the osteoderms from five residents of two intensively hunted habitats each had enhanced Pb (19-44 &iacute;g/g dry weight), relative to all others.
Jeffree, R. & Brown, P.L. 1992, 'A mechanistic and predictive model of metal accumulation by the tissue of the Australian freshwater mussel Felesunio angasi', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 125, pp. 85-95.
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A mechanistic model explains the differential rates of accumulation of alkaline-earths in the tissue of the freshwater mussel Velesunio angasi as being determined by their different loss rates. These rates of loss are hypothesised to be directly related to the solubility of the alkaline-earth metal when deposited in phosphate-bearing, extracellular granular deposits that are dispersed throughout the tissue. This model is further tested by an experimental determination and comparison of the biological half-lives of the non-alkaline earths 2t&deg;pb, 6&deg;Co with that of 45Ca in the mussel's tissue, that are predicted to vary in their solubilities as phosphates. The experimental results indicated that the ranking of biological half-lives of these elements is 21&deg;pb > 6&deg;C0 ~ 45Ca. These results are in accord with their predicted solubility constants and previous experimental studies, and hence are consistent with the model. Several assumptions that are implicit in this model are presented and compared for consistency with findings from other studies on V. angasi and other species of freshwater mussels.
Jeffree, R. & Jones, M.K. 1992, 'Accumulation of radiocalcium from the aquatic medium via the cloaca and bucco-pharynx of Australian freshwater turtles (Chelidae)', Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, vol. 102A, no. 1, pp. 85-91.
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Abstract-l. The cloaca1 and bucco-pharyngeal regions of three species of Australian freshwater turtles were ex~~mentaily compared for their ability to take up mdiocaIci~ directly from the aquatic medium. 2. The cloaca1 route was at least 4 times more important than the bucco-pharyngeal route for radiocalcium uptake, in each of the three species investigated. 3. Histological examination of anatomical regions in the cloaca showed that the cloaca1 bursae of three species (E. dentata, C. longicollis and E. signata) had abundant villi and infolded mucosal epithelia that increase the surface area of the epithelium exposed to the aquatic medium. 4. Electron microscopic studies on the mucosal epithelium of the cloaca1 bursae showed that it contained many structural characteristics indicative of an exchange function and consistent with the cloaca1 bursae being an important site of radiocalcium uptake within the cloaca.
Jeffree, R. 1991, 'An experimental study of 226Ra and 45Ca accumulation from the aquatic medium by freshwater turtles (fam. Chelidae) under varying Ca and Mg water concentrations', Hydrobiologia, vol. 218, pp. 205-231.
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Snapping turtles Elseya dentata (Gray) from Magela Creek, Northern Territory, were exposed under laboratory conditions for up to 30 days to waters resembling the inorganic composition of Magela Creek water during the Wet season, with background and elevated Ca and Mg concentrations, that were labelled with 226Ra and 45Ca. The resulting concentrations of 45Ca in muscle, skin, gut, liver, shell bone and leg bone of E. dentata equilibrated or approached equilibrium by 12-18 days. Among the experiments, the concentrations of 45Ca in all six tissues were inversely related to turtle mass. An increase in the Ca water concentration by a factor of 15 increased the 45Ca concentration in all six tissues. The arithmetic factors of increase in the concentration in each tissue were proportional or more than proportional to the factor of increase in Ca water concentration; this factor was highest for muscle tissue (26.6). An increase in the Mg water concentration by a factor of 48 reduced the 45Ca concentration in all tissues except skin where it increased. The concentration of 226Ra in each tissue (except the gut) was positively related to its 45Ca concentration and inversely related to turtle mass in muscle, skin and liver. With the exception of the skin, the increased Ca water concentration did not reduce the 226Ra in the tissues but increased the 226Ra concentration in bone and muscle. The increased Mg water concentration had an inverse effect on the 226Ra concentrations in all tissues except shell. With the exception of the skin the effects of increased Ca and Mg water concentrations and turtle size on 226Ra concentrations in the tissues of E. dentata were similar to their effects on 45Ca tissue concentrations, indicating the similar metabolic behaviour of 226Ra and 45Ca in E. dentata.
Jeffree, R. 1988, 'Patterns Of Accumulation Of Alkaline-earth Metals In The Tissue Of The Fresh-water Mussel Velesunio-angasi (sowerby)', Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 67-90.
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Jeffree, R. & Simpson, R.D. 1986, 'An experimental study of the uptake and loss of Ra-226 by the tissue of the tropical freshwater mussel Velesunio angasi (Sowerby) under varying Ca and Mg water concentrations', Hydrobiologia, vol. 139, pp. 59-80.
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Freshwater mussels Yelesunio angasi (Sowerby) from Magela Creek, Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia, experimentally exposed to mean elevated Ra-226 water concentrations ranging between 0.95 and 1 .85 Bq l - ' for 28 days, accumulated Ra-226 in their tissue to mean concentrations ranging from 2.8 to 4 .8 Bq per gram of dry tissue. The Ra-226 (log lo ) was accumulated in a linear pattern over exposure periods of 28 and 56 days . Mussel size and sex had little or no effect on the rates of uptake of Ra-226 per gram of tissue.
Jeffree, R. & Simpson, R.D. 1984, 'Radium-226 is accumulated in calcium granules in the tissues of the freswater mussel, Velesunio angasi: Support for a metabolic analogue hypothesis', Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, vol. 79A, no. 1, pp. 61-72.
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Abstract-\. The distribution of226Ra, Ca, Ba and Mg in the tissues of the freshwater mussel, Velesunio angasi, was studied. 2. The concentration of 226Ra is significantly (P < 0.05) and positively correlated with the concentrations of the alkaline earths, Ca, Mg and Ba, in dissected tissues of V. angasi. 3. Alpha track autoradiography, electron microprobe and X-ray analysis, and histochemical studies have shown that 226Ra, Ca, Mg and Ba are co-located predominantly in granular deposits that are dispersed throughout the body of V. angasi. 4. The value of such a co-Iocational study in supporting hypotheses of analogous metabolic behaviour between the non-essential 226Ra and Ca has to be assessed in relation to the functions attributed to calcium granules. 5. Granules may simultaneously accumulate 226Ra and act as a store of exchangeable Ca.
Jeffree, R. & Williams, N.J. 1980, 'Mining pollution and the diet of the purple-striped gudgeon Mogurnda mogurnda Richardson (Eleotridae) in the Finniss River, Northern Territory, Australia', Ecological Monographs, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 457-485.
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During the dry season of 1974. collections of the purple-stripedg udgeon Alouriirn(h ni1or1m1(law ere taken fromt he Finniss River of the NorthernT erritoryd: uringt he wet season. thi riverr eceives acidic and metallicp ollutantsf romt he formerlym ined arleato f Rum Jungle. The fish consumed a great variety of foods, with high abundances of Dytiscidae, Chironomidae, Cer.itopogonidae,T richoptera,O donata. Copepoda Decapoda. and Pisces. Withinp olluted and unpollutedz ones of the river,t he dietarya bundances of some foods varied witht he size of the consuming fisha nd with habitatd escriptors. For no food was there a significantr egressiona gainst habitatd escriptorsi n both of the zones: this emphasises that pollutione ffectsa re more complex than simply depressing or raising the abundances of the dietary species.