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Dr Roberto Martinez-Maldonado

Biography

Roberto Martinez-Maldonado (B.Eng., M. IT., Ph. D.) is a postdoctoral research associate in the Connected Intelligence Centre (CIC) at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Australia, working with Prof. Simon Buckingham Shum. He obtained his doctorate degree in 2014 from the Computer Human Adapted Interaction Research Group (CHAI) at the University of Sydney, Australia.

He worked on Prof. Peter Goodyear’s Australian Research Council (ARC) Laureate Fellowship program – ‘Learning, technology and design: architectures for productive networked learning’ at Centre for Research on Computer Supported Learning and Cognition (CoCo) in the University of Sydney.

He is currently actively involved in a project which is a receiver of the last round of OLT grants (2016) titled: 'Scaling the Provision of Personalised Learning Support Actions to Large Student Cohorts'

Read my publications here: PUBLICATIONS

Professional

  • Australian Research Council (ARC) Assessor 
  • Member of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
  • Member of the Society of Learning Analytics Research (SoLAR)
  • Member of the International Society of the Learning Sciences (ISLS)
  • Member of the International Educational Data Mining Society (IEDMS)
Image of Roberto Martinez-Maldonado
Research Fellow, Connected Intelligence Centre
Bachelor of Science in Computer Systems Engineering, Information Technologies Management, Learning Sciences, Artificial Intelligence, Educational Data Mining and HCI
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 1914

Research Interests

Human Computer Interaction, Surface Computing, Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, Orchestration Technology, Learning Analytics, Artificial Intelligence, Educational Data Mining and Data Science.

Can supervise: Yes

Conferences

Knight, S., Martinez-Maldonado, R., Gibson, A. & Shum, S.B. 2017, 'Towards mining sequences and dispersion of rhetorical moves in student written texts', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 228-232.
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© 2017 ACM.There is an increasing interest in the analysis of both student's writing and the temporal aspects of learning data. The analysis of higher-level learning features in writing contexts requires analyses of data that could be characterised in terms of the sequences and processes of textual features present. This paper (1) discusses the extant literature on sequential and process analyses of writing; and, based on this and our own first-hand experience on sequential analysis, (2) proposes a number of approaches to both pre-process and analyse sequences in whole-texts. We illustrate how the approaches could be applied to examples drawn from our own datasets of 'rhetorical moves' in written texts, and the potential each approach holds for providing insight into that data. Work is in progress to apply this model to provide empirical insights. Although, similar sequence or process mining techniques have not yet been applied to student writing, techniques applied to event data could readily be operationalised to undercover patterns in texts.
Schulte, J., De Mendonca, P.F., Martinez-Maldonado, R. & Shum, S.B. 2017, 'Large scale predictive process mining and analytics of university degree course data', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 538-539.
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© 2017 ACM.For students, in particular freshmen, the degree pathway from semester to semester is not that transparent, although students have a reasonable idea what courses are expected to be taken each semester. An often-pondered question by students is: "what can I expect in the next semester?" More precisely, given the commitment and engagement I presented in this particular course and the respective performance I achieved, can I expect a similar outcome in the next semester in the particular course I selected? Are the demands and expectations in this course much higher so that I need to adjust my commitment and engagement and overall workload if I expect a similar outcome? Is it better to drop a course to manage expectations rather than to (predictably) fail, and perhaps have to leave the degree altogether? Degree and course advisors and student support units find it challenging to provide evidence based advise to students. This paper presents research into educational process mining and student data analytics in a whole university scale approach with the aim of providing insight into the degree pathway questions raised above. The beta-version of our course level degree pathway tool has been used to shed light for university staff and students alike into our university's 1,300 degrees and associated 6 million course enrolments over the past 20 years.
Pardo, A., Jovanovic, J., Mirriahi, N., Dawson, S., Martinez-Maldonado, R. & Gaševic, D. 2016, 'Generating actionable predictive models of academic performance', Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge, International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge, ACM, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, pp. 474-478.
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© 2016 Copyright held by the owner/author(s).The pervasive collection of data has opened the possibility for educational institutions to use analytics methods to improve the quality of the student experience. However, the adoption of these methods faces multiple challenges particularly at the course level where instructors and students would derive the most benefit from the use of analytics and predictive models. The challenge lies in the knowledge gap between how the data is captured, processed and used to derive models of student behavior, and the subsequent interpretation and the decision to deploy pedagogical actions and interventions by instructors. Simply put, the provision of learning analytics alone has not necessarily led to changing teaching practices. In order to support pedagogical change and aid interpretation, this paper proposes a model that can enable instructors to readily identify subpopulations of students to provide specific support actions. The approach was applied to a first year course with a large number of students. The resulting model classifies students according to their predicted exam scores, based on indicators directly derived from the learning design.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Suthers, D., Aljohani, N.R., Hernandez-Leo, D., Kitto, K., Pardo, A., Charleer, S. & Ogata, H. 2016, 'Cross-LAK: Learning analytics across physical and digital spaces', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 486-487.
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© 2016 Copyright held by the owner/author(s).It is of high relevance to the LAK community to explore blended learning scenarios where students can interact at diverse digital and physical learning spaces. This workshop aims to gather the sub-community of LAK researchers, learning scientists and researchers from other communities, interested in ubiquitous, mobile and/or faceto- face learning analytics. An overarching concern is how to integrate and coordinate learning analytics to provide continued support to learning across digital and physical spaces. The goals of the workshop are to share approaches and identify a set of guidelines to design and connect Learning Analytics solutions according to the pedagogical needs and contextual constraints to provide support across digital and physical learning spaces.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Anderson, T., Shum, S.B. & Knight, S. 2016, 'Towards supporting awareness for content curation: The case of food literacy and behavioural change', CEUR Workshop Proceedings, pp. 42-46.
Copyright © 2016 for the individual papers by the papers' authors.This paper presents a theoretical grounding and a conceptual proposal aimed at providing support in the initial stages of sustained behavioural change. We explore the role that learning analytics and/or open learner models can have in supporting life-long learners to enhance their food literacy through a more informed curation process of relevant-content. This approach grounds on a behavioural change perspective that identifies i) knowledge, ii) attitudes, and iii) self-efficacy as key factors that will directly and indirectly affect future decisions and agency of life-long learners concerning their own health. The paper offers some possible avenues to start organising efforts towards the use of learning analytics to enhance awareness in terms of: knowledge curation, knowledge sharing and knowledge certainty. The paper aims at triggering discussion about the type of data and presentation mechanisms that may help life-long learners set a stronger basis for behavioural change in the subsequent stages.
Martinez-Maldonado, R. 2016, 'Seeing learning analytics tools as orchestration technologies: Towards supporting learning activities across physical and digital spaces', CEUR Workshop Proceedings: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Learning Analytics Across Physical and Digital Spaces co-located with 6th International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge (LAK 2016), First International Workshop on Learning Analytics Across Physical and Digital Spaces co-located with 6th International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge (LAK 2016), CEUR, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 70-73.
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© Copyright 2016 for this paper by its authors.This panel paper proposes to consider the process that learners or educators commonly follow while interacting with learning analytics tools as part of an orchestration loop. This may be particularly valuable to facilitate understanding of the key role that learning analytics may have to provide sustained support to learners and educators. The complexity of learning situations where learning occurs across varied physical spaces and multiple educational tools are involved requires a holistic and practical approach. The proposal is to build on principles of orchestration that can help link technical and theoretical aspects of learning analytics with the practitioner. The panel paper provides: 1) a brief description of the relevance of the notions of orchestration and orchestrable technologies for learning analytics; and 2) the illustration of the orchestration loop as a process followed by learners or educators when they use learning analytics tools.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Pardo, A. & Hernández-Leo, D. 2016, 'Introduction to cross LAK 2016: Learning analytics across spaces', Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Learning Analytics Across Physical and Digital Spaces co-located with 6th International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge (LAK 2016), First International Workshop on Learning Analytics Across Physical and Digital Spaces co-located with 6th International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge (LAK 2016), CEUR, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 1-4.
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For the LAK (Learning Analytics and Knowledge) community, it is highly important to pay attention to the development and deployment of learning analytics solutions for blended learning scenarios where students work at diverse digital and physical learning spaces and interact in different modalities. This workshop has been a first attempt in gathering the sub-community of LAK researchers, learning scientists and researchers from other communities, interested in ubiquitous, mobile and/or face-to-face learning analytics. It was clear for all the attendees that a key concern that has not been deeply explored yet is associated with the mechanisms to integrate and coordinate learning analytics to provide continued support to learning across digital and physical spaces. The two main goals of the workshop were to share perspectives and identify a set of guidelines that could be offered to teachers, researchers or designers to create and connect Learning Analytics solutions according to the pedagogical needs and contextual constraints to provide support across digital and physical learning spaces.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Schneider, B., Charleer, S., Buckingham Shum, S., Klerkx, J. & Duval, E. 2016, 'Interactive surfaces and learning analytics: data, orchestration aspects, pedagogical uses and challenges', LAK '16 Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge, Sixth International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge, ACM, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, pp. 124-133.
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The proliferation of varied types of multi-user interactive surfaces (such as digital whiteboards, tabletops and tangible interfaces) is opening a new range of applications in face-to-face (f2f) contexts. They offer unique opportunities for Learning Analytics (LA) by facilitating multi-user sensemaking of automatically captured digital footprints of students' f2f interactions. This paper presents an analysis of current research exploring learning analytics associated with the use of surface devices. We use a framework to analyse our first-hand experiences, and the small number of related deployments according to four dimensions: the orchestration aspects involved; the phases of the pedagogical practice that are supported; the target actors; and the levels of iteration of the LA process. The contribution of the paper is twofold: 1) a synthesis of conclusions that identify the degree of maturity, challenges and pedagogical opportunities of the existing applications of learning analytics and interactive surfaces; and 2) an analysis framework that can be used to characterise the design space of similar areas and LA applications.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Goodyear, P., Kay, J., Thompson, K. & Carvalho, L. 2016, 'An Actionable Approach to Understand Group Experience in Complex, Multi-surface Spaces', Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, Santa Clara, California, USA, pp. 2062-2074.
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There is a steadily growing interest in the design of spaces in which multiple interactive surfaces are present and, in turn, in understanding their role in group activity. However, authentic activities in these multi-surface spaces can be complex. Groups commonly use digital and non-digital artefacts, tools and resources, in varied ways depending on their specific social and epistemic goals. Thus, designing for collaboration in such spaces can be very challenging. Importantly, there is still a lack of agreement on how to approach the analysis of groups' experiences in these heterogeneous spaces. This paper presents an actionable approach that aims to address the complexity of understanding multi-user multi-surface systems. We provide a structure for applying different analytical tools in terms of four closely related dimensions of user activity: the setting, the tasks, the people and the runtime co-configuration. The applicability of our approach is illustrated with six types of analysis of group activity in a multi-surface design studio.
Martinez-Maldonado, R. & Goodyear, P. 2016, 'CoCoDeS: Multi-device support for collocated collaborative learning design', Proceedings of the 28th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, OzCHI 2016, 28th Australian Conference on Computer-Human Interaction (OzCHI), ACM, Launceston, Tasmania, pp. 185-194.
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Copyright © 2016 ACM.We propose a novel principled approach and the toolset to support collocated team-based educational design. We scaffold teams of teachers as designers creating rapid high-level course designs. We provide teachers with an ecology of digital and non-digital devices, an embedded design pattern library and a design dashboard. The toolset is situated within a purpose-built educational design studio and includes a set of surface devices that allow teachers to manipulate iconic representations of a course design and get real-time design analytics on selected parameters. The contribution of the paper is a description of the rationale for, implementation and evaluation of, an innovative toolset that sits in an ecology of resources to support collocated educational design.
Goldin, I., Martinez-Maldonado, R., Walker, E., Kumar, R. & Kim, J. 2015, '4th workshop on intelligent support for learning in groups', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), p. 884.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Blanchard, E.G., Ogan, A. & Gasparini, I. 2015, 'Preface', Proceedings of the Workshops at the 17th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education AIED 2015, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Madrid, Spain.
Thompson, K., Martinez-Maldonado, R., Wardak, D., Goodyear, P. & Carvalho, L. 2015, 'Analysing F2F collaborative design and learning: Experiences in a design studio', CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Orchestrated Collaborative Classroom Workshop 2015, CEUR, Gothenburg, Sweden, pp. 25-29.
This paper presents our proposed methods developed to contribute to our understanding of a complex and heterogeneous activity: face-to-face collaborative design and learning. We build on principles of multimodal learning analytics and synthesis research to explore different dimensions of collaboration including the analysis of discourse, tools usage, inscriptions, gestures, physical mobility, focus of attention, decision making, design processes, conversational turns, positioning and other social interactions. We propose that to understand what occurs in a heterogeneous and complex collaboration situation we should see it as a whole: A complex and physically, socially and epistemically situated activity.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Pardo, A., Mirriahi, N., Yacef, K., Kay, J. & Clayphan, A. 2015, 'The LATUX workflow: Designing and deploying awareness tools in technology-enabled learning settings', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 1-10.
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Designing, deploying and validating learning analytics tools for instructors or students is a challenge requiring techniques and methods from different disciplines, such as software engineering, human-computer interaction, educational design and psychology. Whilst each of these disciplines has consolidated design methodologies, there is a need for more specific methodological frameworks within the cross-disciplinary space defined by learning analytics. In particular there is no systematic workflow for producing learning analytics tools that are both technologically feasible and truly underpin the learning experience. In this paper, we present the LATUX workflow, a five-stage workflow to design, deploy and validate awareness tools in technology-enabled learning environments. LATUX is grounded on a well-established design process for creating, testing and re-designing user interfaces. We extend this process by integrating the pedagogical requirements to generate visual analytics to inform instructors' pedagogical decisions or intervention strategies. The workflow is illustrated with a case study in which collaborative activities were deployed in a real classroom.
Clayphan, A., Martinez-Maldonado, R., Kay, J. & Bull, S. 2014, 'Scaffolding reflection for collaborative brainstorming', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 615-616.
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We present a reflection-on-action system supporting students' reflection and self-assessment after a tabletop brainstorming learning activity. Open Learner Models (OLMs) were core to the reflection task, to scaffold student's self-assessment of egalitarian contribution; and group interaction from ideas sparked from each other. We present multiple OLMs to the group generated from logs automatically captured from the collaborative activity. Our work advances the understanding of OLMs for brainstorm reflection, and the benefit of multiple OLM representations. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Clayphan, A., Yacef, K. & Kay, J. 2014, 'Towards providing notifications to enhance teacher's awareness in the classroom', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 510-515.
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Students often need prompt feedback to make the best from the learning activities. Within classrooms, being aware of students' achievements and weaknesses can help teachers decide how to time feedback. However, they usually cannot easily assess student's progress. We present an approach to generate automated notifications that can enhance teacher's awareness in runtime. This paper formulates the theoretical framing and describes the technological infrastructure of a system that can help teachers orchestrate learning activities and monitor small groups in a multi-tabletop classroom. We define the design guidelines underpinning our system, which include: i) generating notifications from teacher-designed or AI-based sources; ii) enhancing teacher's awareness in the orchestration loop; iii) presenting both positive and negative notifications; iv) allowing teachers to tune the system; and v) providing a private teacher's user interface. Our approach aims to guide research on ways to generate notifications that can help teachers drive their attention and provide relevant feedback for small group learning activities in the classroom. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Pinto, A. & Moreno-Sabido, M. 2014, 'Towards a learning ecology using modest computing to address the 'banking model of education'', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 649-651.
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It is suggested that most learning technologies used in higher education reinforce what is known as the banking concept of education. Teachers and designers often give too much importance to results and content delivery. We explore the role of learning technologies to promote students' meaningful learning, critical thinking and collaboration, as well as teacher's awareness and orchestration. Our approach aims to bridge the gap between principles of pedagogy, student modelling, modest computing and usability. We will show the applicability of our approach as a learning ecology including in three scenarios: face-to-face, remote, and mobile learning environments. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Clayphan, A., Ackad, C. & Kay, J. 2014, 'Multi-touch technology in a higher-education classroom: Lessons in-the-wild', Proceedings of the 26th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, OzCHI 2014, pp. 220-229.
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Copyright 2014 ACM. Inspired by the promise of tabletops for collaborative learning, and building on the many tabletop lab studies, and a few in-the-wild tabletop classrooms, we designed the first semester-long use of a multi-tabletop classroom for two university subjects, with 105 and 40 students respectively. Surprisingly, we found that with just three applications, designed to meet emerging teaching goals, we could support diverse classroom activities. Our technology also featured key minimalist functions that proved effective in enhancing the teacher's management of the class. This points to a research agenda for the applications and functionalities needed to make tabletop classrooms a reality. This paper describes the design process we followed to deploy multi-touch technology as a classroom ecology and the lessons learnt from the semester-long use in two authentic university courses.
Clayphan, A., Martinez-Maldonado, R., Kay, J. & Bull, S. 2014, 'Scaffolding reflection for collaborative brainstorming', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 615-616.
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We present a reflection-on-action system supporting students' reflection and self-assessment after a tabletop brainstorming learning activity. Open Learner Models (OLMs) were core to the reflection task, to scaffold student's self-assessment of egalitarian contribution; and group interaction from ideas sparked from each other. We present multiple OLMs to the group generated from logs automatically captured from the collaborative activity. Our work advances the understanding of OLMs for brainstorm reflection, and the benefit of multiple OLM representations. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Clayphan, A., Yacef, K. & Kay, J. 2014, 'Towards providing notifications to enhance teacher's awareness in the classroom', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 510-515.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
Students often need prompt feedback to make the best from the learning activities. Within classrooms, being aware of students' achievements and weaknesses can help teachers decide how to time feedback. However, they usually cannot easily assess student's progress. We present an approach to generate automated notifications that can enhance teacher's awareness in runtime. This paper formulates the theoretical framing and describes the technological infrastructure of a system that can help teachers orchestrate learning activities and monitor small groups in a multi-tabletop classroom. We define the design guidelines underpinning our system, which include: i) generating notifications from teacher-designed or AI-based sources; ii) enhancing teacher's awareness in the orchestration loop; iii) presenting both positive and negative notifications; iv) allowing teachers to tune the system; and v) providing a private teacher's user interface. Our approach aims to guide research on ways to generate notifications that can help teachers drive their attention and provide relevant feedback for small group learning activities in the classroom. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Pinto, A. & Moreno-Sabido, M. 2014, 'Towards a learning ecology using modest computing to address the 'banking model of education'', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 649-651.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
It is suggested that most learning technologies used in higher education reinforce what is known as the banking concept of education. Teachers and designers often give too much importance to results and content delivery. We explore the role of learning technologies to promote students' meaningful learning, critical thinking and collaboration, as well as teacher's awareness and orchestration. Our approach aims to bridge the gap between principles of pedagogy, student modelling, modest computing and usability. We will show the applicability of our approach as a learning ecology including in three scenarios: face-to-face, remote, and mobile learning environments. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Dimitriadis, Y., Clayphan, A., Muñoz-Cristóbal, J.A., Prieto, L.P., Rodríguez-Triana, M.J. & Kay, J. 2013, 'Integrating orchestration of ubiquitous and pervasive learning environments', Proceedings of the 25th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference: Augmentation, Application, Innovation, Collaboration, OzCHI 2013, pp. 189-192.
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Ubiquitous and pervasive computing devices, such as interactive tabletops, whiteboards, tablets and phones, have the potential to enhance the management and awareness of learning activities in important ways. They provide students with natural ways to interact with collaborators, and can help teachers create and manage learning tasks that can be carried out both in the classroom and at a distance. But how can these emerging technologies be successfully integrated into current teaching practice? This paper proposes an approach to integrate, from the technological perspective, collaborative learning activities using these kinds of devices. Our approach is based on the concept of orchestration, which tackles the critical task for teachers to coordinate student's learning activities within the constraints of authentic educational settings. Our studies within authentic learning settings enabled us to identify three main elements that are important for ubiquitous and pervasive learning settings. These are i) regulation mechanisms, ii) interconnection with existing web-based learning environments, and iii) awareness tools.
Clayphan, A., Martinez-Maldonado, R., Ackad, C. & Kay, J. 2013, 'An approach for designing and evaluating a plug-in vision-based tabletop touch identification system', Proceedings of the 25th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference: Augmentation, Application, Innovation, Collaboration, OzCHI 2013, pp. 373-382.
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Key functionality for interactive tabletops to provide effective collaboration affordances requires touch identification, where each touch is matched to the right user. This can be valuable to provide adaptive functions, personalisation of content, collaborative gestures and capture of differentiated interaction for real-time or further analysis. While there is increased attention on touch-identification mechanisms, currently there is no developed solution to readily enhance available tabletop hardware to include such functionality. This paper proposes a plug-in system that adds touch identification to a conventional tabletop. It also presents an analysis tool and the design of an evaluation suite to inform application designers of the effectiveness of the system to differentiate users. We illustrate its use by evaluating the solution under a number of conditions of: scalability (number of users); activity density; and multi-touch gestures. Our contributions are: (1) an offthe- shelf system to add user differentiation and tracking to currently available interactive tabletop hardware; and (2) the foundations for systematic assessment of touch identification accuracy for vision-based systems.
Kharrufa, A., Martinez-Maldonado, R., Kay, J. & Olivier, P. 2013, 'Extending tabletop application design to the classroom', ITS 2013 - Proceedings of the 2013 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces, pp. 115-124.
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While a number of guidelines exist for the design of learning applications that target a single group working around an interactive tabletop, the same cannot be said for the design of applications intended for use in multi-tabletops deployments in the classroom. Accordingly, a number of these guidelines for single-tabletop settings need to be extended to take account of both the distinctive qualities of the classroom and the particular challenges of having various groups using the same application on multiple tables simultaneously. This paper presents an empirical analysis of the effectiveness of designs for small-group multi-tabletop collaborative learning activities in the wild. We use distributed cognition as a framework to analyze the small number of authentic multi-tabletop deployments and help characterize the technological and educational ecology of these classroom settings. Based on previous research on single-tabletop collaboration, the concept of orchestration, and both first-hand experience and second-hand accounts of the few existing multiple-tabletop deployments to date, we develop a three-dimensional framework of design recommendations for multi-tabletop learning settings. © 2013 ACM.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Kay, J., Yacef, K., Edbauer, M.T. & Dimitriadis, Y. 2013, 'MTClassroom and MTDashboard: Supporting analysis of teacher attention in an orchestrated multi-tabletop classroom', Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Conference, CSCL, pp. 320-327.
In spite of the substantial progress in CSCL, there is still some distance between the promise of educational technology for classroom learning and what is readily achieved. Emerging tabletop devices can offer new means to enhance teachers' classroom control and awareness. These technologies can help them orchestrate activities, and capture, analyse and visualise students' collaborative interactions. This paper presents MTClassroom and MTDashboard, that were designed, deployed and tested to support the teacher in orchestrating collaborative learning activities at an authentic classroom. MTClassroom is an enriched multi-tabletop environment that captures aspects of students' activity as they work in small groups. MTDashboard is an orchestration tool displayed at a handheld device, giving the teacher control over classroom activities and providing 'real-time' indicators of participation and task progress of each group. We analysed teacher's attention by triangulating quantitative evidence captured by our environment with qualitative observations and teacher's perceptions. We investigated the affordances of our environment and the impact of the information provided to the teacher through the MTDashboard. The contribution of this paper is the novel approach for providing teachers with key indicators of small-group collaboration in the classroom and analysing their impact on teachers' attention to help them manage their time more effectively. © ISLS.
Rick, J., Horn, M. & Martinez-Maldonado, R. 2013, 'Human-computer interaction and the learning sciences', Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Conference, CSCL, pp. 451-455.
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research has been highly influential in understanding the potential of new technologies to support human activities. Research in the Learning Sciences (LS) draws on multiple fields to improve learning and education. Both are active research communities with well-established practices, core values and a substantial body of literature. As both concentrate on utilizing computing technologies to better support people, there is a natural overlap; however, the Learning Sciences are not simply HCI applied to the domain of learning. The practices, traditions, and values are substantially different leading to tensions are keenly felt by researchers who actively participate in both fields. They also make it harder for researchers in either field to move towards the other. To explore and improve the relationship between these fields, we organized the workshop "Human-Computer Interaction and the Learning Sciences." This workshop was meant for both interdisciplinary researchers (i.e., active participants in both communities) and researchers from either discipline interested in the other field. In this paper, we support these audiences by providing introductions to the two fields: their histories, values and practices. © ISLS.
Clayphan, A., Martinez-Maldonado, R. & Kay, J. 2013, 'Open learner models to support reflection on brainstorming at interactive tabletops', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 683-686.
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Brainstorming is a widely-used group technique to enhance creativity. Interactive tabletops have the potential to support brainstorming and, by exploiting learners' trace data, they can provide Open Learner Models (OLMs) to support reflection on a brainstorming session. We describe our design of such OLMs to enable an individual to answer core questions: C1) how much did I contribute? C2) at what times was the group or an individual stuck? and C3) where did group members seem to 'spark' off each other? We conducted 24 brainstorming sessions and analysed them to create brainstorming models underlying the OLMs. Results indicate the OLM's were effective. Our contributions are: i) the first OLMs supporting reflection on brainstorming; ii) models of brainstorming that underlie the OLMs; and iii) a user study demonstrating that learners can use the OLMs to answer core reflection questions. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Kay, J. & Yacef, K. 2013, 'An automatic approach for mining patterns of collaboration around an interactive tabletop', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 101-110.
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Learning to collaborate is important. But how does one learn to collaborate face-to-face? What are the actions and strategies to follow for a group of students who start a task? We analyse aspects of students' collaboration when working around a multi-touch tabletop enriched with sensors for identifying users, their actions and their verbal interactions. We provide a technological infrastructure to help understand how highly collaborative groups work compared to less collaborative ones. The contributions of this paper are (1) an automatic approach to distinguish, discover and distil salient common patterns of interaction within groups, by mining the logs of students' tabletop touches and detected speech; and (2) the instantiation of this approach in a particular study. We use three data mining techniques: a classification model, sequence mining, and hierarchical clustering. We validated our approach in a study of 20 triads building solutions to a posed question at an interactive tabletop. We demonstrate that our approach can be used to discover patterns that may be associated with strategies that differentiate high and low collaboration groups. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Clayphan, A., Martinez-Maldonado, R. & Kay, J. 2013, 'Designing OLMs for reflection about group brainstorming at interactive tabletops', CEUR Workshop Proceedings, pp. 37-46.
Brainstorming is a valuable and widely-used group technique to enhance creativity. Interactive tabletops have the potential to support brainstorming and, by exploiting learners' trace data, they can provide Open Learner Models (OLMs) to support reflection on a brainstorming session. We describe our design of such OLMs to enable an individual to answer core questions: C1) how much did I contribute? C2) at what times was the group or an individual stuck? and C3) where did group members seem to 'spark' off each other? We conducted 24 brainstorming sessions and analysed them to create core brainstorming models underlying the OLMs. We evaluated the OLMs in a think-aloud study designed to see whether learners could interpret the OLMs to answer the core questions. Results indicate the OLMs were effective and that it is valuable, that learners benefit from guidance in their reflection and from drawing on an example of an excellent group's OLM. Our contributions are: i) the first OLMs supporting reflection on brainstorming; ii) models of brainstorming that underlie the OLMs; and iii) a user study demonstrating that learners can use the OLMs to answer the core reflection questions.
Martinez Maldonado, R., Kay, J., Yacef, K., Edbauer, M.T. & Dimitriadis, Y. 2012, 'Orchestrating a multi-tabletop classroom: From activity design to enactment and reflection', ITS 2012 - Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces, pp. 119-128.
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If multi-tabletop classrooms were available in each school, how would teachers plan and enact their activities to enhance learning and collaboration? How can they evaluate how the activities actually went compared with the plan? Teachers' effectiveness in orchestrating the classroom has a direct impact on students learning. Interactive tabletops offer the potential to support teachers by enhancing their awareness and classroom control. This paper describes our mechanisms to help a teacher orchestrate a classroom activity using multiple interactive tabletops. We analyse automatically captured interaction data to assess whether the activity design, as intended by the teacher, was actually followed during its enactment. We report on an authentic classroom study embedded in the curricula of an undergraduate Management unit. This involved 236 students across 14 sessions. The main contribution of the paper is an approach for designing a multi-tabletop classroom that can help teachers plan their learning activities; and provide data for assessment and reflection on the enactment of a series of classroom sessions. © 2012 ACM.
Martinez Maldonado, R., Kay, J., Yacef, K. & Schwendimann, B. 2012, 'An interactive teacher's dashboard for monitoring groups in a multi-tabletop learning environment', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 482-492.
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One of the main challenges for teachers in facilitating and orchestrating collaborative activities within multiple groups is that they cannot see information in real time and typically see only the final product of the groups' activity. This is a problem as it means that teachers may find it hard to be aware of the learners' collaborative processes, partial solutions and the contribution of each student. Emerging shared devices have the potential to provide new forms of support for face-to-face collaboration and also open new opportunities for capturing and analysing the collaborative process. This can enable teachers to monitor students' learning more effectively. This paper presents an interactive dashboard that summarises student data captured from a multi-tabletop learning environment and allows teachers to drill down to more specific information when required. It consists of a set of visual real-time indicators of the groups' activity and collaboration. This study evaluates how teachers used the dashboard determine when to intervene in a group. The key contributions of the paper are the implementation and evaluation of the dashboard, which shows a form of learner model from a concept mapping tabletop application designed to both support collaborative learning and capture traces of activity. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Journal articles

Martinez-Maldonado, R., Goodyear, P., Carvalho, L., Thompson, K., Hernandez-Leo, D., Dimitriadis, Y., Prieto, L.P. & Wardak, D. 2017, 'Supporting collaborative design activity in a multi-user digital design ecology', Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 71, pp. 327-342.
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© 2017 Elsevier LtdAcross a broad range of design professions, there has been extensive research on design practices and considerable progress in creating new computer-based systems that support design work. Our research is focused on educational/instructional design for students' learning. In this sub-field, progress has been more limited. In particular, neither research nor systems development have paid much attention to the fact that design is becoming a more collaborative endeavor. This paper reports the latest research outcomes from R&D in the Educational Design Studio (EDS), a facility developed iteratively over four years to support and understand collaborative, real-time, co-present design work. The EDS serves to (i) enhance our scientific understanding of design processes and design cognition and (ii) provide insights into how designers' work can be improved through appropriate technological support. In the study presented here, we introduced a complex, multi-user, digital design tool into the existing ecology of tools and resources available in the EDS. We analysed the activity of four pairs of 'teacher-designers' during a design task. We identified different behaviors - in reconfiguring the task, the working methods and toolset usage. Our data provide new insights about the affordances of different digital and analogue design surfaces used in the Studio.
Clayphan, A., Martinez-Maldonado, R., Tomitsch, M., Atkinson, S. & Kay, J. 2016, 'An in-the-wild study of learning to brainstorm: Comparing cards, tabletops and wall displays in the classroom', Interacting with Computers, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 788-810.
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© 2016 The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The British Computer Society.Single display interactive groupware interfaces have the potential to effectively support small group work in classrooms. Our work aimed to gain understanding needed to realize that potential. First, we wanted to study how learners use these large interactive displays, compared with a more traditional method within classrooms. Second, we wanted to fill gaps in the current understanding of the effectiveness of interactive tables versus walls. Third, we wanted to do this out of the laboratory setting, in authentic classrooms, with their associated constraints. We conducted an in-the-wild study, with 51 design students, working in 14 groups, learning the brainstorming technique. Each group practiced brainstorming in three classrooms: one with vertical displays (walls); another with multi-touch tabletops; and the third with pens and index cards. The published literature suggested that tabletops would be better than the other conditions for key factors of cooperative participation, mutual awareness, maintaining interest and affective measures. Contrary to this, we found that the horizontal and vertical displays both had similar levels of benefit over the conventional method. It was only for affective measures that tabletops were better than walls. All conditions were similar for our several measures of outcome quality. We discuss the implications of our findings for designing future classrooms.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Clayphan, A. & Kay, J. 2015, 'Deploying and Visualising Teacher's Scripts of Small Group Activities in a Multi-Surface Classroom Ecology: a study in-the-wild', Computer Supported Cooperative Work, vol. 24, pp. 177-221.
Thompson, K., Carvalho, L., Aditomo, A., Dimitriadis, Y., Dyke, G., Evans, M.A., Khosronejad, M., Martinez-Maldonado, R., Reimann, P. & Wardak, D. 2015, 'The synthesis approach to analysing educational design dataset: Application of three scaffolds to a learning by design task for postgraduate education students', British Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 46, pp. 1020-1027.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Yacef, K. & Kay, J. 2015, 'TSCL: A conceptual model to inform understanding of collaborative learning processes at interactive tabletops', International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 83, pp. 62-82.
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Emerging systems for tabletop interaction have the potential to support small groups of students in collaborative learning activities. We argue that these devices have the potential to support learning by exploiting the interaction data that they can capture. The capture, analysis and presentation of these data can provide new ways to gain understanding of the collaborative processes. This is particularly important for teachers at two levels. First, they can gain a deeper level of awareness of the progress of individual students and groups in their class and, based on this, make real-time informed decisions. Second, they can do post-hoc reflection and analyse aspects of the class. This paper presents Tabletop-Supported Collaborative Learning (TSCL), a conceptual model that provides foundations for building tabletop-based systems that can inform understanding of the collaborative learning process. The model provides guidance for building the infrastructure to: (i) capture traces of student activity; (ii) exploit these through data analytics techniques; and (iii) provide useful information about the collaborative processes. We illustrate the usefulness of TSCL in its use to create a learning environment that was evaluated in two studies conducted in tertiary education contexts. The first was a laboratory study, where 60 students in 20 groups worked on a concept mapping task, with data from their interaction used to create visualisations of the group processes. The second study was conducted in-the-wild, involving 140 students, working in 8 class sessions.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Pardo, A., Mirriahi, N., Yacef, K., Kay, J. & Clayphan, A. 2015, 'LATUX: an Iterative Workflow for Designing, Validating and Deploying Learning Analytics Visualisations', International Journal on Learning Analytics,, pp. in-press.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Dimitriadis, Y., Martinez-Mones, A., Kay, J. & Yacef, K. 2014, 'Capturing and analysing verbal and physical collaborative learning interactions at an enriched interactive tabletop', International Journal on Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, vol. 8, pp. 455-485.
Martinez-Maldonado, R., Clayphan, A., Yacef, K. & Kay, J. 2014, 'MTFeedback: providing notifications to enhance teacher awareness of small group work in the classroom', IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 187-200.
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The teacher has very important roles in the classroom, particularly as manager of most resources for learning activities and in providing timely feedback that can enhance learning. But teachers need to be aware of students' achievements and weaknesses to decide how to time feedback. We present MTFeedback, a system that harnesses the new affordances of interactive tabletops to generate automatic notifications about small group collaborative tasks for the teacher in real-time. We deployed the system on a teacher's hand-held dashboard, which supports orchestration of a multi-tabletop environment, the MTClassroom. We validated our approach in authentic (in-the-wild) classroom activities, with 95 higher education students and three teachers across two sets of six classroom sessions. We evaluated the impact of presenting notifications on feedback that teachers provided to students. The notifications were based on qualitative comparisons of students' artefacts against a representation of both expert knowledge and a set of common misconceptions. We demonstrate that our approach can successfully be deployed in the classroom to generate notifications that help the teacher direct their attention more effectively to provide relevant feedback to their students in small group learning activities.