UTS site search

Associate Professor Robert Crawford

Biography

Robert arrived at UTS in 2009. He completed his PhD in 2002 at the School of Historical Studies at Monash University and was subsequently awarded a Postdoctoral Fellowship at the National Centre for Australian Studies. After relocating to the UK, Robert joined the Menzies Centre for Australian Studies at King’s College, London where he lectured in history and was awarded the MSA Research Fellowship.

Robert is the author of various publications charting the history of Australia’s advertising industry, including "But Wait There’s More…: A History of Australian Advertising, 1900-2000" (Melbourne University Press, 2008). More recently, he co-edited "Consumer Australia: Historical Perspectives" (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010), a collection of essays charting the growth and development of consumer culture in Australia. He is also a co-author of the second Australasian edition of the textbook "Advertising Principles and Practices" (Pearson, 2011).

Robert’s research has also examined issues pertaining to identity and migration. He recently published "Bye the Beloved Country? South Africans in Britain 1994–2009 (Unisa Press, 2011). and was the co-editor of "Australians in Britain: The Twentieth Century Experience" (Monash e-Press, 2009).

Together with colleagues at the University of Melbourne, RMIT University, Brown University, and the University of Essex, Robert is currently working on an ARC-funded project (DP120100777) entitled ‘Globalizing the Magic System: A History of Advertising Industry Practices in Australia 1959-1989’. The project seeks to shed light on the complex relationship between advertising and Australian society by recording the impact of globalisation on the work practices of Australia’s advertising industry. Specifically, it examines the processes through which advertisements are produced, including hiring practices, agency hierarchies, client/agency relations, and technological change.

Robert is also working on a project entitled ‘Time to Knock Off’, a socio-cultural history of the pubs and their patrons in the Pyrmont-Ultimo area from the 1840s through to the present-day.

Image of Robert Crawford
Head of School, Communication, School of Communication
Associate Member, Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Research Centre
Core Member, Creative Practice and Cultural Economy
Associate Professor, School of Communication
BA (Hons), PhD (Monash)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 2708
Room
CB10.05.289B

Research Interests

  • Advertising
  • Consumer Culture
  • History
  • Popular Culture
  • Public Relations
  • Marketing Migration
  • National Identity
Current projects
‘Globalizing the Magic System: A History of Advertising Industry Practices in Australia 1959-1989’ (DP120100777)
‘Time to Knock Off: A History of Pubs in Pyrmont and Ultimo’
A History of Public Relations in Australia
Can supervise: Yes
Robert is available to supervise students looking to work on issues pertaining to advertising, media history, and the conceptualisation national identities.

Advertising
Communication
History
Media
Public Communication

Book Chapters

Crawford, R. 2013, ''It used to be a Dingy Kind of Joint': Reflections on Pubs and the Past in Pyrmont and Ultimo' in Paula Hamilton and Paul Ashton (eds), Locating Suburbia: memory, place, creativity, UTSePress, Sydney, pp. 125-139.
View/Download from: OPUS |
It is a far cry from the bustle that descends on the `Harley+ on a Friday evening or when a rugby international is being shown on the big screen. Asked for his impression of the pub on this warm afternoon, 31-year-old patron Chris Bowen comments that, `It looks a lot more upper class today, it used to be a more of an old fashioned... old looking dingy kind of joint+.1 Bowen+s description of the Harlequin Inn could be equally applied to its immediate surrounds. No longer a `dingy kind of joint+, Pyrmont and its neighbouring suburb Ultimo are now salubrious and highly sought after locations. The Pyrmont/Ultimo peninsula is in the heart of Sydney, Australia. Since European colonisation, the peninsula+s fortunes have swung wildly + from centre of industrial activity to abandoned slum district to new media and creative hub. At its industrial peak in 1900, the peninsula+s population reached 19 000 but by 1981 it had slumped to a mere 1590 residents. Thirty years later, however, and Pyrmont alone had become home to approximately 12 000 people. The transformations that have enveloped the Pyrmont peninsula have been explored + often passionately + by historians. For them, Pyrmont and Ultimo gave much to Sydney for scant return. Angered by the waves of `slum-clearances, demolitions, powerhouses, intolerable traffic and the absence of public facilities+ that had afflicted life in these suburbs, Michael Matthews+ 1983 history of the suburbs sought to capture the `more glorious past of this area+ and to mount a case for the improvement of `Sydney+s Sink+.
Crawford, R. 2010, 'Holden' in Melissa Harper & Richard White (eds), Symbols of Australia, UNSW Press, Sydney, Australia, pp. 169-176.
View/Download from: OPUS |
'She's a Beauty', Prime Minister Ben Chifley famously declared in 1948, admiring the first Holden as it rolled off the production line. More than a mere car, Holden became a national symbol, a status that General Motors-Holden's took care to cultivate. Sixty years later their advertising still claimed that 'Holden means a great deal to Australia'. This slogan alludes to the fact that the Holden was both a symbol and a consumer ware but the Holden's existence owes as much to the United States as it does to Australia. So how did an American-owned company manufacture an Australian national symbol? The answer lies in a combination of international connections, fortuitous timing and, above all, shrewd marketing.
Crawford, R. 2010, 'Antipodean Views of a Global Metropolis: Australians and South Africans in Contemporary London' in John Nieuwenhuysen & David Dunstan (eds), Southern Worlds: South Africa and Australia Compared, Australian Scholarly Publishing, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 103-119.
View/Download from: OPUS |
Pew Australians, New Zealanders, or South Africans living in the UK have managed to avoid the patronising put -downs or crude stereotypes that Britons gleefully trundle out when they hear the foreign accent. For Australians living in the UK, Barry McKenzie has cast a long shadow. 'We would be the first to admit that we enjoy a drink. And we love nothing more than to give the Poms a hard time, usually in a jovial manner over a pint or two', noted the editor of the expatriate Australian journal TNTin I987, 'But to assume that the traveller from Down Under is simply a Paul Hogan clone or, at worst, a reincarnation ofBazza McKenzie is a gross disservice to our readers'. I Others, of course, have been more than happy to live up to Bazza's beery legacy.
Crawford, R. 2010, 'From a Seller's Market to a Buyer's Market: Advertising Looks Forward to the 1950s' in Robert Crawford, Judith Smart and Kim Humphery (eds), Consumer Australia: Historical Perspectives, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, UK, pp. 39-54.
View/Download from: OPUS |
Moore outlined his view of the conference's central theme, "Meeting the Buyer's Market:" [W]e are in the transition stage between a seller's and a buyer's market. Doubtless each one of you has a clear idea of the two terms, but doubtless each of you would define them a little differently. I feel inclined to define a buyer's market as one where you takes your choice and pays your money; and a seller's market as one where you pays your money and you takes what they' let you have-if it's in stock.
Crawford, R. 2009, ''Going OS for the OE: Aussies, Kiwis, and Saffas in Contemporary London'' in Carl Bridge, Robert Crawford R, & David Dunstan (eds), Australians in Britain: The Twentieth Century Experience, Monash University ePress, Melbourne, pp. 16.1-16.18.
View/Download from: OPUS |
Much is known about British migration to Australia1 but little about the reverse phenomenon. To date, the handful of studies investigating this movement have tended to focus on the artistic rite-of-passage travels and exploits of well-known Australians. These range from the singer Nellie Melba and the poet Henry Lawson at the turn of last century to those equally notable Australians of more recent times who have followed in their footsteps, perhaps most famously represented by the larrikin intellectual storming of London in the 1960s by that cultural 'gang of four' Barry Humphries, Germaine Greer, Rolf Harris and Clive james.' \'7hilst it is difficult to overlook articulate and prominent individuals who may flaunt and, dare it be said, even make a profession out of their expatriate Australian 'identity', the focus on them leaves the vast bulk of Australians in Britain under-examined. These almost forgotten Australians include the middleclass tourists and soldiers of the first half of the century, and lesser and greater artists, writers, the people and public figures for whom Britain was a chapter in their life and a stage in their development. Perhaps more importantly, we should include those ubiquitous and often little known professionals, dentists, nurses and teachers, the backpacker bar workers and labourers, and today's merchant bankers, IT consultants and accountants.
Bridge, C., Crawford, R. & Dunstan, D. 2009, 'More than just Germaine, Barry and Clive: An Overview of Australians in Britain' in Carl Bridge, Robert Crawford & David Dunstan (eds), Australians in Britain: The Twentieth Century Experience, Monash University ePress, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1.1-1.9.
View/Download from: OPUS |
NA
Crawford, R. 2009, 'A Commercial Identity?: The Antipodean Image in London' in Jane Fernandez (ed), Diasporas: Critical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Inter-Disciplinary Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 295-304.
This paper examines the construction and representation of the 'Antipodean' image in London during the 1990s and the 2000s. Prior to this period, the term had been limited to Australians and New Zealanders living in the UK. However, over the course of the 1990s the definition of an 'Antipodean' was extended to include the growing number of South Africans moving to London. This paper contends that this expansion of the term Antipodean has been primarily driven by commercial interests. By comparing and contrasting the experiences of Australian, New Zealand, and South African diasporas resident in London over the past twenty years, this paper also explores the distinct identities cultivated for and, indeed, by these diasporas as well as the degree to which they might actually share a common sense of being Antipodean.
Crawford, R. 2005, 'Our Land is Girt by Sea: Popular Depictions of Naval Imagery in the National Press' in David Stevens & John Reeve (eds), The Navy and Nation: The Influence of the Navy on Modern Australia, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, pp. 123-148.
View/Download from: OPUS

Books

Wells, W., Spence-Stone, R., Crawford, R., Moriarty, S. & Mitchell, N. 2011, Advertising: Principles and Practice, Pearson, Australia.
Crawford, R. 2011, Bye the Beloved Country? South Africans in the UK 1994-2009, 1, University of Souith Africa Press, Pretoria, South Africa.
Commenting on the number of South Africans in the UK in 2001, the expatriate newspaper SA Times noted that 'Without the figures it is almost impossible to have a clear idea about what is going on'. However, the newspaper was more certain about one thing: 'Whether we are a growing, a diminishing or a static group - we are certainly making our presence felt'. 1 For many, the British capital almost seemed like another South African city. 'Walk down a London street, visit a restaurant, a theatre, commute on the London Underground. Somewhere, anywhere, everywhere amidst the hubbub of this great city, you'll pick up the accent', Frank Snyders observed, 'Let's face it, we are over here in unprecedented numbers? While this unprecedented wave of South Africans certainly had a presence in London (especially in areas such as WlUlbledon, Putney, Golders Green and Leytonstone), placing an actual number on them was a much more diflicuIt and indeed fraught task.
Crawford, R., Smart, J. & Humphery, K. 2010, Consumer Australia: Historical Perspectives, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
Bridge, C., Crawford, R. & Dunstan, D. 2009, Australians in Britain: The Twentieth Century Experience, Monash University ePress, Melbourne.
co-edited with Bridge, C., Crawford R., & Dunstan D
Crawford, R. 2008, But Wait, There's More...: A History Australia's Advertising Industry, 1900-2000, 1, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia.
View/Download from: OPUS |
It is something of a bizarre fact that at the end of the twentieth century an inordinate number ofAustralians could spell 'Goggomobil' an obscure German car from the 1950s. Stranger stillwas the inevitability that they would attempt to do it in a Scottish accent! Earlier generations of Australians would have likewise confounded international listeners with such comments as 'Let 'er rip, Boris', 'We're happy little Vegemites', or 'Mine tinkit they fit'. Such expressions, of course, were references to popular Australian advertisements. From 1900 to 2000, advertising not only succeeded in persuading generations ofAustralians to consume one brand over another, it also influenced their sense of identity-as individuals and as a collective whole. Yet, for all the attention that advertisements

Conference Papers

Waller, D.S. & Crawford, R. 2013, 'What agencies want: An analysis of ad agency recruitment advertisements', Australia and New Zealand Communication Association (ANZCA) Conference, Perth, July 2013 in Proceedings of the Australia and New Zealand Communication Association (ANZCA) Conference, ed Lee, T., Trees, K., Desai, R., ANZCA, Perth, pp. 112-112.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
Crawford, R. & Spence-Stone, R. 2009, 'Enhancing or Inhibiting Advertising's Sustainability: An Overview of Advertising Standards Organisations in Australia', Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Melbourne, Australia, November 2009 in Sustainable Management and Marketing, ed Dewi Tojib, ANZMAC, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-9.
View/Download from: OPUS |
The Advertising Standards Board (ASB) and its predecessor, the Advertising Standards Council (ASC), have been responsible for regulating advertising content in Australia since 1974. Research on these bodies has highlighted their respective operations, but it has inadequately investigated their impact on the industry's public image. The completion of the ASB's first decade of operations provides an opportunity to compare the structures and decisions of both organisations and the balance they have struck between the interests of industry and those of the public. In addition, this paper presents new research on public attitudes towards advertising and its regulation. The findings raise questions as to the sustainability of the current approach to self-regulation in Australia.

Journal Articles

Macnamara, J.R. & Crawford, R. 2013, 'The construction of Australia Day: a study of public relations as 'new cultural intermediaries'', Continuum-Journal Of Media & Cultural Studies, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 294-310.
View/Download from: OPUS | Publisher's site
Australia Day is a foremost expression of Australian culture and identity, but historical and critical analysis shows that, far from being an organic or spontaneous expression and celebration of identity and culture, Australia's national day has been man
Crawford, R. 2012, '"Ignoble but Lucrative" : Quacks, Ads, and Regulation', Journal of Australian Studies, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 29-47.
View/Download from: OPUS | Publisher's site
Advertising+s shady reputation can be traced back to the fantastic claims and impossible promises made by quack medicine proprietors in their advertising columns. While the quack+s cures could be as medicinal as the ink in which their advertisements were printed, they nevertheless succeeded in forging a lucrative trade. In the process, they also exerted a significant impact on advertising and the advertising industry. This article traces the history of Australian quack advertisers in order to demonstrate the ways in which their appeals and strategies affected the practices and outputs of Australia+s advertising professionals. It will also be demonstrated that the attempts to prevent the quack from advertising have not been completely successful.
Crawford, R. & Macnamara, J.R. 2012, 'An 'outside-in' PR history: Identifying the role of PR in history, culture and sociology', Public Communication Review, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 45-59.
View/Download from: OPUS
Historical, social and cultural understanding of public relations in Australia is limited because most histories of PR examine practices specifically labelled `public relations+ and almost all study PR from `inside out+ + that is, from the subjective perspective of PR practitioners. This article reports an alternative approach to PR history which applies historical analysis of major events, icons, and institutions in society to identify the methods of their construction politically, culturally and discursively. This article specifically reports historical and critical analysis of the creation and celebration of Australia+s national day, Australia Day from soon after the British flag was hoisted in Sydney on 26 January 1788 to the sophisticated pageantry of the nation+s bicentenary in 1988 and its entry to the new millennium in 2000. This research challenges a `blind spot+ in social science and humanities disciplines in relation to public relations by showing that the practices of PR are deeply embedded in the social and cultural construction of societies. This study confirms Taylor and Kent+s claim that +all nation building campaigns include large communication components that are essentially public relations campaigns+
Crawford, R. & Spence-Stone, R. 2012, 'Upholding Whose Values? : Australia's Advertising Standards Bodies, 1974-2009', Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 273-289.
View/Download from: OPUS |
Purpose + This paper seeks to develop a clearer understanding of the operations and decisions made by Australian advertising standards bodies, the Advertising Standards Council and its successor, the Advertising Standards Board. It also seeks to identify whose interests have been served by these advertising standards organisations + those of the public or those of the advertising industry. Design/methodology/approach + Using annual reports and reports in mainstream press outlets, this paper compares the two advertising standards bodies, their respective organisational structures, and their decisions, in order to identify the key issues that have confronted Australia+s advertising regulation bodies. Findings + In addition to demonstrating the fundamental similarities between the Advertising Standards Council and the Advertising Standards Board, this paper raises serious questions about self-regulation and the way that it serves the advertising industry+s interests ahead of the public interest.
Crawford, R. & Macnamara, J.R. 2012, 'Massaging the Media: Australia Day and the Emergence of Public Relations', Media International Australia incorporating Culture & Policy, vol. 144, no. August, pp. 27-36.
View/Download from: OPUS
The status of Australia Day has long generated mixed responses - from patriotic flag-waving, to apathy, to outright hostility. Proponents of 26 January consequently have engaged in various public relations activities in order to promote Australia Day and to establish its credentials as the national day. From the early nineteenth century through to the present, local media outlets have had a dynamic relationship with Australia Day. Yet while they have been active proponents of Australia Day, their support was not unconditional. The emergence of various bodies with the specific aim of promoting Australia Day would alter this relationship, with the media becoming a potential adversary. As such, media relations assumed a more central function in the promotion of Australia Day. By charting the growth and development of media relations that have accompanied Australia Day celebrations, this study not only documents the evolution of media relations practice, but also reveals the extended history of public relations in Australia and its presence in everyday Australian life.
Crawford, R. 2010, 'Learning to say G'day to the World: The Development of Australia's Marketable Image in the 1980s', Consumption, Markets and Culture, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 43-59.
View/Download from: OPUS | Publisher's site
Twenty years after they were first broadcast, Australia's tourism advertisements of the 1980s featuring Paul Hogan remain the measuring stick to which subsequent Australian tourism campaigns have been compared. This article contends that such comparisons are flawed, as they fail to pay adequate attention to the context surrounding this campaign. In order to understand the reasons for Hogan's success, it is necessary to explore the ways in which commercials affected the construction of Australian images from the 1960s through to the early 1990s. By examining the activities of Paul Hogan and the Mojo advertising agency in relation to their broader social and cultural context occurring at both national and international levels, this article will illustrate Australian advertising's +golden age+ whilst demonstrating the commercial dangers of nostalgic interpretations of the past.
Crawford, R. 2010, '"Differences ... in dealing with the Australian public": Australia as a Foreign Market in the 1920s', Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 317-335.
View/Download from: OPUS | Publisher's site
In 1915, the newly launched British publication Overseas Advertising featured an article on advertising opportunities in Australia. The article highlighted the degree to which non-British firms had succeeded in attaining a foothold in Australia through the medium of advertising. German firms, it noted, had exported some 2000 of socks and stockings in the year ending August 1914. More alarming was the revelation that the enemy+s exporters had still been advertising in Australian newspapers up until November 1914. While German advertising had since ceased, American competitors were now hoping to snare a greater part of the Australian market by way of advertising. Noting that `British manufacturers are . . . far behind their American competitors in their appreciation of the value of publicity as an adjunct of business,+ it exhorted readers to act quickly.1 However, the disruptions caused by the war meant that both American and British advertisers and their agencies would have to wait until peace had been restored before they could really capitalise on these opportunities in Australia.
Macnamara, J.R. & Crawford, R. 2010, 'Reconceptualising public relations in Australia: A historical and social re-analysis', Asia Pacific Public Relations Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 17-34.
View/Download from: OPUS
An analysis of the history of public relations in Australia through a case study of the creation and promotion of Australia Day which shows PR deeply involved in the historical, social, and cultural fabric of society.
Crawford, R. 2008, 'Advertising', Sydney Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 24-33.
View/Download from: OPUS | Publisher's site
Sydney is Australia+s advertising capital and the relationship between the city and the advertising industry stretches back to the earliest years of European settlement. Advertising helped propel commercial activity in Sydney and the advertising industry has been no less active in shaping Sydney, illuminating the city+s skyline and streetscape, and influencing the lives of all Sydneysiders + from suburban consumers to esteemed artists. Moreover, advertising has promoted the city itself as a must-see destination for tourists or a backdrop for the latest blockbuster film.
Crawford, R. 2008, 'Celebration of Another Nation?: Australia's Bicentenary in Britain', History Compass, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1066-1090.
View/Download from: OPUS
Historians and contemporary critics have generally taken a dim view of Australia's Bicentennial celebrations in 1988, labelling them a wasted opportunity to redress the nation's previous wrongs. While these claims certainly have a point, they have nevertheless tended to adopt a simplified image of the Bicentenary and its significance. This article re-visits the Bicentenary by undertaking a more nuanced reading of the events and discourse surrounding the celebrations and commemorations by different groups in the United Kingdom during 1987 and 1988. These Bicentennial events were more than mere celebrations; they were an opportunity for both Britons and Australians to reflect on their history, their place in the world, and their sense of identity. By examining the different meanings associated with the Bicentenary, this article will suggest that the Bicentennial events provided an important opportunity for reflection that also revealed the state of Australian nationhood in the post-imperial age.
Crawford, R. 2008, 'Old debts: the unsung relationship between Australia's film and advertising industries', Studies in Australasian Cinema, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 33-45.
View/Download from: OPUS
This study surveys the relationship that has developed between Australia's advertising and film industries from the early twentieth century to the present. Throughout this period there has been a continuous exchange of skills, talent and ideas between the two industries. While the flow has been two ways, it will be argued that the advertising industry's contribution to the film industry has been greater. Australia's advertising industry functioned as a nursery for the nation's film industry, identifying and training the nation's aspiring film-makers whilst providing them with access to a large audience. The globalization of both industries has similarly reinforced this relationship, ensuring that the film industry remains indebted to its commercial cousin.
Crawford, R. 2008, 'Changing the 'OE': Kiwis, Aussies and Saffas in Contemporary London', CNZS Bulletin of New Zealand Studies, vol. 1, pp. 67-92.
View/Download from: OPUS
Crawford, R. 2007, ''Anyhow...where d'yer get it, mate?': Ockerdom in Adland Australia', JAS - Australia's Public Intellectual Forum, vol. 90, pp. 1-15.
View/Download from: OPUS
Described as a 'shining aberration', the reformist agenda of Edward Gough Whitlam's brief prime ministership (1972-1975) profoundly affected Australia's cultural, social, and--ultimately--political landscape. (1) These reforms were indicative of a changing national mood. The efforts to forge a stronger sense of national awareness and identity were particularly noticeable within the cultural realm.
Crawford, R. 2007, ''Drink Beer Regularly, It's Good for You (and Us)': Selling Tooth's Beer in a Depressed Market', Social History of Drugs and Alcohol, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 160-182.
View/Download from: OPUS
This study examines the unique publicity activities devised by the Tooth+s brewery in Sydney during the Great Depression and the 1930s. Unlike many advertisers, the brewery did not turn its back on advertising or marketing. Recognising the importance of publicity, the brewery developed innovative advertising and marketing initiatives in an attempt to arrest its declining sales. Such strategies included the development of co-operative advertising campaigns, the creation of advertisements directly targeting female consumers, and the renovation of pubs owned by the brewery. However, the significance of these initiatives extends beyond the immediate economic concerns. They were also celebration of modernity. By locating Tooth+s advertising, marketing, and public relations activities within the broader social, cultural, and political context, this study provides a revealing insight into the way in which such campaigns simultaneously informed and reflected the Australian experience of modernity during the 1930s.
Crawford, R. 2007, 'Dealing with Depression: Australia's Advertising Industry in the 1930s', Advertising & Society Review, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1-15.
View/Download from: OPUS
Facing cautious advertisers and cash-strapped consumers, Australia's advertising industry was forced to fight a life or death battle to remain afloat amidst the Great Depression. However, as the 1930s were drawing to a close, the industry was confident about itself and its future. By examining the growth and development of Australia's advertising industry through the 1930s, this paper will demonstrate how commercial radio not only provided another advertising medium for the industry; it altered the advertising industry's view of itself, and with it, its quest for legitimacy. Moreover, this study will also provide a new perspective on developments in American advertising during the same period.
Crawford, R. 2006, 'Fighting a Lost Campaign: Austac and Australia's Advertising Industry', Media History, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 61-76.
View/Download from: OPUS
`Politics, culture, and technology+, claims Juliann Sivulka, `helped shape advertising in the 1960s+ (290). In the United States, this combination of influences gave rise to the so called Creative Revolution. This Revolution within advertising ranks produced advertisements that utilised `creative playfulness . . . to make the receiver feel better about advertising+ (Heller). Avis+ famous confession `Avis is only No.2 . . . we try harder+ and Volkswagen+s tongue in cheek advertisements illustrated how `scientific methods gave way to inspiration, intuition, and creativity+ (Sivulka 302). However, the changes did not stop there. As Thomas Frank observes in The Conquest of Cool, the Creative Revolution ` . . . came quickly to mean an appeal to nonconformist rebellion against the mass society in ads as well as a non-hierarchical management style+ (89). It would take a little longer before these winds of change reached Australia, where the circumstances that had given rise to the Creative Revolution in the United States only emerged during the 1970s.
Crawford, R. 2006, ''Truth in Advertising': The Impossible Dream?', Media International Australia incorporating Culture & Policy, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 124-137.
View/Download from: OPUS
For an industry that deals with the public perception of images, it perhaps ironic that advertising itself has long suffered from a severe image problem. The industry has long been equated with exaggerations, distortions and falsities. Critics and the industry alike have looked to the possibility of truth in advertising to redeem its reputation. The discourse of truth in advertising that occurred in the advertising industry ranks during the early twentieth century provides a revealing insight into the way that the `magic system+ of advertising has been constructed. Reaching a high point in the 1920s, concerns about truth would recede over the course of the 1930s and 1940s as the industry moved to embrace new forms of technology. By examining the rise and fall of this discourse, this paper reveals the advertising industry+s fervent desire to improve advertising+s status whilst illustrating the way in which technological developments not only affected the industry, but also its ability to ever be completely truthful.
Crawford, R. 2006, 'Changing the Face of Advertising: Australia's Advertising Industry in the Early Days of Television', Media International Australia incorporating Culture & Policy, vol. 121, pp. 105-118.
View/Download from: OPUS |
Long before Australia+s first commercial television broadcasts in 1956, advertising agencies and advertisers had been preparing themselves for what they believed would be the greatest ever selling medium. The creation of a new outlet for advertisements was not the industry+s sole cause of excitement. Having dominated commercial radio, the advertising industry looked forward to extending its influence. These dreams, however, were only partially fulfilled. While television enabled the industry to broadcast its commercial messages in a more effective way, legislation prevented it from controlling television in the way that it had with radio. This would have a significant impact on the relationship between the two industries. By examining television+s impact on the advertising industry, this paper demonstrates that the medium of TV not only altered the face of advertising; it also caused a fundamental change in the structure and operation of Australia+s advertising industry.
Crawford, R. 2006, 'Selling Modernity: Advertising and the Construction of the Culture of Consumption, 1900-1950', Australian Cultural History, vol. 25, pp. 115-143.
View/Download from: OPUS
Crawford, R. 2005, 'Selling or Buying American Dreams? Americanization and Australia's Interwar Advertising Industry', Comparative American Studies, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 213-236.
View/Download from: OPUS
During the interwar period, the US industrial and financial sectors expanded at a phenomenal rate. Despite the Depression, America had become an economic, industrial, and cultural powerhouse by the beginning of the Second World War. The advertising industry had been both a beneficiary of this growth and, indeed, a key contributor - spreading the American Dream to national and international audiences, including Australia. An important member of this audience was Australia's advertising industry. Like its American counterpart, the local advertising industry was directly involved in the process of Americanization. However, the Australian advertising industry did not simply ape its American counterparts. By examining the discourse of America in interwar Australian advertising literature, this article argues that the Australian advertising industry was interested in American advertising methods and techniques because they had been devised by the most modern advertising industry in the world. For Australian advertising agents, Americanization was simply viewed as a means to an end - to maximize consumption.
Crawford, R. 2005, 'Emptor Australis: Constructing the Australian Consumer in Early Twentieth Century Advertising Literature', Australian Economic History Review, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 221-243.
View/Download from: OPUS
Well aware that it is the consumer who makes or breaks an advertisement, the advertising industry has long paid close attention to its audience. However, advertising historians have generally overlooked the industry+s efforts to define the consumer and the impact this has had upon advertisements and the advertising industry itself. By examining the changing conceptualisation of the Australian consumer featured in the locally produced advertising literature during the early twentieth century, this study offers an insight into the inner workings of Australia+s fledgling advertising industry. It demonstrates the ways in which advertising interacted with the world around it.
Crawford, R. 2005, 'Supporting Banks, Liberals and the 'Australian Way': The Freelands and the 1949 Election', History Australia Journal, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 84.1-84.23.
View/Download from: OPUS
In the lead up to the 1949 Federal Election, a barrage of anti-Labor publicity campaigns was maintained by a range of groups and organisations. One of these campaigns was the Australian Way series of press advertisements. Created by the banking industry, it had appeared nationally between 1947 and 1949. By examining the origins of the Australian Way campaign, as well as the images and themes it contained, this study will suggest that the oft neglected supporting advertising campaigns also played a significant role in the Liberals' 1949 electoral success.
Crawford, R. 2004, 'Modernising Menzies, Whitlam, and Australian Elections', Drawing Board, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 137-161.
View/Download from: OPUS
Scholarly accounts of Robert Menzies+ electoral success in 1949 and Gough Whitlam+s victory in 1972 invariably refer to the respective victors+ electoral campaigns. However, the analysis of the campaigns+ innovative advertising appeals and techniques in these studies is somewhat simplistic. By comparing and contrasting the organisation and execution of the successful campaigns of 1949 and 1972, I demonstrate how these campaigns helped usher Australian politics into the modern era. More broadly, I highlight how commercial imperatives introduced during these campaigns continue to affect the conduct of electioneering in Australia.
Crawford, R. 2004, 'The Quest for Legitimacy: The Growth and Development of the Advertising Industry in Australia, 1900-1969', Australian Historical Studies, vol. 36, no. 124, pp. 355-374.
View/Download from: OPUS | Publisher's site
The advent of mass advertising has left an indelible imprint on twentieth century Australia. Advertising's rise is a measure of the new technologies of mass communication, mass production, and mass consumption. The growth and development of advertising, however, cannot be separated from the steadily growing scale, sophistication, and status of the advertising industry. Between 1900 and the late 1960s, the 'advertising profession', as it came to style itself, maintained a quest for legitimacy+an ongoing campaign aimed at distancing itself from its shady past. Believing that a legitimate reputation produced sales, the advertising industry needed to sell itself before it could sell soap, cigarettes, or cars.
Crawford, R. 2003, 'Manufacturing Identities: Industrial Representations of Nationhood in Press Advertisements, 1900-1969', Labour History, vol. 84, pp. 21-46.
View/Download from: OPUS
Advertisements sell more tlum the product on offer - they sell acomplete ideology. Between 1900 and the 1960s, Australia's advertising industry was involved in a protracted campaign to establish a nation of consumers. This study seeks to illustrate this process through an examination of the rise andfall of thefactory image contained in press advertisements during this period. The factory's outward appearance in these advertisements remained largely unchanged. Its meaning, however, was periodically revised, demonstrating the image's symbolic function. From being the face ofastable firm, thefactory image grew to symbolise industrial productivity and national development. Through the image of the factory, local advertisers effectively integrated themselves, their wares, and consumerism with the notion of Australian identity. A new identity emerged as the line between national and consumer identities blurred - one that would also claim the factory as an imnge.
Crawford, R. 2002, 'Nothing to Sell?: Australia's Advertising Industry at War, 1939-1945', War & Society, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 99-124.
Crawford, R. 2001, 'A Slow Coming of Age: Advertising and the Little Boy from Manly', Journal of Australian Studies, vol. 67, pp. 126-143.