Macnamara, J. & Crawford, R. 2014, 'Public Relations' in Bridget Griffen-Foley (ed), A Companion to the Australian Media, Australian Scholarly Publishing, Kew, Victoria.
A compendium of 500 articles on the history and contemporary practice of media corporations, individuals, industries, audiences, policy, and regulation in relation to Australian media from publication of the first Australian newspaper in 1803 to contemporary media developments.
Crawford, R. & Macnamara, J. 2014, 'An Agent of Change: PR in Early Twentieth-Century Australia' in Saint-John, B., Lamme, M.O. & L'Etang, J. (eds), Pathways to Public Relations: History Practice and Profession, Routledge, London, pp. 273-289.
Crawford, R. 2013, ''It used to be a Dingy Kind of Joint': Reflections on Pubs and the Past in Pyrmont and Ultimo' in Hamilton, P. & Ashton, P. (eds), Locating Suburbia: memory, place, creativity, UTSePress, Sydney, pp. 125-139.
It is a far cry from the bustle that descends on the `Harley on a Friday evening or when a rugby international is being shown on the big screen. Asked for his impression of the pub on this warm afternoon, 31-year-old patron Chris Bowen comments that, `It looks a lot more upper class today, it used to be a more of an old fashioned... old looking dingy kind of joint.1 Bowens description of the Harlequin Inn could be equally applied to its immediate surrounds. No longer a `dingy kind of joint, Pyrmont and its neighbouring suburb Ultimo are now salubrious and highly sought after locations. The Pyrmont/Ultimo peninsula is in the heart of Sydney, Australia. Since European colonisation, the peninsulas fortunes have swung wildly from centre of industrial activity to abandoned slum district to new media and creative hub. At its industrial peak in 1900, the peninsulas population reached 19 000 but by 1981 it had slumped to a mere 1590 residents. Thirty years later, however, and Pyrmont alone had become home to approximately 12 000 people. The transformations that have enveloped the Pyrmont peninsula have been explored often passionately by historians. For them, Pyrmont and Ultimo gave much to Sydney for scant return. Angered by the waves of `slum-clearances, demolitions, powerhouses, intolerable traffic and the absence of public facilities that had afflicted life in these suburbs, Michael Matthews 1983 history of the suburbs sought to capture the `more glorious past of this area and to mount a case for the improvement of `Sydneys Sink.
Crawford, R. 2010, 'Holden' in Harper, M. & White, R. (eds), Symbols of Australia, UNSW Press, Sydney, Australia, pp. 169-176.
'She's a Beauty', Prime Minister Ben Chifley famously declared in 1948, admiring the first Holden as it rolled off the production line. More than a mere car, Holden became a national symbol, a status that General Motors-Holden's took care to cultivate. Sixty years later their advertising still claimed that 'Holden means a great deal to Australia'. This slogan alludes to the fact that the Holden was both a symbol and a consumer ware but the Holden's existence owes as much to the United States as it does to Australia. So how did an American-owned company manufacture an Australian national symbol? The answer lies in a combination of international connections, fortuitous timing and, above all, shrewd marketing.
Crawford, R. 2010, 'Antipodean Views of a Global Metropolis: Australians and South Africans in Contemporary London' in Nieuwenhuysen, J. & Dunstan, D. (eds), Southern Worlds: South Africa and Australia Compared, Australian Scholarly Publishing, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 103-119.
Pew Australians, New Zealanders, or South Africans living in the UK have managed to avoid the patronising put -downs or crude stereotypes that Britons gleefully trundle out when they hear the foreign accent. For Australians living in the UK, Barry McKenzie has cast a long shadow. 'We would be the first to admit that we enjoy a drink. And we love nothing more than to give the Poms a hard time, usually in a jovial manner over a pint or two', noted the editor of the expatriate Australian journal TNTin I987, 'But to assume that the traveller from Down Under is simply a Paul Hogan clone or, at worst, a reincarnation ofBazza McKenzie is a gross disservice to our readers'. I Others, of course, have been more than happy to live up to Bazza's beery legacy.
Crawford, R. 2010, 'From a Seller's Market to a Buyer's Market: Advertising Looks Forward to the 1950s' in Crawford, R., Smart, J. & Humphery, K. (eds), Consumer Australia: Historical Perspectives, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, UK, pp. 39-54.
Moore outlined his view of the conference's central theme, "Meeting the Buyer's Market:" [W]e are in the transition stage between a seller's and a buyer's market. Doubtless each one of you has a clear idea of the two terms, but doubtless each of you would define them a little differently. I feel inclined to define a buyer's market as one where you takes your choice and pays your money; and a seller's market as one where you pays your money and you takes what they' let you have-if it's in stock.
Crawford, R. 2009, 'A Commercial Identity?: The Antipodean Image in London' in Jane Fernandez (ed), Diasporas: Critical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Inter-Disciplinary Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 295-304.
This paper examines the construction and representation of the 'Antipodean' image in London during the 1990s and the 2000s. Prior to this period, the term had been limited to Australians and New Zealanders living in the UK. However, over the course of the 1990s the definition of an 'Antipodean' was extended to include the growing number of South Africans moving to London. This paper contends that this expansion of the term Antipodean has been primarily driven by commercial interests. By comparing and contrasting the experiences of Australian, New Zealand, and South African diasporas resident in London over the past twenty years, this paper also explores the distinct identities cultivated for and, indeed, by these diasporas as well as the degree to which they might actually share a common sense of being Antipodean.
Crawford, R. 2005, 'Our Land is Girt by Sea: Popular Depictions of Naval Imagery in the National Press' in Stevens, D. & Reeve, J. (eds), The Navy and Nation: The Influence of the Navy on Modern Australia, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, pp. 123-148.
Crawford, R. 2014, 'Blueprints for the Future: Advertising and the Home', History Australia, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 37-58.
An analysis of the creation and promotion of Australia Day which shows the use of public relations by governments and various interests to create and maintain Australia's national day over the past century, rather than organic or spontaneous expression of nationalism and national identity.
Macnamara, J. & Crawford, R. 2013, 'The construction of Australia Day: a study of public relations as 'new cultural intermediaries'', Continuum-Journal Of Media & Cultural Studies, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 294-310.
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Australia Day is a foremost expression of Australian culture and identity, but historical and critical analysis shows that, far from being an organic or spontaneous expression and celebration of identity and culture, Australia's national day has been man
Crawford, R. 2012, '"Ignoble but Lucrative" : Quacks, Ads, and Regulation', Journal of Australian Studies, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 29-47.
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Advertisings shady reputation can be traced back to the fantastic claims and impossible promises made by quack medicine proprietors in their advertising columns. While the quacks cures could be as medicinal as the ink in which their advertisements were printed, they nevertheless succeeded in forging a lucrative trade. In the process, they also exerted a significant impact on advertising and the advertising industry. This article traces the history of Australian quack advertisers in order to demonstrate the ways in which their appeals and strategies affected the practices and outputs of Australias advertising professionals. It will also be demonstrated that the attempts to prevent the quack from advertising have not been completely successful.
Crawford, R. & Macnamara, J. 2012, 'An 'outside-in' PR history: Identifying the role of PR in history, culture and sociology', Public Communication Review, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 45-59.
Historical, social and cultural understanding of public relations in Australia is limited because most histories of PR examine practices specifically labelled `public relations and almost all study PR from `inside out that is, from the subjective perspective of PR practitioners. This article reports an alternative approach to PR history which applies historical analysis of major events, icons, and institutions in society to identify the methods of their construction politically, culturally and discursively. This article specifically reports historical and critical analysis of the creation and celebration of Australias national day, Australia Day from soon after the British flag was hoisted in Sydney on 26 January 1788 to the sophisticated pageantry of the nations bicentenary in 1988 and its entry to the new millennium in 2000. This research challenges a `blind spot in social science and humanities disciplines in relation to public relations by showing that the practices of PR are deeply embedded in the social and cultural construction of societies. This study confirms Taylor and Kents claim that all nation building campaigns include large communication components that are essentially public relations campaigns
Crawford, R. & Spence-Stone, R. 2012, 'Upholding Whose Values? : Australia's Advertising Standards Bodies, 1974-2009', Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 273-289.
Purpose This paper seeks to develop a clearer understanding of the operations and decisions made by Australian advertising standards bodies, the Advertising Standards Council and its successor, the Advertising Standards Board. It also seeks to identify whose interests have been served by these advertising standards organisations those of the public or those of the advertising industry. Design/methodology/approach Using annual reports and reports in mainstream press outlets, this paper compares the two advertising standards bodies, their respective organisational structures, and their decisions, in order to identify the key issues that have confronted Australias advertising regulation bodies. Findings In addition to demonstrating the fundamental similarities between the Advertising Standards Council and the Advertising Standards Board, this paper raises serious questions about self-regulation and the way that it serves the advertising industrys interests ahead of the public interest.
Crawford, R. & Macnamara, J. 2012, 'Massaging the Media: Australia Day and the Emergence of Public Relations', Media International Australia incorporating Culture & Policy, vol. 144, no. August, pp. 27-36.
The status of Australia Day has long generated mixed responses - from patriotic flag-waving, to apathy, to outright hostility. Proponents of 26 January consequently have engaged in various public relations activities in order to promote Australia Day and to establish its credentials as the national day. From the early nineteenth century through to the present, local media outlets have had a dynamic relationship with Australia Day. Yet while they have been active proponents of Australia Day, their support was not unconditional. The emergence of various bodies with the specific aim of promoting Australia Day would alter this relationship, with the media becoming a potential adversary. As such, media relations assumed a more central function in the promotion of Australia Day. By charting the growth and development of media relations that have accompanied Australia Day celebrations, this study not only documents the evolution of media relations practice, but also reveals the extended history of public relations in Australia and its presence in everyday Australian life.
Crawford, R. 2010, 'Learning to say G'day to the World: The Development of Australia's Marketable Image in the 1980s', Consumption, Markets and Culture, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 43-59.
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Twenty years after they were first broadcast, Australia's tourism advertisements of the 1980s featuring Paul Hogan remain the measuring stick to which subsequent Australian tourism campaigns have been compared. This article contends that such comparisons are flawed, as they fail to pay adequate attention to the context surrounding this campaign. In order to understand the reasons for Hogan's success, it is necessary to explore the ways in which commercials affected the construction of Australian images from the 1960s through to the early 1990s. By examining the activities of Paul Hogan and the Mojo advertising agency in relation to their broader social and cultural context occurring at both national and international levels, this article will illustrate Australian advertising's golden age whilst demonstrating the commercial dangers of nostalgic interpretations of the past.
Crawford, R. 2010, '"Differences ... in dealing with the Australian public": Australia as a Foreign Market in the 1920s', Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 317-335.
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In 1915, the newly launched British publication Overseas Advertising featured an article on advertising opportunities in Australia. The article highlighted the degree to which non-British firms had succeeded in attaining a foothold in Australia through the medium of advertising. German firms, it noted, had exported some 2000 of socks and stockings in the year ending August 1914. More alarming was the revelation that the enemys exporters had still been advertising in Australian newspapers up until November 1914. While German advertising had since ceased, American competitors were now hoping to snare a greater part of the Australian market by way of advertising. Noting that `British manufacturers are . . . far behind their American competitors in their appreciation of the value of publicity as an adjunct of business, it exhorted readers to act quickly.1 However, the disruptions caused by the war meant that both American and British advertisers and their agencies would have to wait until peace had been restored before they could really capitalise on these opportunities in Australia.
Macnamara, J. & Crawford, R. 2010, 'Reconceptualising public relations in Australia: A historical and social re-analysis', Asia Pacific Public Relations Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 17-34.
An analysis of the history of public relations in Australia through a case study of the creation and promotion of Australia Day which shows PR deeply involved in the historical, social, and cultural fabric of society.
Crawford, R. 2008, 'Changing the 'OE': Kiwis, Aussies and Saffas in Contemporary London', CNZS Bulletin of New Zealand Studies, vol. 1, pp. 67-92.
Sydney is Australias advertising capital and the relationship between the city and the advertising industry stretches back to the earliest years of European settlement. Advertising helped propel commercial activity in Sydney and the advertising industry has been no less active in shaping Sydney, illuminating the citys skyline and streetscape, and influencing the lives of all Sydneysiders from suburban consumers to esteemed artists. Moreover, advertising has promoted the city itself as a must-see destination for tourists or a backdrop for the latest blockbuster film.
Crawford, R. 2008, 'Celebration of Another Nation?: Australia's Bicentenary in Britain', History Compass, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1066-1090.
Historians and contemporary critics have generally taken a dim view of Australia's Bicentennial celebrations in 1988, labelling them a wasted opportunity to redress the nation's previous wrongs. While these claims certainly have a point, they have nevertheless tended to adopt a simplified image of the Bicentenary and its significance. This article re-visits the Bicentenary by undertaking a more nuanced reading of the events and discourse surrounding the celebrations and commemorations by different groups in the United Kingdom during 1987 and 1988. These Bicentennial events were more than mere celebrations; they were an opportunity for both Britons and Australians to reflect on their history, their place in the world, and their sense of identity. By examining the different meanings associated with the Bicentenary, this article will suggest that the Bicentennial events provided an important opportunity for reflection that also revealed the state of Australian nationhood in the post-imperial age.
Crawford, R. 2008, 'Old debts: the unsung relationship between Australia's film and advertising industries', Studies in Australasian Cinema, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 33-45.
This study surveys the relationship that has developed between Australia's advertising and film industries from the early twentieth century to the present. Throughout this period there has been a continuous exchange of skills, talent and ideas between the two industries. While the flow has been two ways, it will be argued that the advertising industry's contribution to the film industry has been greater. Australia's advertising industry functioned as a nursery for the nation's film industry, identifying and training the nation's aspiring film-makers whilst providing them with access to a large audience. The globalization of both industries has similarly reinforced this relationship, ensuring that the film industry remains indebted to its commercial cousin.
Crawford, R. 2007, ''Anyhow...where d'yer get it, mate?': Ockerdom in Adland Australia', JAS - Australia's Public Intellectual Forum, vol. 90, pp. 1-15.
Described as a 'shining aberration', the reformist agenda of Edward Gough Whitlam's brief prime ministership (1972-1975) profoundly affected Australia's cultural, social, and--ultimately--political landscape. (1) These reforms were indicative of a changing national mood. The efforts to forge a stronger sense of national awareness and identity were particularly noticeable within the cultural realm.
Crawford, R. 2007, '"Drink beer regularly - it's good for you (and us)": selling Tooth's Beer in a depressed market.', Soc Hist Alcohol Drugs, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 160-182.
This study examines the unique publicity activities devised by the Tooth's brewery in Sydney during the Great Depression and the 1930s. Unlike many advertisers, the brewery did not turn its back on advertising or marketing. Recognising the importance of publicity, the brewery developed innovative advertising and marketing initiatives in an attempt to arrest its declining sales. Such strategies included the development of co-operative advertising campaigns, the creation of advertisements directly targeting female consumers, and the renovation of pubs owned by the brewery. However, the significance of these initiatives extends beyond the immediate economic concerns. They were also celebration of modernity. By locating Tooth's advertising, marketing, and public relations activities within the broader social, cultural, and political context, this study provides a revealing insight into the way in which such campaigns simultaneously informed and reflected the Australian experience of modernity during the 1930s.
Crawford, R. 2007, 'Dealing with Depression: Australia's Advertising Industry in the 1930s', Advertising & Society Review, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1-15.
Facing cautious advertisers and cash-strapped consumers, Australia's advertising industry was forced to fight a life or death battle to remain afloat amidst the Great Depression. However, as the 1930s were drawing to a close, the industry was confident about itself and its future. By examining the growth and development of Australia's advertising industry through the 1930s, this paper will demonstrate how commercial radio not only provided another advertising medium for the industry; it altered the advertising industry's view of itself, and with it, its quest for legitimacy. Moreover, this study will also provide a new perspective on developments in American advertising during the same period.
Crawford, R. 2006, 'Fighting a Lost Campaign: Austac and Australia's Advertising Industry', Media History, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 61-76.
`Politics, culture, and technology, claims Juliann Sivulka, `helped shape advertising in the 1960s (290). In the United States, this combination of influences gave rise to the so called Creative Revolution. This Revolution within advertising ranks produced advertisements that utilised `creative playfulness . . . to make the receiver feel better about advertising (Heller). Avis famous confession `Avis is only No.2 . . . we try harder and Volkswagens tongue in cheek advertisements illustrated how `scientific methods gave way to inspiration, intuition, and creativity (Sivulka 302). However, the changes did not stop there. As Thomas Frank observes in The Conquest of Cool, the Creative Revolution ` . . . came quickly to mean an appeal to nonconformist rebellion against the mass society in ads as well as a non-hierarchical management style (89). It would take a little longer before these winds of change reached Australia, where the circumstances that had given rise to the Creative Revolution in the United States only emerged during the 1970s.
Crawford, R. 2006, ''Truth in Advertising': The Impossible Dream?', Media International Australia incorporating Culture & Policy, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 124-137.
For an industry that deals with the public perception of images, it perhaps ironic that advertising itself has long suffered from a severe image problem. The industry has long been equated with exaggerations, distortions and falsities. Critics and the industry alike have looked to the possibility of truth in advertising to redeem its reputation. The discourse of truth in advertising that occurred in the advertising industry ranks during the early twentieth century provides a revealing insight into the way that the `magic system of advertising has been constructed. Reaching a high point in the 1920s, concerns about truth would recede over the course of the 1930s and 1940s as the industry moved to embrace new forms of technology. By examining the rise and fall of this discourse, this paper reveals the advertising industrys fervent desire to improve advertisings status whilst illustrating the way in which technological developments not only affected the industry, but also its ability to ever be completely truthful.
Crawford, R. 2006, 'Selling Modernity: Advertising and the Construction of the Culture of Consumption, 1900-1950', Australian Cultural History, vol. 25, pp. 115-143.
Crawford, R. 2006, 'Changing the Face of Advertising: Australia's Advertising Industry in the Early Days of Television', Media International Australia incorporating Culture & Policy, vol. 121, pp. 105-118.
Long before Australias first commercial television broadcasts in 1956, advertising agencies and advertisers had been preparing themselves for what they believed would be the greatest ever selling medium. The creation of a new outlet for advertisements was not the industrys sole cause of excitement. Having dominated commercial radio, the advertising industry looked forward to extending its influence. These dreams, however, were only partially fulfilled. While television enabled the industry to broadcast its commercial messages in a more effective way, legislation prevented it from controlling television in the way that it had with radio. This would have a significant impact on the relationship between the two industries. By examining televisions impact on the advertising industry, this paper demonstrates that the medium of TV not only altered the face of advertising; it also caused a fundamental change in the structure and operation of Australias advertising industry.
Crawford, R. 2005, 'Selling or Buying American Dreams? Americanization and Australia's Interwar Advertising Industry', Comparative American Studies, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 213-236.
During the interwar period, the US industrial and financial sectors expanded at a phenomenal rate. Despite the Depression, America had become an economic, industrial, and cultural powerhouse by the beginning of the Second World War. The advertising industry had been both a beneficiary of this growth and, indeed, a key contributor - spreading the American Dream to national and international audiences, including Australia. An important member of this audience was Australia's advertising industry. Like its American counterpart, the local advertising industry was directly involved in the process of Americanization. However, the Australian advertising industry did not simply ape its American counterparts. By examining the discourse of America in interwar Australian advertising literature, this article argues that the Australian advertising industry was interested in American advertising methods and techniques because they had been devised by the most modern advertising industry in the world. For Australian advertising agents, Americanization was simply viewed as a means to an end - to maximize consumption.
Crawford, R. 2005, 'Emptor Australis: Constructing the Australian Consumer in Early Twentieth Century Advertising Literature', Australian Economic History Review, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 221-243.
Well aware that it is the consumer who makes or breaks an advertisement, the advertising industry has long paid close attention to its audience. However, advertising historians have generally overlooked the industrys efforts to define the consumer and the impact this has had upon advertisements and the advertising industry itself. By examining the changing conceptualisation of the Australian consumer featured in the locally produced advertising literature during the early twentieth century, this study offers an insight into the inner workings of Australias fledgling advertising industry. It demonstrates the ways in which advertising interacted with the world around it.
Crawford, R. 2004, 'The Quest for Legitimacy: The Growth and Development of the Advertising Industry in Australia, 1900-1969', Australian Historical Studies, vol. 36, no. 124, pp. 355-374.
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The advent of mass advertising has left an indelible imprint on twentieth century Australia. Advertising's rise is a measure of the new technologies of mass communication, mass production, and mass consumption. The growth and development of advertising, however, cannot be separated from the steadily growing scale, sophistication, and status of the advertising industry. Between 1900 and the late 1960s, the 'advertising profession', as it came to style itself, maintained a quest for legitimacyan ongoing campaign aimed at distancing itself from its shady past. Believing that a legitimate reputation produced sales, the advertising industry needed to sell itself before it could sell soap, cigarettes, or cars.
Crawford, R. 2004, 'Modernising Menzies, Whitlam, and Australian Elections', Drawing Board, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 137-161.
Scholarly accounts of Robert Menzies electoral success in 1949 and Gough Whitlams victory in 1972 invariably refer to the respective victors electoral campaigns. However, the analysis of the campaigns innovative advertising appeals and techniques in these studies is somewhat simplistic. By comparing and contrasting the organisation and execution of the successful campaigns of 1949 and 1972, I demonstrate how these campaigns helped usher Australian politics into the modern era. More broadly, I highlight how commercial imperatives introduced during these campaigns continue to affect the conduct of electioneering in Australia.
Crawford, R. 2003, 'Manufacturing Identities: Industrial Representations of Nationhood in Press Advertisements, 1900-1969', Labour History, vol. 84, pp. 21-46.
Advertisements sell more tlum the product on offer - they sell acomplete ideology. Between 1900 and the 1960s, Australia's advertising industry was involved in a protracted campaign to establish a nation of consumers. This study seeks to illustrate this process through an examination of the rise andfall of thefactory image contained in press advertisements during this period. The factory's outward appearance in these advertisements remained largely unchanged. Its meaning, however, was periodically revised, demonstrating the image's symbolic function. From being the face ofastable firm, thefactory image grew to symbolise industrial productivity and national development. Through the image of the factory, local advertisers effectively integrated themselves, their wares, and consumerism with the notion of Australian identity. A new identity emerged as the line between national and consumer identities blurred - one that would also claim the factory as an imnge.
Crawford, R. 2002, 'Nothing to Sell?: Australia's Advertising Industry at War, 1939-1945', War & Society, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 99-124.
Crawford, R. 2001, 'A Slow Coming of Age: Advertising and the Little Boy from Manly', Journal of Australian Studies, vol. 67, pp. 126-143.