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Associate Professor Richard Lim

Biography

Richard Lim is an aquatic ecotoxicologist. His research interests are in the ecotoxicology of pesticides, heavy metals, persistent organic chemicals, endocrine disrupting chemicals and salinity with a focus on assessing the impacts and risks of these contaminants and their mixtures in aquatic systems. It focuses on anthropogenic impacts of agricultural and mining activities as well as urbanisation including sewage effluent on these ecosystems.

His research involves the use of a suite of bioassays spanning a range of ecological scales from in vitro and in vivo bioassays to population and community studies in the laboratory, mesocosms and field.

His research also encompasses a range of test organisms from bacteria to algae and aquatic plants to invertebrates and fish. Richard also has expertise in limnology particularly in stream ecology and pollution studies in relation to stream health, ecology of wetlands including ricefields, and zooplankton taxonomy.

The information generated from his research contributes to an understanding of how anthropogenic activities impact on the health of ecosystems leading to development of appropriate management strategies.

In collaboration with researchers in UTS Environmental Engineering his research includes assessing the ability of innovative effluent treatment technologies in removing toxicants using an effects-based approach.

Professional

Membership to Professional Societies
Australian Society for Limnology (Life member)Australasian Society for Ecotoxicology

Image of Richard Lim
Casual Academic, University Casual Academics
Associate Member, CTWW - Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater Treatment
BSc (Hons) (UM), MSc (UM), PhD (Waterloo)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 8297

Research Interests

Ecotoxicology of pesticides
Impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the aquatic fauna
Impact of mining on stream macroinvertebrates
Stream pollution studies
Ecology of wetlands (lakes and rivers)
Zooplankton taxonomy

Can supervise: Yes
Post-graduate research supervision PhDs completed 1. Effie Howe Studies in the biology and reproductive characteristics of Pseudomugil signifer. 2. Anthony Roach Variation in the population ecology of the pulmonate gastropod, Salinator solida (Martens) populations at Towra Point, NSW, Australia. 3. Scott Markich Effects of biological and physicochemical variables on valve movement responses of freshwater bivalves to manganese, uranium, cadmium and copper. 4. Alex Leonard Effects of endosulfan on populations of dominant mayfly nymphs and caddisfly larvae in the Naomi River, following runoff from cotton fields. 5. Hertien Surtikanti Ecotoxicological studies on the benthos in the freshwater section of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River catchment. 6. Ron Patra Effects of temperature on the toxicity of chemicals to Australian fish and invertebrates. 7. Grant Hose The effect of endosulfan on macroinvertebrate communities in artificial streams. 8. Natasha Franklin Application of flow cytometry to the development of microalgal toxicity tests for assessing metal bioavailability. 9. Rebecca Rose Ecologically relevant approaches to laboratory toxicity testing. 10. Yin Latt Phyu Assessment of toxicity, bioavailability, partitioning and hazard of the herbicides, atrazine and molinate. 11. Christopher Rawson Ecological risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants in wetlands of the remediated Sydney Olympic Park, NSW, Australia. 13. Surattana Settacharnwit Nutrients in Nong Han, a shallow lake in north-eastern Thailand: sediment-water interactions (co-supervisor). PhDs current 1. Hemantha Dassayanake Effects of salinity, atrazine, molinate and chlorpyrifos individually and as mixtures to the freshwater alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and cladoceran Daphnia carinata. 2. Heather Brown Assessment of the endocrine disrupting effects of sewage contaminated waters on aquatic biota and identification of the causative compounds. 3. Lisa Hamilton Use of effects bas

Limnology
Ecotoxicology
General biology and ecology
Environmental engineering

Chapters

Rahman, M.A., Hassler, C.S., Hasegawa, H. & Lim, R.P. 2013, 'Ecotoxicology of Arsenic in The Freshwater Environment: Consequences and Risk Assessment' in Andrea Masotti (ed), Arsenic: Sources, Environmental Impact, Toxicity and Human Health - A Medical Geology Perspective, Nova Science Publishers, New York, USA, pp. 85-106.
Arsenic is a known environmental toxicant and it occurs in the environment from natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic is one of the important environmental issues because of its occurrence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and trophic transfer in the freshwater food chain. Aquatic organisms accumulate, retain, and transform arsenic when exposed to it through water, their diet, and other routes. Since arsenic toxicity mostly depends on its chemical forms, measurement of arsenic speciation in aquatic organisms is particularly important in assessing the ecological risks of the element. Arsenate (As(V)) comprises the major part of total arsenic in oxic waters. Phytoplankton take up As(V) and subsequently convert it to arsenite (As(III)) and then to less toxic dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA), and higher order organoarsenicals. Phytoplankton are thought to convert inorganic arsenic species to methylarsenicals and to other organoarsenic compounds (lipids and arsenosugars) to reduce the toxic effects of inorganic arsenicals. Since phytoplankton are a major food source for the organisms of higher trophic levels in the aquatic systems, arsenic is biotransferred from lower to higher trophic levels; while biomagnification of the element in aquatic food chain is not consistent. Other important arsenic forms found in aquatic organisms include arsenocholine (AsC), arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenosugars (AsS). This review discusses the bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and trophic transfer (biomagnification or diminution) of arsenic in the aquatic food chains in relation to its ecotoxicological risks in the freshwater environment.
Rahman, M.A., Lim, R.P. & Hasegawa, H. 2012, 'Biodegradable chelating ligands for iron and arsenic bioavailability and uptake in rice (Oryza sativa L.)' in Ng, J.C., Noller, B.N., Naidu, R., Bundschuh, J. & Bhattacharya, P. (eds), Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic, CRC Press, AK Leiden, The Netherlands, pp. 394-396.
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Biodegradable chelating ligands Ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), Hydroxyiminodisuccinic acid (HIDS) and Methylglycindiacetic Acid (MGDA) for iron (Fe) and arsenic (As) bioavailability and uptake were investigated using hydroponic rice (Oryza sativa L.). The growth of rice seedlings decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing pH. The highest growth was observed at pH 7 which was related to Fe concentrations in roots and shoots. As and Fe uptake in rice roots was increased by significantly (P < 0.05) by EDDS and HIDS, while their translocation to shoots were not influenced by the ligands. EDDS and HIDS were more efficient in As and Fe uptake than MGDA indicating that EDDS and HIDS would be good ligands for the increase of Fe uptake and Fe phytoextraction
Polgar, G. & Lim, R. 2011, 'Mudskippers: Human use, ecotoxicology and biomonitoring of mangrove and other soft bottom intertidal ecosystems' in Mangroves: Ecology, Biology and Taxonomy, pp. 51-86.
Mudskippers (Gobiidae: Oxudercinae) are air-breathing gobies, which are widely distributed throughout the West African coast and the Indo-Pacific region. They are closely linked to mangrove and adjacent soft bottom peri-tidal ecosystems. Some species are amongst the best adapted fishes to an amphibious lifestyle. All mudskippers are benthic burrowers in anoxic sediments, and since tidal mudflats are efficient sediment traps, and sinks for nutrients and other chemical compounds, they are constantly in contact with several types of pollutants produced by industrial, agricultural and domestic activities. Due to their natural abundance, considerable resistance to highly polluted conditions, and their benthic habits, mudskippers are frequently used in aquatic ecotoxicological studies. For the same reasons, mudskippers also frequently occur in urbanised or semi-natural coastal areas. Since several species are widely consumed throughout their whole geographical range, these same characteristics also facilitate their aquaculture in several countries, such as Bangladesh, Thailand, Philippines, China, Taiwan and Japan. Even when not directly used, mudskippers are often abundant and are important prey items for many intertidal transient species (marine visitors), and several species of shorebirds. Therefore, there is potential for bioaccumulation of toxicants wherever mudskippers and pollution co-occur. This chapter reviews the ecotoxicology of mudskippers, and their potential for use as biomonitors to better manage coastal swamp ecosystems. The diverse sympatric assemblages of mudskipper species allow for spatially differentiated ecotoxicological investigations along the whole intertidal zone, since adults are often territorial and/or sedentary, and show species-specific patterns of habitat differentiation. A case study is also proposed where this approach could be adopted to address potential health-risk issues in a local population who are regular consumers of mudskipper...
Lim, R.P. & Lai, H. 2004, 'Crustacea: Copepoda, Calanoida' in Yule, C.M. & Sen, Y.H. (eds), Freshwater Invertebrates of the Malaysian Region, Academy of Sciences Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp. 254-266.

Conferences

Gothe, J., Leung, T., Lim, R.P., Phyu, Y.L., Plant, R. & Walker, J.R. 2011, 'Advocating for Biodiversity in the Hawkesbury Nepean River: critical research practices of visual communication design', Geography on the Edge, Institute of Australian Geographers, University of Wollongong, pp. 1-47.
Plant, R., Walker, J.R., Rayburg, S.C., Gothe, J., Leung, T.M., Phyu, Y.L. & Lim, R.P. 2011, 'The 'Social Life of Pesticides': How organised irresponsibility in the Greater Sydney Basin threatens the biodiversity of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River', Institute of Australian Geographers (IAG) Conference Wollongong 2011, Wollongong, NSW.
Doyle, C., Barker, J., Lim, R.P. & Gray, L.E. 2003, 'Reproductive morphology of male mosquitofish (gambusia holbrooki) inhabiting sewage-contaminated waters in the South Creek catchment on the Hawkesbury-Nepean River', Proceedings of Chemicals of Concern in Water Speciality Conference 2003, Chemicals of Concern in Water, Australian Water Assocaition & International Water Association, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-10.
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Brennan, E.L., Lim, R.P., Doyle, C. & Laginestra, E. 2003, 'The use of Poecilliids to assess the endocrine disrupting capacity of waters with reference to the mosquitofish inhabiting water bodies in the Sydney Olympic Park, Homebush Bay.', Proceedings of Chemicals of Concern in Water Speciality Conference 2003, Chemicals of Concern, Australian Water Association & International Water Association, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-8.
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Lim, R.P., Gale, S.A., Doyle, C., Lesjean, B. & Gibert, M. 2000, 'Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) Effluent Reused in Agriculture - Is there a Concern?', Water Recycling Australia, CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 23-28.

Journal articles

Mowe, M.A.D., Abbas, F., Porojan, C., Mitrovic, S.M., Lim, R.P., Furey, A. & Yeo, D.C.J. 2016, 'Roles of nitrogen and phosphorus in growth responses and toxin production (using LC-MS/MS) of tropical Microcystis ichthyoblabe and M. flos-aquae', Journal of Applied Phycology.
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&copy; 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht In experiments investigating nutrient effects on tropical Microcystis, increasing nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were found to have a significant positive effect on maximum cell yields of two strains of Microcystis ichthyoblabe (from Lower Peirce and Tengeh Reservoirs) and one strain of Microcystis flos-aquae isolated (Lower Peirce Reservoir) from Singapore. However, only increasing nitrogen concentration had a positive effect on growth rates of M. ichthyoblabe and M. flos-aquae from Lower Peirce Reservoir. MC-RR and MC-LR were produced by all three strains with MC-RR being the dominant variant. Phosphorus played an important role in MC production with increases in phosphorus from medium to high concentrations leading to decreases in MC-RR cell quotas for all three strains at the two highest nitrogen levels tested. The different growth and toxin production responses between M. ichthyoblabe strains could be due to location-specific differences.
Wood, R.J., Mitrovic, S.M., Lim, R.P. & Kefford, B.J. 2016, 'The influence of reduced light intensity on the response of benthic diatoms to herbicide exposure.', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 2252-2260.
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Herbicide pollution events in aquatic ecosystems often co-occur with increased turbidity and reduced light intensity. It is therefore important to determine whether reduced light intensity can influence herbicide toxicity, especially to primary producers such as benthic diatoms. Benthic diatoms collected from four rivers were exposed to herbicides in 48h rapid toxicity tests under high light (100&micro;molm(-2) s(-1) ) and low light (20&micro;molm(-2) s(-1) ) intensities. The effects of two herbicides (atrazine and glyphosate) were assessed on 26 freshwater benthic diatom taxa. There was no significant interaction of light and herbicide effects at the community level or on the majority (22 of 26) of benthic diatom taxa. This indicates that low light levels will likely have only a minor influence on the response of benthic diatoms to herbicides. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Wood, R.J., Mitrovic, S.M., Lim, R.P. & Kefford, B.J. 2016, 'How benthic diatoms within natural communities respond to eight common herbicides with different modes of action.', The Science of the total environment, vol. 557-558, pp. 636-643.
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Herbicides are common pollutants of rivers in agricultural regions. These contaminants include various types of chemicals with different modes of toxic action. Herbicides can have toxic effects on freshwater benthic diatoms, the base of the aquatic food web. We examined the effects of (non-mixture) herbicide exposure to the health of diatoms for eight common herbicides with three different modes of action; the photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors: atrazine, simazine, hexazinone, tebuthiuron and diuron; two auxinic herbicides: MCPA and 2,4-D; and the EPSP synthase inhibitor: glyphosate. Benthic diatoms within riverine communities were exposed to each herbicide in rapid toxicity tests at concentrations of 50, 200 and 500gL(-1). The most sensitive taxa were Gomphonema spp. and Encyonema gracilis. Navicula cryptotenella was the most tolerant to herbicide exposure. There was no significant effect of the different herbicide modes of action at the community level. Herbicide mode of action did not alter which taxa were most sensitive within the community and sensitivity rankings of the dominant diatom taxa were similar for each of the eight herbicides. The consistency of the results between herbicides suggests that freshwater benthic diatoms may be suitable in situ indicators for detecting the toxicity of herbicides with differing modes of action.
Hamilton, L.A., Tremblay, L.A., Northcott, G.L., Boake, M. & Lim, R.P. 2016, 'The impact of variations of influent loading on the efficacy of an advanced tertiary sewage treatment plant to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals.', The Science of the total environment, vol. 560-561, pp. 101-109.
The impact of changes in influent load on the removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by sewage treatment has not been fully characterised. This study assessed the efficacy of an advanced tertiary sewage treatment plant (STP) to remove EDCs during normal and peak flow events of sewage influent using trace chemical analysis of selected EDCs and four estrogenic in vitro bioassays. During the summer holiday season, influent volume increased by 68%, nutrient concentrations by at least 26% and hydraulic retention time was reduced by 40% compared with base flow conditions. Despite these pressures on the treatment system the concentrations and mass loading of estrone, 17-estradiol, estriol, Bisphenol A, 4-t-octylphenol and technical nonylphenol were not significantly higher (p>0.05) during the peak flow conditions compared with base flow conditions. Chemical analysis and in vitro bioassays showed that the efficacy of the STP in removing EDCs was not affected by the different loadings between baseline and peak flow regimes. This study demonstrates that large flow variations within the design capacity of advanced multi-stage STPs should not reduce the removal efficacy of EDCs.
Zhao, C.S., Yang, S.T., Liu, C.M., Dou, T.W., Yang, Z.L., Yang, Z.Y., Liu, X.L., Xiang, H., Nie, S.Y., Zhang, J.L., Mitrovic, S.M., Yu, Q. & Lim, R.P. 2015, 'Linking hydrologic, physical and chemical habitat environments for the potential assessment of fish community rehabilitation in a developing city', Journal of Hydrology, vol. 523, pp. 384-397.
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&copy; 2015 Elsevier B.V. Aquatic ecological rehabilitation is increasingly attracting considerable public and research attention. An effective method that requires less data and expertise would help in the assessment of rehabilitation potential and in the monitoring of rehabilitation activities as complicated theories and excessive data requirements on assemblage information make many current assessment models expensive and limit their wide use. This paper presents an assessment model for restoration potential which successfully links hydrologic, physical and chemical habitat factors to fish assemblage attributes drawn from monitoring datasets on hydrology, water quality and fish assemblages at a total of 144 sites, where 5084 fish were sampled and tested. In this model three newly developed sub-models, integrated habitat index (. IHSI), integrated ecological niche breadth (. INB) and integrated ecological niche overlap (. INO), are established to study spatial heterogeneity of the restoration potential of fish assemblages based on gradient methods of habitat suitability index and ecological niche models. To reduce uncertainties in the model, as many fish species as possible, including important native fish, were selected as dominant species with monitoring occurring over several seasons to comprehensively select key habitat factors. Furthermore, a detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) was employed prior to a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the data to avoid the "arc effect" in the selection of key habitat factors. Application of the model to data collected at Jinan City, China proved effective reveals that three lower potential regions that should be targeted in future aquatic ecosystem rehabilitation programs. They were well validated by the distribution of two habitat parameters: river width and transparency. River width positively influenced and transparency negatively influenced fish assemblages. The model can be applied for monitoring the effects o...
Mowe, M.A.D., Mitrovic, S.M., Lim, R.P., Furey, A. & Yeo, D.C.J. 2015, 'Tropical cyanobacterial blooms: a review of prevalence, problem taxa, toxins and influencing environmental factors', Journal of Limnology, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 205-224.
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Azizur Rahman, M., Hogan, B., Duncan, E., Doyle, C., Rahman, M.M., Nguyen, T.V., Lim, R.P., Maher, W., Naidu, R., Krassoi, R., Vigneswaran, S. & Hassler, C. 2015, 'Ecotoxicological Effects of an Arsenic Remediation Method on Three Freshwater Organisms - Lemna disperma, Chlorella sp. CE-35 and Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia', Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 226, no. 12, pp. 1-10.
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&copy; 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Chemical methods have been used for the remediation of arsenic (As)-contaminated water; however, ecological consequences of these methods have not been properly addressed. The present study evaluated the effects of the Fe-oxide-coated sand (IOCS) remediation method on As toxicity to freshwater organisms (Lemna disperma, Chlorella sp. CE-35, and Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia). The As removal efficiency by IOCS decreased substantially with time. The IOCS remediation method was less effective at suppressing the toxicity of AsV than AsIII to L. disperma but was highly effective in reducing both the AsIII and AsV toxicity to C. cf. dubia. The growth of Chlorella sp. was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in remediated and pre-remediated water than in controls (non-As-contaminated filtered Colo River water) for AsIII, while the opposite was observed for AsV, indicating that AsV is more toxic than AsIII to this microalga. Although the IOCS can efficiently remove As from contaminated water, residual As and other constituents (e.g. Fe, nitrate) in the remediated water had a significant effect on freshwater organisms.
Patra, R.W., Chapman, J.C., Lim, R.P., Gehrke, P.C. & Sunderam, R.M. 2015, 'Interactions between water temperature and contaminant toxicity to freshwater fish', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1809-1817.
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&copy; 2015 SETAC. Warming of freshwaters as a result of climate change is expected to have complex interactions with the toxicity of contaminants to aquatic organisms. The present study evaluated the effects of temperature on the acute toxicity of endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, and phenol to 3 warm water species of fish-silver perch, rainbowfish, and western carp gudgeon-and 1 cold water species, rainbow trout. Endosulfan was more toxic to silver perch at 30&deg;C and 35&deg;C than at 15&deg;C, 20&deg;C and 25&deg;C during short exposures of 24h, but at 96h, temperature had no effect on toxicity. Toxicity to rainbow trout increased with increasing temperature, whereas warm water species exhibited maximum toxicity at around 30&deg;C, decreasing again toward 35&deg;C. Chlorpyrifos became more toxic to all species with increasing temperature. Phenol toxicity to all species decreased at low to intermediate temperatures; but as temperatures increased further toward the upper thermal limit, phenol became more toxic. Increasing toxicity in the upper thermal range of cold water species may contribute to upstream range contraction in rivers with high toxicant loads. In contrast, warm water species may not exhibit a range shift within rivers as a result of interactions between temperature and toxicity. Catchment management to offset global warming at local scales may present opportunities to mitigate increased toxicity of contaminants to fish.
Mowe, M.A.D., Porojan, C., Abbas, F., Mitrovic, S.M., Lim, R.P., Furey, A. & Yeo, D.C.J. 2015, 'Rising temperatures may increase growth rates and microcystin production in tropical Microcystis species', Harmful Algae, vol. 50, pp. 88-98.
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&copy; 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Rising temperatures (1.4-6 &deg;C) due to climate change have been predicted to increase cyanobacterial bloom occurrences in temperate water bodies; however, the impacts of warming on tropical cyanobacterial blooms are unknown. We examined the effects of four different temperatures on the growth rates and microcystin (MC) production of five tropical Microcystis isolates (M. ichthyoblabe (two strains), M. viridis, M. flos-aquae, and M. aeruginosa). The temperature treatments are based on current temperature range in Singapore's reservoirs (27 &deg;C and 30 &deg;C), as well as projected mean (33 &deg;C) and maximum temperatures (36 &deg;C) based on tropical climate change estimates of +6 &deg;C in air temperature. Increasing temperatures did not significantly affect the maximum growth rates of most Microcystis strains. Higher growth rates were only observed in one M. ichthyoblabe strain at 33 &deg;C and M. flos-aquae at 30 &deg;C where both were isolated from the same reservoir. MC-RR and MC-LR were produced in varying amounts by all four species of Microcystis. Raised temperatures of 33 &deg;C were found to boost total MC cell quota for three Microcystis strains although further increase to 36 &deg;C led to a sharp decrease in total MC cell quota for all five Microcystis strains. Increasing temperature also led to higher MC-LR:MC-RR cell quota ratios in M. ichthyoblabe. Our study suggests that higher mean water temperatures resulting from climate change will generally not influence growth rates of Microcystis spp. in Singapore except for increases in M. ichthyoblabe strains. However, toxin cell quota may increase under moderate warming scenarios depending on the species.
Zhao, C.S., Yang, S.T., Xiang, H., Liu, C.M., Zhang, H.T., Yang, Z.L., Zhang, Y., Sun, Y., Mitrovic, S.M., Yu, Q. & Lim, R.P. 2015, 'Hydrologic and water-quality rehabilitation of environments for suitable fish habitat', Journal of Hydrology, vol. 530, pp. 799-814.
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&copy; 2015 Elsevier B.V. Aquatic ecological rehabilitation is attracting increasing public and research attention, but without knowledge of the responses of aquatic species to their habitats the success of habitat restoration is uncertain. Thus efficient study of species response to habitat, through which to prioritize the habitat factors influencing aquatic ecosystems, is highly important. However many current models have too high requirement for assemblage information and have great bias in results due to consideration of only the species' attribute of presence/absence, abundance or biomass, thus hindering the wider utility of these models. This paper, using fish as a case, presents a framework for identification of high-priority habitat factors based on the responses of aquatic species to their habitats, using presence/absence, abundance and biomass data. This framework consists of four newly developed sub-models aiming to determine weightings for the evaluation of species' contributions to their communities, to quantitatively calculate an integrated habitat suitability index for multi-species based on habitat factors, to assess the suitable probability of habitat factors and to assess the rehabilitation priority of habitat factors. The framework closely links hydrologic, physical and chemical habitat factors to fish assemblage attributes drawn from monitoring datasets on hydrology, water quality and fish assemblages at a total of 144 sites, where 5084 fish were sampled and tested. Breakpoint identification techniques based on curvature in cumulated dominance along with a newly developed weighting calculation model based on theory of mass systems were used to help identify the dominant fish, based on which the presence and abundance of multiple fish were normalized to estimate the integrated habitat suitability index along gradients of various factors, based on their variation with principal habitat factors. Then, the appropriate probability of every principal hab...
Rahman, M.A., Rahman, M.M., Reichman, S.M., Lim, R.P. & Naidu, R. 2014, 'Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: Health hazard', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 100, pp. 53-60.
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Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 mg kg1, 21 mg kg1, 144 mg kg1, 2.9 mg kg1, 24.4 mg kg1, 166 mg kg1, 375 mg kg1, and 17.1 mg kg1 dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers.
Chen, Z., Ngo, H., Guo, W., Lim, R.P., Wang, X.C., O'Halloran, K., Listowski, A., Corby, N. & Miechel, C. 2014, 'A comprehensive framework for the assessment of new end uses in recycled water schemes', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 470-471, pp. 44-52.
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Nowadays, recycled water has provided sufficient flexibility to satisfy short-term freshwater needs and increase the reliability of long-term water supplies in many water scarce areas, which becomes an essential component of integrated water resources management. However, the current applications of recycled water are still quite limited that are mainly associated with non-potable purposes such as irrigation, industrial uses, toilet flushing and car washing. There is a large potential to exploit and develop new end uses of recycled water in both urban and rural areas. This can greatly contribute to freshwater savings, wastewater reduction and water sustainability. Consequently, the paper identified the potentials for the development of three recycled water new end uses, household laundry, livestock feeding and servicing, and swimming pool, in future water use market. To validate the strengths of these new applications, a conceptual decision analytic framework was proposed. This can be able to facilitate the optional management strategy selection process and thereafter provide guidance on the future end use studies within a larger context of the community, processes, and models in decision-making. Moreover, as complex evaluation criteria were selected and taken into account to narrow down the multiple management alternatives, the methodology can successfully add transparency, objectivity and comprehensiveness to the assessment. Meanwhile, the proposed approach could also allow flexibility to adapt to particular circumstances of each case under study.
Chen, Z., Ngo, H., Guo, W., Pham, N., Lim, R.P., Wang, X.C., Miechel, C., O'Halloran, K., Listowski, A. & Corby, N. 2014, 'A new optional recycled water pre-treatment system prior to use in the household laundry', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 476-447, pp. 513-521.
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With a constantly growing population, water scarcity becomes the limiting factor for further social and economic growth. To achieve a partial reduction in current freshwater demands and lessen the environmental loadings, an increasing trend in the water market tends to adopt recycled water for household laundries as a new recycled water application. The installation of a small pre-treatment unit for water purification can not only further improve the recycled water quality, but also be viable to enhance the public confidence and acceptance level on recycled water consumption. Specifically, this paper describes column experiments conducted using a 550 mm length bed of zeolite media as a one-dimensional flow reactor. The results show that the zeolite filter system could be a simple low-cost pre-treatment option which is able to significantly reduce the total hardness level of recycled water via effective ion exchange. Additionally, depending on the quality of recycled water required by end users, a new by-pass controller using a three-level operation switching mechanism is introduced. This approach provides householders sufficient flexibility to respond to different levels of desired recycled water quality and increase the reliability of long-term system operation. These findings could be beneficial to the smooth implementation of new end uses and expansion of the potential recycled water market. The information could also offer sound suggestions for future research on sustainable water management and governance.
Rahman, M.A., Hogan, B., Duncan, E., Doyle, C., Krassoi, R., Rahman, M.M., Naidu, R., Lim, R.P., Maher, W. & Hassler, C. 2014, 'Toxicity of arsenic species to three freshwater organisms and biotransformation of inorganic arsenic by freshwater phytoplankton (Chlorella sp. CE-35)', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 106, pp. 126-135.
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In the environment, arsenic (As) exists in a number of chemical species, and arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV) dominate in freshwater systems. Toxicity of As species to aquatic organisms is complicated by their interaction with chemicals in water such as phosphate that can influence the bioavailability and uptake of AsV. In the present study, the toxicities of AsIII, AsV and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) to three freshwater organisms representing three phylogenetic groups: a phytoplankton (Chlorella sp. strain CE-35), a floating macrophyte (Lemna disperma) and a cladoceran grazer (Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia), were determined using acute and growth inhibition bioassays (EC50) at a range of total phosphate (TP) concentrations in OECD medium. The EC50 values of AsIII, AsV and DMA were 27&plusmn;10, 1.15&plusmn;0.04 and 19&plusmn;3 mg L-1 for Chlorella sp. CE-35; 0.57&plusmn;0.16, 2.3&plusmn;0.2 and 56&plusmn;15 mg L-1 for L. disperma, and 1.58&plusmn;0.05, 1.72&plusmn;0.01 and 5.9&plusmn;0.1 mg L-1 for C. cf. dubia, respectively. The results showed that AsIII was more toxic than AsV to L. disperma; however, AsV was more toxic than AsIII to Chlorella sp. CE-35. The toxicities of AsIII and AsV to C. cf. dubia were statistically similar (p>0.05). DMA was less toxic than iAs species to L. disperma and C. cf. dubia, but more toxic than AsIII to Chlorella sp. CE-35. The toxicity of AsV to Chlorella sp. CE-35 and L. disperma decreased with increasing TP concentrations in the growth medium. Phosphate concentrations did not influence the toxicity of AsIII to either organism. Chlorella sp. CE-35 showed the ability to reduce AsV to AsIII, indicating a substantial influence of phytoplankton on As biogeochemistry in freshwater aquatic systems.
Rahman, M.A., Rahman, M.M., Reichman, S.M., Lim, R.P. & Naidu, R. 2014, 'Arsenic speciation in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia: Implications for human health risk', Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 62, no. 25, pp. 6016-6024.
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Rice is an important route of arsenic (As) exposure to human, especially the populations with rice-based diets. Human health risk of As varies greatly with rice variety and country of origin. The purpose of the present study was to determine total and speciated As in Australian grown and imported rice on sale in Australia to assess their health risk to the consumers. The total As (tAs) concentrations in Australian grown organic brown, medium grain brown, and organic white rice were 438&plusmn;23, 287&plusmn;03 and 283&plusmn;18 &micro;g kg-1 dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. In Bangladeshi, Indian, Pakistani, and Thai rice imported and on sale in Australia, tAs concentrations were 56&plusmn;05, 92&plusmn;10, 82&plusmn;06 and 172&plusmn;24 &micro;g kg-1, respectively. Asian rice contained mainly inorganic As (iAs; 86-99%), while 18-26% of the tAs in Australian grown rice was dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Relatively higher concentration of tAs in Australian grown rice than imported rice of Asian origin suggests that Australian rice may be a health risk for the consumers. It was estimated that Australian grown organic brown rice can contribute up to 98% of the FAO/WHO recommended maximum tolerable daily intake limit of iAs (2.1 &micro;g kg-1 body wt. day-1) for Asian immigrants. However, other Australian consumers including the European immigrants unlikely to have health risk of As from rice diets due to their lower rice consumption rates than the Asian immigrants. The risk assessment showed that imported rice on sale in Australia was likely to pose lower health risk to consumers than Australian grown rice.
Scott, P.D., Bartkow, M., Blockwell, S.J., Coleman, H.M., Khan, S.J., Lim, R., McDonald, J.A., Nice, H., Nugegoda, D., Pettigrove, V., Tremblay, L.A., Warne, M.S.J. & Leusch, F.D.L. 2014, 'An assessment of endocrine activity in Australian rivers using chemical and in vitro analyses', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 21, no. 22, pp. 12951-12967.
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Scott, P.D., Bartkow, M., Blockwell, S.J., Coleman, H.M., Khan, S.J., Lim, R., McDonald, J.A., Nice, H., Nugegoda, D., Pettigrove, V., Tremblay, L.A., Warne, M.S.J. & Leusch, F.D.L. 2014, 'A National Survey of Trace Organic Contaminants in Australian Rivers', Journal of Environment Quality, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1702-1702.
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Phyu, Y.L., Palmer, C.G., Warne, M.S., Dowse, R., Mueller, S., Chapman, J.C., Hose, G.C. & Lim, R.P. 2013, 'Assessing The Chronic Toxicity Of Atrazine, Permethrin, And Chlorothalonil To The Cladoceran Ceriodaphnia Cf. Dubia In Laboratory And Natural River Water', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 419-426.
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The majority of ecotoxicological data are generated from standard laboratory-based experiments with organisms exposed in nonflowing systems using highly purified water, which contains very low amounts of dissolved organic matter and suspended particulates. However, such experimental conditions are not ecologically relevant. Thus, there is a need to develop more realistic approaches to determining toxicity, including both lethal and sublethal effects. This research provides information on the effect of natural water constituents, such as suspended particulates and dissolved organic matter, in river water (RW) on the chronic toxicity (7-day reproductive impairment) of the pesticides atrazine, chlorothalonil, and permethrin to the freshwater cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia. Standard bioassays were conducted under standard laboratory and more environmentally realistic conditions (using RW). The 7-day IC25 (reproduction impairment) values of atrazine, chlorothalonil, and permethrin to C. cf. dubia ranged from 862.4 to >1000, 51.3 to 66.4, and 0.19 to 0.23 &micro;g/L, respectively. Using the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, atrazine is classified as moderately to highly toxic, whereas permethrin and chlorothalonil were both highly toxic. The presence of dissolved organic matter and suspended particles in natural RW did not significantly (p > 0.05) change the toxicity of any of the pesticides to C. cf. dubia compared with that tested in laboratory water (LW). For the tested pesticides, toxicity testing in LW provided an adequate estimate of the hazard posed.
Korbel, K.L., Hancock, P., Serov, P., Lim, R.P. & Hose, G.C. 2013, 'Groundwater Ecosystems Vary With Land Use Across A Mixed Agricultural Landscape', Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 380-390.
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Changes in surface land use may threaten groundwater quality and ecosystem integrity, particularly in shallow aquifers where links between groundwater and surface activities are most intimate. In this study we examine the response of groundwater ecosystem to agricultural land uses in the shallow alluvial aquifer of the Gwydir River valley, New South Wales, Australia. We compared groundwater quality and microbial and stygofauna assemblages among sites under irrigated cropping, non-irrigated cropping and grazing land uses. Stygofauna abundance and richness was greatest at irrigated sites, with the composition of the assemblage suggestive of disturbance. Microbial assemblages and water quality also varied with land use. Our study demonstrates significant differences in the composition of groundwater ecosystems in areas with different surface land use, and highlights the utility of groundwater biota for biomonitoring, particularly in agricultural landscapes.
Korbel, K.L., Lim, R.P. & Hose, G.C. 2013, 'An inter-catchment comparison of groundwater biota in the cotton-growing region of north-western New South Wales', Crop and Pasture Science, vol. 64, no. 11-12, pp. 1195-1208.
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Groundwater is essential to crop production in many parts of the world, and the provision of clean groundwater is dependent on healthy groundwater ecosystems. To understand better the functioning of groundwater ecosystems, it is necessary to understand h
Rahman, M.A., Hasegawa, H., Rahman, M.M., Maki, T. & Lim, R.P. 2013, 'Effect of iron (Fe2+) concentration in soil on arsenic uptake in rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) when grown with arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinate (DMA)', Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 224, no. 7.
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Being predominant inorganic arsenicals, methylarsenicals also occur in anaerobic paddy soils. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of Fe2+ concentrations and arsenic speciation [arsenate (As(V)) and dimethylarsinate (DMA)] in paddy soils on arsenic uptake in rice plant. Rice seedlings were grown in soil irrigated with a Murashige and Skoog (MS) growth solution containing As(V) or DMA with or without 1.8 mM Fe2+ in excess to the background concentration of total iron (0.03 mM) in the soil. Arsenic concentration in rice roots increased initially and then decreased gradually when the seedlings were grown with excess Fe2+ and As(V). In contrast, arsenic concentration in the roots increased steadily (P < 0.01) when the seedlings were grown without excess Fe2+ and As(V). When the form of the arsenic was DMA, total arsenic (tAs) concentration in rice roots increased gradually (P < 0.01) and was not affected by the addition of excess Fe2+ in the soil. When rice seedlings were grown with As(V), tAs concentration in rice roots and shoots increased steadily (P < 0.01) for gradual increase of Fe2+ concentrations in soil. However, tAs concentration in roots and shoots was independent of Fe2+ concentrations in soil when the form of arsenic was DMA. The tAs concentrations in rice shoots also increased significantly (P < 0.01) with increasing exposure time for both As(V) and DMA. Thus, Fe2+ concentrations in soil affect arsenic uptake in rice plant depending on the speciation of arsenic. &copy; 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Rahman, M.A., Hasegawa, H. & Lim, R.P. 2012, 'Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and trophic transfer of arsenic in the aquatic food chain', Environmental Research, vol. 116, pp. 118-135.
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The occurrence, distribution, speciation, and biotransformation of arsenic in aquatic environment (marine and freshwater) have been studied extensively by several research groups during last couple of decades. However, most of those studies have been conducted in marine waters, and the results are available in a number of reviews. Speciation, bioaccumulation, and biotransformation of arsenic in freshwaters have been studied in recent years. Although inorganic arsenic (iAs) species dominates in both marine and freshwaters, it is biotransformed to methyl and organoarsenic species by aquatic organisms. Phytoplankton is considered as a major food source for the organisms of higher trophic levels in the aquatic food chain, and this autotrophic organism plays important role in biotransformation and distribution of arsenic species in the aquatic environment. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic by phytoplankton, and trophic transfer of arsenic in marine and freshwater food chains have been important concerns because of possible human health effects of the toxic metalloid from dietary intake. To-date, most of the studies on arsenic biotransformation, speciation, and trophic transfer have focused on marine environments; little is known about these processes in freshwater systems. This article has been reviewed the bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and trophic transfer of arsenic in marine and freshwater food chain.
Mohammed Abdul, J., Colville, A.E., Lim, R.P., Vigneswaran, S. & Kandasamy, J.K. 2012, 'Use of duckweed (Lemna disperma) to assess the phytotoxicity of the products of Fenton oxidation of metsulfuron methyl', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 83, pp. 89-95.
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Because of pressure on water supplies world-wide, there is increasing interest in methods of remediating contaminated ground waters. However, with some remediation processes, the breakdown products are more toxic than the original contaminant. Organic matter and salinity may also influence degradation efficiency. This study tested the efficiency of Fenton oxidation in degrading the sulfonylurea herbicide metsulfuron methyl (MeS), and tested the reaction products for phytotoxicity with the Lemna (duckweed) bioassay. The efficiency of degradation by Fenton&acirc;s reagent (Fe2&Atilde;&frac34; &Acirc;&frac14;0.09 mM; H2O2&Acirc;&frac14;1.76mM, 4 h) decreased with increasing initial MeS concentration, from 98% with 5 mg/L MeS, to 63% with 70 mg/L MeS. Addition of NaCl (10 mM) and organic matter (humic acid at 0.2 and 2.0 mg C/L as Total Organic Carbon) reduced the efficiency of degradation at low initial MeS concentrations (5 and 10mg/L), but had no effect at high concentrations. The residual Fenton&acirc;s reagent after Fenton&acirc;s oxidation was toxic to Lemna. After removal of residual iron and H2O2, the measured toxicity to Lemna in the treated samples could be explained by the concentrations of MeS as measured by HPLC/UV detection, so there was no evidence of additional toxicity or amelioration due to the by-products or formulation materials.
Cortez, D.P., Growns, I., Mitrovic, S. & Lim, R.P. 2012, 'Effects Of A Gradient In River Regulation On The Longitudinal Trends In Water Quality And Benthic Algal And Macroinvertebrate Assemblages In The Hunter River, Australia', Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 494-504.
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River regulation impacts lotic ecosystem processes; however, the effect of a gradient of regulation on these attributes has rarely been studied. This study examined the effects of a river regulation gradient on longitudinal trends in water quality and be
Davie, A.W., Mitrovic, S. & Lim, R.P. 2012, 'Succession and accrual of benthic algae on cobbles of an upland river following scouring', Inland Waters, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 89-100.
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Flow releases from dams can be used to scour benthic algae, simulating the effects of natural spates and maintaining benthic algae in an early successional stage for increased grazer palatability. The timing of releases needs to consider the natural periodicity of flow events and the speed of regrowth and community succession changes. We studied benthic algal regrowth and succession using manipulative field experiments during summer and winter in the upland regulated Severn River, New South Wales, Australia. Benthic algal biomass accrual as chlorophyll a and community changes were determined after artificially scoured cobbles were returned to the river. In summer, algal biomass and diversity on scoured cobbles took 2 weeks to return to levels similar to reference cobbles and 5 weeks in winter. Chlorophyll a during summer was initially 0.24 &plusmn; 0.06 mg m-2 on scoured cobbles, but by day 16 had increased to 9.74 &plusmn; 1.97 mg m-2 and was no longer significantly different from reference cobbles. In winter, chlorophyll a was initially 0.47 &plusmn; 0.13 mg m-2 on scoured cobbles, but by day 37 had increased to 44.7 &plusmn; 10.9 mg m-2 and was no longer significantly different from reference cobbles. Peak chlorophyll a accrual during summer and winter was 1.64 and 2.63 mg m-2 d-1, respectively. Early succession in both experiments was dominated by diatoms such as Cocconeis, Synedra, and Fragilaria. A proliferation of the filamentous green alga Stigeoclonium was indicative of a late succession community. The implications for flow management based on resetting of benthic algae by scouring in riffle reaches of rivers are discussed.
Phyu, Y.L., Palmer, C.G., Warne, M.S., Hose, G.C., Chapman, J.C. & Lim, R.P. 2011, 'A Comparison Of Mixture Toxicity Assessment: Examining The Chronic Toxicity Of Atrazine, Permethrin And Chlorothalonil In Mixtures To Ceriodaphnia Cf. Dubia', Chemosphere, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 1568-1573.
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Pesticides predominantly occur in aquatic ecosystems as mixtures of varying complexity, yet relatively few studies have examined the toxicity of pesticide mixtures. Atrazine, chlorothalonil and permethrin are widely used pesticides that have different mo
Rawson, C.A., Lim, R.P., Tremblay, L., Warne, M.S., Ying, G., Laginestra, E. & Chapman, J.C. 2010, 'Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages In Remediated Wetlands Around Sydney, Australia', Ecotoxicology, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1589-1600.
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To investigate potential high organisational level impacts of persistent organic pollution in the wetlands in the Sydney Olympic Park (SOP) remediated site, the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of seven wetlands within SOP and two off-site reference wetlands were examined.
Leusch, F., De Jager, C., Levi, Y., Lim, R.P., Puijker, L., Sacher, F., Tremblay, L., Wilson, V. & Chapman, H.D. 2010, 'Comparison Of Five In Vitro Bioassays To Measure Estrogenic Activity In Environmental Waters', Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 3853-3860.
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Bioassays are well established in the pharmaceutical industry and single compound analysis, but there is still uncertainty about their usefulness in environmental monitoring. We compared the responses of five bioassays designed to measure estrogenic acti
Thomas, C.R., Warne, M.S.J., Hose, G.C. & Lim, R.P. 2010, 'River water and sediment reduce the toxicity of deltamethrin to paratya Australiensis', Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 9-16.
Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide used extensively to control cotton pests in Australia and worldwide. Deltamethrin readily binds to organic and particulate matter in the environment, thereby reducing its bioavailability and toxicity, yet most toxicity data come from studies using clean, organic matter-free water that were conducted under conditions that differ greatly from those in the turbid rivers of the cotton-growing regions of Australia. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of deltamethrin to the native glass shrimp, Paratya australiensis, and to consider the role of suspended and bottom sediment in the amelioration of deltamethrin toxicity. We conducted a series of acute single-species toxicity tests in the laboratory and in the field in the Namoi-Gwydir cotton region of northwest New South Wales, Australia. The toxicity of deltamethrin was significantly (p0.05) reduced in river water compared with that in laboratory water in laboratory but not field-based tests. The toxicity of deltamethrin in river water was further reduced with the addition of bottom sediment. Despite reductions in toxicity in natural waters, deltamethrin remained highly toxic (i.e. 60-h EC50 values <200 ng/L) to P. australiensis, and thus further investigation of the hazard of deltamethrin is warranted.
Ying, G., Rawson, C.A., Kookana, R.S., Peng, P., Warne, M.S., Tremblay, L., Laginestra, E., Chapman, J.C. & Lim, R.P. 2009, 'Contamination And Screening Level Toxicity Of Sediments From Remediated And Unremediated Wetlands Near Sydney, Australia', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 2052-2060.
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The present study assessed contamination and toxicity of sediments from seven remediated and remnant wetland sites within Sydney Olympic Park, Australia, and four unremediated sites adjacent to its boundary using chemical analysis and a luminescent bacterial biosensor assay (Escherichia coli). Concentrations of metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, and As) and persistent organic chemicals (DDT and its metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; polychlorinated biphenyls; and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) in sediments and their pore-water samples were determined. Zinc concentrations were the highest of the metals in the sediments (84-618 mg/kg), and at eight sites, metal concentrations in sediments exceeded the Australian ecological trigger values for Pb, Zn, and Ni. Concentrations of organic contaminants in the sediments exceeded the trigger values at all 11 sites for DDTs, at 6 sites for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 5 sites for polychlorinated biphenyls. Sediment samples from the four unremediated sites outside the Sydney Olympic Park had dioxin concentrations greater than 200 pg (toxic equivalency per gram). The same four sites were identified as contaminated in pore-water toxicity tests with the luminescent biosensor, generally consistent with the bioavailable fractions of the contaminants (pore-water and Tenax (R) extraction data), as well as dioxin levels, in the sediments. Preliminary toxicity identification and evaluation tests of the pore water from the four sites outside the park demonstrated that organic contaminants were the main cause of toxicity to E. coli, with no evidence that metals contributed to the toxicity of the pore water.
Rawson, C.A., Tremblay, L., Warne, M.S., Ying, G., Kookana, R.S., Laginestra, E., Chapman, J.C. & Lim, R.P. 2009, 'Bioactivity of POPs and their effects in mosquitofish in Sydney Olympic Park, Australia', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 407, no. 12, pp. 3721-3730.
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The site of the 2000 Olympic Games (Sydney Olympic Park (SOP), Sydney, Australia) was contaminated by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) prior to remediation in the 1990s. This study investigates the bioactivity of POPs in the sediment and water of wetlands across SOP by in vitro 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalence (TCDDeq) measurement (H4IIE cell line bioassay). Further, it examines whether disturbance of these sediments is likely to mobilise ligands for this receptor into the water column.
Patra, R., Chapman, J.C., Lim, R.P., Gehrke, P. & Sunderam, R. 2009, 'Effects Of Temperature On Ventilatory Behavior Of Fish Exposed To Sublethal Concentrations Of Endosulfan And Chlorpyrifos', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 2182-2190.
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The ventilation amplitude and frequency of silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus, and the ventilation frequency of rainbow fish Melanotaenia duboulayi and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, were determined at different temperatures upon exposure to endosulfan and chlorpyrifos, respectively. Silver perch and rainbow fish were tested at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 degrees C, while rainbow trout was tested at 10, 15, 20, and 25 degrees C. Although some trend of increasing amplitudes with increasing temperature was evident; there was no significant temperature response of ventilation frequency rates over time in silver perch pre-exposed to 10 mu g L-1 endosulfan for 18 h. The rate of ventilation frequency of rainbow fish pre-exposed to 200 mu g L-1 of chlorpyrifos for 96 h was lower in treatments than in the control at 15 degrees C. However, between 20 and 35 degrees C, rates were significantly higher in the treatments than those of the control. In rainbow trout pre-exposed to 100 mu g L-1 of chlorpyrifos, the rates of frequency were significantly lower than those of controls in temperatures between 10 and 20 degrees C but higher at 25 degrees C. The amplitude of silver perch seemed to increase with the increase in temperature; however, the corresponding temperature quotient values at various temperature regimes and over exposure time showed no significant differences. The ventilation frequency of rainbow fish and rainbow trout significantly increased at the higher test temperatures, and their corresponding temperature quotient values for both fish also increased at the elevated temperatures.
Ngo, H., Chuang, Y., Guo, W., Ho, D., Pham, N., Johnston, A.J., Lim, R.P. & Listowski, A. 2009, 'Resident's strategy survey on a new end use of recycled water in Australia', Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 11, no. 1-3, pp. 93-97.
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The concept of using recycled water for washing machine was introduced as a new end use. As there is a noticeable lack social research in understanding the general public perceptions of this application, the residents strategy survey was carried out at some selective suburbs in Sydney with demographically based signifi cant differences of general, gender, age, education, and property style and ownership. The survey indicates that the majority in the community considers the use of recycled water for washing machine is indispensable in view of continuing drought and the associated water shortages. Given safety assurance and demonstration, recycled water for washing machine has a considerable proportion within the responses. The general level of knowledge in community clearly understand that recycled water is more environmentally friendly option, whereas from cleanness and public health point of view, higher quality water is required to be reused in washing machine. Moreover, the residents reckon to have a small unit for pre-treatment (point of use) before recycled water entering washing machines might assure the quality and safety. The survey also shows the major concerns for a resident to use recycled water for washing machine are public health, water cleanness and washing machine durability.
Ying, G.-.G., Rawson, C.A., Kookana, R.S., Warne, M.S.J., Peng, P.-.A., Li, X.-.M., Laginestra, E., Tremblay, L.A., Chapman, J.C. & Lim, R.P. 2009, 'Distribution of inorganic and organic contaminants in sediments from Sydney Olympic Park and the surrounding Sydney metropolitan area', JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1687-1696.
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Pablo, F., Krassoi, R., Jones, P.R., Colville, A.E., Hose, G.C. & Lim, R.P. 2008, 'Comparison of the fate and toxicity of chlorpyrifos - Laboratory versus a coastal mesocosm system', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 219-229.
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The widespread use of chlorpyrifos for pest control in urban and rural environments poses a risk of contamination to aquatic environments via runoff, spray drift or spillage. The aim of this study was to assess the fate of chlorpyrifos and its toxicity t
Rawson, C.A., Lim, R.P. & Warne, M.S. 2008, 'Skeletal morphology and maturation of male Gambusia holbrooki exposed to sewage treatment plant effluent', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 453-461.
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Sewage effluent has been identified as a major source of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the aquatic environment. The modified hemal spines (modified skeletal structures important in reproduction) of mosquitofish, Gambusia spp. have been shown t
Colville, A.E., Jones, P.M., Pablo, F., Krassoi, R., Hose, G.C. & Lim, R.P. 2008, 'Effects of chlorpyrifos on macroinvertebrate communities in coastal stream mesocosms', Ecotoxicology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 173-180.
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This study measured the effects of a single pulse of chlorpyrifos at nominal concentrations of 1 and 10 mu g/l on the macroinvertebrate community structure of a coastal stream mesocosm system. Analysis of data using Principal Response Curves (PRC) and Monte Carlo tests showed significant changes in the treated stream mesocosms relative to that of the controls. These changes in the macroinvertebrate assemblages occurred within 6 h, and persisted for at least 124 days after dosing. Significant community-level effects were detected at the lowest concentration on days 2 and 16 post-dosing, giving a no-observed effect concentration (NOECcommunity) of 1.2 mu g/l (measured). The mayflies Atalophlebia sp. and Koorrnonga sp., Chironomidae and Acarina were all sensitive to chlorpyrifos and decreased in abundance in treated mesocosms after dosing. The fauna of these coastal stream mesocosms showed similar sensitivity to chlorpyrifos with that of other reported studies, but there was no evidence of recovery after 124 days.
Thomas, C.M., Hose, G.C., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2008, 'Effects of river water and salinity on the toxicity of deltamethrin to freshwater shrimp, cladoceran, and fish', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 610-618.
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Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide used extensively to control invertebrate pests on cotton and other crops. It is acutely toxic to nontarget aquatic organisms, but existing toxicity data are mostly from toxicity tests using purified laboratory wat
Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2008, 'Assessing the biological relevance of exposing freshwater organisms to atrazine and molinate in environmetally realistic exposure test systems', Environmental Toxicology And Chemistry, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 420-424.
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Assessing the toxicity of chemicals in treated laboratory water may not accurately represent the toxicity of chemicals in natural aquatic systems. In natural water, dissolved organic matter, suspended particulate matter, and sediment play key roles in the sorption of contaminants from the water. Our previously published series of papers illustrated that the presence of sediment in aquatic toxicity testing systems significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the bioavailability of the herbicides atrazine and molinate to five Australian freshwater organisms. It is not clear whether the reduced bioavailability means that the trigger values (TVs) in the current Australian and New Zealand water quality guidelines, which are calculated using toxicity data from water-only toxicity tests, provide appropriate environmental protection. Several new sets of TVs were derived in the present study and were compared to each other and to the current Australian and New Zealand TVs for atrazine and molinate. The current Australian and New Zealand TVs for atrazine and molinate provided appropriate protection to Australian freshwater species. Australian freshwater species have a sensitivity distribution similar to those of overseas species to atrazine and molinate
Patra, R., Chapman, J.C., Lim, R.P. & Gehrke, P. 2007, 'The effects of three organic chemicals on the upper thermal tolerances of four freshwater fishes', Environmental Toxicology And Chemistry, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1454-1459.
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The upper temperature tolerance limits of four freshwater fish species, silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus, eastern rainbowfish Melanotaenia duboulayi, western carp gudgeon Hypseleotris klunzingeri, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, were determined usin
Rawson, C.A., Lim, R.P., Warne, M.S. & Doyle, C. 2006, 'The effect of 17 beta-estradiol on the development of modified hemal spines in early-life stage Gambusia holbrooki', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 253-262.
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The morphologic development of the gonopodium of male mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, is essential for proper reproductive function and has previously been used as a biomarker for the presence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in freshwater syst
Game, C., Gagnon, M., Webb, D. & Lim, R.P. 2006, 'Endocrine disruption in make mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) inhabiting wetlands in Westerna Australia', Ecotoxicology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 665-672.
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The use of gonopodial indices as potential indicators of endocrine disruption in the mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki inhabiting south west Australian wetlands was investigated. A minimum of 50 mature makes was collected from each of five water-bodies in the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia, in order to measure morphological features related to reproduction. A set of morphological measurements were used to derive the following indices: gonopodium length/ standard body length, pre-anal length/standard body length, the index of elongation and the percentage of male fish with hooks on the distal end of the gonopodium. Indices of male mosquitofish collected from Jack Finney Lake, located in the Curtin University campus, suggest the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in this eater-body, while those from Lake Kulinup suggest this is a site of concern. Indices of male fish from the Wagerup wetland, Lake Monger and Loch McNess indicate that fish inhabiting these wetlands are not affected by EDCs. This preliminary study suggests that EDCs may be present ina number of wetlands of the Swan Coastal Plain. Further study using EDC specific markers such as vitellogenin induction in male mosquitofish is required to confirm whether EDCs are present in these water-bodies.
Rose, R.M., Carruthers, A., Stauber, J.L., Lim, R.P. & Blockwell, S. 2006, 'Development of an acute toxicity test with the marine copepod acartia sinjiensis', Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology, vol. 12, pp. 67-75.
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Few toxicity test protocols with tropical marine species are currently available in Australasia. In this study, an acute 48h immobilisation toxicity test was developed with an native marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis. This species is widley distributed in tropical and sub-tropical brackish waters in Australia and is an important component of marine food webs. A comparison of its sensitivity to other species shwoed that this copepod was amongst the most sensitive Australian species to copper
Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S.J. & Lim, R.P. 2006, 'Toxicity and bioavailability of atrazine and molinate to the freshwater fish (Melanotenia fluviatilis) under laboratory and simulated field conditions', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 356, no. 1-3, pp. 86-99.
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Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'The toxicity and bioavailability of atrazine and molinate to Chironomus tepperi larvae in laboratory and river water in the presence and absence of sediment', Chemosphere, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 1231-1239.
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Acute (10day) semi-static toxicity tests in which the midge, Chironomus tepperi, were exposed to atrazine and molinate were conducted in laboratory water and in river water, in the absence and presence of sediment. The bioavailability measured as median
Hose, G.C., Jones, P.M. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'Hyporheic macroinvertebrates in riffle and pool areas of temporary streams in south eastern Australia', Hydrobiologia, vol. 532, no. 1-3, pp. 81-90.
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The hyporheic zone is an important refuge for invertebrates as surface water recedes in temporary streams. In this study, the structure and functional organisation of hyporheic macroinvertebrate assemblages in pool and dry riffle bed habitats of two epis
Hogan, A.C., Stauber, J.L., Pablo, F., Adams, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'The development of marine Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures using the unicellular alga Nitzschia closterium', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 433-443.
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Unicellular algae are highly sensitive to a wide range of toxicants and have been used extensively in ecotoxicological testing. This, along with their ability to grow in very small test volumes over short test durations, make them ideal test organisms fo
Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'Effect of river water, sediment and time on the toxicity and bioavailability of molinate to the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri (Microtox)', Water Research, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 2738-2746.
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The toxicity and bioavailability of molinate to Vibrio fischeri (Microtox (R)) were determined in both laboratory and river water in the absence and presence of sediment after 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96-h exposure. The bioavailability of molinate, expressed as
Doyle, C. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'Sexual behavior and impregnation success of adult male mosquitofish following exposure to 17 beta-estradiol', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 392-397.
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The effects of 17 beta-estradiol (E-2) on the sexual activity of adult male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were assessed. Sexually mature males were exposed to nominal concentrations of 20, 100, and 500 ng/L of E-2 and a solvent control (0.00001% etha
Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'Toxicity and bioavailability of atrazine and molinate to the freshwater shrimp (Paratya australiensis) under laboratory and simulated field conditions', Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 60, pp. 113-122.
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Acute (96-h) semistatic toxicity tests were conducted by exposing the freshwater shrimp, Paratya australiensis, to atrazine and molinate in laboratory water and in river water both with and without sediment. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) and 95% fiducial limits of atrazine for P. australiensis in laboratory water in the absence and presence of sediment were 9.9 (8.6-11.5) and 6.8 (5.4-8.5)mg/L, respectively, while the corresponding values in river water were 9.8 (8.5-11.2) and 6.5 (5.4-7.8)mg/L, respectively. For molinate, the LC50 values in laboratory water in the absence and presence of sediment were 9.2 (7.0-12.1) and 9.0 (6.8-12.0)mg/L, respectively and the corresponding values in river water were 8.7 (6.4-11.8) and 8.2 (6.6-10.2)mg/L, respectively. Neither the river water nor the presence of sediment significantly (P<0.05) reduced the bioavailability of either chemical to P. australiensis. This was unexpected, as studies with other aquatic organisms have shown that sediment significantly reduced the bioavailability of these chemicals.
Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L. & Lim, R.P. 2004, 'Development of multispecies algal bioassays using flow cytometry', Environmental Toxicology And Chemistry, vol. 23, pp. 1452-1462.
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Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2004, 'Toxicity of atrazine and molinate to the cladoceran Daphnia carinata and the effect of river water and bottom sediment on their bioavailability', Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 308-315.
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Westbury, A., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2004, 'Toxicity of, and development of predictive models for, substituted phenols to Ceridaphnia cf. dubia and Vibrio fischeri', Australasian Journal for Ecotoxicology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 33-42.
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Twelve substituted phenols that have a polar narcotic mode of action had their acute toxicity to the freshwater cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia and the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri determined. The 48-h EC50 (immobilisation) values of the chemicals to C. cf. dubia ranged from 6.13 to 183 &Ecirc;mol/L while the 30-min EC50 (luminescence) values of the chemicals to V. fischeri ranged from 1.39 to 1031 &Ecirc;mol/L. Seventy-five percent of the chemicals were classed as having moderate toxicity of to C. cf. dubia while 25 percent had below toxicityf. For V. fischeri the percentage of chemicals classified as having high moderate and below toxicity was approximately 17%, 33% and 50% respectively. Quantitative activity-activity relationships (QAARs) that could predict the toxicity of chemicals with a polar narcotic mode of action to C. cf. dubia were developed by regressing the toxicity data for polar narcotic chemicals to C. cf. dubia with that of eight non-Australasian species. Those QAARs based on the toxicity data for Tetrahymena pyriformis, Chlorella vulgaris, Poecilia reticulata and Daphnia magna were of high quality (r2 . 0.9). Only the QAARs for T. pyriformis, C. vulgaris and D. magna had sufficient data to test their validity. This revealed that the absolute percentage difference between experimentally derived EC50 values and those predicted by these QAARs were between 13 and 120%. These QAARs provide an easy, cost-effective means of estimating toxicity values for polar narcotic chemicals to C. cf. dubia.
Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2004, 'Sensitivity of offspring to chronic 3,4-dichloroaniline exposure varies with maternal exposure', Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 405-412.
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Doyle, C., Pablo, F., Lim, R.P. & Hyne, R.V. 2003, 'Assessment of metal toxicity in sediment pore water from Lake Macquarie, Australia', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 343-350.
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Recent investigations into the level of heavy metal enrichment in the sediments of Lake Macquarie have indicated that significant contamination has occurred over the past 100 years, with elevated levels of lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, and selenium being observed in most parts of the lake. Pore water extracted from sediments showing the greatest contamination by these metals exhibited toxicity to the larval development of the sea urchin Heliocidaris tuberculata. However, an analysis of pore water metal concentrations revealed that the concentrations of these metals were too low to cause toxicity. Rather, pore water toxicity was highly correlated with manganese for the majority of sites sampled; subsequent spiking experiments confirmed manganese as a cause of toxicity. Current levels of manganese in the sediments of Lake Macquarie have arisen from natural sources and are not the result of anthropogenic activities. These results reiterate the importance of identifying the causes of toxicity in assessments of sediment contamination, particularly when testing sediment pore waters using sensitive early life stages.
Hose, G.C., Lim, R.P., Hyne, R.V. & Pablo, F. 2003, 'Short-term exposure to aqueous endosulfan affects macroinvertebrate assemblages', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 282-294.
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The toxicity of the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan to macroinvertebrate assemblages was tested using a system of 24 artificial streams. In separate experiments, the effects of 12- and 48-h exposure to aqueous endosulfan were assessed. No-observed-effect concentrations (NOEC) for endosulfan on macroinvertebrate assemblages were 8.69 and 1.00 &micro;g/L for the 12- and 48-h exposure studies, respectively. In both studies, changes were driven by reduced abundances of the mayfly, Jappa kutera. Algal blooms occurred in the 48-h exposure experiment in streams that received the 6.87 or 30.70 &micro;g/L treatments. These effects occurred at concentrations that might occur as a result of episodic events such as accidental overspray or rainstorms. By establishing a causal link between endosulfan and changes to macroinvertebrate assemblages, this study adds further weight to the hypothesis that endosulfan is a major contributor to changes observed in rivers of the cotton-growing region of New South Wales, Australia during the pesticide spray season.
Markich, S.J., Brown, P.L., Jeffree, R. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'The effects of pH and dissolved organic carbon on the toxicity of cadmium and copper to a freshwater bivalve: Further support for the extended free ion activity model', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 479-491.
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Hose, G.C., Hyne, R.V. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'Toxicity of endosulfan to Atalophlebia spp. (ephemeroptera) in the laboratory, mesocosm, and field', Environmental Toxicology And Chemistry, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 3062-3068.
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Hose, G.C., Lim, R.P. & Hyne, R.V. 2003, 'The transport, fate and effects of endosulfan in the Australian freshwater environment', Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology, vol. 9, pp. 101-111.
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Settacharnwit, S., Buckney, R.T. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'The nutrient status of Nong Han, a shallow tropical lake in north-eastern Thailand: spatial and temporal variations', Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, vol. 8, pp. 189-200.
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Colville, A.E. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'Microscopic structure of the mantle and palps in the freshwater mussels Velesunio ambigus and Hyridella depressa (Bivalvia : Hyriidae)', Mulluscan Research, vol. 23, pp. 1-20.
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Binet, M.T., Adams, M.A., King, C.K., Stauber, J.L., Doyle, C., Lim, R.P. & Laginestra, E. 2003, 'Toxicity assessment of leachates from Homebush Bay landfills', Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology, vol. 9, pp. 7-18.
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Hammerton, K.M., Jayasinghe, N., Jeffree, R. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'Experimental Study Of Blood Lead Kinetics In Estuarine Crocodiles (Crocodylus Porosus) Exposed To Ingested Lead Shot', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 390-398.
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A previous study of lead (Pb) contamination in estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Kakadu National Park, Australia, found elevated Pb levels in bone and flesh from individuals caught in habitats where hunting with lead ammunition had occurred. L
Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'Exposure to chemicals exuded by fish reduces the filtration and ingestion rates of Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia', Hydrobiologia, vol. 501, no. 1-3, pp. 215-217.
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Gale, S.A., Smith, S.V., Lim, R.P., Jeffree, R. & Petocz, P. 2003, 'Insights into the mechanisms of copper tolerance of a population of black-banded rainbowfish (Melanotaenia nigrans) (Richardson) exposed to mine leachate, using Cu-64/67', Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 135-153.
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Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L., Apte, S.C. & Lim, R.P. 2002, 'The effect of initial cell density on the bioavailability and toxicity of copper in microalgal bioassays', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 21, no. N/A, pp. 742-751.
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Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L., Lim, R.P. & Petocz, P. 2002, 'Toxicity of metal mixtures to a tropical freshwater alga (Chlorella sp.): effect of interactions between copper, cadmium and zinc on metal cell binding and uptake', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 21, no. N/A, pp. 2412-2422.
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Hose, G.C., Lim, R.P., Hyne, R.V. & Pablo, F. 2002, 'A pulse of endosulfan-contaminated sediment affects macroinvertebrates in artificial streams', Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 44-52.
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The toxicity of the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan to macroinvertebrate communities was tested using a system of 24 artificial streams. Macroinvertebrate communities in the streams were exposed to a range of endosulfan concentrations for a 12-h period and then monitored for 96 h. Endosulfan was prebound to fine river sediment and applied to the streams as a contaminated sediment slurry. This did not cause changes in the structure of benthic communities; however, significant changes (P<0.05) in the abundance of several macroinvertebrate taxa in drift were detected in the streams receiving the highest (6.14 &micro;g/L) dose. Increased drift may have implications for recolonization processes in lowland rivers, and, as such, pulses of contaminated sediment are likely to result in significant effects on macroinvertebrate populations and communities. This study highlights the utility of artificial stream systems for detecting sublethal effects and the need for population and community-level endpoints to be included in such studies.
Lim, R.P., Milner, R.J. & Hunter, D.M. 2002, 'Risks to the aquatic ecosystem from the application of Metarhizium anisopliae for locust control in Australia', Pest Management Science, vol. 58, no. N/A, pp. 718-723.
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Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2002, 'Food concentration affects the life history responses of Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia to chemicals with diffeence mechanisms of action', Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 51, no. N/A, pp. 106-114.
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Rose, R.W., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2002, 'Some Life History Responses Of The Cladoceran Ceriodaphnia Cf. Dubia To Variations In Population Density At Two Different Food Concentrations', Hydrobiologia, vol. 481, no. 1-3, pp. 157-164.
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The combined effects of food concentration and population density on some life history characteristics of the small-bodied cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia were studied by examining animals maintained at densities of 100-3000 individuals l(-1) for 8 day
Doyle, C. & Lim, R.P. 2002, 'The effect of 17 beta-estradiol on the gonopodial development and sexual activity of Gambusia holbrooki', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 21, no. N/A, pp. 2719-2724.
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Doyle, C.J. & Lim, R.P. 2002, 'The effect of 17beta-estradiol on the gonopodial development and sexual activity of Gambusia holbrooki.', Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 2719-2724.
Many chemicals have recently been demonstrated to possess estrogenic activity and may potentially interfere with normal sexual development. In the present study, we quantified the effects of waterborne exposure to 17beta-estradiol on the gonopodial development and sexual activity of male eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). Juvenile males were exposed during the period of sexual maturation to nominal concentrations of 20, 100, and 500 ng/L of 17beta-estradiol and a solvent control (0.00003% w/v ethanol) for 84 d under continuous-flow conditions. Following exposure, significant differences were found among the test treatments with respect to gonopodial length and degree of gonopodial elongation of the fish. Sexual activity, measured as the number of approaches and copulatory attempts made by the exposed males to nonexposed females, also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of 17beta-estradiol. Because the degree of gonopodial maturation and frequency of sexual activity are important characteristics for the reproductive success of male mosquitofish, it is suggested that these traits provide sensitive and ecologically relevant endpoints for assessing estrogenic activity under both laboratory--and field-exposure conditions.
Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L., Apte, S.C. & Lim, R.P. 2002, 'Effect of initial cell density on the bioavailability and toxicity of copper in microalgal bioassays', ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 742-751.
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Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S.J. & Lim, R.P. 2002, 'Residual effects of 3,4-dichloroaniline on offspring born to Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia exposed for multiple generations', Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 205-211.
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One of the acknowledged limitations of conventional toxicity tests is their inability to evaluate the impact of toxicants on subsequent generations. Given their relatively short lifespan, cladocerans in the field may be exposed to toxicants for several generations. However, it is unclear what effect such an exposure regime could have on the cladoceran fitness after removal of the toxicant. This paper aimed to determine the offspring fitness of juveniles produced by adult Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia exposed to residual levels of 3,4-dichloroaniline over four generations. Mass cultures of Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia were maintained for several generations in various concentrations of 3,4-dichoroaniline (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/L). The mass cultures were re-established every generation using 4th brood neonates <24 h old. Each generation, 4th brood neonates <24 h old were also transferred individually into toxicant-free water and examined until the production of their 3rd brood. F1 offspring of mothers exposed to 15 and 20 g/L 3,4-dichloroaniline showed significantly (p < 0.05) reduced reproduction compared to the controls. No significant (p > 0.05) changes in reproduction due to 3,4-dichloroaniline were observed for the F2 and F3 offspring. However, F4 offspring of mothers exposed to all 3,4-dichloroaniline concentrations showed significantly (p < 0.05) increased reproduction compared to the controls. Possible explanations for the varying influence of maternal 3,4-dichloroaniline exposure on the reproductive output of the offspring are discussed.
Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L., Lim, R.P. & Petocz, P. 2002, 'Toxicity of metal mixtures to a tropical freshwater alga (Chlorella sp): the effect of interactions between copper, cadmium, and zinc on metal cell binding and uptake.', Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2412-2422.
The individual and combined effects of copper, cadmium, and zinc on the cell division rate of the tropical freshwater alga Chlorella sp. were determined over 48 to 72 h. Metal mixtures were prepared based on multiples of their single-metal median effective concentration (EC50) values, i.e., toxic units (TU) using a triangular mixture design with five toxicant levels (0, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 TU). Single-metal EC50 values after a 72-h exposure were 0.11, 0.85, and 1.4 microM for copper, cadmium, and zinc, respectively. Significant interactions were observed for all metal combinations after 48 and 72 h. An equitoxic mixture of Cu + Cd was more than concentration additive (synergistic) to the growth of Chlorella sp., while combinations of Cu + Zn, Cd + Zn, and Cu + Cd + Zn were all less than concentration additive or were antagonistic. To determine the effect of each metal on the uptake of the other, extracellular (membrane-bound) and intracellular metal concentrations, both alone and in mixtures, were compared. The increased growth inhibition observed for mixtures of Cu + Cd was due to higher concentrations of cell-bound and intracellular copper in the presence of cadmium compared with copper alone (i.e., cadmium-enhanced copper uptake). In contrast, both extra- and intracellular cadmium concentrations were reduced in the presence of copper. In mixtures of Cu + Zn, copper also inhibited the binding and cellular uptake of zinc, which resulted in decreased toxicity. Zinc had no appreciable effect on the uptake of copper by Chlorella sp. Our results suggest that all three metals share some common uptake and transport sites on Chlorella cells and that copper out competes both cadmium and zinc for cell binding. Determination of metal cell distribution coefficients (K(d)) confirmed that K(d) values for cadmium and zinc in single-metal exposures decreased in the presence of copper.
Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L. & Lim, R.P. 2001, 'Development of a Flow Cytometry-Based Algal Bioassays for Assessing Toxicity of Copper in Natural Waters', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 160-170.
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Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2001, 'Factors associated with Fish Modify Life History Traits of the Cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia', Journal of Plankton Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 11-17.
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Leonard, A.W., Hyne, R.V., Lim, R.P., Leigh, K.A., Le, J. & Beckett, R. 2001, 'Fate and Toxicity of Endosulfan in Namoi River Water and Bottom Sediment', Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 750-759.
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Franklin, N.M., Adams, M.S., Stauber, J.L. & Lim, R.P. 2001, 'Development of an Improved Enzyme Inhibition Bioassay with Marine and Freshwater Algae Using Flow Cytometry', Archives of Environmental Contamination and toxicology, vol. 40, pp. 469-480.
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Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2001, 'The Presence of Chemicals Exuded by Fish Affects the Life History Response of Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia to Chemicals with Different Mechanisms of Action', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2892-2898.
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Lim, R., Gale, S., Doyle, C., Lesjean, B. & Gilbert, M. 2001, 'Endocrine disrupting compounds in effluent reused in agriculture', Water, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 26-30.
A brief review is given on the presence, fate and impact of EDCs in sewage effluent reused in agriculture on crop plants and livestock. Mammalian hormones and to a lesser extent some synthetic chemicals and metals may potentially pose some risk to plants and animals. However, there is a paucity of studies and therefore the precautionary principle should underpin the reuse of sewage effluent in agriculture, and the effectiveness of STP treatments on removal of EDCs in reclaimed waters warrants greater attention.
Leonard, A.W., Hyne, R.V., Lim, R.P., Pablo, F. & Van den Brink, P. 2000, 'Riverine Endosulfan Concentrations in the Namoi River, Australia: Link to Cotton Field Runoff and Macroinvertebrate population Densities', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1540-1551.
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Rose, R.W., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2000, 'Life History Response of the the Cladeceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia to Variation in Food Concentration', Hydrobiologia, vol. 427, no. 0, pp. 59-64.
Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L., Markich, S.J. & Lim, R.P. 2000, 'pH-Dependent Toxicity of Copper and Uranium to a Tropical Freshwater Alga (Chlorella sp.)', Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 0, pp. 275-289.
Markich, S.J., Brown, P.R., Jeffree, R. & Lim, R.P. 2000, 'Valve Movement Responses of Velesunio angasi (Bivalvia: Hyriidae) to Manganese and Uranium: An Exception to the Free Ion Activity Model', Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 51, no. 0, pp. 155-175.
Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2000, 'Life history responses of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia to variation in food concentration', HYDROBIOLOGIA, vol. 427, no. 1-3, pp. 59-64.
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Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L., Markich, S.J. & Lim, R.P. 2000, 'pH-dependent toxicity of copper and uranium to a tropical freshwater alga (Chlorella sp.)', AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY, vol. 48, no. 2-3, pp. 275-289.
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Roach, A.C. & Lim, R.P. 2000, 'Variation in the population dynamics of the intertidal pulmonate gastropod Salinator solida Martens (Gastropoda: Amphibolidae) at Towra Point, NSW, Australia', Wetlands Ecology and Management, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 53-69.
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This paper describes variation in the population dynamics of the intertidal pulmonate gastropod Salinator solida among mangrove and saltmarsh habitats at Towra Point, NSW, Australia over a two-year period. In general, this paper describes the degree to which the density of the populations fluctuated and the size structure of the populations varied among heights on shore. The density of individuals in the upper mangrove forest was most variable through time and their population size structure was dominated by smaller individuals. The density of populations in the Sarcocornia high on the shore fluctuated least through time and were dominated by large individuals. Those populations found on the mid-shore in the Sarcocornia had population characteristics intermediate to those populations in the upper mangrove forest and the Sarcocornia high on the shore. Analysis of size frequency data indicated that the growth rates of individuals and their annual mortality decreased with increasing height on shore.
Markich, S.J., Brown, P.L., Jeffree, R.A. & Lim, R.P. 2000, 'Valve movement responses of Velesunio angasi (Bivalvia: Hyriidae) to manganese and uranium: an exception to the free ion activity model.', Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 155-175.
The veracity of the free ion activity model (FIAM) was tested by examining the acute (48 h) valve movement responses (VMR) (measured in terms of the duration of valve opening) of the Australian tropical freshwater unionid bivalve, Velesunio angasi to increasing concentrations of total Mn or U, in a standard synthetic water under conditions of varying pH (5.0-6.0) and/or dissolved organic carbon (model fulvic acid, FA) concentrations (0-8.9 mg l(-1)). Valve movement behaviour, measured using an automated data acquisition system, was shown to be a quantifiable and rapid, real-time endpoint for assessing the toxic effects of Mn and U exposures. For Mn, the VMR of V. angasi were independent (P>0.05) of pH and/or model FA concentration. In contrast, VMR to U exposures were highly dependent (P< or =0.05) on pH and/or model FA concentration; individuals were more sensitive to U at low pH and model FA concentrations. Valve movement responses to Mn were directly proportional to the activity of the free metal ion (Mn(2+)), which is consistent with the FIAM. In contrast, VMR to U were regarded as an 'exception' to the FIAM, since they were a weighted function of the activities of the free metal ion and the 1:1 metal hydroxide species (i.e. 1.86 x UO2(2+) + UO2OH(+)). Additionally, the effect of U on V. angasi demonstrates the importance of examining VMR at more than one pH. At a fixed pH, the results for U were consistent with the FIAM (i.e. response was directly proportional to UO2(2+)); only when pH was altered, were the results inconsistent with the FIAM. The inconsistency in the VMR of V. angasi to U exposures in this study, together with similar examples from other studies using different metals (e.g. Al or Zn), raises questions regarding the veracity of the FIAM. A detailed examination of the conceptual development of the FIAM is required to probe its apparent failure to describe several metal-organism interactions.
Leonard, A.W., Hyne, R.V., Lim, R.P. & Chapman, J.C. 1999, 'Effect Of Endosulfan Runoff From Cotton Fields On Macroinvertebrates In The Namoi River', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 125-134.
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Of the several pesticides used in the pest management strategy for cotton, endosulfan is ranked as having the greatest impact on the riverine ecosystem. A survey of changes in the densities of six abundant macroinvertebrate taxa (ephemeropteran nymphs Ja
Batty, J. & Lim, R. 1999, 'Morphological and reproductive characteristics of male mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki) inhabiting sewage-contaminated waters in New South Wales, Australia.', Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 301-307.
The potential effects of exposure of fish to reproductive endocrine disruptors (REDs) is of major concern. This study reports on the effects of sewage effluent exposure on morphology of male mosquitofish (Gambusia a. holbrooki) in a tributary of the Hawksbury-Nepean River system in New South Wales, Australia. The growth and development of the modified anal fin (the gonopodium, GP) is a secondary sexual characteristic in males, forms under the influence of testosterone, and is critical for sperm transfer. The GP was reduced in length in males sampled downstream from a sewage treatment plant discharge point compared to GP fin length in males upstream or from other comparison sites. The reduction in size of this androgen-dependent structure suggests the presence of RED substances in the water. The presence or absence of spermatozeugmata (sperm packet) was not related to a reduction in GP length, which suggests spermatogenesis may not be reduced, but other measures of fertility remain to be evaluated. These results are discussed in the context of RED contaminants associated with sewage effluent.
Rose, R.W., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 1998, 'Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships And Volume Fraction Analysis For Nonpolar Narcotic Chemicals To The Australian Cladoceran Ceriodaphnia Cf. Dubia', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 248-252.
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The toxicity of eleven nonpolar narcotic chemicals to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia was determined. C. cf. dubia was found to be approximately four times more sensitive to these narcotic chemicals than Daphnia magna tested under virtually identic
Olima, C., Pablo, F. & Lim, R.P. 1997, 'Comparative Tolerance Of Three Populations Of The Freshwater Shrimp (Paratya Australiensis) To The Organophosphate Pesticide, Chlorpyrifos', Bulletin Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 321-328.
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Pablo, F., Buckney, R.T. & Lim, R.P. 1997, 'Toxicity Of Cyanide, Iron-Cyanide Complexes, And A Blast-Furnace Effluent To The Banana Prawn, Penaeus Monodon', Bulletin Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 822-829.
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Pablo, F., Buckney, R.T. & Lim, R.P. 1997, 'Toxicity Of Cyanide, Iron-Cyanide Complexes, And A Blast Furnace Effluent To Larvae Of The Doughboy Scallop, Chlamys Asperrimus', Bulletin Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 93-100.
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Howe, E., Howe, C., Lim, R. & Burchett, M. 1997, 'Impact of the introduced poeciliid Gambusia holbrooki (Girard, 1859) on the growth and reproduction of Pseudomugil signifer (Kner, 1865) in Australia', Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 425-434.
The impact of the presence of the introduced poeciliid Gambusia holbrooki on the Australian pseudomugilid Pseudomugil signifer was examined in open-air tank experiments. G. holbrooki profoundly affected the breeding of R signifer. In the presence of G. holbrooki, P. signifer did not gain weight or grow in total length, ovarian weight and fecundity were greatly reduced, and the ovaries were morphologically undeveloped. No eggs of P. signifer were observed in tanks that also housed G. holbrooki. The results indicate that, at least in a captive situation, the presence of the exotic species bad a very deleterious effect on the breeding and hence possible survival of the native species. These results are discussed with reference to the conservation of Australian pseudomugilid species, especially those inhabiting confined habitats.
Abdullah, A.R., Lim, R.P. & Chapman, J.C. 1993, 'Inhibition and recovery of acetylcholinesterase in Paratya australiensis exposed to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos', Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 752-757.
Khan, I. & Lim, R.P. 1991, 'Distribution Of Metals In The Linggi River Basin, Malaysia, With Reference To Pollution', Australian Journal Of Marine And Freshwater Research, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 435-449.
Pollution inputs into the Linggi River Basin comprise domestic sewage, agroindustrial effluent (especially from rubber factories and plam-oil mills), and effluent from animal-husbandry activities. Total metals were analysed at eight sampling stations lo
Nather Khan, I.S.A. & Lim, R.P. 1991, 'Distribution of metals in the linggi river basin, malaysia, with reference to pollution', Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 439-445.
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Pollution inputs into the Linggi River Basin comprise domestic sewage, agroindustrial effluent (especially from rubber factories and palm-oil mills), and effluent from animal-husbandry activities. Total metals were analysed at eight sampling stations located at three highly polluted sub-basins:Linggi, Simin and Kundor. Dissolved metals were analysed occasionally at 21 major tributaries. The following concentrations were found (mg L-1; d.l., detection limit):Na, 0* 93&#8212;117 73; K, 0-88-77-03; Ca, 1-89-24-00; Mg, 0-30-14-78; Fe, 0-47-12-2; Zn, 0-06-5-12; Cu, <d.l.-2-88; Mn, <d.l.-0-18. Pb, Ni and Cr were not detectable in their dissolved or total forms. Organic sewage inputs greatly increased the concentration of metal ions in reaches just downstream of discharge points. Ion concentrations generally decreased, but not substantially so, in the recovery reaches. Various pollutants contributed differentially to the concentrations of specific metal ions; rubber-factory effluent contributed slightly lower amounts of these ions than did industrial, urban, or palm-oil-mill effluents. No seasonal changes can be readily detected because of the influence of rainfall patterns, variable effluent discharges, and a complex combination of physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in the river. &copy; 1991 CSIRO. All rights reserved.
Lim, R.P. & Wong, M. 1986, 'The Effect Of Pesticides On The Population-Dynamics And Production Of Stenocypris-Major Baird (Ostracoda) In Ricefields', Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 421-427.
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Lim, R.P. & Fernando, C. 1985, 'A Review Of Malaysian Fresh-Water Copepoda With Notes On New Records And Little Known Species', Hydrobiologia, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 70-89.
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Lim, R.P., Abdullah, M.F. & Fernando, C. 1984, 'Ecological-Studies Of Cladocera In The Ricefields Of Tanjung Karang, Malaysia, Subjected To Pesticide Treatment', Hydrobiologia, vol. 113, no. JUN, pp. 99-103.
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