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Associate Professor Richard Lim

Biography

Richard Lim is an aquatic ecotoxicologist. His research interests are in the ecotoxicology of pesticides, heavy metals, persistent organic chemicals, endocrine disrupting chemicals and salinity with a focus on assessing the impacts and risks of these contaminants and their mixtures in aquatic systems. It focuses on anthropogenic impacts of agricultural and mining activities as well as urbanisation including sewage effluent on these ecosystems.

His research involves the use of a suite of bioassays spanning a range of ecological scales from in vitro and in vivo bioassays to population and community studies in the laboratory, mesocosms and field.

His research also encompasses a range of test organisms from bacteria to algae and aquatic plants to invertebrates and fish. Richard also has expertise in limnology particularly in stream ecology and pollution studies in relation to stream health, ecology of wetlands including ricefields, and zooplankton taxonomy.

The information generated from his research contributes to an understanding of how anthropogenic activities impact on the health of ecosystems leading to development of appropriate management strategies.

In collaboration with researchers in UTS Environmental Engineering his research includes assessing the ability of innovative effluent treatment technologies in removing toxicants using an effects-based approach.

Professional

Membership to Professional Societies
Australian Society for Limnology (Life member)Australasian Society for Ecotoxicology

Image of Richard Lim
Associate of the Faculty, School of the Environment
Associate Member, Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater
Associate Member, Centre for Environmental Sustainability
BSc (Hons) (UM), MSc (UM), PhD (Waterloo)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 8297
Room
CB07.06.21

Research Interests

Ecotoxicology of pesticides
Impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the aquatic fauna
Impact of mining on stream macroinvertebrates
Stream pollution studies
Ecology of wetlands (lakes and rivers)
Zooplankton taxonomy

Can supervise: Yes
Post-graduate research supervision PhDs completed 1. Effie Howe Studies in the biology and reproductive characteristics of Pseudomugil signifer. 2. Anthony Roach Variation in the population ecology of the pulmonate gastropod, Salinator solida (Martens) populations at Towra Point, NSW, Australia. 3. Scott Markich Effects of biological and physicochemical variables on valve movement responses of freshwater bivalves to manganese, uranium, cadmium and copper. 4. Alex Leonard Effects of endosulfan on populations of dominant mayfly nymphs and caddisfly larvae in the Naomi River, following runoff from cotton fields. 5. Hertien Surtikanti Ecotoxicological studies on the benthos in the freshwater section of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River catchment. 6. Ron Patra Effects of temperature on the toxicity of chemicals to Australian fish and invertebrates. 7. Grant Hose The effect of endosulfan on macroinvertebrate communities in artificial streams. 8. Natasha Franklin Application of flow cytometry to the development of microalgal toxicity tests for assessing metal bioavailability. 9. Rebecca Rose Ecologically relevant approaches to laboratory toxicity testing. 10. Yin Latt Phyu Assessment of toxicity, bioavailability, partitioning and hazard of the herbicides, atrazine and molinate. 11. Christopher Rawson Ecological risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants in wetlands of the remediated Sydney Olympic Park, NSW, Australia. 13. Surattana Settacharnwit Nutrients in Nong Han, a shallow lake in north-eastern Thailand: sediment-water interactions (co-supervisor). PhDs current 1. Hemantha Dassayanake Effects of salinity, atrazine, molinate and chlorpyrifos individually and as mixtures to the freshwater alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and cladoceran Daphnia carinata. 2. Heather Brown Assessment of the endocrine disrupting effects of sewage contaminated waters on aquatic biota and identification of the causative compounds. 3. Lisa Hamilton Use of effects bas

Limnology
Ecotoxicology
General biology and ecology
Environmental engineering

Chapters

Rahman, M.A., Hassler, C.S., Hasegawa, H. & Lim, R.P. 2013, 'Ecotoxicology of Arsenic in The Freshwater Environment: Consequences and Risk Assessment' in Andrea Masotti (ed), Arsenic: Sources, Environmental Impact, Toxicity and Human Health - A Medical Geology Perspective, Nova Science Publishers, New York, USA, pp. 85-106.
Arsenic is a known environmental toxicant and it occurs in the environment from natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic is one of the important environmental issues because of its occurrence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and trophic transfer in the freshwater food chain. Aquatic organisms accumulate, retain, and transform arsenic when exposed to it through water, their diet, and other routes. Since arsenic toxicity mostly depends on its chemical forms, measurement of arsenic speciation in aquatic organisms is particularly important in assessing the ecological risks of the element. Arsenate (As(V)) comprises the major part of total arsenic in oxic waters. Phytoplankton take up As(V) and subsequently convert it to arsenite (As(III)) and then to less toxic dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA), and higher order organoarsenicals. Phytoplankton are thought to convert inorganic arsenic species to methylarsenicals and to other organoarsenic compounds (lipids and arsenosugars) to reduce the toxic effects of inorganic arsenicals. Since phytoplankton are a major food source for the organisms of higher trophic levels in the aquatic systems, arsenic is biotransferred from lower to higher trophic levels; while biomagnification of the element in aquatic food chain is not consistent. Other important arsenic forms found in aquatic organisms include arsenocholine (AsC), arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenosugars (AsS). This review discusses the bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and trophic transfer (biomagnification or diminution) of arsenic in the aquatic food chains in relation to its ecotoxicological risks in the freshwater environment.
Rahman, M.A., Lim, R.P. & Hasegawa, H. 2012, 'Biodegradable chelating ligands for iron and arsenic bioavailability and uptake in rice (Oryza sativa L.)' in Ng, J.C., Noller, B.N., Naidu, R., Bundschuh, J. & Bhattacharya, P. (eds), Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic, CRC Press, AK Leiden, The Netherlands, pp. 394-396.
Biodegradable chelating ligands Ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), Hydroxyiminodisuccinic acid (HIDS) and Methylglycindiacetic Acid (MGDA) for iron (Fe) and arsenic (As) bioavailability and uptake were investigated using hydroponic rice (Oryza sativa L.). The growth of rice seedlings decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing pH. The highest growth was observed at pH 7 which was related to Fe concentrations in roots and shoots. As and Fe uptake in rice roots was increased by significantly (P < 0.05) by EDDS and HIDS, while their translocation to shoots were not influenced by the ligands. EDDS and HIDS were more efficient in As and Fe uptake than MGDA indicating that EDDS and HIDS would be good ligands for the increase of Fe uptake and Fe phytoextraction
Lim, R.P. & Lai, H. 2004, 'Crustacea: Copepoda, Calanoida' in Yule, C.M. & Sen, Y.H. (eds), Freshwater Invertebrates of the Malaysian Region, Academy of Sciences Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp. 254-266.

Conferences

Gothe, J., Leung, T., Lim, R.P., Phyu, Y.L., Plant, R. & Walker, J.R. 2011, 'Advocating for Biodiversity in the Hawkesbury Nepean River: critical research practices of visual communication design', Geography on the Edge, Institute of Australian Geographers, University of Wollongong, pp. 1-47.
Plant, R., Walker, J.R., Rayburg, S.C., Gothe, J., Leung, T.M., Phyu, Y.L. & Lim, R.P. 2011, 'The 'Social Life of Pesticides': How organised irresponsibility in the Greater Sydney Basin threatens the biodiversity of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River'.
Doyle, C., Barker, J., Lim, R.P. & Gray, L.E. 2003, 'Reproductive morphology of male mosquitofish (gambusia holbrooki) inhabiting sewage-contaminated waters in the South Creek catchment on the Hawkesbury-Nepean River', Proceedings of Chemicals of Concern in Water Speciality Conference 2003, Australian Water Assocaition & International Water Association, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-10.
Brennan, E.L., Lim, R.P., Doyle, C. & Laginestra, E. 2003, 'The use of Poecilliids to assess the endocrine disrupting capacity of waters with reference to the mosquitofish inhabiting water bodies in the Sydney Olympic Park, Homebush Bay.', Proceedings of Chemicals of Concern in Water Speciality Conference 2003, Australian Water Association & International Water Association, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-8.
Lim, R.P., Gale, S.A., Doyle, C., Lesjean, B. & Gibert, M. 2000, 'Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) Effluent Reused in Agriculture - Is there a Concern?', Water Recycling Australia, CSIRO Land and Water, Australia, pp. 23-28.

Journal articles

Rahman, M.A., Rahman, M.M., Reichman, S.M., Lim, R.P. & Naidu, R. 2014, 'Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: Health hazard', ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, vol. 100, pp. 53-60.
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Chen, Z., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W., Lim, R., Wang, X.C., O'Halloran, K., Listowski, A., Corby, N. & Miechel, C. 2014, 'A comprehensive framework for the assessment of new end uses in recycled water schemes', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 470-471, pp. 44-52.
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Nowadays, recycled water has provided sufficient flexibility to satisfy short-term freshwater needs and increase the reliability of long-term water supplies in many water scarce areas, which becomes an essential component of integrated water resources management. However, the current applications of recycled water are still quite limited that are mainly associated with non-potable purposes such as irrigation, industrial uses, toilet flushing and car washing. There is a large potential to exploit and develop new end uses of recycled water in both urban and rural areas. This can greatly contribute to freshwater savings, wastewater reduction and water sustainability. Consequently, the paper identified the potentials for the development of three recycled water new end uses, household laundry, livestock feeding and servicing, and swimming pool, in future water use market. To validate the strengths of these new applications, a conceptual decision analytic framework was proposed. This can be able to facilitate the optional management strategy selection process and thereafter provide guidance on the future end use studies within a larger context of the community, processes, and models in decision-making. Moreover, as complex evaluation criteria were selected and taken into account to narrow down the multiple management alternatives, the methodology can successfully add transparency, objectivity and comprehensiveness to the assessment. Meanwhile, the proposed approach could also allow flexibility to adapt to particular circumstances of each case under study. 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Chen, Z., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W., Pham, T.T.N., Lim, R., Wang, X.C., Miechel, C., Halloran, K.O.'., Listowski, A. & Corby, N. 2014, 'A new optional recycled water pre-treatment system prior to use in the household laundry', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 476-477, pp. 513-521.
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With a constantly growing population, water scarcity becomes the limiting factor for further social and economic growth. To achieve a partial reduction in current freshwater demands and lessen the environmental loadings, an increasing trend in the water market tends to adopt recycled water for household laundries as a new recycled water application. The installation of a small pre-treatment unit for water purification can not only further improve the recycled water quality, but also be viable to enhance the public confidence and acceptance level on recycled water consumption. Specifically, this paper describes column experiments conducted using a 550. mm length bed of zeolite media as a one-dimensional flow reactor. The results show that the zeolite filter system could be a simple low-cost pre-treatment option which is able to significantly reduce the total hardness level of recycled water via effective ion exchange. Additionally, depending on the quality of recycled water required by end users, a new by-pass controller using a three-level operation switching mechanism is introduced. This approach provides householders sufficient flexibility to respond to different levels of desired recycled water quality and increase the reliability of long-term system operation. These findings could be beneficial to the smooth implementation of new end uses and expansion of the potential recycled water market. The information could also offer sound suggestions for future research on sustainable water management and governance. 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Rahman, M.A., Hogan, B., Duncan, E., Doyle, C., Krassoi, R., Rahman, M.M., Naidu, R., Lim, R.P., Maher, W. & Hassler, C. 2014, 'Toxicity of arsenic species to three freshwater organisms and biotransformation of inorganic arsenic by freshwater phytoplankton (Chlorella sp CE-35)', ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, vol. 106, pp. 126-135.
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Rahman, M.A., Rahman, M.M., Reichman, S.M., Lim, R.P. & Naidu, R. 2014, 'Arsenic speciation in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia: implications for human health risk.', J Agric Food Chem, vol. 62, no. 25, pp. 6016-6024.
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Rice is an important route of arsenic (As) exposure to humans, especially populations with rice-based diets. Human health risk of As varies greatly with rice variety and country of origin. The purpose of the present study was to determine total and speciated As in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia to assess their health risk to consumers. The total As (tAs) concentrations in Australian-grown organic brown, medium grain brown, and organic white rice were 43823, 28703, and 28318 ?g kg(-1) dry weight (d wt), respectively. In Bangladeshi, Indian, Pakistani, and Thai rice imported and on sale in Australia, tAs concentrations were 5605, 9210, 8206 and 17224 ?g kg(-1), respectively. Asian rice contained mainly inorganic As (iAs; 86-99%), whereas 18-26% of the tAs in Australian-grown rice was dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Relatively higher concentrations of tAs in Australian-grown rice than that in imported rice of Asian origin suggest that Australian-grown rice may be a health risk for the consumers. It was estimated that Australian-grown organic brown rice can contribute up to 98% of the FAO/WHO recommended maximum tolerable daily intake limit of iAs (2.1 ?g kg(-1) body wt day(-1)) for Asian immigrants. However, other Australian consumers including European immigrants are unlikely to be at risk to As from rice diets due to their lower rice consumption rates than that of Asian immigrants. The risk assessment showed that imported rice on sale in Australia was likely to pose a lower health risk to consumers than Australian-grown rice.
Phyu, Y.L., Palmer, C.G., Warne, M.S.J., Dowse, R., Mueller, S., Chapman, J., Hose, G.C. & Lim, R.P. 2013, 'Assessing the Chronic Toxicity of Atrazine, Permethrin, and Chlorothalonil to the Cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia in Laboratory and Natural River Water', ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 419-426.
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Korbel, K.L., Hancock, P.J., Serov, P., Lim, R.P. & Hose, G.C. 2013, 'Groundwater Ecosystems Vary with Land Use across a Mixed Agricultural Landscape', JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 380-390.
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Korbel, K.L., Lim, R.P. & Hose, G.C. 2013, 'An inter-catchment comparison of groundwater biota in the cotton-growing region of north-western New South Wales', CROP & PASTURE SCIENCE, vol. 64, no. 11-12, pp. 1195-1208.
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Rahman, M.A., Hasegawa, H. & Lim, R.P. 2012, 'Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and trophic transfer of arsenic in the aquatic food chain', ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, vol. 116, pp. 118-135.
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Mohammed Abdul, J., Colville, A.E., Lim, R.P., Vigneswaran, S. & Kandasamy, J.K. 2012, 'Use of duckweed (Lemna disperma) to assess the phytotoxicity of the products of Fenton oxidation of metsulfuron methyl', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 83, pp. 89-95.
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Because of pressure on water supplies world-wide, there is increasing interest in methods of remediating contaminated ground waters. However, with some remediation processes, the breakdown products are more toxic than the original contaminant. Organic matter and salinity may also influence degradation efficiency. This study tested the efficiency of Fenton oxidation in degrading the sulfonylurea herbicide metsulfuron methyl (MeS), and tested the reaction products for phytotoxicity with the Lemna (duckweed) bioassay. The efficiency of degradation by Fentons reagent (Fe2 0.09 mM; H2O21.76mM, 4 h) decreased with increasing initial MeS concentration, from 98% with 5 mg/L MeS, to 63% with 70 mg/L MeS. Addition of NaCl (10 mM) and organic matter (humic acid at 0.2 and 2.0 mg C/L as Total Organic Carbon) reduced the efficiency of degradation at low initial MeS concentrations (5 and 10mg/L), but had no effect at high concentrations. The residual Fentons reagent after Fentons oxidation was toxic to Lemna. After removal of residual iron and H2O2, the measured toxicity to Lemna in the treated samples could be explained by the concentrations of MeS as measured by HPLC/UV detection, so there was no evidence of additional toxicity or amelioration due to the by-products or formulation materials.
Cortez, D.P., Growns, I.O., Mitrovic, S.M. & Lim, R.P. 2012, 'Effects of a gradient in river regulation on the longitudinal trends in water quality and benthic algal and macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Hunter River, Australia', MARINE AND FRESHWATER RESEARCH, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 494-504.
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Davie, A.W., Mitrovic, S.M. & Lim, R.P. 2012, 'Succession and accrual of benthic algae on cobbles of an upland river following scouring', INLAND WATERS, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 89-100.
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Phyu, Y.L., Palmer, C.G., Warne, M.S.J., Hose, G.C., Chapman, J.C. & Lim, R.P. 2011, 'A comparison of mixture toxicity assessment: Examining the chronic toxicity of atrazine, permethrin and chlorothalonil in mixtures to Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia', CHEMOSPHERE, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 1568-1573.
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Rawson, C.A., Lim, R.P., Tremblay, L.A., Warne, M.S.J., Ying, G.-.G., Laginestra, E. & Chapman, J.C. 2010, 'Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in remediated wetlands around Sydney, Australia', ECOTOXICOLOGY, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1589-1600.
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Leusch, F., De Jager, C., Levi, Y., Lim, R.P., Puijker, L., Sacher, F., Tremblay, L., Wilson, V. & Chapman, H.D. 2010, 'Comparison Of Five In Vitro Bioassays To Measure Estrogenic Activity In Environmental Waters', Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 3853-3860.
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Bioassays are well established in the pharmaceutical industry and single compound analysis, but there is still uncertainty about their usefulness in environmental monitoring. We compared the responses of five bioassays designed to measure estrogenic acti
Ying, G.-.G., Rawson, C.A., Kookana, R.S., Peng, P.-.A., Warne, M.S.J., Tremblay, L.A., Laginestra, E., Chapman, J.C. & Lim, R.P. 2009, 'CONTAMINATION AND SCREENING LEVEL TOXICITY OF SEDIMENTS FROM REMEDIATED AND UNREMEDIATED WETLANDS NEAR SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA', ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 2052-2060.
Rawson, C.A., Tremblay, L.A., Warne, M.S.J., Ying, G.-.G., Kookana, R., Laginestra, E., Chapman, J.C. & Lim, R.P. 2009, 'Bioactivity of POPs and their effects in mosquitofish in Sydney Olympic Park, Australia', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 407, no. 12, pp. 3721-3730.
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Patra, R.W., Chapman, J.C., Lim, R.P., Gehrke, P.C. & Sunderam, R.M. 2009, 'EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON VENTILATORY BEHAVIOR OF FISH EXPOSED TO SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATIONS OF ENDOSULFAN AND CHLORPYRIFOS', ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 2182-2190.
Ngo, H.H., Chuang, H., Guo, W.S., Ho, D.P., Pham, T.T.N., Johnston, A., Lim, R. & Listowski, A. 2009, 'Resident's strategy survey on a new end use of recycled water in Australia', Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 11, no. 1-3, pp. 93-97.
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The concept of using recycled water for washing machine was introduced as a new end use. As there is a noticeable lack social research in understanding the general public perceptions of this application, the resident's strategy survey was carried out at some selective suburbs in Sydney with demographically based significant differences of general, gender, age, education, and property style and ownership. The survey indicates that the majority in the community considers the use of recycled water for washing machine is indispensable in view of continuing drought and the associated water shortages. Given safety assurance and demonstration, recycled water for washing machine has a considerable proportion within the responses. The general level of knowledge in community clearly understand that recycled water is more environmentally friendly option, whereas from cleanness and public health point of view, higher quality water is required to be reused in washing machine. Moreover, the residents reckon to have a small unit for pre-treatment (point of use) before recycled water entering washing machines might assure the quality and safety. The survey also shows the major concerns for a resident to use recycled water for washing machine are public health, water cleanness and washing machine durability. 2009 Desalination Publications.
Pablo, F., Krassoi, F.R., Jones, P.R.F., Colville, A.E., Hose, G.C. & Lim, R.P. 2008, 'Comparison of the fate and toxicity of chlorpyrifos - Laboratory versus a coastal mesocosm system', ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 219-229.
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Rawson, C.A., Lim, R.P. & Warne, M.S.J. 2008, 'Skeletal morphology and maturation of male Gambusia holbrooki exposed to sewage treatment plant effluent', ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 453-461.
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Colville, A.E., Jones, P.M., Pablo, F., Krassoi, R., Hose, G.C. & Lim, R.P. 2008, 'Effects of chlorpyrifos on macroinvertebrate communities in coastal stream mesocosms', Ecotoxicology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 173-180.
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This study measured the effects of a single pulse of chlorpyrifos at nominal concentrations of 1 and 10 mu g/l on the macroinvertebrate community structure of a coastal stream mesocosm system. Analysis of data using Principal Response Curves (PRC) and Monte Carlo tests showed significant changes in the treated stream mesocosms relative to that of the controls. These changes in the macroinvertebrate assemblages occurred within 6 h, and persisted for at least 124 days after dosing. Significant community-level effects were detected at the lowest concentration on days 2 and 16 post-dosing, giving a no-observed effect concentration (NOECcommunity) of 1.2 mu g/l (measured). The mayflies Atalophlebia sp. and Koorrnonga sp., Chironomidae and Acarina were all sensitive to chlorpyrifos and decreased in abundance in treated mesocosms after dosing. The fauna of these coastal stream mesocosms showed similar sensitivity to chlorpyrifos with that of other reported studies, but there was no evidence of recovery after 124 days.
Thomas, C.R., Hose, G.C., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2008, 'Effects of river water and salinity on the toxicity of deltamethrin to freshwater shrimp, cladoceran, and fish', ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 610-618.
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Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S.J. & Lim, R.P. 2008, 'Assessing the biological relevance of exposing freshwater organisms to atrazine and molinate in environmentally realistic exposure test systems', ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 420-424.
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Patra, R.W., Chapman, J.C., Lim, R.P. & Gehrke, P.C. 2007, 'The effects of three organic chemicals on the upper thermal tolerances of four freshwater fishes', ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1454-1459.
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Rawson, C.A., Lim, R.P., Warne, M.S. & Doyle, C.J. 2006, 'The effect of 17 beta-estradiol on the development of modified hemal spines in early-life stage Gambusia holbrooki', ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 253-262.
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Game, C., Gagnon, M., Webb, D. & Lim, R.P. 2006, 'Endocrine disruption in make mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) inhabiting wetlands in Westerna Australia', Ecotoxicology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 665-672.
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The use of gonopodial indices as potential indicators of endocrine disruption in the mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki inhabiting south west Australian wetlands was investigated. A minimum of 50 mature makes was collected from each of five water-bodies in the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia, in order to measure morphological features related to reproduction. A set of morphological measurements were used to derive the following indices: gonopodium length/ standard body length, pre-anal length/standard body length, the index of elongation and the percentage of male fish with hooks on the distal end of the gonopodium. Indices of male mosquitofish collected from Jack Finney Lake, located in the Curtin University campus, suggest the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in this eater-body, while those from Lake Kulinup suggest this is a site of concern. Indices of male fish from the Wagerup wetland, Lake Monger and Loch McNess indicate that fish inhabiting these wetlands are not affected by EDCs. This preliminary study suggests that EDCs may be present ina number of wetlands of the Swan Coastal Plain. Further study using EDC specific markers such as vitellogenin induction in male mosquitofish is required to confirm whether EDCs are present in these water-bodies.
Rose, R.M., Carruthers, A., Stauber, J.L., Lim, R.P. & Blockwell, S. 2006, 'Development of an acute toxicity test with the marine copepod acartia sinjiensis', Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology, vol. 12, pp. 67-75.
Few toxicity test protocols with tropical marine species are currently available in Australasia. In this study, an acute 48h immobilisation toxicity test was developed with an native marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis. This species is widley distributed in tropical and sub-tropical brackish waters in Australia and is an important component of marine food webs. A comparison of its sensitivity to other species shwoed that this copepod was amongst the most sensitive Australian species to copper
Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2006, 'Toxicity and bioavailability of atrazine and molinate to the freshwater fish (Melanotenia fluviatilis) under laboratory and simulated field conditions.', Sci Total Environ, vol. 356, no. 1-3, pp. 86-99.
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Acute (96 h) semi-static toxicity tests were conducted by exposing the freshwater fish, Melanotenia fluviatilis, to atrazine and molinate in laboratory and river water both with and without sediment. The 96-h EC50 (imbalance) values of atrazine to M. fluviatilis ranged from 5.6 to 10.4 mg L(-1) while the corresponding values for molinate ranged from 7.9 to 14.8 mg L(-1), respectively. Atrazine was classed as having moderate toxicity while molinate had low to moderate toxicity to M. fluviatilis. Neither the presence of river water nor sediment significantly (P<0.05) reduced the bioavailability of either herbicide to M. fluviatilis. A series of other studies by the authors have found that sediment significantly (P<0.05) reduced the bioavailability of these two chemicals to a variety of organisms. Reasons for sediment having no effect for this species were examined. This lack of effect by sediment is most likely due to the relative rates of absorption into the fish and adsorption onto the sediment. However, contributions to this outcome by resuspended sediment, contaminated food and a combined effect of the herbicides and sediment could not be excluded.
Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S.J. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'The toxicity and bioavailability of atrazine and molinate to Chironomus tepperi larvae in laboratory and river water in the presence and absence of sediment', CHEMOSPHERE, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 1231-1239.
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Hose, G.C., Jones, P. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'Hyporheic macroinvertebrates in riffle and pool areas of temporary streams in south eastern Australia', HYDROBIOLOGIA, vol. 532, pp. 81-90.
Hogan, A.C., Stauber, J.L., Pablo, F., Adams, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'The development of marine Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures using the unicellular alga Nitzschia closterium', ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 433-443.
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Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'Effect of river water, sediment and time on the toxicity and bioavailability of molinate to the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri (Microtox)', WATER RESEARCH, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 2738-2746.
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Doyle, C.J. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'Sexual behavior and impregnation success of adult male mosquitofish following exposure to 17 beta-estradiol', ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 392-397.
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Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'Toxicity and bioavailability of atrazine and molinate to the freshwater shrimp (Paratya australiensis) under laboratory and simulated field conditions', ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 113-122.
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Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L. & Lim, R.P. 2004, 'Development of multispecies algal bioassays using flow cytometry', ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1452-1462.
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Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S.J. & Lim, R.P. 2004, 'Toxicity of atrazine and molinate to the cladoceran Daphnia carinata and the effect of river water and bottom sediment on their bioavailability', ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 308-315.
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Westbury, A., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2004, 'Toxicity of, and development of predictive models for, substituted phenols to Ceridaphnia cf. dubia and Vibrio fischeri', Australasian Journal for Ecotoxicology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 33-42.
Twelve substituted phenols that have a polar narcotic mode of action had their acute toxicity to the freshwater cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia and the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri determined. The 48-h EC50 (immobilisation) values of the chemicals to C. cf. dubia ranged from 6.13 to 183 mol/L while the 30-min EC50 (luminescence) values of the chemicals to V. fischeri ranged from 1.39 to 1031 mol/L. Seventy-five percent of the chemicals were classed as having moderate toxicity of to C. cf. dubia while 25 percent had below toxicity?f. For V. fischeri the percentage of chemicals classified as having high moderate and below toxicity was approximately 17%, 33% and 50% respectively. Quantitative activity-activity relationships (QAARs) that could predict the toxicity of chemicals with a polar narcotic mode of action to C. cf. dubia were developed by regressing the toxicity data for polar narcotic chemicals to C. cf. dubia with that of eight non-Australasian species. Those QAARs based on the toxicity data for Tetrahymena pyriformis, Chlorella vulgaris, Poecilia reticulata and Daphnia magna were of high quality (r2 . 0.9). Only the QAARs for T. pyriformis, C. vulgaris and D. magna had sufficient data to test their validity. This revealed that the absolute percentage difference between experimentally derived EC50 values and those predicted by these QAARs were between 13 and 120%. These QAARs provide an easy, cost-effective means of estimating toxicity values for polar narcotic chemicals to C. cf. dubia.
Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2004, 'Sensitivity of offspring to chronic 3,4-dichloroaniline exposure varies with maternal exposure', ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 405-412.
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Doyle, C.J., Pablo, F., Lim, R.P. & Hyne, R.V. 2003, 'Assessment of metal toxicity in sediment pore water from Lake Macquarie, Australia', ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 343-350.
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Hose, G.C., Lim, R.P., Hyne, R.V. & Pablo, F. 2003, 'Short-term exposure to aqueous endosulfan affects macroinvertebrate assemblages', ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 282-294.
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Markich, S.J., Brown, P.L., Jeffree, R.A. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'The effects of pH and dissolved organic carbon on the toxicity of cadmium and copper to a freshwater bivalve: Further support for the extended free ion activity model', ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 479-491.
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Hose, G.C., Hyne, R.V. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'Toxicity of endosulfan to Atalophlebia spp. (ephemeroptera) in the laboratory, mesocosm, and field', ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 3062-3068.
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Hose, G.C., Lim, R.P. & Hyne, R.V. 2003, 'The transport, fate and effects of endosulfan in the Australian freshwater environment', Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology, vol. 9, pp. 101-111.
Settacharnwit, S., Buckney, R.T. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'The nutrient status of Nong Han, a shallow tropical lake in north-eastern Thailand: spatial and temporal variations', Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, vol. 8, pp. 189-200.
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Colville, A.E. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'Microscopic structure of the mantle and palps in the freshwater mussels Velesunio ambigus and Hyridella depressa (Bivalvia : Hyriidae)', Mulluscan Research, vol. 23, pp. 1-20.
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Binet, M.T., Adams, M.A., King, C.K., Stauber, J.L., Doyle, C., Lim, R.P. & Laginestra, E. 2003, 'Toxicity assessment of leachates from Homebush Bay landfills', Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology, vol. 9, pp. 7-18.
Hammerton, K.M., Jayasinghe, N., Jeffree, R.A. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'Experimental study of blood lead kinetics in estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) exposed to ingested lead shot', ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 390-398.
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Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'Exposure to chemicals exuded by fish reduces the filtration and ingestion rates of Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia', HYDROBIOLOGIA, vol. 501, no. 1-3, pp. 215-217.
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Gale, S.A., Smith, S.V., Lim, R.P., Jeffree, R.A. & Petocz, P. 2003, 'Insights into the mechanisms of copper tolerance of a population of black-banded rainbowfish (Melanotaenia nigrans) (Richardson) exposed to mine leachate, using Cu-64/67', AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 135-153.
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Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L., Apte, S.C. & Lim, R.P. 2002, 'The effect of initial cell density on the bioavailability and toxicity of copper in microalgal bioassays', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 21, no. N/A, pp. 742-751.
Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L., Lim, R.P. & Petocz, P. 2002, 'Toxicity of metal mixtures to a tropical freshwater alga (Chlorella sp.): effect of interactions between copper, cadmium and zinc on metal cell binding and uptake', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 21, no. N/A, pp. 2412-2422.
Hose, G.C., Lim, R.P., Hyne, R.V. & Pablo, F. 2002, 'A pulse of endosulfan-contaminated sediment affects macroinvertebrates in artificial streams', ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 44-52.
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Milner, R.J., Lim, R.P. & Hunter, D.M. 2002, 'Risks to the aquatic ecosystem from the application of Metarhizium anisopliae for locust control in Australia', PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 718-723.
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Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S.J. & Lim, R.P. 2002, 'Food concentration affects the life history response of Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia to chemicals with different mechanisms of action', ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 106-114.
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Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2002, 'Some life history responses of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia to variations in population density at two different food concentrations', HYDROBIOLOGIA, vol. 481, no. 1-3, pp. 157-164.
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Doyle, C. & Lim, R.P. 2002, 'The effect of 17 beta-estradiol on the gonopodial development and sexual activity of Gambusia holbrooki', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 21, no. N/A, pp. 2719-2724.
Doyle, C.J. & Lim, R.P. 2002, 'The effect of 17beta-estradiol on the gonopodial development and sexual activity of Gambusia holbrooki.', Environ Toxicol Chem, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 2719-2724.
Many chemicals have recently been demonstrated to possess estrogenic activity and may potentially interfere with normal sexual development. In the present study, we quantified the effects of waterborne exposure to 17beta-estradiol on the gonopodial development and sexual activity of male eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). Juvenile males were exposed during the period of sexual maturation to nominal concentrations of 20, 100, and 500 ng/L of 17beta-estradiol and a solvent control (0.00003% w/v ethanol) for 84 d under continuous-flow conditions. Following exposure, significant differences were found among the test treatments with respect to gonopodial length and degree of gonopodial elongation of the fish. Sexual activity, measured as the number of approaches and copulatory attempts made by the exposed males to nonexposed females, also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of 17beta-estradiol. Because the degree of gonopodial maturation and frequency of sexual activity are important characteristics for the reproductive success of male mosquitofish, it is suggested that these traits provide sensitive and ecologically relevant endpoints for assessing estrogenic activity under both laboratory--and field-exposure conditions.
Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L. & Lim, R.P. 2001, 'Development of flow cytometry-based algal bioassays for assessing toxicity of copper in natural waters', ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 160-170.
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Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S.J. & Lim, R.P. 2001, 'Factors associated with fish modify life history traits of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia', JOURNAL OF PLANKTON RESEARCH, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 11-17.
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Leonard, A.W., Hyne, R.V., Lim, R.P., Leigh, K.A., Le, J. & Beckett, R. 2001, 'Fate and toxicity of endosulfan in Namoi River water and bottom sediment', JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 750-759.
Franklin, N.M., Adams, M.S., Stauber, J.L. & Lim, R.P. 2001, 'Development of an improved rapid enzyme inhibition bioassay with marine and freshwater microalgae using flow cytometry', ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 469-480.
Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S.J. & Lim, R.P. 2001, 'The presence of chemicals exuded by fish affects the life-history response of Ceriodaphnia cf dubia to chemicals with different mechanisms of action', ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2892-2898.
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Leonard, A.W., Hyne, R.V., Lim, R.P., Pablo, F. & Van den Brink, P.J. 2000, 'Riverine endosulfan concentrations in the Namoi River, Australia: Link to cotton field runoff and macroinvertebrate population densities', ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1540-1551.
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Rose, R.W., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2000, 'Life History Response of the the Cladeceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia to Variation in Food Concentration', Hydrobiologia, vol. 427, no. 0, pp. 59-64.
Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L., Markich, S.J. & Lim, R.P. 2000, 'pH-Dependent Toxicity of Copper and Uranium to a Tropical Freshwater Alga (Chlorella sp.)', Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 0, pp. 275-289.
Markich, S.J., Brown, P.R., Jeffree, R. & Lim, R.P. 2000, 'Valve Movement Responses of Velesunio angasi (Bivalvia: Hyriidae) to Manganese and Uranium: An Exception to the Free Ion Activity Model', Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 51, no. 0, pp. 155-175.
Leonard, A.W., Hyne, R.V., Lim, R.P. & Chapman, J.C. 1999, 'Effect of endosulfan runoff from cotton fields on macroinvertebrates in the Namoi River', ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 125-134.
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Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 1998, 'Quantitative structure-activity relationships and volume fraction analysis for nonpolar narcotic chemicals to the Australian cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia', ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 248-252.
Olima, C., Pablo, F. & Lim, R.P. 1997, 'Comparative tolerance of three populations of the freshwater shrimp (Paratya australiensis) to the organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos', BULLETIN OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 321-328.
Pablo, F., Buckney, R.T. & Lim, R.P. 1997, 'Toxicity of cyanide, iron-cyanide complexes, and a blast-furnace effluent to the banana prawn, Penaeus monodon', BULLETIN OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 822-829.
Pablo, F., Buckney, R.T. & Lim, R.P. 1997, 'Toxicity of cyanide, iron-cyanide complexes, and a blast furnace effluent to larvae of the doughboy scallop, Chlamys asperrimus', BULLETIN OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 93-100.
KHAN, I.S.A.N. & LIM, R.P. 1991, 'DISTRIBUTION OF METALS IN THE LINGGI RIVER BASIN, MALAYSIA, WITH REFERENCE TO POLLUTION', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF MARINE AND FRESHWATER RESEARCH, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 435-449.
LIM, R.P. & WONG, M.C. 1986, 'THE EFFECT OF PESTICIDES ON THE POPULATION-DYNAMICS AND PRODUCTION OF STENOCYPRIS-MAJOR BAIRD (OSTRACODA) IN RICEFIELDS', ARCHIV FUR HYDROBIOLOGIE, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 421-427.
LIM, R.P. & FERNANDO, C.H. 1985, 'A REVIEW OF MALAYSIAN FRESH-WATER COPEPODA WITH NOTES ON NEW RECORDS AND LITTLE KNOWN SPECIES', HYDROBIOLOGIA, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 70-89.
LIM, R.P., ABDULLAH, M.F. & FERNANDO, C.H. 1984, 'ECOLOGICAL-STUDIES OF CLADOCERA IN THE RICEFIELDS OF TANJUNG KARANG, MALAYSIA, SUBJECTED TO PESTICIDE TREATMENT', HYDROBIOLOGIA, vol. 113, no. JUN, pp. 99-103.
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