Associate Professor Richard Lim

Biography

Richard Lim is an aquatic ecotoxicologist. His research interests are in the ecotoxicology of pesticides, heavy metals, persistent organic chemicals, endocrine disrupting chemicals and salinity with a focus on assessing the impacts and risks of these contaminants and their mixtures in aquatic systems. It focuses on anthropogenic impacts of agricultural and mining activities as well as urbanisation including sewage effluent on these ecosystems.

His research involves the use of a suite of bioassays spanning a range of ecological scales from in vitro and in vivo bioassays to population and community studies in the laboratory, mesocosms and field.

His research also encompasses a range of test organisms from bacteria to algae and aquatic plants to invertebrates and fish. Richard also has expertise in limnology particularly in stream ecology and pollution studies in relation to stream health, ecology of wetlands including ricefields, and zooplankton taxonomy.

The information generated from his research contributes to an understanding of how anthropogenic activities impact on the health of ecosystems leading to development of appropriate management strategies.

In collaboration with researchers in UTS Environmental Engineering his research includes assessing the ability of innovative effluent treatment technologies in removing toxicants using an effects-based approach.

Professional

Membership to Professional Societies
Australian Society for Limnology (Life member)Australasian Society for Ecotoxicology

Image of Richard Lim
Associate of the Faculty, School of the Environment
Associate Member, Centre for Environmental Sustainability
Associate Member, Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater
BSc (Hons) (UM), MSc (UM), PhD (Waterloo)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 8297
Room
CB04.05.48B

Research Interests

Ecotoxicology of pesticides
Impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the aquatic fauna
Impact of mining on stream macroinvertebrates
Stream pollution studies
Ecology of wetlands (lakes and rivers)
Zooplankton taxonomy

Can supervise: Yes
Post-graduate research supervision PhDs completed 1. Effie Howe Studies in the biology and reproductive characteristics of Pseudomugil signifer. 2. Anthony Roach Variation in the population ecology of the pulmonate gastropod, Salinator solida (Martens) populations at Towra Point, NSW, Australia. 3. Scott Markich Effects of biological and physicochemical variables on valve movement responses of freshwater bivalves to manganese, uranium, cadmium and copper. 4. Alex Leonard Effects of endosulfan on populations of dominant mayfly nymphs and caddisfly larvae in the Naomi River, following runoff from cotton fields. 5. Hertien Surtikanti Ecotoxicological studies on the benthos in the freshwater section of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River catchment. 6. Ron Patra Effects of temperature on the toxicity of chemicals to Australian fish and invertebrates. 7. Grant Hose The effect of endosulfan on macroinvertebrate communities in artificial streams. 8. Natasha Franklin Application of flow cytometry to the development of microalgal toxicity tests for assessing metal bioavailability. 9. Rebecca Rose Ecologically relevant approaches to laboratory toxicity testing. 10. Yin Latt Phyu Assessment of toxicity, bioavailability, partitioning and hazard of the herbicides, atrazine and molinate. 11. Christopher Rawson Ecological risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants in wetlands of the remediated Sydney Olympic Park, NSW, Australia. 13. Surattana Settacharnwit Nutrients in Nong Han, a shallow lake in north-eastern Thailand: sediment-water interactions (co-supervisor). PhDs current 1. Hemantha Dassayanake Effects of salinity, atrazine, molinate and chlorpyrifos individually and as mixtures to the freshwater alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and cladoceran Daphnia carinata. 2. Heather Brown Assessment of the endocrine disrupting effects of sewage contaminated waters on aquatic biota and identification of the causative compounds. 3. Lisa Hamilton Use of effects bas

Limnology
Ecotoxicology
General biology and ecology
Environmental engineering

Book Chapters

Rahman, M.A., Hassler, C.S., Hasegawa, H. & Lim, R.P. 2013, 'Ecotoxicology of Arsenic in The Freshwater Environment: Consequences and Risk Assessment' in Andrea Masotti (ed), Arsenic: Sources, Environmental Impact, Toxicity and Human Health - A Medical Geology Perspective, Nova Science Publishers, New York, USA, pp. 85-106.
Arsenic is a known environmental toxicant and it occurs in the environment from natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic is one of the important environmental issues because of its occurrence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and trophic transfer in the freshwater food chain. Aquatic organisms accumulate, retain, and transform arsenic when exposed to it through water, their diet, and other routes. Since arsenic toxicity mostly depends on its chemical forms, measurement of arsenic speciation in aquatic organisms is particularly important in assessing the ecological risks of the element. Arsenate (As(V)) comprises the major part of total arsenic in oxic waters. Phytoplankton take up As(V) and subsequently convert it to arsenite (As(III)) and then to less toxic dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA), and higher order organoarsenicals. Phytoplankton are thought to convert inorganic arsenic species to methylarsenicals and to other organoarsenic compounds (lipids and arsenosugars) to reduce the toxic effects of inorganic arsenicals. Since phytoplankton are a major food source for the organisms of higher trophic levels in the aquatic systems, arsenic is biotransferred from lower to higher trophic levels; while biomagnification of the element in aquatic food chain is not consistent. Other important arsenic forms found in aquatic organisms include arsenocholine (AsC), arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenosugars (AsS). This review discusses the bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and trophic transfer (biomagnification or diminution) of arsenic in the aquatic food chains in relation to its ecotoxicological risks in the freshwater environment.
Rahman, M.A., Lim, R.P. & Hasegawa, H. 2012, 'Biodegradable chelating ligands for iron and arsenic bioavailability and uptake in rice (Oryza sativa L.)' in Ng, Jack C.; Noller, Barry N.; Naidu, Ravi; Bundschuh, Jochen; Bhattacharya, Prosun (eds), Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic, CRC Press, AK Leiden, The Netherlands, pp. 394-396.
View/Download from: UTSePress |
Biodegradable chelating ligands Ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), Hydroxyiminodisuccinic acid (HIDS) and Methylglycindiacetic Acid (MGDA) for iron (Fe) and arsenic (As) bioavailability and uptake were investigated using hydroponic rice (Oryza sativa L.). The growth of rice seedlings decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing pH. The highest growth was observed at pH 7 which was related to Fe concentrations in roots and shoots. As and Fe uptake in rice roots was increased by significantly (P < 0.05) by EDDS and HIDS, while their translocation to shoots were not influenced by the ligands. EDDS and HIDS were more efficient in As and Fe uptake than MGDA indicating that EDDS and HIDS would be good ligands for the increase of Fe uptake and Fe phytoextraction
Lim, R.P. & Lai, H.C. 2004, 'Crustacea: Copepoda, Calanoida' in Yule, C.M.; Sen, Y.H. (eds), Freshwater Invertebrates of the Malaysian Region, Academy of Sciences Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp. 254-266.

Conference Papers

Plant, R.A., Walker, J.R., Rayburg, S.C., Gothe, J., Leung, T.M., Phyu, Y.L. & Lim, R.P. 2011, 'The 'Social Life of Pesticides': How organised irresponsibility in the Greater Sydney Basin threatens the biodiversity of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River', Institute of Australian Geographers (IAG) Conference Wollongong 2011, Wollongong, NSW, July 2011.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
Gothe, J., Leung, T., Lim, R.P., Phyu, Y.L., Plant, R.A. & Walker, J.R. 2011, 'Advocating for Biodiversity in the Hawkesbury Nepean River: critical research practices of visual communication design', University of Wollongong, July 2011 in Geography on the Edge, ed Leah Gibbs and Emily Gorman, Institute of Australian Geographers, University of Wollongong, pp. 1-47.
Doyle, C., Barker, J., Lim, R.P. & Gray, L.E. 2003, 'Reproductive morphology of male mosquitofish (gambusia holbrooki) inhabiting sewage-contaminated waters in the South Creek catchment on the Hawkesbury-Nepean River', Chemicals of Concern in Water, Sydney, Australia, June 2003 in Proceedings of Chemicals of Concern in Water Speciality Conference 2003, ed n/a, Australian Water Assocaition & International Water Association, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-10.
View/Download from: UTSePress
Brennan, E.L., Lim, R.P., Doyle, C. & Laginestra, E. 2003, 'The use of Poecilliids to assess the endocrine disrupting capacity of waters with reference to the mosquitofish inhabiting water bodies in the Sydney Olympic Park, Homebush Bay.', Chemicals of Concern, Sydney, Australia, June 2003 in Proceedings of Chemicals of Concern in Water Speciality Conference 2003, ed n/a, Australian Water Association & International Water Association, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-8.
View/Download from: UTSePress
Lim, R.P., Gale, S.A., Doyle, C., Lesjean, B. & Gibert, M. 2000, 'Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) Effluent Reused in Agriculture - Is there a Concern?', Adelaide, Australia, October 2000 in Water Recycling Australia, ed Dillon PJ, CSIRO Land and Water, Australia, pp. 23-28.

Journal Articles

Rahman, M.A., Rahman, M.M., Reichman, S.M., Lim, R.P. & Naidu, R. 2014, 'Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: Health hazard', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 100, pp. 53-60.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 mg kg 1, 21 mg kg 1, 144 mg kg 1, 2.9 mg kg 1, 24.4 mg kg 1, 166 mg kg 1, 375 mg kg 1, and 17.1 mg kg 1 dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers.
Chen, Z., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W., Lim, R.P., Wang, X.C., O'Halloran, K., Listowski, A., Corby, N. & Miechel, C. 2014, 'A comprehensive framework for the assessment of new end uses in recycled water schemes', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 470-471, pp. 44-52.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
Nowadays, recycled water has provided sufficient flexibility to satisfy short-term freshwater needs and increase the reliability of long-term water supplies in many water scarce areas, which becomes an essential component of integrated water resources management. However, the current applications of recycled water are still quite limited that are mainly associated with non-potable purposes such as irrigation, industrial uses, toilet flushing and car washing. There is a large potential to exploit and develop new end uses of recycled water in both urban and rural areas. This can greatly contribute to freshwater savings, wastewater reduction and water sustainability. Consequently, the paper identified the potentials for the development of three recycled water new end uses, household laundry, livestock feeding and servicing, and swimming pool, in future water use market. To validate the strengths of these new applications, a conceptual decision analytic framework was proposed. This can be able to facilitate the optional management strategy selection process and thereafter provide guidance on the future end use studies within a larger context of the community, processes, and models in decision-making. Moreover, as complex evaluation criteria were selected and taken into account to narrow down the multiple management alternatives, the methodology can successfully add transparency, objectivity and comprehensiveness to the assessment. Meanwhile, the proposed approach could also allow flexibility to adapt to particular circumstances of each case under study.
Chen, Z., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W., Pham, T., Lim, R.P., Wang, X.C., Miechel, C., O'Halloran, K., Listowski, A. & Corby, N. 2014, 'A new optional recycled water pre-treatment system prior to use in the household laundry', The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 476-447, pp. 513-521.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
With a constantly growing population, water scarcity becomes the limiting factor for further social and economic growth. To achieve a partial reduction in current freshwater demands and lessen the environmental loadings, an increasing trend in the water market tends to adopt recycled water for household laundries as a new recycled water application. The installation of a small pre-treatment unit for water purification can not only further improve the recycled water quality, but also be viable to enhance the public confidence and acceptance level on recycled water consumption. Specifically, this paper describes column experiments conducted using a 550 mm length bed of zeolite media as a one-dimensional flow reactor. The results show that the zeolite filter system could be a simple low-cost pre-treatment option which is able to significantly reduce the total hardness level of recycled water via effective ion exchange. Additionally, depending on the quality of recycled water required by end users, a new by-pass controller using a three-level operation switching mechanism is introduced. This approach provides householders sufficient flexibility to respond to different levels of desired recycled water quality and increase the reliability of long-term system operation. These findings could be beneficial to the smooth implementation of new end uses and expansion of the potential recycled water market. The information could also offer sound suggestions for future research on sustainable water management and governance.
Rahman, M.A., Hogan, B., Duncan, E., Doyle, C., Krassoi, R., Rahman, M.M., Naidu, R., Lim, R.P., Maher, W. & Hassler, C. 2014, 'Toxicity of arsenic species to three freshwater organisms and biotransformation of inorganic arsenic by freshwater phytoplankton (Chlorella sp. CE-35)', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 106, pp. 126-135.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
In the environment, arsenic (As) exists in a number of chemical species, and arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV) dominate in freshwater systems. Toxicity of As species to aquatic organisms is complicated by their interaction with chemicals in water such as phosphate that can influence the bioavailability and uptake of AsV. In the present study, the toxicities of AsIII, AsV and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) to three freshwater organisms representing three phylogenetic groups: a phytoplankton (Chlorella sp. strain CE-35), a floating macrophyte (Lemna disperma) and a cladoceran grazer (Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia), were determined using acute and growth inhibition bioassays (EC50) at a range of total phosphate (TP) concentrations in OECD medium. The EC50 values of AsIII, AsV and DMA were 2710, 1.150.04 and 193 mg L-1 for Chlorella sp. CE-35; 0.570.16, 2.30.2 and 5615 mg L-1 for L. disperma, and 1.580.05, 1.720.01 and 5.90.1 mg L-1 for C. cf. dubia, respectively. The results showed that AsIII was more toxic than AsV to L. disperma; however, AsV was more toxic than AsIII to Chlorella sp. CE-35. The toxicities of AsIII and AsV to C. cf. dubia were statistically similar (p>0.05). DMA was less toxic than iAs species to L. disperma and C. cf. dubia, but more toxic than AsIII to Chlorella sp. CE-35. The toxicity of AsV to Chlorella sp. CE-35 and L. disperma decreased with increasing TP concentrations in the growth medium. Phosphate concentrations did not influence the toxicity of AsIII to either organism. Chlorella sp. CE-35 showed the ability to reduce AsV to AsIII, indicating a substantial influence of phytoplankton on As biogeochemistry in freshwater aquatic systems.
Phyu, Y.L., Palmer, C.G., Warne, M.S., Dowse, R., Mueller, S., Chapman, J.C., Hose, G.C. & Lim, R.P. 2013, 'Assessing The Chronic Toxicity Of Atrazine, Permethrin, And Chlorothalonil To The Cladoceran Ceriodaphnia Cf. Dubia In Laboratory And Natural River Water', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 419-426.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
The majority of ecotoxicological data are generated from standard laboratory-based experiments with organisms exposed in nonflowing systems using highly purified water, which contains very low amounts of dissolved organic matter and suspended particulates. However, such experimental conditions are not ecologically relevant. Thus, there is a need to develop more realistic approaches to determining toxicity, including both lethal and sublethal effects. This research provides information on the effect of natural water constituents, such as suspended particulates and dissolved organic matter, in river water (RW) on the chronic toxicity (7-day reproductive impairment) of the pesticides atrazine, chlorothalonil, and permethrin to the freshwater cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia. Standard bioassays were conducted under standard laboratory and more environmentally realistic conditions (using RW). The 7-day IC25 (reproduction impairment) values of atrazine, chlorothalonil, and permethrin to C. cf. dubia ranged from 862.4 to >1000, 51.3 to 66.4, and 0.19 to 0.23 g/L, respectively. Using the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, atrazine is classified as moderately to highly toxic, whereas permethrin and chlorothalonil were both highly toxic. The presence of dissolved organic matter and suspended particles in natural RW did not significantly (p > 0.05) change the toxicity of any of the pesticides to C. cf. dubia compared with that tested in laboratory water (LW). For the tested pesticides, toxicity testing in LW provided an adequate estimate of the hazard posed.
Korbel, K.L., Hancock, P., Serov, P., Lim, R.P. & Hose, G.C. 2013, 'Groundwater Ecosystems Vary With Land Use Across A Mixed Agricultural Landscape', Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 380-390.
Changes in surface land use may threaten groundwater quality and ecosystem integrity, particularly in shallow aquifers where links between groundwater and surface activities are most intimate. In this study we examine the response of groundwater ecosystem to agricultural land uses in the shallow alluvial aquifer of the Gwydir River valley, New South Wales, Australia. We compared groundwater quality and microbial and stygofauna assemblages among sites under irrigated cropping, non-irrigated cropping and grazing land uses. Stygofauna abundance and richness was greatest at irrigated sites, with the composition of the assemblage suggestive of disturbance. Microbial assemblages and water quality also varied with land use. Our study demonstrates significant differences in the composition of groundwater ecosystems in areas with different surface land use, and highlights the utility of groundwater biota for biomonitoring, particularly in agricultural landscapes.
Rahman, M.A., Hasegawa, H., Rahman, M.M., Maki, T. & Lim, R.P. 2013, 'Effect of iron (Fe2+) concentration in soil on arsenic uptake in rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) when grown with arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinate (DMA)', Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, vol. 224, pp. 1623-1-1623-12.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Being predominant inorganic arsenicals, methylarsenicals also occur in anaerobic paddy soils. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of Fe2+ concentrations and arsenic speciation [arsenate (As(V)) and dimethylarsinate (DMA)] in paddy soils on arsenic uptake in rice plant. Rice seedlings were grown in soil irrigated with a Murashige and Skoog (MS) growth solution containing As(V) or DMA with or without 1.8 mM Fe2+ in excess to the background concentration of total iron (0.03 mM) in the soil. Arsenic concentration in rice roots increased initially and then decreased gradually when the seedlings were grown with excess Fe2+ and As(V). In contrast, arsenic concentration in the roots increased steadily (P?<?0.01) when the seedlings were grown without excess Fe2+ and As(V). When the form of the arsenic was DMA, total arsenic (tAs) concentration in rice roots increased gradually (P?<?0.01) and was not affected by the addition of excess Fe2+ in the soil. When rice seedlings were grown with As(V), tAs concentration in rice roots and shoots increased steadily (P?<?0.01) for gradual increase of Fe2+ concentrations in soil. However, tAs concentration in roots and shoots was independent of Fe2+ concentrations in soil when the form of arsenic was DMA. The tAs concentrations in rice shoots also increased significantly (P?<?0.01) with increasing exposure time for both As(V) and DMA. Thus, Fe2+ concentrations in soil affect arsenic uptake in rice plant depending on the speciation of arsenic
Korbel, K.L., Lim, R.P. & Hose, G.C. 2013, 'An inter-catchment comparison of groundwater biota in the cotton-growing region of north-western New South Wales', Crop and Pasture Science, vol. 64, no. 11-12, pp. 1195-1208.
View/Download from: Publisher's site
Groundwater is essential to crop production in many parts of the world, and the provision of clean groundwater is dependent on healthy groundwater ecosystems. To understand better the functioning of groundwater ecosystems, it is necessary to understand h
Rahman, M.A., Hasegawa, H. & Lim, R.P. 2012, 'Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and trophic transfer of arsenic in the aquatic food chain', Environmental Research, vol. 116, pp. 118-135.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
The occurrence, distribution, speciation, and biotransformation of arsenic in aquatic environment (marine and freshwater) have been studied extensively by several research groups during last couple of decades. However, most of those studies have been conducted in marine waters, and the results are available in a number of reviews. Speciation, bioaccumulation, and biotransformation of arsenic in freshwaters have been studied in recent years. Although inorganic arsenic (iAs) species dominates in both marine and freshwaters, it is biotransformed to methyl and organoarsenic species by aquatic organisms. Phytoplankton is considered as a major food source for the organisms of higher trophic levels in the aquatic food chain, and this autotrophic organism plays important role in biotransformation and distribution of arsenic species in the aquatic environment. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic by phytoplankton, and trophic transfer of arsenic in marine and freshwater food chains have been important concerns because of possible human health effects of the toxic metalloid from dietary intake. To-date, most of the studies on arsenic biotransformation, speciation, and trophic transfer have focused on marine environments; little is known about these processes in freshwater systems. This article has been reviewed the bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and trophic transfer of arsenic in marine and freshwater food chain.
Mohammed Abdul, J., Colville, A.E., Lim, R.P., Vigneswaran, S. & Kandasamy, J.K. 2012, 'Use of duckweed (Lemna disperma) to assess the phytotoxicity of the products of Fenton oxidation of metsulfuron methyl', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 83, pp. 89-95.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Because of pressure on water supplies world-wide, there is increasing interest in methods of remediating contaminated ground waters. However, with some remediation processes, the breakdown products are more toxic than the original contaminant. Organic matter and salinity may also influence degradation efficiency. This study tested the efficiency of Fenton oxidation in degrading the sulfonylurea herbicide metsulfuron methyl (MeS), and tested the reaction products for phytotoxicity with the Lemna (duckweed) bioassay. The efficiency of degradation by Fenton++s reagent (Fe2+ -+0.09 mM; H2O2-+1.76mM, 4 h) decreased with increasing initial MeS concentration, from 98% with 5 mg/L MeS, to 63% with 70 mg/L MeS. Addition of NaCl (10 mM) and organic matter (humic acid at 0.2 and 2.0 mg C/L as Total Organic Carbon) reduced the efficiency of degradation at low initial MeS concentrations (5 and 10mg/L), but had no effect at high concentrations. The residual Fenton++s reagent after Fenton++s oxidation was toxic to Lemna. After removal of residual iron and H2O2, the measured toxicity to Lemna in the treated samples could be explained by the concentrations of MeS as measured by HPLC/UV detection, so there was no evidence of additional toxicity or amelioration due to the by-products or formulation materials.
Cortez, D.P., Growns, I., Mitrovic, S. & Lim, R.P. 2012, 'Effects Of A Gradient In River Regulation On The Longitudinal Trends In Water Quality And Benthic Algal And Macroinvertebrate Assemblages In The Hunter River, Australia', Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 494-504.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
River regulation impacts lotic ecosystem processes; however, the effect of a gradient of regulation on these attributes has rarely been studied. This study examined the effects of a river regulation gradient on longitudinal trends in water quality and be
Davie, A.W., Mitrovic, S. & Lim, R.P. 2012, 'Succession and accrual of benthic algae on cobbles of an upland river following scouring', Inland Waters, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 89-100.
View/Download from: UTSePress |
Flow releases from dams can be used to scour benthic algae, simulating the effects of natural spates and maintaining benthic algae in an early successional stage for increased grazer palatability. The timing of releases needs to consider the natural periodicity of flow events and the speed of regrowth and community succession changes. We studied benthic algal regrowth and succession using manipulative field experiments during summer and winter in the upland regulated Severn River, New South Wales, Australia. Benthic algal biomass accrual as chlorophyll a and community changes were determined after artificially scoured cobbles were returned to the river. In summer, algal biomass and diversity on scoured cobbles took 2 weeks to return to levels similar to reference cobbles and 5 weeks in winter. Chlorophyll a during summer was initially 0.24 0.06 mg m-2 on scoured cobbles, but by day 16 had increased to 9.74 1.97 mg m-2 and was no longer significantly different from reference cobbles. In winter, chlorophyll a was initially 0.47 0.13 mg m-2 on scoured cobbles, but by day 37 had increased to 44.7 10.9 mg m-2 and was no longer significantly different from reference cobbles. Peak chlorophyll a accrual during summer and winter was 1.64 and 2.63 mg m-2 d-1, respectively. Early succession in both experiments was dominated by diatoms such as Cocconeis, Synedra, and Fragilaria. A proliferation of the filamentous green alga Stigeoclonium was indicative of a late succession community. The implications for flow management based on resetting of benthic algae by scouring in riffle reaches of rivers are discussed.
Phyu, Y.L., Palmer, C.G., Warne, M.S., Hose, G.C., Chapman, J.C. & Lim, R.P. 2011, 'A Comparison Of Mixture Toxicity Assessment: Examining The Chronic Toxicity Of Atrazine, Permethrin And Chlorothalonil In Mixtures To Ceriodaphnia Cf. Dubia', Chemosphere, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 1568-1573.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Pesticides predominantly occur in aquatic ecosystems as mixtures of varying complexity, yet relatively few studies have examined the toxicity of pesticide mixtures. Atrazine, chlorothalonil and permethrin are widely used pesticides that have different mo
Leusch, F., De Jager, C., Levi, Y., Lim, R.P., Puijker, L., Sacher, F., Tremblay, L., Wilson, V.J. & Chapman, H.D. 2010, 'Comparison Of Five In Vitro Bioassays To Measure Estrogenic Activity In Environmental Waters', Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 3853-3860.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Bioassays are well established in the pharmaceutical industry and single compound analysis, but there is still uncertainty about their usefulness in environmental monitoring. We compared the responses of five bioassays designed to measure estrogenic acti
Rawson, C.A., Lim, R.P., Tremblay, L., Warne, M.S., Ying, G., Laginestra, E. & Chapman, J.C. 2010, 'Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages In Remediated Wetlands Around Sydney, Australia', Ecotoxicology, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1589-1600.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
To investigate potential high organisational level impacts of persistent organic pollution in the wetlands in the Sydney Olympic Park (SOP) remediated site, the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of seven wetlands within SOP and two off-site reference wetlands were examined.
Ying, G., Rawson, C.A., Kookana, R.S., Peng, P., Warne, M.S., Tremblay, L., Laginestra, E., Chapman, J.C. & Lim, R.P. 2009, 'Contamination And Screening Level Toxicity Of Sediments From Remediated And Unremediated Wetlands Near Sydney, Australia', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 2052-2060.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
The present study assessed contamination and toxicity of sediments from seven remediated and remnant wetland sites within Sydney Olympic Park, Australia, and four unremediated sites adjacent to its boundary using chemical analysis and a luminescent bacterial biosensor assay (Escherichia coli). Concentrations of metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, and As) and persistent organic chemicals (DDT and its metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; polychlorinated biphenyls; and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) in sediments and their pore-water samples were determined. Zinc concentrations were the highest of the metals in the sediments (84-618 mg/kg), and at eight sites, metal concentrations in sediments exceeded the Australian ecological trigger values for Pb, Zn, and Ni. Concentrations of organic contaminants in the sediments exceeded the trigger values at all 11 sites for DDTs, at 6 sites for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 5 sites for polychlorinated biphenyls. Sediment samples from the four unremediated sites outside the Sydney Olympic Park had dioxin concentrations greater than 200 pg (toxic equivalency per gram). The same four sites were identified as contaminated in pore-water toxicity tests with the luminescent biosensor, generally consistent with the bioavailable fractions of the contaminants (pore-water and Tenax (R) extraction data), as well as dioxin levels, in the sediments. Preliminary toxicity identification and evaluation tests of the pore water from the four sites outside the park demonstrated that organic contaminants were the main cause of toxicity to E. coli, with no evidence that metals contributed to the toxicity of the pore water.
Patra, R., Chapman, J.C., Lim, R.P., Gehrke, P. & Sunderam, R. 2009, 'Effects Of Temperature On Ventilatory Behavior Of Fish Exposed To Sublethal Concentrations Of Endosulfan And Chlorpyrifos', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 2182-2190.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
The ventilation amplitude and frequency of silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus, and the ventilation frequency of rainbow fish Melanotaenia duboulayi and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, were determined at different temperatures upon exposure to endosulfan and chlorpyrifos, respectively. Silver perch and rainbow fish were tested at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 degrees C, while rainbow trout was tested at 10, 15, 20, and 25 degrees C. Although some trend of increasing amplitudes with increasing temperature was evident; there was no significant temperature response of ventilation frequency rates over time in silver perch pre-exposed to 10 mu g L-1 endosulfan for 18 h. The rate of ventilation frequency of rainbow fish pre-exposed to 200 mu g L-1 of chlorpyrifos for 96 h was lower in treatments than in the control at 15 degrees C. However, between 20 and 35 degrees C, rates were significantly higher in the treatments than those of the control. In rainbow trout pre-exposed to 100 mu g L-1 of chlorpyrifos, the rates of frequency were significantly lower than those of controls in temperatures between 10 and 20 degrees C but higher at 25 degrees C. The amplitude of silver perch seemed to increase with the increase in temperature; however, the corresponding temperature quotient values at various temperature regimes and over exposure time showed no significant differences. The ventilation frequency of rainbow fish and rainbow trout significantly increased at the higher test temperatures, and their corresponding temperature quotient values for both fish also increased at the elevated temperatures.
Rawson, C.A., Tremblay, L., Warne, M.S., Ying, G., Kookana, R.S., Laginestra, E., Chapman, J.C. & Lim, R.P. 2009, 'Bioactivity of POPs and their effects in mosquitofish in Sydney Olympic Park, Australia', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 407, no. 12, pp. 3721-3730.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
The site of the 2000 Olympic Games (Sydney Olympic Park (SOP), Sydney, Australia) was contaminated by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) prior to remediation in the 1990s. This study investigates the bioactivity of POPs in the sediment and water of wetlands across SOP by in vitro 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalence (TCDDeq) measurement (H4IIE cell line bioassay). Further, it examines whether disturbance of these sediments is likely to mobilise ligands for this receptor into the water column.
Ngo, H.H., Chuang, Y., Guo, W., Ho, D., Pham, T., Johnston, A.J., Lim, R.P. & Listowski, A. 2009, 'Resident's strategy survey on a new end use of recycled water in Australia', Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 11, no. 1-3, pp. 93-97.
View/Download from: UTSePress |
The concept of using recycled water for washing machine was introduced as a new end use. As there is a noticeable lack social research in understanding the general public perceptions of this application, the resident+s strategy survey was carried out at some selective suburbs in Sydney with demographically based signifi cant differences of general, gender, age, education, and property style and ownership. The survey indicates that the majority in the community considers the use of recycled water for washing machine is indispensable in view of continuing drought and the associated water shortages. Given safety assurance and demonstration, recycled water for washing machine has a considerable proportion within the responses. The general level of knowledge in community clearly understand that recycled water is more environmentally friendly option, whereas from cleanness and public health point of view, higher quality water is required to be reused in washing machine. Moreover, the residents reckon to have a small unit for pre-treatment (point of use) before recycled water entering washing machines might assure the quality and safety. The survey also shows the major concerns for a resident to use recycled water for washing machine are public health, water cleanness and washing machine durability.
Pablo, F., Krassoi, R., Jones, P.R., Colville, A.E., Hose, G.C. & Lim, R.P. 2008, 'Comparison of the fate and toxicity of chlorpyrifos - Laboratory versus a coastal mesocosm system', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 219-229.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
The widespread use of chlorpyrifos for pest control in urban and rural environments poses a risk of contamination to aquatic environments via runoff, spray drift or spillage. The aim of this study was to assess the fate of chlorpyrifos and its toxicity t
Rawson, C.A., Lim, R.P. & Warne, M.S. 2008, 'Skeletal morphology and maturation of male Gambusia holbrooki exposed to sewage treatment plant effluent', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 453-461.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Sewage effluent has been identified as a major source of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the aquatic environment. The modified hemal spines (modified skeletal structures important in reproduction) of mosquitofish, Gambusia spp. have been shown t
Thomas, C.M., Hose, G.C., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2008, 'Effects of river water and salinity on the toxicity of deltamethrin to freshwater shrimp, cladoceran, and fish', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 610-618.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide used extensively to control invertebrate pests on cotton and other crops. It is acutely toxic to nontarget aquatic organisms, but existing toxicity data are mostly from toxicity tests using purified laboratory wat
Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2008, 'Assessing the biological relevance of exposing freshwater organisms to atrazine and molinate in environmetally realistic exposure test systems', Environmental Toxicology And Chemistry, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 420-424.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Assessing the toxicity of chemicals in treated laboratory water may not accurately represent the toxicity of chemicals in natural aquatic systems. In natural water, dissolved organic matter, suspended particulate matter, and sediment play key roles in the sorption of contaminants from the water. Our previously published series of papers illustrated that the presence of sediment in aquatic toxicity testing systems significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the bioavailability of the herbicides atrazine and molinate to five Australian freshwater organisms. It is not clear whether the reduced bioavailability means that the trigger values (TVs) in the current Australian and New Zealand water quality guidelines, which are calculated using toxicity data from water-only toxicity tests, provide appropriate environmental protection. Several new sets of TVs were derived in the present study and were compared to each other and to the current Australian and New Zealand TVs for atrazine and molinate. The current Australian and New Zealand TVs for atrazine and molinate provided appropriate protection to Australian freshwater species. Australian freshwater species have a sensitivity distribution similar to those of overseas species to atrazine and molinate
Colville, A.E., Jones, P.M., Pablo, F., Krassoi, R., Hose, G.C. & Lim, R.P. 2008, 'Effects of chlorpyrifos on macroinvertebrate communities in coastal stream mesocosms', Ecotoxicology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 173-180.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
This study measured the effects of a single pulse of chlorpyrifos at nominal concentrations of 1 and 10 mu g/l on the macroinvertebrate community structure of a coastal stream mesocosm system. Analysis of data using Principal Response Curves (PRC) and Monte Carlo tests showed significant changes in the treated stream mesocosms relative to that of the controls. These changes in the macroinvertebrate assemblages occurred within 6 h, and persisted for at least 124 days after dosing. Significant community-level effects were detected at the lowest concentration on days 2 and 16 post-dosing, giving a no-observed effect concentration (NOECcommunity) of 1.2 mu g/l (measured). The mayflies Atalophlebia sp. and Koorrnonga sp., Chironomidae and Acarina were all sensitive to chlorpyrifos and decreased in abundance in treated mesocosms after dosing. The fauna of these coastal stream mesocosms showed similar sensitivity to chlorpyrifos with that of other reported studies, but there was no evidence of recovery after 124 days.
Patra, R., Chapman, J.C., Lim, R.P. & Gehrke, P. 2007, 'The effects of three organic chemicals on the upper thermal tolerances of four freshwater fishes', Environmental Toxicology And Chemistry, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1454-1459.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
The upper temperature tolerance limits of four freshwater fish species, silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus, eastern rainbowfish Melanotaenia duboulayi, western carp gudgeon Hypseleotris klunzingeri, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, were determined usin
Rawson, C.A., Lim, R.P., Warne, M.S. & Doyle, C. 2006, 'The effect of 17 beta-estradiol on the development of modified hemal spines in early-life stage Gambusia holbrooki', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 253-262.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
The morphologic development of the gonopodium of male mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, is essential for proper reproductive function and has previously been used as a biomarker for the presence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in freshwater syst
Game, C., Gagnon, M.M., Webb, D. & Lim, R.P. 2006, 'Endocrine disruption in make mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) inhabiting wetlands in Westerna Australia', Ecotoxicology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 665-672.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
The use of gonopodial indices as potential indicators of endocrine disruption in the mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki inhabiting south west Australian wetlands was investigated. A minimum of 50 mature makes was collected from each of five water-bodies in the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia, in order to measure morphological features related to reproduction. A set of morphological measurements were used to derive the following indices: gonopodium length/ standard body length, pre-anal length/standard body length, the index of elongation and the percentage of male fish with hooks on the distal end of the gonopodium. Indices of male mosquitofish collected from Jack Finney Lake, located in the Curtin University campus, suggest the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in this eater-body, while those from Lake Kulinup suggest this is a site of concern. Indices of male fish from the Wagerup wetland, Lake Monger and Loch McNess indicate that fish inhabiting these wetlands are not affected by EDCs. This preliminary study suggests that EDCs may be present ina number of wetlands of the Swan Coastal Plain. Further study using EDC specific markers such as vitellogenin induction in male mosquitofish is required to confirm whether EDCs are present in these water-bodies.
Rose, R.M., Carruthers, A., Stauber, J.L., Lim, R.P. & Blockwell, S.J. 2006, 'Development of an acute toxicity test with the marine copepod acartia sinjiensis', Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology, vol. 12, pp. 67-75.
View/Download from: UTSePress
Few toxicity test protocols with tropical marine species are currently available in Australasia. In this study, an acute 48h immobilisation toxicity test was developed with an native marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis. This species is widley distributed in tropical and sub-tropical brackish waters in Australia and is an important component of marine food webs. A comparison of its sensitivity to other species shwoed that this copepod was amongst the most sensitive Australian species to copper
Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'The toxicity and bioavailability of atrazine and molinate to Chironomus tepperi larvae in laboratory and river water in the presence and absence of sediment', Chemosphere, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 1231-1239.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Acute (10day) semi-static toxicity tests in which the midge, Chironomus tepperi, were exposed to atrazine and molinate were conducted in laboratory water and in river water, in the absence and presence of sediment. The bioavailability measured as median
Hose, G.C., Jones, P.M. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'Hyporheic macroinvertebrates in riffle and pool areas of temporary streams in south eastern Australia', Hydrobiologia, vol. 532, no. 1-3, pp. 81-90.
View/Download from: UTSePress
The hyporheic zone is an important refuge for invertebrates as surface water recedes in temporary streams. In this study, the structure and functional organisation of hyporheic macroinvertebrate assemblages in pool and dry riffle bed habitats of two epis
Hogan, A.C., Stauber, J.L., Pablo, F., Adams, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'The development of marine Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures using the unicellular alga Nitzschia closterium', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 433-443.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Unicellular algae are highly sensitive to a wide range of toxicants and have been used extensively in ecotoxicological testing. This, along with their ability to grow in very small test volumes over short test durations, make them ideal test organisms fo
Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'Effect of river water, sediment and time on the toxicity and bioavailability of molinate to the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri (Microtox)', Water Research, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 2738-2746.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
The toxicity and bioavailability of molinate to Vibrio fischeri (Microtox (R)) were determined in both laboratory and river water in the absence and presence of sediment after 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96-h exposure. The bioavailability of molinate, expressed as
Doyle, C. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'Sexual behavior and impregnation success of adult male mosquitofish following exposure to 17 beta-estradiol', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 392-397.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
The effects of 17 beta-estradiol (E-2) on the sexual activity of adult male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were assessed. Sexually mature males were exposed to nominal concentrations of 20, 100, and 500 ng/L of E-2 and a solvent control (0.00001% etha
Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2005, 'Toxicity and bioavailability of atrazine and molinate to the freshwater shrimp (Paratya australiensis) under laboratory and simulated field conditions', Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 60, pp. 113-122.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Acute (96-h) semistatic toxicity tests were conducted by exposing the freshwater shrimp, Paratya australiensis, to atrazine and molinate in laboratory water and in river water both with and without sediment. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) and 95% fiducial limits of atrazine for P. australiensis in laboratory water in the absence and presence of sediment were 9.9 (8.6-11.5) and 6.8 (5.4-8.5)mg/L, respectively, while the corresponding values in river water were 9.8 (8.5-11.2) and 6.5 (5.4-7.8)mg/L, respectively. For molinate, the LC50 values in laboratory water in the absence and presence of sediment were 9.2 (7.0-12.1) and 9.0 (6.8-12.0)mg/L, respectively and the corresponding values in river water were 8.7 (6.4-11.8) and 8.2 (6.6-10.2)mg/L, respectively. Neither the river water nor the presence of sediment significantly (P<0.05) reduced the bioavailability of either chemical to P. australiensis. This was unexpected, as studies with other aquatic organisms have shown that sediment significantly reduced the bioavailability of these chemicals.
Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L. & Lim, R.P. 2004, 'Development of multispecies algal bioassays using flow cytometry', Environmental Toxicology And Chemistry, vol. 23, pp. 1452-1462.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Phyu, Y.L., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2004, 'Toxicity of atrazine and molinate to the cladoceran Daphnia carinata and the effect of river water and bottom sediment on their bioavailability', Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 308-315.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Westbury, A., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2004, 'Toxicity of, and development of predictive models for, substituted phenols to Ceridaphnia cf. dubia and Vibrio fischeri', Australasian Journal for Ecotoxicology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 33-42.
View/Download from: UTSePress
Twelve substituted phenols that have a polar narcotic mode of action had their acute toxicity to the freshwater cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia and the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri determined. The 48-h EC50 (immobilisation) values of the chemicals to C. cf. dubia ranged from 6.13 to 183 +-mol/L while the 30-min EC50 (luminescence) values of the chemicals to V. fischeri ranged from 1.39 to 1031 +-mol/L. Seventy-five percent of the chemicals were classed as having moderate toxicity of to C. cf. dubia while 25 percent had below toxicity f. For V. fischeri the percentage of chemicals classified as having high moderate and below toxicity was approximately 17%, 33% and 50% respectively. Quantitative activity-activity relationships (QAARs) that could predict the toxicity of chemicals with a polar narcotic mode of action to C. cf. dubia were developed by regressing the toxicity data for polar narcotic chemicals to C. cf. dubia with that of eight non-Australasian species. Those QAARs based on the toxicity data for Tetrahymena pyriformis, Chlorella vulgaris, Poecilia reticulata and Daphnia magna were of high quality (r2 . 0.9). Only the QAARs for T. pyriformis, C. vulgaris and D. magna had sufficient data to test their validity. This revealed that the absolute percentage difference between experimentally derived EC50 values and those predicted by these QAARs were between 13 and 120%. These QAARs provide an easy, cost-effective means of estimating toxicity values for polar narcotic chemicals to C. cf. dubia.
Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2004, 'Sensitivity of offspring to chronic 3,4-dichloroaniline exposure varies with maternal exposure', Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 405-412.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Doyle, C., Pablo, F., Lim, R.P. & Hyne, R.V. 2003, 'Assessment of metal toxicity in sediment pore water from Lake Macquarie, Australia', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 343-350.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Recent investigations into the level of heavy metal enrichment in the sediments of Lake Macquarie have indicated that significant contamination has occurred over the past 100 years, with elevated levels of lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, and selenium being observed in most parts of the lake. Pore water extracted from sediments showing the greatest contamination by these metals exhibited toxicity to the larval development of the sea urchin Heliocidaris tuberculata. However, an analysis of pore water metal concentrations revealed that the concentrations of these metals were too low to cause toxicity. Rather, pore water toxicity was highly correlated with manganese for the majority of sites sampled; subsequent spiking experiments confirmed manganese as a cause of toxicity. Current levels of manganese in the sediments of Lake Macquarie have arisen from natural sources and are not the result of anthropogenic activities. These results reiterate the importance of identifying the causes of toxicity in assessments of sediment contamination, particularly when testing sediment pore waters using sensitive early life stages.
Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'Exposure to chemicals exuded by fish reduces the filtration and ingestion rates of Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia', Hydrobiologia, vol. 501, no. 1-3, pp. 215-217.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
NA
Gale, S.A., Smith, S.V., Lim, R.P., Jeffree, R. & Petocz, P. 2003, 'Insights into the mechanisms of copper tolerance of a population of black-banded rainbowfish (Melanotaenia nigrans) (Richardson) exposed to mine leachate, using Cu-64/67', Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 135-153.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Hose, G.C., Lim, R.P., Hyne, R.V. & Pablo, F. 2003, 'Short-term exposure to aqueous endosulfan affects macroinvertebrate assemblages', Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 282-294.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
The toxicity of the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan to macroinvertebrate assemblages was tested using a system of 24 artificial streams. In separate experiments, the effects of 12- and 48-h exposure to aqueous endosulfan were assessed. No-observed-effect concentrations (NOEC) for endosulfan on macroinvertebrate assemblages were 8.69 and 1.00 g/L for the 12- and 48-h exposure studies, respectively. In both studies, changes were driven by reduced abundances of the mayfly, Jappa kutera. Algal blooms occurred in the 48-h exposure experiment in streams that received the 6.87 or 30.70 g/L treatments. These effects occurred at concentrations that might occur as a result of episodic events such as accidental overspray or rainstorms. By establishing a causal link between endosulfan and changes to macroinvertebrate assemblages, this study adds further weight to the hypothesis that endosulfan is a major contributor to changes observed in rivers of the cotton-growing region of New South Wales, Australia during the pesticide spray season.
Markich, S.J., Brown, P.L., Jeffree, R. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'The effects of pH and dissolved organic carbon on the toxicity of cadmium and copper to a freshwater bivalve: Further support for the extended free ion activity model', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 479-491.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Hose, G.C., Hyne, R.V. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'Toxicity of endosulfan to Atalophlebia spp. (ephemeroptera) in the laboratory, mesocosm, and field', Environmental Toxicology And Chemistry, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 3062-3068.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Hose, G.C., Lim, R.P. & Hyne, R.V. 2003, 'The transport, fate and effects of endosulfan in the Australian freshwater environment', Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology, vol. 9, pp. 101-111.
View/Download from: UTSePress
Settacharnwit, S., Buckney, R.T. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'The nutrient status of Nong Han, a shallow tropical lake in north-eastern Thailand: spatial and temporal variations', Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, vol. 8, pp. 189-200.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Colville, A.E. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'Microscopic structure of the mantle and palps in the freshwater mussels Velesunio ambigus and Hyridella depressa (Bivalvia : Hyriidae)', Mulluscan Research, vol. 23, pp. 1-20.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Binet, M.T., Adams, M.A., King, C.K., Stauber, J.L., Doyle, C., Lim, R.P. & Laginestra, E. 2003, 'Toxicity assessment of leachates from Homebush Bay landfills', Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology, vol. 9, pp. 7-18.
View/Download from: UTSePress
Hammerton, K.M., Jayasinghe, N., Jeffree, R. & Lim, R.P. 2003, 'Experimental Study Of Blood Lead Kinetics In Estuarine Crocodiles (Crocodylus Porosus) Exposed To Ingested Lead Shot', Archives Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 390-398.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
A previous study of lead (Pb) contamination in estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Kakadu National Park, Australia, found elevated Pb levels in bone and flesh from individuals caught in habitats where hunting with lead ammunition had occurred. L
Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L., Apte, S.C. & Lim, R.P. 2002, 'The effect of initial cell density on the bioavailability and toxicity of copper in microalgal bioassays', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 21, no. N/A, pp. 742-751.
View/Download from: UTSePress
Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L., Lim, R.P. & Petocz, P. 2002, 'Toxicity of metal mixtures to a tropical freshwater alga (Chlorella sp.): effect of interactions between copper, cadmium and zinc on metal cell binding and uptake', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 21, no. N/A, pp. 2412-2422.
View/Download from: UTSePress
Doyle, C. & Lim, R.P. 2002, 'The effect of 17 beta-estradiol on the gonopodial development and sexual activity of Gambusia holbrooki', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 21, no. N/A, pp. 2719-2724.
View/Download from: UTSePress
Hose, G.C., Lim, R.P., Hyne, R.V. & Pablo, F. 2002, 'A pulse of endosulfan-contaminated sediment affects macroinvertebrates in artificial streams', Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 44-52.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
The toxicity of the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan to macroinvertebrate communities was tested using a system of 24 artificial streams. Macroinvertebrate communities in the streams were exposed to a range of endosulfan concentrations for a 12-h period and then monitored for 96 h. Endosulfan was prebound to fine river sediment and applied to the streams as a contaminated sediment slurry. This did not cause changes in the structure of benthic communities; however, significant changes (P<0.05) in the abundance of several macroinvertebrate taxa in drift were detected in the streams receiving the highest (6.14 g/L) dose. Increased drift may have implications for recolonization processes in lowland rivers, and, as such, pulses of contaminated sediment are likely to result in significant effects on macroinvertebrate populations and communities. This study highlights the utility of artificial stream systems for detecting sublethal effects and the need for population and community-level endpoints to be included in such studies.
Lim, R.P., Milner, R.J. & Hunter, D.M. 2002, 'Risks to the aquatic ecosystem from the application of Metarhizium anisopliae for locust control in Australia', Pest Management Science, vol. 58, no. N/A, pp. 718-723.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2002, 'Food concentration affects the life history responses of Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia to chemicals with diffeence mechanisms of action', Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 51, no. N/A, pp. 106-114.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Rose, R.W., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2002, 'Some Life History Responses Of The Cladoceran Ceriodaphnia Cf. Dubia To Variations In Population Density At Two Different Food Concentrations', Hydrobiologia, vol. 481, no. 1-3, pp. 157-164.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
The combined effects of food concentration and population density on some life history characteristics of the small-bodied cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia were studied by examining animals maintained at densities of 100-3000 individuals l(-1) for 8 day
Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L. & Lim, R.P. 2001, 'Development of a Flow Cytometry-Based Algal Bioassays for Assessing Toxicity of Copper in Natural Waters', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 160-170.
View/Download from: UTSePress | 2.0.CO;2">Publisher's site
Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2001, 'Factors associated with Fish Modify Life History Traits of the Cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia', Journal of Plankton Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 11-17.
View/Download from: UTSePress | Publisher's site
Leonard, A.W., Hyne, R.V., Lim, R.P., Leigh, K.A., Le, J. & Beckett, R. 2001, 'Fate and Toxicity of Endosulfan in Namoi River Water and Bottom Sediment', Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 750-759.
View/Download from: UTSePress |
Rose, R.M., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2001, 'The Presence of Chemicals Exuded by Fish Affects the Life History Response of Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia to Chemicals with Different Mechanisms of Action', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2892-2898.
View/Download from: UTSePress | 2.0.CO;2">Publisher's site
Franklin, N.M., Adams, M.S., Stauber, J.L. & Lim, R.P. 2001, 'Development of an Improved Enzyme Inhibition Bioassay with Marine and Freshwater Algae Using Flow Cytometry', Archives of Environmental Contamination and toxicology, vol. 40, pp. 469-480.
View/Download from: UTSePress
Franklin, N.M., Stauber, J.L., Markich, S.J. & Lim, R.P. 2000, 'pH-Dependent Toxicity of Copper and Uranium to a Tropical Freshwater Alga (Chlorella sp.)', Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 0, pp. 275-289.
Leonard, A.W., Hyne, R.V., Lim, R.P., Pablo, F. & Van den Brink, P.J. 2000, 'Riverine Endosulfan Concentrations in the Namoi River, Australia: Link to Cotton Field Runoff and Macroinvertebrate population Densities', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1540-1551.
View/Download from: 2.3.CO;2">Publisher's site
Markich, S.J., Brown, P.R., Jeffree, R. & Lim, R.P. 2000, 'Valve Movement Responses of Velesunio angasi (Bivalvia: Hyriidae) to Manganese and Uranium: An Exception to the Free Ion Activity Model', Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 51, no. 0, pp. 155-175.
Rose, R.W., Warne, M.S. & Lim, R.P. 2000, 'Life History Response of the the Cladeceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia to Variation in Food Concentration', Hydrobiologia, vol. 427, no. 0, pp. 59-64.