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Richard De Abreu Lourenco

Biography

Richard is employed as a Senior Research Fellow with the Centre for Health Economics Research and Evaluation. He is currently working as the Senior Evaluator for the PBAC Team and as the Project Officer/Coordinator for the Cancer Research Economics Support Team (CREST).  Richard is a very experienced health economist who has spent the last 12 years working in the field of market access and reimbursement for pharmaceuticals and medical devices in Australia. Most recently, this included seven years with Covance, a clinical research organisation, as a Director of Health Economics. This work has involved liaison with multiple stakeholders throughout the treatment development pathway including clinical trialists, clinicians, patients and patient support networks, statisticians and the reimbursement authorities. He has a keen interest in applied economic evaluations, the economics of specialty health areas, patient preference and quality of life, and priority setting. Richard’s primary interest and focus in specialty health has been in the fields of oncology/haematology, across a broad range of indications and clinical settings. Prior to joining Covance, he spent five years as a member of the health economics team at Novartis Pharmaceuticals, and prior to that four years CHERE. He commenced his career as an Economist with the Reserve Bank of Australia. He holds an MEc (Hons) from Sydney University, and a BEc (Hons) from Murdoch University.

Image of Richard De Abreu Lourenco
Senior Research Fellow, Centre for Health Economics Research and Evaluation
Core Member, CHERE - Centre for Health Economics and Research Evaluation
Bachelor of Economics, Master of Economics
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 4729

Conferences

De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2017, 'Estimating non (meta) health effects', ISPOR-AC Workshop, Sydney.
Mulhern, B., Norman, R., De Abreu Lourenco, R. & Viney, R. 2017, 'Investigating the relative value of health and social care related quality of life using discrete choice', International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research 22nd Annual International Meeting, Boston, USA.
Viney, R.C., Mulhern, B., Norman, R. & De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2017, 'Investigating the relative value of health and social care related quality of life using discrete choice experiments [Conference Presentation]', iHEA Boston World Congress, Boston, USA.
De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2016, 'Incorporating Patient Values (Session Chair)', Room with a Patient View – Engaging patients in health care decision making, Sydney.
Haas, M. & De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2016, 'The development and implementation of Health Economics in the SAFRON II trial protocol – an interactive workshop', TROG Annual Scientific Meeting.
De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2016, 'Using health economics in radiotherapy research (Invited during plenary session)', TROG Annual Scientific Meeting.
Mulhern, B.J., De Abreu Lourenco, R. & Viney, R. 2016, 'Investigating the relative value of health and social care related quality of life using discrete choice', 38th Annual Australian Health Economics Society Conference, Perth.
De Abreu Lourenco, R., Haas, M., Hall, J., Parish, K., Stuart, D. & Viney, R. 2016, 'Placing a value on avoiding cancer recurrence: women's preferences for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy', 38th Annual Australian Health Economics Society Conference, Perth.
Tillemans, R., De Abreu Lourenco, R., Fardell, J.E., Wakefield, C.E., Signorelli, C., McLoone, J. & Cohn, R.J. 2016, 'What influences quality of life in paediatric cancer survivors?', ISOQOL 23rd Annual Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark.
De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2015, 'Drug reimbursement – a little bit of this…and a whole lot of that…', Hepatitis C Consumer Advocacy Workshop.
De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2015, 'Drug Reimbursement in Australia: Through the looking Glass', HCA Consumer Workshop, Webinar hosted by ZEST.
De Abreu Lourenco, R. & Parish, K. 2015, 'One of the team: research with, not just about, consumers', Sydney Catalyst, 2015 PostGraduate and Early Career Research Symposium.
De Abreu Lourenco, R., Parish, K. & Butow, P. 2015, 'Effective Consumer Engagement (Panel Session)', Sydney Catalyst, 2015 PostGraduate and Early Career Research Symposium.
De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2015, 'Valuing meta-health effects: how we ask matters', 2nd International Academy of Health Preference Research meeting, Brisbane.
De Abreu Lourenco, R., Kenny, P.M. & Hall, J.P. 2014, 'Factors linked to patient GP payments: results of a survey of Australian patients', 2014 PHC Research Conference, Canberra.
Kenny, P.M., Haas, M.R., Goodall, S., Wong, C. & De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2014, 'Patient preferences in General Practice: Important factors for choosing a GP', 2014 PHC Research Conference, Canberra.
De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2013, 'Paying primary care providers [invited speaker]', National Primary Health Care Conference 2013.
Bonney, M., Rose, J., De Abreu Lourenco, R., Taylor, C. & Frenzel, C. 2013, 'A preference study investigating choices for different forms of an inhaled antibiotic in patients with cystic fibrosis or their carergivers', 10th Australasian Cystic Fibrosis Conference, Auckland, New Zealand.
De Abreu Lourenco, R., Kenny, P.M. & Hall, J.P. 2013, 'Factors linked to patient GP payments: results of a survey of Australian patients', 8th Health Services and Policy Research Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.
Haas, M.R., Goodall, S. & De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2013, 'Awareness and uptake among Australians of innovations in the delivery of primary care', 8th Health Services and Policy Research Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.
Hall, J.P. & De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2013, 'A (rural) health system for the 21st century: Financing our health care system - the place and pace of reform', 12th National Rural Health Conference, Adelaide.
Goodall, S., Kenny, P.M., De Abreu Lourenco, R. & Haas, M.R. 2013, 'Understanding patients' preferences for primary care services: Have Discrete Choice Experiments helped?', 8th Health Services and Policy Research Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.
Hall, J.P., King, M.T., Louviere, J.J. & De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2001, 'Choice modelling: What do consumers value from carrier status screening? An application of choice modelling.', International Health Economics Association (iHEA) 3rd World Conference, York, UK.

Journal articles

Wakefield, C., Fardell, J., Doolan, E., Drew, D., De Abreu Lourenco, R., Young, A. & Cohn, R. 2017, 'Grandparents of children with cancer: quality of life, medication and hospitalizations', Pediatric Blood and Cancer, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 163-171.
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De Abreu Lourenco, R., Haas, M., Hall, J. & Viney, R. 2017, 'Valuing meta-health effects for use in economic evaluations to inform reimbursement decisions: a review of the evidence', PharmacoEconomics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 347-362.
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De Abreu Lourenco, R., Kenny, P., Haas, M.R. & Hall, J. 2017, 'Factors affecting general practitioner charges and Medicare bulk-billing: results of a survey of Australians - erratum.', Med J Aust, vol. 206, no. 7, pp. 326-326.
Mu, C., De Abreu Lourenco, R. & van Gool, K. 2017, 'Is low priced primary care bad for quality? Evidence from Australian general practice', Applied Economics.
Haeusler, G., Thursky, K., Mechinaud, F., Babl, F., De Abreu Lourenco, R., Slavin, M. & Phillips, B. 2017, 'Predicting Infectious ComplicatioNs In Children with Cancer: an external validation study', British Journal of Cancer.
Haeusler, G.M., Thursky, K.M., Slavin, M., Mechinaud, F., Babl, F.E., Bryant, P., De Abreu Lourenco, R. & Phillips, R. 2017, 'External validation of six pediatric fever and neutropenia clinical decision rules', Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.
Kenny, P., De Abreu Lourenco, R., Wong, C.Y., Haas, M. & Goodall, S. 2016, 'Community preferences in general practice: important factors for choosing a general practitioner.', Health expectations : an international journal of public participation in health care and health policy, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 26-38.
Understanding the important factors for choosing a general practitioner (GP) can inform the provision of consumer information and contribute to the design of primary care services.To identify the factors considered important when choosing a GP and to explore subgroup differences.An online survey asked about the respondent's experience of GP care and included 36 questions on characteristics important to the choice of GP.An Australian population sample (n = 2481) of adults aged 16 or more.Principal components analysis identified dimensions for the creation of summated scales, and regression analysis was used to identify patient characteristics associated with each scale.The 36 questions were combined into five scales (score range 1-5) labelled: care quality, types of services, availability, cost and practice characteristics. Care quality was the most important factor (mean = 4.4, SD = 0.6) which included questions about technical care, interpersonal care and continuity. Cost (including financial and time cost) was also important (mean = 4.1, SD = 0.6). The least important factor was types of services (mean = 3.3, SD = 0.9), which covered the range of different services provided by or co-located with the practice. Frequent GP users and females had higher scores across all 5 scales, while the importance of care quality increased with age.When choosing a GP, information about the quality of care would be most useful to consumers. Respondents varied in the importance given to some factors including types of services, suggesting the need for a range of alternative primary care services.
Bloem, L., De Abreu Lourenco, R., Chin, M., Ly, B. & Haas, M. 2016, 'Factors impacting treatment choice in the first-line treatment of colorectal cancer', Oncology and Therapy, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 103-116.
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Haas, M. & De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2015, 'Pharmacological Management of Chronic Lower Back Pain: A Review of Cost Effectiveness', PharmacoEconomics, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 561-569.
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Lower back pain is one of the most prevalent musculoskeletal conditions in the developed world and accounts for significant health services use. The American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society have published a joint clinical guideline that recommends providing patients with information on prognosis and self-management, the use of medications with proven benefits and, for those who do not improve, consideration be given to the use of spinal manipulation (for acute lower back pain only), interdisciplinary rehabilitation, exercise, acupuncture, massage, yoga, cognitive behavioural therapy or relaxation. The purpose of this review was to evaluate published economic evaluations of pharmacological management for chronic lower back pain. A total of seven studies were eligible for inclusion in there view. The quality of the economic evaluations undertaken in the included studies was not high. This was primarily because of the nature of the underlying clinical evidence, most of which did not come from rigorous randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and the manner in which it was incorporated into the economic evaluations. All studies provided reasonable information about what aspects of healthcare and other resource use were identified, measured and valued. However, the reporting of total costs was not uniform across studies. Measures of pain and disability were the most commonly collected outcomes measures. Two studies collected information on quality of life directly from participants while two studies modelled this information based on the literature. Future economic evaluations of interventions for chronic lower back pain, including pharmacological interventions, should be based on the results of well-conducted RCTs where the measurement of costs and outcomes such as quality of life and quality-adjusted life-years is included in the trial protocol, and which have a follow-up period sufficient to capture meaningful changes in both costs and outcomes. In ...
De Abreu Lourenco, R., Kenny, P., Haas, M.R. & Hall, J.P. 2015, 'Factors affecting general practitioner charges and Medicare bulk-billing: results of a survey of Australians.', The Medical journal of Australia, vol. 202, no. 2, pp. 87-90.
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors affecting bulk-billing by general practitioners in Australia. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A community-based survey was administered to Australians aged 16 years or older in July 2013 via an online panel. Survey questions focused on patient characteristics, visit characteristics, practice characteristics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Factors associated with GP bulk-billing. RESULTS: 2477 respondents completed the survey, of whom 2064 (83.33%) reported that the practice that they went to for their most recent GP visit bulk billed some or all patients. Overall, 1763 respondents (71.17%) reported that their most recent GP visit was bulk billed. Taking into account the duration of visits and the corresponding Medicare Benefits Schedule rebate, the mean out-of-pocket cost for those who were not bulk billed was $34.09. RESULTS of a multivariate logistic regression analysis suggest that the odds of being bulk billed was negatively associated with larger practice size, respondents having had an appointment for their visit, higher household income and inner or outer regional area of residence. It was positively associated with the presence of a chronic disease, being a concession card holder and having private health insurance. There was no association between bulk-billing and duration of GP visit, age or sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that there are associations between patient characteristics and bulk-billing, and between general practice characteristics and bulk-billing. This suggests that caution is needed when considering changes to GP fees and Medicare rebates because of the many possible paths by which patients' access to services could be affected. Our results do not support the view that bulk-billing is associated with shorter consultation times.
Shah, K., te Marvelde, L., Collins, M., De Abreu Lourenco, R., D'Costa, I., Coleman, A., Fua, T., Liu, C., Rischin, D., Lau, E. & Corry, J. 2015, 'Safety and cost analysis of an 18FDG-PET-CT response based follow-up strategy for head and neck cancers treated with primary radiation or chemoradiation', Oral Oncology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 529-535.
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Background: Prognostic information can rationalise clinical follow-up after radical cancer treatment. This retrospective cohort study of radical head and neck (chemo)radiotherapy patients examines the clinical safety and cost implications of stratifying follow-up intensity by post-treatment 18FDG-PET-CT response. Methods: In 2008 clinical review after radical head and neck radiotherapy was reduced from 3- to 6-monthly for patients with complete 18FDG-PET-CT response at 3months. 184 patients treated after this change ("PET Stratified", 2009-11) were compared to 178 patients treated before ("Standard", 2005-7). Clinical safety was assessed by the time to detection of recurrence, overall survival and potential for radical treatment of recurrence. A hospital cost analysis was performed using individual patient data. Results: 127 of 178 Standard and 148 of 184 PET Stratified patients achieved complete response on post-treatment imaging. Baseline clinical characteristics were comparable. Median follow-up from response assessment was 4.8. years in the Standard cohort and 2.1. years for PET Stratified. PET Stratified patients had a mean 4.4 outpatient visits in 2. years, compared to 7.0 among Standard patients. Over 90% of patients remained free of recurrence at 2. years in both cohorts. Time to detection of recurrence was similar between two cohorts (HR1.05, 95%CI 0.45-2.52), as was overall survival (HR0.91, 95%CI 0.36-2.29). The proportion of radically treatable recurrences was also similar (42% Standard vs. 47% PET Stratified). The hospital cost savings per patient from reduced review were AUD$2606 over 2. years, AUD$5012 over five. Conclusion: 18FDG-PET-CT to stratify follow-up intensity after radical radiotherapy for head and neck cancer reduces costs with no apparent clinical detriment.
Austin, K., Chambers, G.M., De Abreu Lourenco, R., Madan, A., Susic, D. & Henry, A. 2015, 'Cost-effectiveness of term induction of labour using inpatient prostaglandin gel versus outpatient Foley catheter', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 440-445.
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De Abreu Lourenco, R. & Hall, J.P. 2015, 'Paying for the expanding role of primary care in cancer control', Lancet Oncology, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 1228-1229.
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Advances in cancer detection and treatment pose a challenge to traditional cancer services focused on the acute delivery of specialist care. In The Lancet Oncology Commission,1 Greg Rubin and colleagues set out an exhaustive charter for the role of primary care services, and the primary care physician (PCP). The authors suggest 18 action points for a greater role for the PCP from detection to palliation.
Kalff, A., Kennedy, N., Smiley, A., Miles Prince, H., Roberts, A.W., Bradstock, K., de Abreu Lourenco, R., Frampton, C. & Spencer, A. 2014, 'Thalidomide and prednisolone versus prednisolone alone as consolidation therapy after autologous stem-cell transplantation in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: Final analysis of the ALLG MM6 multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 study', The Lancet Haematology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. e112-e119.
Background: We previously showed that consolidation therapy with thalidomide and prednisolone improved progression-free and overall survival in patients with multiple myeloma who had undergone autologous stem-cell transplantation. We aimed to assess whether these survival advantages were durable at 5 years. Methods: The ALLG MM6 trial was a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial done between Jan 13, 2002, and March 15, 2005, at 29 sites in Australia and New Zealand. Patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated randomisation charts, to receive indefi nite prednisolone maintenance alone (control group) or in combination with 12 months of thalidomide consolidation (thalidomide group) after autologous stem-cell transplantation. Randomisation was stratifi ed by treating centre and pre-transplantation concentrations of 2 microglobulin. Patients and treating physicians were not masked to treatment allocation. Primary endpoints were progression-free survival and overall survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. Secondary endpoints were overall response to salvage therapy, incidence of second primary malignancy incidence, and cost-eff ectiveness. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12607000382471. Findings: We randomly assigned 269 patients to the thalidomide (n=114) or control group (n=129). After a median followup of 54 years (IQR 31-72), estimated 5-year progression-free survival was 27% (95% CI 23-32) in the thalidomide group and 15% (11-18) in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 016, 95% CI 0044-058; p=00054) and 5-year overall survival was 66% (95% CI 61-70) and 47% (42-51), respectively (HR 012, 95% CI 0028-056; p=00072). There was no diff erence in overall response to salvage therapy, survival post-progression, or incidence of secondary malignancies between the two groups. Incremental cost-eff ectiveness ratio was AUS$26...
Liew, D., De Abreu Lourenco, R., Adena, M., Chim, L. & Aylward, P. 2013, 'Cost-effectiveness of 12-month treatment with Ticagrelor compared to Clopidogrel in the management of acute coronary syndromes', Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1110-1117.
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Background: The PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) randomized trial (NCT00391872) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) reported that ticagrelor (in addition to aspirin) reduced the rate of the composite end point of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or cardiovascular death compared with clopidogrel (in addition to aspirin) by 16% over 12 months (P o 0.001). No significant difference in the incidence of major bleeding was noted, but ticagrelor was associated with a higher rate of major bleeding not related to coronary artery bypass grafting. Objective: By extrapolating the key findings of PLATO, we sought to assess the cost-effectiveness of ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel in the management of ACS in a contemporary Australian setting. Methods: A Markov model with 4 health states (free from further ACS events, MI, stroke, and death) was developed to simulate the long-term costs and outcomes associated with ACS. Event risks were based on data derived directly from PLATO, and costs and utilities were drawn from published sources. A 10- year time horizon was simulated, and future costs and benefits were discounted at a 5% annual rate. However, treatment with ticagrelor and clopidogrel was only assumed for the first 12 months, with no benefits applied beyond drug cessation. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken based on variations to key data inputs. All costs for resource use applied in the analysis were based on published Australian prices (in 2010/2011 dollars [A$]). Results: Over 10 years, the estimated qualityadjusted life-years lived per-patient were 5.74 and 5.68 for ticagrelor and clopidogrel, respectively. Net costs were A$19,132 for ticagrelor and A$18,428 for clopidogrel. These equated to an incremental costeffectiveness ratio of A$9031 per quality-adjusted lifeyear gained for ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel. Sensitivity analyses indicated the result to be robust. Conclusions: When assessed from the perspective of the Austr...
Ghaly, S., de Abreu Lourenco, R. & Abbott, J.A. 2008, 'Audit of endometrial biopsy at outpatient hysteroscopy.', The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 202-206.
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Outpatient hysteroscopy (OPH) and endometrial biopsy (EMB) are less invasive alternatives to inpatient hysteroscopy and dilatation and curettage for assessment of the endometrium. Using local anaesthetic, the procedure is readily tolerated and can be completed in an ambulatory setting. This study aims to audit OPH and EMB conducted over three consecutive years with regard to the ability to complete the procedure and subsequent pathology. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from the medical records of patients who underwent OPH during the study period. Data collected included demography, medical history, procedure details and outcome. An indicative assessment of the resource requirements for provision of these services in an outpatient versus inpatient setting was also conducted based on published cost information. RESULTS: Between June 2003 to June 2006, 435 OPH were performed and 427 of these were available for audit. Four hundred and five (94.8%) of the procedures were successful. Sixty-five (18.8%) EMBs were reported to be insufficient, of which 41 (63%) were in postmenopausal women (P < 0.001). Women who presented with postmenopausal bleeding were significantly more likely to have an insufficient sample (P < 0.001). The Australian Refined Diagnosis Related Groups cost for inpatient hysteroscopy is $A1,786, including $A711 in theatre costs and $A258 in ward costs. These costs are not incurred with OPH. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that hysteroscopy and EMB can be easily and successfully performed as an outpatient procedure in Australia. Pathology can be readily identified and management planned. Moreover, an opportunity exists for a reduction in resource use by utilising this procedure instead of inpatient hysteroscopy where possible.
Osborne, R., De Abreu Lourenco, R., Dalton, A., Houltram, J.A., Dowton, D., Joshua, D. & Lindeman, R. 2007, 'Quality of life related to oral versus subcutaneous iron chelation: a time trade off study', Value in Health, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 451-456.
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De Abreu Lourenco, R., Houltram, J. & Pearce, G. 2007, 'Assessment of the cost-effectiveness in Australia of cetuximab in the treatment of patients with locally advanced squamous cell cancers of the head and neck', VALUE IN HEALTH, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. A326-A326.
Schrover, R., Adena, M., De Abreu Lourenco, R., Prince, H., Seymour, J. & Wonder, M. 2006, 'Development of a predictive population survival model according to the cytogenetic response rate for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase', Leukemia & Lymphoma, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1069-1081.
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Chern, B., Joseph, D., Joshua, D., Pittman, K., Richardson, G., Shou, M., Lowe, S., Copeman, M. & De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2004, 'Bisphosphonate infusions: patient preference, safety and clinic use', Supportive Care in Cancer, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 463-466.
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Kessabi, S., de Abreu Lourenco, R. & Wonder, M. 2003, 'Rescuing patients from the rule of efficiency: a need to debate the 'rule of rescue'.', PharmacoEconomics, vol. 21, no. 9, p. 681.
De Abreu Lourenco, R. & Wonder, M. 2002, 'More than just currency conversion may be needed', British Medical Journal, vol. 17.
Viney, R.C., Haas, M.R. & De Abreu Lourenco, R. 2000, 'A practical approach to planning health services: Using PBMA', Australian Health Review, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 10-19.
Hall, J.P., Lourenco, R. & Viney, R.C. 1999, 'Carrots And Sticks - The Fall And Fall Of Private Health Insurance In Australia', Health Economics, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 653-660.
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Hall, J.P., Viney, R.C. & Lourenco, R. 1997, 'Whither Private Health Insurance?', Australian And New Zealand Journal Of Public Health, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 119-120.
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Reports

Haas, M.R. & de Abreu Lourenco, R. Australian National University 2016, The REFinE-PHC Report on Patient Experiences of Primary Care, Canberra.
De Abreu Lourenco, R., Haywood, P., Parkinson, B., van Gool, K. & Viney, R. CHERE 2015, The economic implications of a genomically guided approach to cancer: A report by the Centre for Health Economics Research and Evaluation for the Cancer Council, Sydney.
This report examines how genomically based approaches may also alter the way that new technologies are funded and adopted in the health care system. In particular, how they challenge the routine pathways by which technologies are diffused into routine practice. The report also focuses on how genomically guided technologies challenge current coverage decisions. It examines the economic evidence-base for assessing the cost and benefits of such technologies. In doing so, the report highlights the current limitations in this field of research as identified through a systematic review of recommendations made by Australian policy-makers, as well as through a review of the literature. This analysis is then used to develop a framework for economic evaluations with special reference to genomically based technologies. Finally, the report also identifies a number of key policy challenges for the efficient diffusion of genomically guided cancer care into the Australian health care system.
Lind, B., Weatherburn, D., Chen, D., Shanahan, M., Lancsar, E., Haas, M.R. & De Abreu Lourenco, R. NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research 2002, New South Wales drug court evaluation: Cost-effectiveness, CHERE Project Report No 17, Sydney.
Haas, M.R., Hall, J.P. & De Abreu Lourenco, R. CHERE 2001, It's what's expected: genetic testing for inherited conditions., CHERE Discussion Paper No 46, Sydney.