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Professor Matt Phillips

Biography

Matthew Phillips is Professor of Applied Physics at UTS. He was appointed as Director of the Microstructural Analysis Unit in 1996 and was Associate Head (Research) of the Department of Physics and Advanced Materials since 2006 - 2011. Professor Phillips was awarded a PhD degree from UTS in experimental solid state physics in 1991 for his work on the optical properties of native point defects and transition metals in single crystal sapphire. In 1992 he received the Cowley-Moodie award from the Australian Microscopy and Microanalysis Society.

Dr Phillips has served as Deputy Director of the UTS Centre of Materials Technology (1998 to 2000) and as Research Program Leader in the Institute for Nanoscale Technology (2002 to 2008). Professor Phillips was the Foundation Director of the UTS core research strength, Materials and Technology for Energy Efficiency (2010-2012). He was a Visiting Research Fellow at the University of Sydney in 1996, a Visiting Professor at the Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec in 2005 and a Visiting Professor at the Institute of Solid State Physics at the Technical University of Berlin in 2013. Professor Phillips is currently a member of the International Advisory Board for the Thai National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC).

Professor Phillips' research expertise is in materials physics, particularly in the use of novel microscopy based experimental techniques to investigate the opto-electronic properties of technologically important light-emitting materials and nanostructures. ARC Field of Research: Materials Engineering, Nanotechnology and Condensed Matter Physics. Professor Phillips has presented over 30 invited conference papers at international conferences as well as over 35 seminars in overseas laboratories and has co-authored over 260 peer reviewed publications as well as over 220 conference papers.

Professional

Invited Speaker at International Conferences (since 2004)

  1. Photonics West, Oxide-based Materials and Devices Conference OE108, San Francisco, 1 - 6 February, 2014
  2. Fall European Materials Research Society, Warsaw, Symposium F, Novel materials for electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic and energy saving applications, 16 - 20 September, 2013
  3. International Conference on Defects - Recognition, Imaging and Physics in Semiconductors (DRIP XV), Poland, 15 - 19 September, 2013
  4. Fall Materials Research Society, Boston, 25-30 Nov 2012, Symposium FF: Semiconductor Nanowires
  5. Fall Materials Research Society, Boston, 25-30 Nov. 2012, Symposium Z: Oxide Semiconductors
  6. New Frontiers in Advanced Functional Nanomaterials, Bangkok, October 2012
  7. Beam Induced Assessment of Microstructures in Semiconductors, 25-28 June Anabas Algeria, 2012
  8. 2nd International Congress in Advances in Applied Physics and Materials Science, 26 - 29 April 2012 Antalya, Turkey
  9. ACEM22/ICONN, 5-9 February Perth, 2012
  10. International Conference on Materials for Renewable Energy and Efficiency, Shanghai, China, 20-22 May, 2011
  11. European Materials Research Society, Fall Meeting, Warsaw, 2011
  12. Conference of the International Union of Microbeam Analysis Societies, Seoul, Korea, 2011
  13. European Materials Research Society, Fall Meeting, Warsaw, 2009
  14. Microscopy & Microanalysis, Annual Conference of the Microscopy Society, Richmond, USA, 2009
  15. 9th Asia-Pacific Microscopy Conference, ICC Jeju, Jeju Island, Korea, 2008
  16. Microscopy & Microanalysis, Annual Conference of the Microscopy Society, Chicago, USA, 2006
  17. Microscopy & Microanalysis, Annual Conference of the Microscopy Society, Honolulu, USA, 2005
  18. Conference of the International Union of Microbeam Analysis Societies, Florence, Italy 2005
  19. European Materials Research Society, Fall meeting, Warsaw, Poland, 2004
  20. Royal Microscopical Society, MicroScience, London, UK, 2004
  21. Microscopy & Microanalysis, Annual Conference of the Microscopy Society, Savannah, USA, 2004

Professional Seminars (since 2009)

  1. University of Magdeburg, Das Institut für Experimentelle Physik, June, 2013
  2. National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), Pathumthani Thailand, 20 February 2013
  3. MINATEC, Grenoble, France, 17 September 2012
  4. Mahidol University, Bangkok,Thailand, 21 March 2012
  5. King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), Thailand, 20 June 2011
  6. Mahidol University Bangkok, Thailand, 21 June 2011
  7. National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), Pathumthani, Thailand, 21 June 2011
  8. Rajabhat University (PSRU), Pibulsongkram, Thailand, 22 June 2011
  9. Naresuan University, Pibulsongkram, Thailand, 22 June 2011
  10. Thammasat University, Patumtani, Thailand, 23 June 2011
  11. Public Seminar for the Thailand Environment Institute (TEI), Bangkok, Thailand, 24 June 2011
  12. Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, 24 June 2011
  13. Department of Physics, Nanjing University, China, October, 2011
  14. UTS Speaks, Public Lecture, UTS, November 2010
  15. German Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Nanophotonics, TU-Berlin, June, 2009

Conference and Symposium Organiser (since 2010)

  1. 6th Forum on New Materials, Symposium Co-Chair, Materials and Technologies for Solid State Lighting, , Montecantini Terme, Italy, 8-20 June 2014
  2. European Materials Research Society, Symposium Co-Chair, Nitride Semiconductors, Strasbourg, France, 27 - 31 May, 2013
  3. Conference Chair, Australian Microbeam Analysis Society Symposium and Workshops, XII, Sydney, 4 - 8, February 2013
  4. Scientific Committee, 11th International Workshop on Beam Injection Assessment of Microstructures in Semiconductors, 23-28th June, Annaba, Algeria, 2012
  5. Symposium Chair, Advances in Cathodoluminescence, International Union of Microbeam Analysis Societies, Seoul, Korea, 2011
  6. Scientific Committee, 10th International Workshop on Beam Injection Assessment of Microstructures in Semiconductors, 4th – 8th July, Halle, Germany, 2010
  7. Symposium Chair: "Scanning Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy and Microanalysis, Microscopy and Microanalysis 2010, Portland, Oregon, August, 2010

Professional Societies

  • Materials Research Society
  • Australian Microscopy and Microanalysis Society
  • Microbeam Analysis Society
  • ARC Nanotechnology Network
  • ARC Australian Network for the Fluorescence Applications in Biotechnology and the Life Sciences
Image of Matt Phillips
Professor, Faculty of Science
Director, Centre of Expertise Microstructural Analysis
Associate Head of School (Research), School of Physics and Advanced Materials
Member, Research Centre for Clean Energy Technology
Core Member, Research Strength Materials and Technology for Energy Efficiency Member
BSc (UNSW), PhD (UTS)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 1620
Room
CB04.01.38

Research Interests

Professor Phillips and his group conduct research on the light emitting properties of bulk and nano-structured technologically important materials, in particular group III-nitrides and binary oxide semiconductors. Experimental methods include; scanning cathodoluminescence microscopy and spectroscopy, in-situ variable pressure SEM, scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, UV laser photoluminescence spectroscopy, deep level transient spectroscopy and a broad range of associated materials microcharacterisation and fabrication techniques. ( www.sydneynano.com )

Specific research interests involve:

  1. optical and electrical properties of point defects in semiconducting nitrides and oxides.
  2. luminescence mechanisms in nanowires and nano-particles.
  3. light emitting low dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum wells, wires and dots.
  4. physics and chemistry of super-luminescence ceramic and semiconductor phosphors.
  5. transport dynamics of polarons, excitons and polaritons in semiconductors.
  6. in-situ studies of nano-wires during growth using variable pressure electron microscopy.
  7. light-matter interactions in spatially confined systems.
  8. light extraction using photon - surface plasmon coupling.
  9. direct-write resist-free nano-lithography using focussed electron beam induced deposition and etching.
  10. application of this work to the development of high performance solid state lighting devices, advanced light and electron detectors as well as innovative bio-imaging platform technologies.
Can supervise: Yes

Current Postgraduate Students

1.  Toby Shanley, PhD principal supervisor, 2012
2.  Liangchen Zhu, PhD, co- supervisor, 2011
3.  Suranan Anantachaisilip, PhD, principal supervisor, 2011
4.  Joel Davis, MSc, principal supervisor, 2011
5.  Gordon Callsen, PhD, principal supervisor, co-tutelle TU Berlin, 2010
6.  Christian Nenstiel, PhD, principal supervisor, co-tutelle TU Berlin, 2010
7.  Mark Lockrey, principal supervisor, 2010

Completed PhD and MSc Theses

1.   PhD (2013), Marcus Straw (2013) principal supervisor
2.   PhD (2013) Olivier Lee, co-supervisor
3.   MSc (2012), James Bishop, MSc, principal supervisor
4.   PhD (2010) Matthew Foley, PhD, 2007, co-supervisor
5.   PhD (2008) Enno Malguth, IPRS, principal supervisor
6.   PhD (2007) Rachel White, APA, principal supervisor
7.   PhD (2007) Sudha Mokkapati, supervisory committee ANU
8.   PhD (2006) Scott Morgan, APA, principal supervisor
9.   PhD (2006) Victoria Coleman, supervisory committee ANU
10. PhD (2005) Stephan Schelm, co-supervisor
11. PhD (2005) Carl Masens, co-supervisor
12. PhD (2004) Olaf Gelhausen, IPRS, principal supervisor
13. PhD (2001) Richard Wuhrer, co-supervisor
14. PhD (2000) Milos Toth, APA, principal supervisor
15. PhD (1999) Svetlana Dglitach, co-supervisor
16. MSc (1998) Lisa Emerson, principal supervisor

Exchange StudentsTechnische Universitäet Berlin Exchange Students:

Karsten Fleischer (1999), Olaf Gelhausen (2000), Hagen Telg (2001), Holger Klein (2002), Nicolas Pomplum (2003), Enno Malguth (2003), Markus Wagner (2004), Christian Rauch (2005), Gordon Callsen (2007), Jurgen Probst (2007), Daniela Neuman (2008), Bruno Riemenschneider (2008), Dorian Alden (2009), Nadja Jankowski (2012), Sarah Schlichting (2012)

Other Exchange Students:

Zuzana Majlinova, Slovak University of Technology, Bratislava (2003); Moritz Merklein, University of Konstanz (2010) and May Patropon, Mahidol University, Thailand (2011)

Current Subjects:

  • Solid State and Nano-device Physics 68606
  • Scanning Probe and Electron Microscopy 68320
  • Physics & Nanotechnology Honours Course Work 68861

Past Subjects:

  • Techniques of Materials Analysis 68516
  • Electron Microscopy and Microanalysis 60502
  • Scanning Probe Microscopy 60503
  • X-ray Diffraction Techniques 60501
  • Forensic Imaging 65341
  • Nanoscience 1 60103
  • Nanoscience 2 60104

Chapters

Remond, G., Phillips, M. & Roques-Carmes, C. 2000, 'Importance of Instrumental Factors on the Reliability of Cathodoluminescence Data' in Pagel, M., Barbin, V., Blanc, P. & Ohnenstetter, D. (eds), Cathodoluminescence in Geosciences, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 59-126.
Kalceff, M.A.S., Phillips, M.R., Moon, A.R. & Kalceff, W. 2000, 'Cathodoluminescence microcharacterisation of silicon dioxide polymorphs', SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, pp. 193-224.

Conferences

Phillips, M., Manning, T.J., Nenstiel, C., Lockrey, M.N., Ton-That, C. & Hoffmann, A.V. 2011, 'High Temperature In-Situ Cathodoluminescence Studies of the Thermal Stability of Hydrogen in p-type Magnesium Doped Gallium Nitride', Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol 17, Supplement 2, High Temperature In-Situ Cathodoluminescence Studies of the Thermal Stability of Hydrogen in p-type, Nashville, Tennessee, pp. 1-2.
Manning, T., Hardy, T., Merklein, M., Wintrebert-Fouquet, M. & Phillips, M. 2010, 'A Mechanism for Mg acceptor activation in GaN by Low Energy Electron Beam Irradiation', Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices, Proceedings, COMMAD, IEEE, United States, pp. 139-140.
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Low Energy Electron Beam Irradiation (LEEBI) was found to quench the donor-acceptor pair (DAP) attributed to carbon (CN at 3.28 eV at 80 K) and enhances the emission of the 3.27 eV peak, which has been attributed to a free-to-bound (e,Mg0) transition at
Nenstiel, C., Switaisky, T., Alic, M., Suski, T., Albecht, M., Phillips, M. & Hoffmann, A.V. 2010, 'Luminescence of InGaN MQWs grown on misorientated GaN substrates', Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices, Proceedings, COMMAD, IEEE, United States, pp. 135-136.
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Optoelectronic devices based on InGaN have already been commercialised, however, the Indium content is limited to around 5%. With higher Indium concentration the quantum efficiency decreases, which is thought to be due to increasing inhomogeneity. In thi
Foley, M., Ton-That, C. & Phillips, M. 2010, 'Cathodoluminescence characterisation of vapour transport grown ZnO structures', Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, IEEE Explorer, Piscataway, NJ, U.S.A., pp. 207-209.
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ZnO structures grown under controlled vapourphase transport growth conditions were characterised by electron microscopy and high-resolution cathodoluminescence techniques. Variations in the defect related emission and morphology were observed to be dependent on the distance from the source material. Annealing of grown structures under oxygen eliminated the defect emission. These experimental observations suggest that oxygen deficiency in ZnO is linked to the defect related emission, and that defect emission is strongly influence.
Dowd, A.R., Armstrong, N.G., Ton-That, C., Johansson, B. & Phillips, M. 2008, 'Cathodoluminescence for High Resolution Non-Destructive Luminescence Depth Profiling.', IUMRS-ICEM 2008 | COMMAD 2008, A-MRS, Parkville, VIC.
Malguth, E., Hoffmann, A.V., Phillips, M. & Gehlhoff, W. 2006, 'Fe-centers in GaN as candidates for spintronics applications', GaN, AlN, InN And Related Materials, Materials Research Society, Warrendale, USA, pp. 131-136.
The potential use of Fe doped GaN for spintronics applications requires a complete understanding of the electronic structure of Fe in all of its charge states. To address these issues, a set of 400 mu m thick freestanding HVPE grown GaN:Fe crystals with
Zareie, H.M., Sarikaya, M., McDonagh, A.M., Barber, J., Cortie, M.B. & Phillips, M. 2006, 'Self-organised materials: from organic molecules to genetically engineered gold-binding proteins', 2006 International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, IEEE, USA, pp. 517-519.
We present examples of ordered assemblies of organic and biological molecules on gold(111) surfaces. The first example shows how control over mono or multilayer assemblies of 1,4-phenylenedimethanthiol can be achieved and monitored. The second example shows how monolayers on gold can be prepared using amine groups to anchor aromatic molecules to the surface. A third example whos how ordered assemblies of genetically-engineered inorganic-binding polypeptides can be formed on gold surfaces using a 3-repeat, 14 amino acid gold-binding protein (GBP1).
Phillips, M. & Morgan, S.W. 2006, 'Enhanced high speed SE imaging using a VPSEM using a Frisch Grid', Proceedings of Microscopy & Microanalysis 12, Suppl. 2 2006, Cambridge university Press, USA, pp. 1480-1481.
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Secondary electron (SE) imaging in a variable pressure SEM has necessitated the development of new detector technologies. One approach is to measure the charge, Q, induced on a positive electrode placed at some distance, r, from the specimen stage which is a ground potential. Gas ionization by sufficiently energetic SEs produces electron-ion pairs which are charge separated by the applied electric field. Electrons drift towards the anode causing further gas ionization in a cascade process, and the ions drift towards the stage (cathode). The total Q induced at the anode will include charge components induced by the motion of both electrons, QE, and ions, QI.
Wuhrer, R., Moran, K., Phillips, M. & Davey, P. 2006, 'X-ray mapping using a multiple-EDS (DUAL) detector', Proceedings of Microscopy & Microanalysis 12, suppl. 2, 2006, Cambridge University Press, USA, pp. 1406-1407.
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X-ray mapping (XRM) is an extremely useful problem solving tool. However, the two major problems for energy dispersive spectroscopy are interpretation of results under non ideal conditions (strong overlap and small peak size relative to background), and the time required to obtain a good quality 256x256 pixel map (1 to 3 hours). XRM has been considered a slow technique, claiming many hours of SEM time and often relegated to out-of-hours (overnight) mapping. With the development of high count rate silicon high resolution drift detectors (SDD) [1, 2] and multi-detector systems [3], the time required to acquire XRM decreases. With a single EDS detector at 20kcps output, a good 512x512 quantitative map can be obtained in around 4 to 8 hours for major elements (>10wt% evenly distributed) and minor elements (>1wt% localised).
Phillips, M. & Drouin, D. 2006, 'Comparison of low voltage phosphers', Proceedings of Microscopy & Microanalysis 12, Suppl. 2, 2006, Cambridge University Press, USA, pp. 1526-1527.
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Progress in field emission display (FED) technology requires the parallel development of phosphors that exhibit high cathodoluminescence (CL) efficiency at low voltage (< 1 kV) excitation and long term CL stability when subjected to high current densities. Five commercial phosphors, ZnO:Zn, YSiO5:Ce, Y2O3:Eu, SrGa2S4:Ce and SrGa2S4:Eu have been studied using low voltage scanning cathodoluminescence microscopy and spectroscopy at 300 K. All samples were powders with a 0.5 10 m particle size (Figure 1). ZnO:Zn was the only specimen that did not display any charging effects at 1 kV when using the in-lens secondary electron image mode, reflecting its good electrical conductivity compared with the other phosphors.
McBean, K.E., Phillips, M. & Drouin, D. 2006, 'Effects of lithium doping and post-processing on the cathodoluminescence of zinc oxide nanoparticles', Proceedings of Microscopy & Microanalysis 12, Suppl. 2, 2006, Cambridge University Press, USA, pp. 1510-1511.
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Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band-gap (3.37 eV) semiconductor with a large exciton binding energy of 60 meV. Because of these properties, ZnO is a good candidate for a wide range of applications, including varistors, phosphors as well as a large range of optical devices. Although the optical properties of ZnO have been extensively studied, there is still intensive debate as to the origin of a number of the luminescence centers observed.
Mokhapati, S., Tan, H.H., Jagadish, C., McBean, K.E. & Phillips, M. 2006, 'Integration of quantum dots devices by selective area epitaxy', Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, IEEE, USA, pp. 442-445.
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The results of nucleation of InGaAs and InAs quantum dots by selective area epitaxy are presented. By pre-patterning the substrates with different (SiO2) mask dimensions the bandgap of the quantum dots can be tuned over a large range. This technique is used to demonstrate a quantum dot lase integrated with a quantum well waveguide.
Drouin, D., Pauc, N., Phillips, M., Poissant, P., Delample, V. & Souifi, A. 2006, 'SEM characterisation of nanodevices and nanomaterials', Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Nanosacience and Nanotechnology, IEEE, USA, pp. 596-599.
The scanning electron microsope (SEM) cna be used to study and characterise a wide variety of materials used in nanoelectronic and photonic applications. Several different techniques make use of this versatile tool. These include voltage conrtast in secondary electron imaging, charge colletion for semiconductor samples and cathodoluminescnece. These techniques are important in device nanofabrication process development and nanomaterials characterisation.
Phillips, M., Drouin, D. & Pauc, N. 2006, 'Probing carrier behaviour at the nanoscale in gallium nitride using low voltage cathodoluminescence', Proceedings of Microscopy & Microanalysis 12, Suppl. 2 2006, Cambridge Univesity Press, USA, pp. 156-157.
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The increasing application of GaN in blue and UV light emitting diodes and lasers has generated considerable interest in its optical and electrical properties. These optical devices exhibit extremely high emission efficiencies despite the presence of a very high concentration of threading dislocations (108 1010 cm-2) that act as non-radiative recombination channels. This perceived contradiction can be been explained by small (< 100 nm) carrier diffusion lengths which effectively negate the effect of the threading dislocations on the radiative recombination efficiency. These short exciton and minority carrier diffusion lengths in GaN can be explored by cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy and spectroscopy using a SEM equipped with a Schottky field emission gun operating at 1 kV.
Wuhrer, R., Moran, K. & Phillips, M. 2006, 'X-ray mapping and post processing', Proceedings of Microscopy & Microanalysis 12 Suppl. 2, 2006, Cambridge university Press, USA, pp. 1404-1405.
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Characterisation of materials frequently involves the determination of variation in composition, structure and microstructure, by the use of a variety of imaging and analysis techniques. There is an increasing need to understand materials phenomena and processes and to learn more about exploiting subtle changes in the distribution of elements in materials technology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) and the combination of these techniques through x-ray mapping (XRM) has become an excellent tool for characterising the distribution of elements and phases in materials. This analytical technique provides a high magnification image related to the distribution and relative abundance of elements within a given specimen and thus makes XRM particularly useful for: identifying the location of individual elements and mapping the spatial distribution of specific elements and phases within a sample (material surface).
Butcher, K.S.A., Ferris, J.M., Phillips, M.R., Wintrebert-Fouquet, M., Wah, J.W.J., Jovanovic, N., Vyverman, W. & Chepurnov, V. 2005, 'A luminescence study of porous diatoms', MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING C-BIOMIMETIC AND SUPRAMOLECULAR SYSTEMS, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, pp. 658-663.
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Wuhrer, R., Moran, K., Phillips, M. & Davey, P. 2005, 'X-ray Mapping using Multiple EDS and WDS Detectors', Proceeding Microscopy and Microanalysis Vol 11 (Suppl2), Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, pp. 1678-1679.
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High quality x-ray mapping (XRM) has been used for over 30 years by experienced wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) operators. Manufacturers have been developing similar techniques using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) over the last 20 years. This has been generally unsuccssful due to a number of problems such as poor computer specifications, cost, time to map and generally poor peak to bacjground ratios (P:B). With improvements in all the above parameters EDS mapping is now gaining in popularity.
Wuhrer, R., Huggett, P.G., Moran, K., Phillips, M. & Ben-Nissan, B. 2005, 'EBSD and XRM of Phases in Vacuum Cast Composite Alloys', Proceeding Microscopy and Microanalysis Vol 11 (S2), Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, pp. 1678-1679.
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There have been a number f new processes developed that allow the joining of very dissimilar materials such as titanium alloys, wear resistant white irons, cast irons and ceramic materials to ferrous (mild steel) and non-ferrous (aluminium) alloys. These new processes have allowed the development of more complex composite shapes to be produced. However, with any new process development, an undertsnating of the mechanism of bonding is required. through the use of x-ray mapping (XRM), chemical phase imaging as well as electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analsysis, very useful information on the mass transport across the interface as well as phase segregation, texture variations and phase distribution within the bond interface can be obtained. results from this investigation on a number of bonded materials are presented and the importance of XRM and EBSD in providing a better understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in metallurgical bonding/welding of dissimilar materials discussed.
Phillips, M. & Morgan, S.W. 2005, 'Direct Comparison of Various Gaseous Secondary Electron Detectors in the Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope', Proceeding Microscopy and Microanalysis vol 11 (Suppl 2), Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, pp. 398-399.
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The conventional Everhart-Thornely scintillation-photomultiplier secondary electron (SE) detector cannot function at elevated pressures due to the high voltage (~ +12kV) involved in its operation. As a result, SE imaging in the variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VPSEM) has required the development of a new generation of SE detectors that operate under low vacuum conditions. To date, three different methods have been devised to measure the secondary electron (SE) emission signal in a VPSEM. Each of these approaches involves the excitation of the chamber gas by the placement of a low voltage (< +1000V) positively biased electrode in the vicinity of the specimen. A SE image can be obtained by measuring the current induced in either the positive electrode (the gaseous secondary electron detector) or the grounded stage (the ion current detector) or via a photomultiplier that detects light emission from the gas (the gas luminescence detector). In this work, the performance of each of these three low vacuum SE detector types has been compared under identical operating conditions using a Zeiss Supra 55VPSEM and FEI XL30 ESEM.
Wuhrer, R., Moran, K., Huggett, P.G., Phillips, M. & Ben-Nissan, B. 2004, 'X-Ray Mapping and Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction of Phases in Welded Materials', Proceedings Microscopy and Microanalysis 2004, Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, pp. 916-917.
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Wuhrer, R., Phillips, M.R., Mason, K., Roux, C., Maniago, J.R. & Hales, S. 2004, 'GSR analysis in the environmental scanning electron microscope', Microscopy and Microanalysis, pp. 1362-1363.
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White, R., Phillips, M., Thomas, P., Wuhrer, R. & Dredge, P. 2004, 'Interactions between pigments in 19th and early 20th century oil paintings - In situ studies using the environmental scanning electron microscope', Microscopy and Microanalysis, pp. 132-133.
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Gelhausen, O., Malguth, E., Phillips, M., Goldys, E.M., Strassburg, M., Hoffmann, A.V., Graf, T., Gjukic, M. & Stutzmann, M. 2004, 'Optical Properties of Mn -doped GaN', Proceedings MRS Fall Meeting, Materials Research Society, Materials Research Society, Warrendale Pennsylvania, pp. 569-574.
Phillips, M. & McBean, K.E. 2004, 'In-situ evaluation of post growth treatments on the cathodomluminescence properties of fluorescent nanoparticles in the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope', Proceedings Microscopy and Microanalysis 2004, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 1064-1065.
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Gelhausen, O., Malguth, E., Phillips, M.R., Goldys, E.M., Strassburg, M., Hoffmann, A., Graf, T., Gjukic, M. & Stutzmann, M. 2003, 'Optical properties of M-doped GaN', GAN AND RELATED ALLOYS - 2003, MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY, pp. 569-574.
Gelhausen, O., Phillips, M.R., Goldys, E.M., Paskova, T., Monemar, B., Strassburg, M. & Hoffmann, A. 2003, 'Formation and dissociation of hydrogen-related defect centers in Mg-doped GaN', GAN AND RELATED ALLOYS - 2003, MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY, pp. 497-502.
Griffin, B., Suvorova, A. & Phillips, M. 2002, 'A review of gas-electron interactions imaging and X-ray analysis in variable pressure SEM', Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Electron Microscopy, Microscopy Society of Southern Africa, Onderstepoort, South Africa, pp. 215-216.
Phillips, M. & Morgan, S.W. 2002, 'Time dependent behaviour of positive ions in the variable pressure scanning electron microscope', Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Electron Microscopy, Microscopy Society of Southern Africa, Onderstepoort, South Africa, pp. 219-220.
Toth, M., Craven, J.P., Phillips, M., Thiel, B.L. & Donald, A.M. 2002, 'X-ray microanalysis of insulators in a variable pressure environment', Proceedings of Microscopy and Microanalysis 2002, Vol 11 (suppl 2), Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, pp. 1478-1479.
Phillips, M. & Morgan, S.W. 2002, 'Time resolved analysis of the positive ion dynamics in the variable pressure scanning electron microscope', Proceedings of Microscopy and Microanalysis 2002, Vol 8 (Suppl 2), Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, pp. 446-477.
Godlewski, M., Ivanov, V., Khachapuridze, A., Narkowicz, R. & Phillips, M. 2001, 'Effects of Localisations in CdTe-Based Quantum Well Structures in optical Organic and Inorganic Materials', Proceedings of the SPIE, SPIE, USA, pp. 86-91.
Phillips, M., Griffin, B., Drouin, D., Nockolds, C. & Remond, G. 2001, 'X-Ray Micronalaysis in the Environmentl SEM Using Mapping and Fourier Deconvolution Techniques', Microscopy & Microanalysis 2001 Proceedings Volume 7 Supplement 2, Springer Verlag, New York, pp. 708-709.
Morgan, S.W. & Phillips, M. 2001, 'Time Dependent Study of the Positive Ion Current in the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM)', Microscopy & Microanalysis 2001 Proceedings Volume 7 Supplement 2, Springer Verlag, New York, pp. 788-789.
Remond, G., Nockolds, C.E., Phillips, M.R. & Cazaux, J. 2000, 'Charging phenomena of wide bandgap materials in a VP-SEM.', MICROBEAM ANALYSIS 2000, PROCEEDINGS, IOP PUBLISHING LTD, pp. 269-270.
Phillips, M.R. & Toth, M. 2000, 'Charge neutralization of insulators in an ESEM', MICROBEAM ANALYSIS 2000, PROCEEDINGS, IOP PUBLISHING LTD, pp. 273-274.
Toth, M., Phillips, M.R., Kucheyev, S.O., Williams, J.S., Jagadish, C. & Li, G. 2000, 'Charge contrast in SE images obtained using the ESEM', MICROBEAM ANALYSIS 2000, PROCEEDINGS, IOP PUBLISHING LTD, pp. 275-276.
Griffin, B.J., Nockolds, C.E., Phillips, M.R. & Remond, G. 2000, 'New needs for imaging and x-ray microanalysis standards: ESEM, CHIME and low voltage microanalysis', MICROBEAM ANALYSIS 2000, PROCEEDINGS, IOP PUBLISHING LTD, pp. 395-396.
Wuhrer, R., Yeung, W. & Phillips, M.R. 2000, 'SEM/EDS, AFM and XRD analysis of ternary nitride coatings produced by magnetron co-sputtering at different nitrogen pressures', MICROBEAM ANALYSIS 2000, PROCEEDINGS, IOP PUBLISHING LTD, pp. 449-450.
Gross, K.A., Phillips, M.R. & Suetsugu, Y. 2000, 'Cathodoluminescence emission for differentiating the degree of carbonation in apatites', BIOCERAMICS, TRANS TECH PUBLICATIONS LTD, pp. 179-182.

Journal articles

Choi, S., Johnson, B.C., Castelletto, S., Cuong, T.-.T., Phillips, M.R. & Aharonovich, I. 2014, 'Single photon emission from ZnO nanoparticles', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 104, no. 26.
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Lem, L.L.C., Phillips, M.R. & Ton-That, C. 2014, 'Controlling the visible luminescence in hydrothermal ZnO', JOURNAL OF LUMINESCENCE, vol. 154, pp. 387-391.
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Chan, K.S., Ton-That, C., Vines, L., Choi, S., Phillips, M.R., Svensson, B.G., Jagadish, C. & Wong-Leung, J. 2014, 'Effects of high temperature annealing on defects and luminescence properties in H implanted ZnO', JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 47, no. 34.
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Ton-That, C., Lem, L.L.C., Phillips, M.R., Reisdorffer, F., Mevellec, J., Nguyen, T.-.P., Nenstiel, C. & Hoffmann, A. 2014, 'Shallow carrier traps in hydrothermal ZnO crystals', New Journal of Physics, vol. 16.
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Native and hydrogen-plasma induced shallow traps in hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals have been investigated by charge-based deep level transient spectroscopy, photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence microanalysis. The as-grown ZnO exhibits a trap state at 23 meV, while H-doped ZnO produced by plasma doping shows two levels at 22 meV and 11 meV below the conduction band. As-grown ZnO displays the expected thermal decay of bound excitons with increasing temperature from 7 K, while we observed an anomalous behaviour of the excitonic emission in H-doped ZnO, in which its intensity increases with increasing temperature in the range 140-300 K. Based on a multitude of optical results, a qualitative model is developed which explains the Y line structural defects, which act as an electron trap with an activation energy of 11 meV, being responsible for the anomalous temperature-dependent cathodoluminescence of H-doped ZnO. 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.
Davis, J., Short, K., Wuhrer, R., Phillips, M.R., Lumpkin, G.R. & Whittle, K.R. 2013, 'Electron backscatter diffraction characterization of plasma immersion ion implantation effects in stainless steel', Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, vol. 295, pp. 38-41.
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In these experiments plasma immersion ion implantation is utilised to simulate some of the radiation effects in a nuclear reactor environment. Scanning electron microscopy using the angular selective backscatter detector has revealed observable changes in crystallographic contrast after irradiation with helium ions. Further studies using electron backscatter diffraction in both plan and cross section view allow us to visualize the extent and depth of damage and observe differences in the behavior of different crystalline phases present in several grades of stainless steel. 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhu, L., Cuong, T.-.T. & Phillips, M.R. 2013, 'Nitrogen incorporation in ZnO nanowires using N2O dopant gas', MATERIALS LETTERS, vol. 99, pp. 42-45.
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Khachadorian, S., Papagelis, K., Ogata, K., Hofmann, S., Phillips, M.R. & Thomsen, C. 2013, 'Elastic Properties of Crystalline-Amorphous Core-Shell Silicon Nanowires', JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C, vol. 117, no. 8, pp. 4219-4226.
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Martin, A.A., Phillips, M.R. & Toth, M. 2013, 'Dynamic Surface Site Activation: A Rate Limiting Process in Electron Beam Induced Etching', ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, vol. 5, no. 16, pp. 8002-8007.
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Ton-That, C., Foley, M., Phillips, M.R., Tsuzuki, T. & Smith, Z. 2012, 'Correlation between the structural and optical properties of Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles', JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS, vol. 522, pp. 114-117.
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Weston, L., Ton-That, C. & Phillips, M.R. 2012, 'Doping properties of hydrogen in ZnO', JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH, vol. 27, no. 17, pp. 2220-2224.
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Ton-That, C., Weston, L. & Phillips, M.R. 2012, 'Characteristics of point defects in the green luminescence from Zn- and O-rich ZnO', PHYSICAL REVIEW B, vol. 86, no. 11.
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Bishop, J., Toth, M., Phillips, M. & Lobo, C. 2012, 'Effects of oxygen on electron beam induced deposition of SiO2 using physisorbed and chemisorbed tetraethoxysilane', Applied Physics Letters, vol. 101, no. 21.
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Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) is limited by low throughput and purity of as-grown material. Co-injection of O2 with the growth precursor is known to increase both the purity and deposition rate of materials such as SiO2 at room temperature. Here, we show that O2 inhibits rather than enhances EBID from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) precursor at elevated temperatures. This behavior is attributed to surface site competition between chemisorbates at elevated temperature, and TEOS decomposition by atomic oxygen produced through electron dissociation of physisorbed O2 at room temperature. 2012 American Institute of Physics.
Bishop, J., Lobo, C.J., Martin, A., Ford, M., Phillips, M. & Toth, M. 2012, 'Role of activated chemisorption in gas-mediated electron beam induced deposition', Physical Review Letters, vol. 109, no. 14.
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Models of adsorbate dissociation by energetic electrons are generalized to account for activated sticking and chemisorption, and used to simulate the rate kinetics of electron beam induced chemical vapor deposition (EBID). The model predicts a novel temperature dependence caused by thermal transitions from physisorbed to chemisorbed states that govern adsorbate coverage and EBID rates at elevated temperatures. We verify these results by experiments that also show how EBID can be used to deposit high purity materials and characterize the rates and energy barriers that govern adsorption. 2012 American Physical Society.
Lobo, C.J., Martin, A., Phillips, M.R. & Toth, M. 2012, 'Electron beam induced chemical dry etching and imaging in gaseous NH 3 environments', Nanotechnology, vol. 23, no. 37.
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We report the use of ammonia (NH 3) vapor as a new precursor for nanoscale electron beam induced etching (EBIE) of carbon, and an efficient imaging medium for environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Etching is demonstrated using amorphous carbonaceous nanowires grown by electron beam induced deposition (EBID). It is ascribed to carbon volatilization by hydrogen radicals generated by electron dissociation of NH 3 adsorbates. The volatilization process is also effective at preventing the buildup of residual hydrocarbon impurities that often compromise EBIE, EBID and electron imaging. We also show that ammonia is a more efficient electron imaging medium than H 2O, which up to now has been the most commonly used ESEM imaging gas. 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Demers, H., Poirier-Demers, N., Phillips, M.R., de Jonge, N. & Drouin, D. 2012, 'Three-Dimensional Electron Energy Deposition Modeling of Cathodoluminescence Emission near Threading Dislocations in GaN and Electron-Beam Lithography Exposure Parameters for a PMMA Resist', MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1220-1228.
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Roczen, M., Schade, M., Malguth, E., Callsen, G., Barthel, T., Gref, O., Toefflinger, J.A., Schoepke, A., Schmidt, M., Leipner, H.S., Ruske, F., Phillips, M.R., Hoffmann, A., Korte, L. & Rech, B. 2012, 'Structural investigations of silicon nanostructures grown by self-organized island formation for photovoltaic applications', APPLIED PHYSICS A-MATERIALS SCIENCE & PROCESSING, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 719-726.
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Callsen, G., Reparaz, J.S., Wagner, M.R., Kirste, R., Nenstiel, C., Hoffmann, A. & Phillips, M.R. 2011, 'Phonon deformation potentials in wurtzite GaN and ZnO determined by uniaxial pressure dependent Raman measurements', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 98, no. 6.
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Wagner, M.R., Callsen, G., Reparaz, J.S., Schulze, J.-.H., Kirste, R., Cobet, M., Ostapenko, I.A., Rodt, S., Nenstiel, C., Kaiser, M., Hoffmann, A., Rodina, A.V., Phillips, M.R., Lautenschlaeger, S., Eisermann, S. & Meyer, B.K. 2011, 'Bound excitons in ZnO: Structural defect complexes versus shallow impurity centers', PHYSICAL REVIEW B, vol. 84, no. 3.
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Callsen, G., Reparaz, J.S., Wagner, M.R., Vierck, A., Phillips, M.R., Thomsen, C. & Hoffmann, A. 2011, 'Titanium-assisted growth of silica nanowires: from surface-matched to free-standing morphologies', NANOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 22, no. 40.
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Chen, P.P.-.T., Downes, J.E., Fernandes, A.J., Butcher, K.S.A., Wintrebert-Fouquet, M., Wuhrer, R. & Phillips, M.R. 2011, 'Effects of crystallinity and chemical variation on apparent band-gap shift in polycrystalline indium nitride', THIN SOLID FILMS, vol. 519, no. 6, pp. 1831-1836.
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Lem, L.L.C., Ton-That, C. & Phillips, M.R. 2011, 'Distribution of visible luminescence centers in hydrogen-doped ZnO', JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH, vol. 26, no. 23, pp. 2912-2915.
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Sprouster, D.J., Ruffell, S., Bradby, J.E., Williams, J.S., Lockrey, M.N., Phillips, M.R., Major, R.C. & Warren, O.L. 2011, 'Structural characterization of B-doped diamond nanoindentation tips', JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH, vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 3051-3057.
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Lockrey, M.N. & Phillips, M. 2011, 'Characterisation Of The Optical Properties Of InGaN MQW Structures Using A Combined Sem And Cl Spectral Mapping System', Journal of Semiconductors, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 0-0.
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We demonstrate the ability of a combined scanning electron microscope and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectral mapping system to provide important spatially resolved information. The degree of inhomogeneity in spectral output across a multi-quantum well sample is measured using the SEM-CL system as well as measuring the efficiency roll-off with increasing carrier concentration. The effects of low energy electron beam modification on the InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells have also been characterized.
Foley, M., Ton-That, C. & Phillips, M.R. 2010, 'Luminescent properties of ZnO structures grown with a vapour transport method', THIN SOLID FILMS, vol. 518, no. 15, pp. 4231-4233.
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White, R., Thomas, P., Phillips, M.R., Moran, K. & Wuhrer, R. 2010, 'X-ray mapping and scatter diagram analysis of the discoloring products resulting from the interaction of artist's pigments', Microscopy and Microanalysis, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 594-598.
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The discoloring interaction between the artist's pigments cadmium yellow and the copper-containing malachite, an interaction that is conjectured to cause black spotting in oil paintings of the 19th and early 20th centuries, was examined using X-ray mapping and scatter diagram analysis. The application of these coupled techniques confirmed that copper sulfide phases were produced during discoloration reaction. Scatter diagram analysis indicated that two copper sulfide stoichiometries (CuS and Cu3S2) were present as reaction products where previously only crystalline CuS (covellite) had been identified by X-ray diffraction. The results demonstrate the potential of X-ray mapping coupled with scatter diagram analysis for the identification of both crystalline and X-ray amorphous phases produced by such complex heterogeneous interactions and their applicability to the investigation of interactions of artists' pigments. Microscopy Society of America 2010.
Coutts, M.J., Zareie, H.M., Cortie, M.B., Phillips, M.R., Wuhrer, R. & McDonagh, A.M. 2010, 'Exploiting zinc oxide re-emission to fabricate periodic arrays', ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 1774-1779.
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The synthesis of hexagonal ring-shaped structures of zinc oxide using nanosphere lithography and metal/metal oxide sputtering is demonstrated. This synthesis exploits the surface re-emission of zinc oxide to deposit material in regions lying out of the line-of-sight of the sputtering source. These rings can nucleate the hydrothermal growth of zinc oxide crystals. Control over the growth could be exercised by varying growth solution concentration or temperature or by applying an external potential. 2010 American Chemical Society.
Ton-That, C., Foley, M., Lem, L.L.C., McCredie, G., Phillips, M.R. & Cowie, B.C.C. 2010, 'Diffusion synthesis and electronic properties of Fe-doped ZnO', MATERIALS LETTERS, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 386-388.
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Phillips, M.R., Drouin, D., Moody, S.J. & Ton-That, C. 2009, 'Imaging Fundamental Electronic Excitations at High Spatial Resolution Using Scanning Cathodoluminescence Microscopy', MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS, vol. 15, pp. 670-671.
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Godlewski, M., Wojcik-Glodowska, A., Guziewicz, E., Yatsunenko, S., Zakrzewski, A., Dumont, Y., Chikoidze, E. & Phillips, M.R. 2009, 'Optical properties of manganese doped wide band gap ZnS and ZnO', OPTICAL MATERIALS, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1768-1771.
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Bertinshaw, J., Kirkup, L., Phillips, M. & Placido, F. 2008, 'A system for supplying constant electrical power for postprocessing tin-doped indium oxide films.', Rev Sci Instrum, vol. 79, no. 7, p. 076105.
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Annealing tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films by self-heating shows potential for reducing the crystallization temperature required to optimize the optical and electrical properties of the films. It also shows promise as a cost effective method of studying the heat treatment process in situ. A computer based solution was developed to allow for a precise control over the annealing process. To anneal at a fixed temperature, a feedback loop senses changes in the resistance of the sample and adjusts the current across the load accordingly to ensure constant delivery of power to an ITO film.
Malguth, E., Hoffmann, A. & Phillips, M.R. 2008, 'Fe in III-V and II-VI semiconductors', PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, vol. 245, no. 3, pp. 455-480.
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Ton-That, C., Phillips, M.R., Foley, M., Moody, S.J. & Stampfl, A.P.J. 2008, 'Surface electronic properties of ZnO nanoparticles', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 92, no. 26.
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Foley, M., Ton-That, C. & Phillips, M.R. 2008, 'Cathodoluminescence inhomogeneity in ZnO nanorods', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 93, no. 24.
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Morgan, S.W. & Phillips, M.R. 2008, 'High bandwidth secondary electron detection in variable pressure scanning electron microscopy using a Frisch grid', JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 41, no. 5.
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Mokkapati, S., Wong-Leung, J., Tan, H.H., Jagadish, C., McBean, K.E. & Phillips, M.R. 2008, 'Tuning the bandgap of InAs quantum dots by selective-area MOCVD', JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 41, no. 8.
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Zareie, H.M., Morgan, S.W., Moghaddam, M., Maaroof, A.I., Cortie, M.B. & Phillips, M.R. 2008, 'Nanocapacitive circuit elements', ACS Nano, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 1615-1619.
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"Natural" lithography was used to prepare arrays of nanoscale capacitors on silicon. The capacitance was verified by a novel technique based on the interaction of a charged substrate with the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope. The "nanocapacitors" possessed a capacitance of ?1 10-16F and were observed to hold charge for over an hour. Our results indicate that fabricating nanostructures using natural lithography may provide a viable alternative for future nanoelectronic devices. 2008 American Chemical Society.
Wuhrer, R., Moran, K. & Phillips, M. 2008, 'Multi-Detector X-Ray Mapping and Generation of Correction Factor Images for Problem Solving', Microscopy & Microanalysis, vol. 14, no. S2, pp. 1108-1109.
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X-ray mapping with Silicon Drift detectors (SDDs) and multi-EDS detector systems has become an invaluable analysis technique because the time to perform an x-ray map is reduced considerably. Live x-ray imaging can now been performed with so much data collected in a matter of minutes. The use of multi-EDS detector systems has made this form of mapping even quicker and has also given users the ability to map minor and trace elements very accurately. How the data is collected and summed with multi-EDS detectors is very critical for accurate quantitative x-ray mapping (QXRM).
Yang, J., Li, S., Li, Z.W., McBean, K. & Phillips, M.R. 2008, 'Origin of excitonic emission suppression in an individual ZnO nanobelt', JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C, vol. 112, no. 27, pp. 10095-10099.
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Ton-That, C., Stockton, G., Phillips, M.R., Nguyen, T.-.P., Huang, C.H. & Cojocaru, A. 2008, 'Luminescence properties of poly- (phenylene vinylene) derivatives', Polymer International, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 496-501.
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Background: Conjugated polymers, especially those of the poly(phenylene vinylene) (PPV) family, are promising candidates as emission material in light-emitting devices. The aim of this work was to investigate the dependence of the luminescence properties of PPV-based derivatives on their polymer structure, especially side groups. Results: Three PPV derivatives, BEHPPV, MEHPPV and MEHSPPV, were synthesised and characterised by photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopies in the temperature range 10-300K. PL and CL spectra of the polymers exhibit similar luminescence peaks, which undergo a blue shift with increasing temperature. The shift in wavelength is accompanied by variations in the relative intensities of emission peaks. Both BEHPPV and MEHPPV display emission characteristics of the PPV backbone, but the peak of MEHPPV shifts to a longer wavelength in comparison with the corresponding peak of BEHPPV at the same temperature. The luminescence spectra of MEHSPPV, which has a sulfanyl incorporated in the side chain, are considerably different from those of the two other derivatives. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that the luminescence properties depend strongly on the chain conformations of the conjugated backbone, which are affected by polymer side chains. 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.
Ton-That, C., Foley, M. & Phillips, M.R. 2008, 'Luminescent properties of ZnO nanowires and as-grown ensembles', NANOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 19, no. 41.
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Ton-That, C., Phillips, M.R. & Nguyen, T.-.P. 2008, 'Blue shift in the luminescence spectra of MEH-PPV films containing ZnO nanoparticles', Journal of Luminescence, vol. 128, no. 12, pp. 2031-2034.
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Luminescence properties of nanocomposites consisting of ZnO nanoparticles in a conjugated polymer, poly [2-methoxy-5-(2?-ethyl hexyloxy)-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV), were investigated. Photoluminescence measurements reveal a blue shift in the emission spectrum of MEH-PPV upon incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles into the polymer film while the emission is increasingly quenched with increasing ZnO concentration. In contrast, the structure of the polymer and its conjugation length are not affected by the presence of ZnO nanoparticles (up to 16 wt% ZnO) as revealed by Raman spectroscopy. The blue shift and photoluminescence quenching are explained by the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs at the MEH-PPV/ZnO interface and the charging of the nanoparticles. Crown Copyright 2008.
Veal, T.D., Piper, L.F.J., Phillips, M.R., Zareie, M.H., Lu, H., Schaff, W.J. & McConville, C.F. 2007, 'Doping-dependence of subband energies in quantized electron accumulation at InN surfaces', PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, vol. 204, no. 2, pp. 536-542.
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Godlewski, M., Skrobot, M., Guziewicz, E. & Phillips, M.R. 2007, 'Color tuning of white light emission from thin films of ZnSe', JOURNAL OF LUMINESCENCE, vol. 125, no. 1-2, pp. 85-91.
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Toth, M., Lobo, C.J., Knowles, W.R., Phillips, M.R., Postek, M.T. & Vladr, A.E. 2007, 'Nanostructure fabrication by ultra-high-resolution environmental scanning electron microscopy', Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 525-530.
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Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) is a maskless nanofabrication technique capable of surpassing the resolution limits of resist-based lithography. However, EBID fabrication of functional nanostructures is limited by beam spread in bulk substrates, substrate charging, and delocalized film growth around deposits. Here, we overcome these problems by using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to perform EBID and etching while eliminating charging artifacts at the nanoscale. Nanostructure morphology is tailored by slimming of deposits by ESEM imaging in the presence of a gaseous etch precursor and by pre-etching small features into a deposit (using a stationary or a scanned electron beam) prior to a final imaging process. The utility of this process is demonstrated by slimming of nanowires deposited by EBID, by the fabrication of gaps (between 4 and 7 nm wide) in the wires, and by the removal of thin films surrounding such nanowires. ESEM imaging provides a direct view of the slimming process, yielding process resolution that is limited by ESEM image resolution (~1 nm) and surface roughening occurring during etching. 2007 American Chemical Society.
Toth, M., Knowles, W.R. & Phillips, M.R. 2007, 'Imaging deep trap distributions by low vacuum scanning electron microscopy', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 90, no. 7.
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Motlan, Zhu, G., Drozdowicz-Tomsia, K., McBean, K., Phillips, M.R. & Goldys, E.M. 2007, 'Annealing of ZnS nanocrystals grown by colloidal synthesis', OPTICAL MATERIALS, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1579-1583.
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Godlewski, M., Yatsunenko, S., Ivanov, V.Y., Drozdowicz-Tomsia, K., Goldys, E.M., Phillips, M.R., Klar, P.J. & Heimbrodt, W. 2007, 'Mechanisms of enhancement of light emission in nanostructures of II-VI compounds doped with manganese', LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS, vol. 33, no. 2-3, pp. 192-196.
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Zhang, H.Z., Phillips, M.R., Fitz Gerald, J.D., Yu, J. & Chen, Y. 2006, 'Patterned growth and cathodoluminescence of conical boron nitride nanorods', Applied Physics Letters, vol. 88, no. 9.
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We demonstrate a simple and effective approach for growing large-scale, high-density, and well-patterned conical boron nitride nanorods. A catalyst layer of Fe (NO3) 3 was patterned on a silicon substrate by using a copper grid as a mask. The nanorods were grown via annealing milled boron carbide powders at 1300 C in a flow of nitrogen gas. The as-grown nanorods exhibit uniform morphology and the catalyst pattern precisely defines the position of nanorod deposition. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of the nanorods show two broad emission bands centered at 3.75 and 1.85 eV. Panchromatic CL images reveal clear patterned structure. 2006 American Institute of Physics.
Chen, P.P.T., Butcher, K.S.A., Wintrebert-Fouquet, M., Wuhrer, R., Phillips, M.R., Prince, K.E., Timmers, H., Shrestha, S.K. & Usher, B.F. 2006, 'Apparent band-gap shift in InN films grown by remote-plasma-enhanced CVD', JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, vol. 288, no. 2, pp. 241-246.
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Veal, T.D., Piper, L.F.J., Phillips, M.R., Zareie, M.H., Lu, H., Schaff, W.J. & McConville, C.F. 2006, 'Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of quantized electron accumulation at InxGa1-xN surfaces', PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, vol. 203, no. 1, pp. 85-92.
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Coleman, V.A., Buda, M., Tan, H.H., Jagadish, C., Phillips, M.R., Koike, K., Sasa, S., Inoue, M. & Yano, M. 2006, 'Observation of blue shifts in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum well structures by ion-implantation induced intermixing', SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. L25-L28.
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Zareie, H.M., McDonagh, A.M., Edgar, J., Ford, M.J., Cortie, M.B. & Phillips, M.R. 2006, 'Controlled assembly of 1,4-phenylenedimethanethiol molecular nanostructures', Chemistry of Materials, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 2376-2380.
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We present here the first high-resolution scanning tunneling microscope images showing that 1,4-phenylenedimethanethiol forms mono- and multilayers on gold(111) substrates under particular solution-deposition conditions. The high-resolution images show that the deposition conditions strongly influence the type of surface structure formed. The molecular structures were also probed using molecular-etching techniques and through deposition and imaging of gold nanoparticles. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the multilayer structures are significantly different from those of monolayers. For the first time, scanning electron microscopy experiments were used to investigate the homogeneity of larger surface areas of the surface structures. 2006 American Chemical Society.
Coleman, V.A., Bradby, J.E., Jagadish, C. & Phillips, M.R. 2006, 'Observation of enhanced defect emission and excitonic quenching from spherically indented ZnO', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 89, no. 8.
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Phillips, M.R. 2006, 'Cathodoluminescence microscopy and spectroscopy of opto-electronic materials', MICROCHIMICA ACTA, vol. 155, no. 1-2, pp. 51-58.
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Pauc, N., Phillips, M.R., Aimez, V. & Drouin, D. 2006, 'Carrier diffusion processes near threading dislocations in GaN and GaN : Si characterized by low voltage cathodoluminescence', SUPERLATTICES AND MICROSTRUCTURES, vol. 40, no. 4-6, pp. 557-561.
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Morgan, S.W. & Phillips, M.R. 2006, 'Transient analysis of gaseous electron-ion recombination in the environmental scanning electron microscope', JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY-OXFORD, vol. 221, pp. 183-202.
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Morgan, S.W. & Phillips, M.R. 2006, 'Gaseous scintillation detection and amplification in variable pressure scanning electron microscopy', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 100, no. 7.
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Godlewski, M., Phillips, M.R., Kazlauskas, K., Czernecki, R., Targowski, G., Perlin, P., Leszczynski, M., Figge, S. & Hommel, D. 2006, 'Profiling of light emission of GaN-based laser diodes with cathodoluminescence', PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, vol. 203, no. 7, pp. 1811-1814.
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Malguth, E., Hoffmann, A., Gehlhoff, W., Gelhausen, O., Phillips, M.R. & Xu, X. 2006, 'Structural and electronic properties of Fe3+ and Fe2+ centers in GaN from optical and EPR experiments', PHYSICAL REVIEW B, vol. 74, no. 16.
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Phillips, M. & Drouin, D. 2006, 'Comparison of Low Voltage Cathodoluminescent Phosphors', Microscopy & Microanalysis, vol. 12, no. S2, pp. 1526-1527.
NA
Phillips, M., Drouin, D. & Goldys, E.M. 2006, 'Probing Carrier Behavior at the Nanoscale in Gallium Nitride using Low Voltage Cathodoluminescence', Microscopy & Microanalysis, vol. 12, no. S2, pp. 156-157.
NA
McBean, K.E., Phillips, M.R. & Goldys, E.M. 2006, 'Synthesis and characterization of doped and undoped ZnO nanostructures', MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 327-330.
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White, R., Phillips, M.R., Thomas, P. & Wuhrer, R. 2006, 'In-situ investigation of discolouration processes between historic oil paint pigments', Microchimica Acta, vol. 155, no. 1-2, pp. 319-322.
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Discolouring interactions between paint pigments have been observed since the mid 19th century. The source of some of these discolourations is the production of copper sulfides from an interaction between cadmium sulfide pigments and copper containing pigments. In this work, the discolouring interaction between cadmium yellow and malachite pigments was observed dynamically using the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM).
White, R.E., Thomas, P.S., Phillips, M.R. & Wuhrer, R. 2005, 'A DSC study of the effect of lead pigments on the drying of cold pressed linseed oil', Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 237-239.
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Cold pressed linseed oil and paints prepared using the inorganic pigments; lead white and red lead, were characterized using non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in an air atmosphere to determine the effect of the pigment on the oxidative polymerisation of the drying oil medium. For each paint sample, the onset temperature for oxidation was reduced from 166C to the range 50 to 60C when a heating rate of 5 K min-1 was used. In order to determine the rate of drying, the non-isothermal experiments were carried out using a range of heating rates. A change in the mechanism oxidative polymerization was observed as the heating rate was increased. 2005 Akadmiai Kiad, Budapest.
Scott, K., Butcher, A., Wintrebert-Fouquet, M., Chen, P.P.T., Wuhrer, R. & Phillips, M.R. 2005, 'Revisiting electrochromism in InN', Physica Status Solidi C - Conferences and Critical Reviews, Vol 2, No 7, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 2293-2296.
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Scott, K., Butcher, A., Wintrebert-Fouquet, M., Chen, P.P.T., Prince, K.E., Timmers, H., Shrestha, S.K., Shubina, T.V., Ivanov, S.V., Wuhrer, R., Phillips, M.R. & Monemar, B. 2005, 'Non-stoichiometry and non-homogeneity in InN', Physica Status Solidi C - Conferences and Critical Reviews, Vol 2, No 7, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 2263-2266.
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Godlewski, M., Ivanov, V.Y., Lusakowska, E., Bozek, R., Miasojedovas, S., Jursenas, S., Kazlauskas, K., Zukauskas, A., Goldys, E.M., Phillips, M.R., Bottcher, T., Figge, S. & Hommel, D. 2005, 'Influence of n-type doping on light emission properties of GaN layers and GaN-based quantum well structures', E-MRS 2004 Fall Meeting Symposia C and F, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 1056-1059.
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Tomaszewska-Grzeda, A., Lojkowski, W., Godlewski, M., Yatsunenko, S., Drozdowicz-Tomsia, K., Goldys, E.M. & Phillips, M.R. 2005, 'Growth and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles', ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 897-902.
Godlewski, M., Phillips, M.R., Czernecki, R., Targowski, G., Perlin, P., Leszczynski, M. & Figge, S. 2005, 'Light emission properties of GaN-based laser diode structures', ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 675-680.
Godlewski, M., Yatsunenko, S., Ivanov, V.Y., Khachapuridze, A., Swiatek, K., Goldys, E.M., Phillips, M.R., Klar, P.J. & Heimbrodt, W. 2005, 'Origin of ultrafast component of photoluminescence decay in nanostructures doped with transition metal or rare-earth ions', ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 65-74.
Wojcik, A., Kopalko, K., Godlewski, M., Lusakowska, E., Guziewicz, E., Minikayev, R., Paszkowicz, W., Swiatek, K., Klepka, M., Jakiela, R., Kiecana, M., Sawicki, M., Dybko, K. & Phillips, M.R. 2005, 'Thin films of ZnO and ZnMnO by atomic layer epitaxy', OPTICA APPLICATA, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 413-417.
Mokkapati, S., Lever, P., Tan, H.H., Jagadish, C., McBean, K.E. & Phillips, M.R. 2005, 'Controlling the properties of InGaAs quantum dots by selective-area epitaxy', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 86, no. 11.
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Drozdowicz-Tomsia, K., Goldys, E.M., Motlan, M., Zareie, H. & Phillips, M.R. 2005, 'Growth-temperature-dependent cathodoluminescence properties of GaSb/GaAs quantum-dot multilayer structures', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 86, no. 17.
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Godlewski, M., Yatsunenko, S., Drozdowicz-Tomsia, K., Goldys, E.M., Phillips, M.R., Klar, P.J. & Heimbrodt, W. 2005, 'Dynamics of light emission in CdMnS nanoparticles', ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 681-688.
Godlewski, M., Lusakowska, E., Bozek, R., Goldys, E.M., Phillips, M.R., Bottcher, T., Figge, S. & Hommel, D. 2004, 'Cathodoluminescence and atomic force microscopy study of n-type doped GaN epilayers', PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLIED RESEARCH, vol. 201, no. 2, pp. 212-215.
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Godlewski, M., Goldys, E.M., Phillips, M., Bttcher, T., Figge, S., Hommel, D., Czernecki, R., Prystawko, P., Leszczynski, M., Perlin, P., Grzegory, I. & Porowski, S. 2004, 'In-depth and in-plane profiling of light emission properties of InGaN-based laser diode', Physica Status Solidi A-Applied Research, vol. 201, pp. 207-211.
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Guziewicz, E., Godlewski, M., Kopalko, K., Lusakowska, E., Dynowska, E., Guziewicz, M., Godlewski, M.M. & Phillips, M. 2004, 'Atomic layer deposition of thin films of ZnSe - structural and optical characterization', Thin Solid Films, vol. 446, no. 2, pp. 172-177.
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Thin films of sphalerite-type ZnSe were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from elemental Zn and Se precursors. These films, grown on various substrates, show bright blue `edge emission accompanied by donoracceptor pair emissions in the blue, green and red spectral regions. Red, green and blue emissions mixed together give a white color, with a color temperature between 2400 and 4500 K depending on a layer thickness and temperature. ZnSe grown by ALD is in consequence a promising material for the fabrication of semiconductor-based white light emitting thin film electroluminescence displays.
Gelhausen, O., Phillips, M.R., Goldys, E.M., Paskova, T., Monemar, B., Strassburg, M. & Hoffmann, A. 2004, 'Dissociation of H-related defect complexes in Mg-doped GaN', PHYSICAL REVIEW B, vol. 69, no. 12.
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Gelhausen, O., Malguth, E., Phillips, M.R., Goldys, E.M., Strassburg, M., Hoffmann, A., Graf, T., Gjukic, M. & Stutzmann, M. 2004, 'Doping-level-dependent optical properties of GaN : Mn', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 84, no. 22, pp. 4514-4516.
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Phillips, M.R., Zareie, M.H., Gelhausen, O., Drago, M., Schmidtling, T. & Richter, W. 2004, 'Scanning tunneling and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of indium nitride', JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, vol. 269, no. 1, pp. 106-110.
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Godlewski, M., Lusakowska, E., Goldys, E.M., Phillips, M.R., Bottcher, T., Figge, S., Hommel, D., Prystawko, P., Leszcynski, M., Grzegory, I. & Porowski, S. 2004, 'Diffusion length of carriers and excitons in GaN-influence of epilayer microstructure', APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, vol. 223, no. 4, pp. 294-302.
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Godlewski, M., Yatsunenko, S., Khachapuridze, A., Ivanov, V.Y., Golacki, Z., Karczewski, G., Bergman, P.J., Klar, P., Heimbrodt, W. & Phillips, M.R. 2004, 'Mechanism of intra-shell recombination of transition metal and rare earth ions in nanostructures of II-VI compounds', JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS, vol. 380, no. 1-2, pp. 45-49.
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Godlewski, M., Szmidt, J., Olszyna, A., Werbowy, A., Lusakowska, E., Phillips, M.R., Goldys, E.M. & Sokolowska, A. 2004, 'Luminescent properties of wide bandgap materials at room temperature', E-MRS 2003 FALL MEETING, SYMPOSIA A AND C, PROCEEDINGS, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 213-218.
Kopalko, K., Godlewski, M., Lusakowska, E., Paszkowicz, W., Domagala, J.Z., Szczerbakow, A., Ivanov, V.Y., Godlewski, M.M. & Phillips, M.R. 2004, 'Monocrystalline ZnO films grown by atomic layer epitaxy - growth and characterization', 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON II-VI COMPOUNDS (II-VI 2003), PROCEEDINGS, pp. 892-895.
Kopalko, K., Godlewski, M., Guziewicz, E., Lusakowska, E., Paszkowicz, W., Domagala, J., Dynowska, E., Szczerbakow, A., Wojcik, A. & Phillips, M.R. 2004, 'Monocrystalline thin films of ZnSe and ZnO grown by atomic layer epitaxy', VACUUM, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 269-272.
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Strassburg, M., Rodina, A., Dworzak, M., Haboeck, U., Krestnikov, I.L., Hoffmann, A., Gelhausen, O., Phillips, M.R., Alves, H.R., Zeuner, A., Hofmann, D.M. & Meyer, B.K. 2004, 'Identification of bound exciton complexes in ZnO', PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC RESEARCH, vol. 241, no. 3, pp. 607-611.
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Phillips, M.R., Gelhausen, O. & Goldys, E.M. 2004, 'Cathodoluminescence properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles', PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLIED RESEARCH, vol. 201, no. 2, pp. 229-234.
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Gelhausen, O., Klein, H.N., Phillips, M.R. & Goldys, E.M. 2003, 'Low-energy electron-beam irradiation and yellow luminescence in activated Mg-doped GaN', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 83, no. 16, pp. 3293-3295.
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Dredge, P., Wuhrer, R. & Phillips, M.R. 2003, 'Monet's painting under the microscope', MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 139-143.
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Godlewski, M., Guziewicz, E., Kopalko, K., Lusakowska, E., Dynowska, E., Godlewski, M.M., Goldys, E.M. & Phillips, M.R. 2003, 'Origin of white color light emission in ALE-grown ZnSe', JOURNAL OF LUMINESCENCE, vol. 102, pp. 455-459.
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Godlewski, M.M., Ivanov, V., Goldys, E.M., Phillips, M., Bttcher, T., Figge, S., Hommel, D., Czernecki, R., Prystawko, P., Leszczynski, M., Perlin, P., Grzegory, I. & Porowski, S. 2003, 'Cathodoluminescence profiling of InGaN-based quantum well sturctures and laser diodes - in-plane instabilities of light emission', ACTA Physica Polonica, vol. 103, no. 6, pp. 689-694.
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Gelhausen, O., Phillips, M.R. & Goldys, E.M. 2003, 'A method to improve the light emission efficiency of Mg-doped GaN', JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 36, no. 23, pp. 2976-2979.
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Yatsunenko, S., Khachapuridze, A., Ivanov, V., Godlewski, M.M., Khoi, L., Golacki, Z., Karczewski, G., Goldys, E.M., Phillips, M., Klar, P.J. & Heimbrodt, W. 2003, 'Spin dependent interactions of free carriers and manganese ions in nanostructures of wide band gap II-Mn-VI semiconductors - mechanism of lifetime reduction', ACTA Physica Polonica, vol. 103, no. 6, pp. 643-648.
Based on the results of optically detected magnetic resonance and time-resolved investigations we relate the observed lifetime shortening of intra-shell Mn2+ emission to spin dependent magnetic interactions between localized spins of Mn2+ ions and spins/magnetic moments of free carriers. We show that this mechanism is active in both bulk and in low dimensional structures, such as quantum wells, quantum dots, and nanostructures.
Gelhausen, O., Klein, H.N., Phillips, M.R. & Goldys, E.M. 2003, 'Electron irradiation-induced electro-migration and diffusion of defects in Mg-doped GaN', PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC RESEARCH, vol. 239, no. 2, pp. 310-315.
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Phillips, M.R., Telg, H., Kucheyev, S.O., Gelhausen, O. & Toth, M. 2003, 'Cathodoluminescence efficiency dependence on excitation density in n-type gallium nitride', MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 144-151.
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Gelhausen, O., Klein, H.N., Phillips, M.R. & Goldys, E.M. 2002, 'Influence of low-energy electron beam irradiation on defects in activated Mg-doped GaN', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 81, no. 20, pp. 3747-3749.
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Bradby, J.E., Kucheyev, S.O., Williams, J.S., Wong-Leung, J., Swain, M.V., Munroe, P., Li, G. & Phillips, M.R. 2002, 'Indentation-induced damage in GaN epilayers', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 383-385.
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Kucheyev, S.O., Toth, M., Phillips, M.R., Williams, J.S., Jagadish, C. & Li, G. 2002, 'X-ray spectrometry investigation of electrical isolation in GaN', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 3940-3942.
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Kucheyev, S.O., Toth, M., Phillips, M.R., Williams, J.S., Jagadish, C. & Li, G. 2002, 'Chemical origin of the yellow luminescence in GaN', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 91, no. 9, pp. 5867-5874.
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Remond, G., Nockolds, C., Phillips, M. & Roques-Carmes, C. 2002, 'Implications of polishing techniques in quantitative X-ray microanalysis', Journal of Research of the national Institute of Standards and technology, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 639-662.
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Toth, M., Phillips, M.R., Craven, J.P., Thiel, B.L. & Donald, A.M. 2002, 'Electric fields produced by electron irradiation of insulators in a low vacuum environment', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 4492-4499.
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Toth, M., Phillips, M.R., Thiel, B.L. & Donald, A.M. 2002, 'Electron imaging of dielectrics under simultaneous electron-ion irradiation', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 4479-4491.
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Godlewski, M., Goldys, E.M., Phillips, M., Bottcher, T., Figge, S., Hommel, D., Czernecki, R., Prystawko, P., Leszczynski, M., Perlin, P., Wisniewski, P., Suski, T., Bockowski, M., Grzegory, I. & Porowski, S. 2002, 'Relationship between sample morphology and carrier diffusion length in GaN thin films.', Acta Physica Polonica A, vol. 102, no. 4-5, pp. 627-630.
Scanning and spot-mode cathodoluminescence investigations of homo- and hetero-epitaxial GaN films indicate a surprisingly small influence of their microstructure on overall intensity of a light emission. This we explain by a correlation between structural quality of these films and diffusion length of free carriers and excitons. Diffusion length increases with improving structural quality of the samples, which, in turn, enhances the rate of nonradiative recombination on structural defects, such as dislocations.
Gauvin, R., Griffin, B., Nockolds, C., Phillips, M. & Joy, D.C. 2002, 'A method to measure the effective gas path length in the environmental or variable pressure scanning electron microscope', Scanning, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 171-174.
A simple method is described to determine the effective gas path length when incident electrons scatter in the gas above the specimen. This method is based on the measurement of a characteristic x-ray line emitted from a region close to the incident beam. From various experimental measurements performed on various microscopes, it is shown that the efefctive gas path length may increase with the chamber pressure and that it is also often dependent on the type of x-ray bullet.
Remond, G., Myklebust, R.L., Fialin, M., Nockolds, C., Phillips, M. & Roques-Carmes, C. 2002, 'Decomposition of wavelength dispersive X-ray spectra', Journal of Research of the national Institute of Standards and technology, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 509-529.
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Bradby, J.E., Kucheyev, S.O., Williams, J.S., Jagadish, C., Swain, M.V., Munroe, P. & Phillips, M.R. 2002, 'Contact-induced defect propagation in ZnO', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 80, no. 24, pp. 4537-4539.
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Godlewski, M., Goldys, E.M., Butcher, K.S.A., Phillips, M.R., Pakula, K. & Baranowski, J.M. 2001, 'Cathodoluminescence investigations of interfaces in InGaN/GaN/sapphire structures', PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC RESEARCH, vol. 228, no. 1, pp. 179-182.
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Kucheyev, S.O., Toth, M., Phillips, M.R., Williams, J.S., Jagadish, C. & Li, G. 2001, 'Cathodoluminescence depth profiling of ion-implanted GaN', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 34-36.
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Danilatos, G.D., Phillips, M.R. & Nailon, J.V. 2001, 'Electron beam current loss at the high-vacuum-high-pressure boundary in the environmental scanning electron microscope', MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 397-406.
Gelhausen, O., Phillips, M.R. & Toth, M. 2001, 'Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence microanalysis of near-edge emission in III-nitride thin films', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 3535-3537.
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Cooper, R., Smith, K., Colella, M., Vance, E.R. & Phillips, M. 2001, 'Optical Emission Due to Ionic Displacement in Alkaline Earth Titanates', Journal of Nuclear Materials, vol. 289, pp. 199-203.
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Godlewski, M., Mackowski, S., Karczewski, G., Goldys, E.M. & Phillips, M.R. 2001, 'Cathodoluminescence studies of self-organized CdTe/ZnTe quantum dot structure grown by MBE: in-plane and in-depth properties of the system', SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 493-496.
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Godlewski, M., Goldys, E.M., Phillips, M.R., Pakula, K. & Baranowski, J.M. 2001, 'Cathodoluminescence and depth-profiling cathodoluminescence studies of interface properties in MOCVD-grown InGaN/GaN/sapphire structures: role of GaN buffer layer', APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, vol. 177, no. 1-2, pp. 22-31.
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Kucheyev, S.O., Toth, M., Phillips, M.R., Williams, J.S. & Jagadish, C. 2001, 'Effects of excitation density on cathodoluminescence from GaN', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 79, no. 14, pp. 2154-2156.
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Buyanova, I.A., Chen, W.M., Goldys, E.M., Phillips, M.R., Xin, H.P. & Tu, C.W. 2001, 'Strain relaxation in GaNxP1-x alloy: effect on optical properties', PHYSICA B-CONDENSED MATTER, vol. 308, pp. 106-109.
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Godlewski, M., Goldys, E.M. & Phillips, M.R. 2000, 'Cathodoluminescence studies of in-plane and in-depth properties of GaN epilayers', JOURNAL OF LUMINESCENCE, vol. 87-9, pp. 1155-1157.
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Godlewski, M., Goldys, E.M., Phillips, M.R., Langer, R. & Barski, A. 2000, 'Cathodoluminescence depth-profiling studies of GaN/AlGaN quantum-well structures', JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 495-501.
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Toth, M., Kucheyev, S.O., Williams, J.S., Jagadish, C., Phillips, M.R. & Li, G. 2000, 'Imaging charge trap distributions in GaN using environmental scanning electron microscopy', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 77, no. 9, pp. 1342-1344.
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Toth, M. & Phillips, M.R. 2000, 'The effects of space charge on contrast in images obtained using the environmental scanning electron microscope', SCANNING, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 319-325.
Masens, C., Schulte, J., Phillips, M. & Dligatch, S. 2000, 'Ultra flat gold surfaces for use in chemical force microscopy: Scanning probe microscopy studies of the effect of preparation regime on surface morphology', MICROSCOPY AND MICROANALYSIS, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 113-120.
Toth, M., Phillips, M. & Griffin, B. 2000, 'X-ray Microanalysis of Insulators in the ESEM', Microscopy & Microanalysis, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 786-787.
Godlewski, M., Goldys, E. & Phillips, M. 2000, 'Cathodoluminescence Studies of in-plane and in-depth Properties of GaN Epilayers', Journal of Luminescence, vol. 87-89, pp. 1155-1157.
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Phillips, M. 2000, 'Optical and structural properties of thin films of ZnS grown by atomic layer epitaxy', Journal of Wide Bandgap Materials, vol. 9, no. 1-2, pp. 55-63.
Whittall, A., Phillips, M. & Suetsugu, Y. 2000, 'Cathodoluminescence Emission For Differentiating The Degree Of Carbonation In Apatites', Bioceramics, vol. 0, pp. 179-182.
Cathodoluminescence has recently been used successfully in detecting and determining the spatial location of the amorphous phase in plasma sprayed calcium phosphate coatings. The aim of this study is to determine whether this same technique can be used t
Meier, T., Koch, S., Phillips, M. & Wang, H. 2000, 'Strong Coupling Of Heavy- And Light-hole Excitons Induced By Many-body Correlations', Physical Review B, vol. 62, no. 19, pp. 12605-12608.
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The differential absorption of a GaAs single quantum well is studied for resonant pumping at either the heavy- or light-hole exciton resonances using different polarization configurations. For all excitation conditions the observed spectra show bleaching
Kucheyev, S.O., Bradby, J.E., Williams, J.S., Jagadish, C., Toth, M., Phillips, M.R. & Swain, M.V. 2000, 'Nanoindentation of epitaxial GaN films', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 77, no. 21, pp. 3373-3375.
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Toth, M. & Phillips, M.R. 2000, 'The role of induced contrast in images obtained using the environmental scanning electron microscope', SCANNING, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 370-379.
Phillips, M.R. & Ott, D.M. 2000, 'Crosstalk caused by nonideal output filters in WDM lightwave systems', IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1094-1096.
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Toth, M. & Phillips, M. 2000, 'Space Charge Artefacts in ESEM Images: Shadowing and Contrast', Microscopy & Microanalysis, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 775-775.
Toth, M. & Phillips, M.R. 1999, 'Detection of Cr impurities in GaN by room temperature cathodoluminescence spectroscopy', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 75, no. 25, pp. 3983-3985.
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Phillips, M.R. & Ott, D.M. 1999, 'WDM lightwave system crosstalk by optical Kerr effect with polarisation-dependent loss', ELECTRONICS LETTERS, vol. 35, no. 20, pp. 1764-1765.
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Phillips, M.R., Toth, M. & Drouin, D. 1999, 'Depletion layer imaging using a gaseous secondary electron detector in an environmental scanning electron microscope', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 76-78.
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Toth, M., Fleischer, K. & Phillips, M.R. 1999, 'Electron beam induced impurity electro-migration in unintentionally doped GaN', MRS INTERNET JOURNAL OF NITRIDE SEMICONDUCTOR RESEARCH, vol. 4.
Leon, R., Okuno, J.O., Lawton, R.A., Stevens-Kalceff, M., Phillips, M.R., Zou, J., Cockayne, D.J.H. & Lobo, C. 1999, 'Dislocation-induced changes in quantum dots: Step alignment and radiative emission', Applied Physics Letters, vol. 74, no. 16, pp. 2301-2303.
A new type of quantum dot (QD) alignment for an InGaAs/GaAs QD multilayered structure has been observed. In addition to two distinct types of InGaAs dot alignment in vicinal GaAs (001), an abrupt transition in QD sizes and concentrations was seen. This was accompanied by bright QD emission, even after formation of a dislocation array, and different behaviors with thermal intermixing.
Fleischer, K., Toth, M., Phillips, M.R., Zou, J., Li, G. & Chua, S.J. 1999, 'Depth profiling of GaN by cathodoluminescence microanalysis', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 74, no. 8, pp. 1114-1116.
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Phillips, M. & Wang, H. 1999, 'Coherent Oscillation In Four-wave Mixing Of Interacting Excitons', Solid State Communications, vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 317-321.
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We report the observation of quantum beat-like oscillations in transient four-wave mixing (FWM) of heavy-hole and light-hole excitonic transitions that share no common upper or lower states. Theoretical analysis shows that these oscillations arise from p
Toth, M., Fleischer, K. & Phillips, M.R. 1999, 'Direct experimental evidence for the role of oxygen in the luminescent properties of GaN', PHYSICAL REVIEW B, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 1575-1578.
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Kim, D.G., Seong, T.Y., Baik, Y.J., Kalceff, M.A.S. & Phillips, M.R. 1999, 'Cathodoluminescence of diamond films grown on pretreated Si(001) substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition', DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, vol. 8, no. 2-5, pp. 712-716.
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Phillips, M.R. & Ott, D.M. 1999, 'Crosstalk due to optical fiber nonlinearities in WDM CATV lightwave systems', JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1782-1792.
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Godlewski, M., Goldys, E.M., Phillips, M.R., Langer, R. & Barski, A. 1998, 'Influence of the surface morphology on the yellow and "edge" emissions in wurtzite GaN', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 73, no. 25, pp. 3686-3688.
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Gross, K.A. & Phillips, M.R. 1998, 'Identification and mapping of the amorphous phase in plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings using scanning cathodoluminescence microscopy', JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE-MATERIALS IN MEDICINE, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 797-802.
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Toth, M. & Phillips, M.R. 1998, 'Monte Carlo modeling of cathodoluminescence generation using electron energy loss curves', SCANNING, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 425-432.
Szczerbakow, A., Godlewski, M., Dynowska, E., Ivanov, V.Y., Swiatek, K., Goldys, E.M. & Phillips, M.R. 1998, 'Structure, surface morphology and optical properties of thin films of ZnS and CdS grown by atomic layer epitaxy', ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 579-582.
Goldys, E.M., Zuo, H.Y., Tansley, T.L., Phillips, M.R. & Contessa, C.M. 1998, 'Band offsets in In0.15Ga0.85As/GaAs and In0.15Ga0.85As/Al0.15Ga0.85As studied by photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence', SUPERLATTICES AND MICROSTRUCTURES, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1223-1226.
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Goldys, E.M., Zuo, H.Y., Phillips, M.R., Contessa, C.M., Vaughan, M.R. & Tansley, T.L. 1997, 'Type I and type II alignment of the light hole band in In0.15Ga0.85As/GaAs and in In0.15Ga0.85As/Al0.15Ga0.85As strained quantum wells', JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 922-927.
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Kalceff, M.A.S., Phillips, M.R., Moon, A.R. & Smallwood, A. 1997, 'Cathodoluminescence microanalysis of natural hydrated amorphous SiO2; Opal', PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF MINERALS, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 131-138.
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Wuhrer, R., Yeung, W.Y., Phillips, M.R. & McCredie, G. 1996, 'Study on dc magnetron sputter deposition of titanium aluminium nitride thin films: Effect of aluminium content on coating', THIN SOLID FILMS, vol. 290, pp. 339-342.
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Kalceff, M.A.S., Phillips, M.R. & Moon, A.R. 1996, 'Electron irradiation-induced changes in the surface topography of silicon dioxide', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 80, no. 8, pp. 4308-4314.
Ariyavisitakul, S., Darcie, T.E., Greenstein, L.J., Phillips, M.R. & Shankaranarayanan, N.K. 1996, 'Performance of simulcast wireless techniques for personal communication systems', IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 632-643.
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Kim, Y., Yuan, S., Leon, R., Jagadish, C., Gal, M., Johnston, M.B., Phillips, M.R., Kalceff, M.A.S., Zou, J. & Cockayne, D.J.H. 1996, 'Effects of anodic oxide induced intermixing on the structural and optical properties of quantum wire structure grown on nonplanar GaAs substrate', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 80, no. 9, pp. 5014-5020.
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KALCEFF, M.A.S. & PHILLIPS, M.R. 1995, 'CATHODOLUMINESCENCE MICROCHARACTERIZATION OF THE DEFECT STRUCTURE OF QUARTZ', PHYSICAL REVIEW B, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 3122-3134.
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ZHOU, B., LI, X., TANSLEY, T.L., BUTCHER, K.S.A. & PHILLIPS, M.R. 1995, 'GROWTH OF GAN FILMS BY COMBINED LASER AND MICROWAVE PLASMA-ENHANCED CHEMICAL-VAPOR-DEPOSITION', JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, vol. 151, no. 3-4, pp. 249-253.
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KALCEFF, M.A.S. & PHILLIPS, M.R. 1995, 'ELECTRON-IRRADIATION-INDUCED OUTGROWTHS FROM QUARTZ', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 77, no. 8, pp. 4125-4127.
MOON, A.R. & PHILLIPS, M.R. 1994, 'DEFECT CLUSTERING AND COLOR IN FE,TI-ALPHA-AL2O3', JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 356-367.
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FRIGO, N.J., PHILLIPS, M.R. & BODEEP, G.E. 1993, 'CLIPPING DISTORTION IN LIGHTWAVE CATV SYSTEMS - MODELS, SIMULATIONS, AND MEASUREMENTS', JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 138-146.
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Pillai, S., Xu, Z., Gal, M., Glaisher, R., Phillips, M. & Cockayne, D. 1992, 'Cathodoluminescence From Porous Silicon', Japanese Journal Of Applied Physics Part 2-letters, vol. 31, no. 12A, pp. 1-2.
Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra were measured on porous silicon. The CL spectra showed bands and prominent peaks ranging in energy between 1.45 eV and 3 eV and were unlike the photoluminescence spectra measured on the same samples, wh
PHILLIPS, M.R. & DARCIE, T.E. 1991, 'NUMERICAL-SIMULATION OF CLIPPING-INDUCED DISTORTION IN ANALOG LIGHTWAVE SYSTEMS', IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 1153-1155.
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MOON, A.R. & PHILLIPS, M.R. 1991, 'TITANIA PRECIPITATION IN SAPPHIRE CONTAINING IRON AND TITANIUM', PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF MINERALS, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 251-258.
MOON, A.R. & PHILLIPS, M.R. 1991, 'ACCURATE OH BOND ANGLE DETERMINATION IN TRIGONAL CRYSTALS', APPLIED SPECTROSCOPY, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1051-1053.
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PHILLIPS, M.R., DARCIE, T.E., MARCUSE, D., BODEEP, G.E. & FRIGO, N.J. 1991, 'NONLINEAR DISTORTION GENERATED BY DISPERSIVE TRANSMISSION OF CHIRPED INTENSITY-MODULATED SIGNALS', IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 481-483.
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MCCREDIE, G.M., PHILLIPS, M.R. & MOON, A.R. 1991, 'OPTIMIZATION OF THINNING RATES IN AN ARGON ION-BEAM THINNER', REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 1855-1856.
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MOON, A.R. & PHILLIPS, M.R. 1991, 'DEFECT CLUSTERING IN H,TI-ALPHA-AL2O3', JOURNAL OF PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF SOLIDS, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 1087-1099.
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MOON, A.R. & PHILLIPS, M.R. 1991, 'IRON AND SPINEL PRECIPITATION IN IRON-DOPED SAPPHIRE', JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 865-868.
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MOON, A.R., PHILLIPS, M.R. & BLAIR, D.G. 1990, 'EQUILIBRATION IN DEFECT CLUSTERING REACTIONS', SOLID STATE COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 76, no. 7, pp. 881-882.
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MOON, A.R. & PHILLIPS, M.R. 1984, 'AN ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY STUDY OF EXSOLVED PHASES IN NATURAL BLACK AUSTRALIAN SAPPHIRE', MICRON AND MICROSCOPICA ACTA, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 143-146.
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