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Dr Mary Garvey

Biography

Mary Garvey has been in clinical practice since completing her acupuncture training in Sydney in 1985. She completed an Advanced Certificate of Acupuncture at the Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine in 1990, and has undertaken further clinical studies in herbs and gynaecology in Shanghai and Beijing.

Dr Garvey has a PhD (International Studies), Master of Letters (Philosophy) and Master of Health Sciences (Chinese Medicine). She is a clinician in UTS Chinese Medicine Clinic, and a Lecturer in the Chinese Medicine undergraduate program at UTS.

Professional

Member of the Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture Society of Australia

Member of the UTS Human Research Ethics Committee

Image of Mary Garvey
Senior Lecturer, School of Life Sciences
CertAdvAc (NCTCM), PracDipAc (ACA), DipSwedMass (SydCoChiro), DipChMass, BA (Syd), MHlthSc, M.Hlth.Sci in TCM, MLitt, B.HlthSci, M.Litt (UNE), M.Litt, PhD, PhD
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 7851

Research Interests

  • PhD research into the Chinese medical body, including the relevance of pre-modern conceptions for transmission and clinical practice.
  • Co-authoring projects with Dr Qu Lifang, Professor at the Shanghai University of Chinese Medicine.

Can supervise: Yes
Cameron Rogers (Masters candidate), topic: Physiological effects of LASER treatment at Liver 3

  • Chinese medicine basic theory
  • Chinese medical philosophy
  • Channel theory, diagnosis and treatments
  • Qi physiology, diagnosis and treatments
  • Chinese medical dietetics
  • Clinical acupuncture and herbal practice (specialising in women's health, musculo-skeletal disorders, mental-emotional disorders)

Books

Qu, L.F. 2016, Anecdotes of Traditional Chinese Medicine, first, Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, Shanghai.
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Garvey, M. 2015, A Clinical Guide to the Body in Chinese Medicine: History and Contemporary Practice, first, Paradigm Publications, Taos, NM.
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Chapters

Garvey, M. 2014, 'Chinese Medicine Research: The Relevance of the Social Sciences for Clinical Decision-Making' in Focus on Chinese Medicine Research: Practices and Outcomes, Nova Publications, New York, pp. 77-109.
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Garvey, M. 2013, 'The Chinese Medicine Clinic' in Stories From the Tower: UTS 1988–2013, XOUM, Sydney, pp. 253-255.
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Zaslawski, C.J., Kim, M.S. & Garvey, M. 2012, 'Vignette for Chapter Six: International Standardisation: What Does It Mean for East Asian Medicines?' in Scheid, V. & MacPherson, H. (eds), East Asian Medicine: Traditions, Best Practice and the Evidence Mosaic, Elsevier, London.
Zaslawski, C.J. & Garvey, M. 2012, 'Have you got consent? An overview of human research ethics for East Asian medicine' in Yoshiharu Motoo (ed), Traditional Medicine: New Research, Nova Science Publishers, New York, USA, pp. 225-238.
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During the last four decades the requirement of a committee to oversee the ethical concerns of human research has become an integral part of the research process [1]. This review process is well established in many western countries such as the United States of America, United Kingdom, Europe and Australia and more recently in many Asian countries as well [2]. Indeed many countries have produced guidelines and developed national networks to deal with research governance and the oversight of human clinical research. These committees are known as Institutional Review Boards (IRB) in the United States of America, or Research Ethics Committees (REC) as occurs in the United Kingdom. Their role is to ensure the protection of the welfare and rights of all participants in research [3], not only clinical research but also other types of research methodologies that involve humans such as surveys, interviews and focus groups. Generally there has been little interest in the ethical issues involved in conducting research into East Asian medicine (EAM) and in some respects this may have impeded the development of clinical evidence [4]. This chapter will discuss the principles of ethical research and how these can impact on the design and conduct of clinical EAM research. Arguments to address some common ethical concerns for EAM research will also be suggested and these will be helpful to those new to EAM research as well as those more experienced. Finally extracts from the latest version of the Helsinki Declaration (2008) [5] will be used to highlight some of the ethical requirements of human research and offer direction for some ethical challenges.
Garvey, M. 2009, 'Chinese Dietetics' in Ergil Marnae, C. & Ergil Kevin, V. (eds), Pocket Atlas of Chinese Medicine, Thieme, Stuttgart, pp. 300-319.

Conferences

Garvey, M. 2013, 'The Three Aspects of the Shen in Early Chinese Medicine', Inaugural Conference to establish the Mental Disease Specialty Committee, and the First Academic Exchange Conference, Inaugural Conference to establish the Mental Disease Specialty Committee, and the First Academic Exchange Conference, The World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies, Harbin (PRC), pp. 23-25.
Garvey, M. 2013, 'Chinese Medicine History and Contemporary Practice in the West', Eighth World Conference: From the Classical to the Modern: Book of Abstracts, Eighth World Conference: From the Classical to the Modern, World Federation of Acupuncture Societies, Sydney.
Garvey, M. & Lifang, Q. 2010, 'The Inherited and Acquired Spirit-Mind', Australian Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine Association Conference, May, AACMA, Adelaide, SA.
Garvey, M. 2009, 'The Reception of Chinese Medicine in Australia', Health and Borders in China, India and the Indian Ocean Region, China Research Centre, UTS.
Garvey, M. & Qu, L. 2008, 'The Yi Jing and the Methods of Chinese Medical Knowledge', AACMA Conference, Sydney 2008, Australiasian Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine Annual Conference, AACMA, Sydney, pp. 23-23.
Garvey, M. 2007, 'The Chinese Medical Body: Transmission and Clinical Practice', Australian Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine Association Conference, AACMA, Brisbane.
Garvey, M. 2007, 'The Chinese Medical Body: Transmission and Clinical Practice', Brisbane Convention Centre, South Bank, Brisbane Australia.
Garvey, M. & Qu, L. 2004, 'Shenzhi Theory: Chinese Medicine's Perspective on the Mind and Mental Illness', Medicine Across Cultures: 600-1600, The Nineteenth Barnard Medieval and Renaissance Conference, Columbia University, Columbia University.
Garvey, M. & Qu, L. 2004, 'Mental Disorder: Applying the Classical Wushen Model in Modern Practice', World Federation of Acupuncture Symposium, 6th World Conference: Program and Abstracts, WFAS 2004 6th World Conference on Acupuncture: Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine in the Modern Age, (unpublished), Gold Coast, Australia.
Garvey, M. 2001, 'What Is Hysteria?', The Sixth Australiasian Acupuncture and Chinese Herbal Medicine Conference: The Professionalisation of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Journal articles

Garvey, M. & Qu, L.F. 2016, 'Alternative Names for Chinese Medicine: The Apricot Grove', Chinese Medicine Culture, vol. Spring, pp. 26-27.
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Qu, L.F. & Garvey, M. 2015, 'Early Chinese Perspectives of the Mind: An Evolutionary Account of the Shén in Chinese Medical Psychology', Journal of Chinese Medicine, no. 109, pp. 37-43.
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This paper explores early Chinese psychological thought and proposes the 'three aspects' model of the 'spirit–mind' (, shén). The first of the three aspects, the 'root (of the) shén' (, běn shén), represents the accumulation of experiences from our ancestors that have been acquired through the course of human evolution. At conception the 'original shén' (, yuán shén) arises to instigate life, and carries inherited attributes and potentials that are drawn from the root shén. The inherited life information of the root and original shén provides the basis for the 'acquired shén' (, shí shén), which in turn is moulded by the person's life experiences and environment. The model describes the idea of stages and levels of human mentality that encompass the inherited and acquired influences and abilities of the human mind, and suggest an evolutionary perspective of human life. Key features of the inherited and acquired shén share some broad similarities with Western psychology's notions of the conscious and unconscious mind, and the 'three aspects' model with even more recent developments in the psychological sciences.
Garvey, M. 2014, 'Chinese Medicine History and Contemporary Practice in the West', Journal of Health Science, vol. 2, pp. 284-290.
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In the health care professions today, research guides best clinical practice. Yet, the methodological constraints required by the two main branches of research into Chinese medicine—bio-scientific and socio-historical—rarely assist Chinese medicine students, practitioners, or clinical researchers with treatment and practice issues. A great deal of bio-scientific research assumes that it must be possible to utilise and test Chinese medicine from within a biomedical framework. However, by isolating therapeutic techniques and substances and standardising treatment protocols, bio-scientific research removes Chinese medicine's inbuilt flexibility and responsiveness to clinical instances and changes. While researchers in the historical and social sciences can reveal the sophisticated discourses built around Chinese medicine's distinctive approach to knowing the world and the body–person, they normally do not discuss the implications of their work for contemporary clinical practice. The paper advocates a synthetic approach using multidisciplinary sources within and adjacent to the field of Chinese medicine. Multidisciplinary researchers contest the simplified and biomedicalised version of Chinese medicine generally available in English speaking countries today. They can assist English speakers to approach Chinese medicine's traditional perspectives, demonstrate their relevance for contemporary clinical practice and help restore the traditional connectedness between Chinese medicine's theoretical concepts and its treatment methods.
Garvey, M. 2013, 'Chinese Medicine Today: Issues for Research, Education and Practice in the West', Australian Journal of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 28-34.
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This article is a commentary on the modernisation of Chinese medicine and some of the issues concerning its transmission and practice in contemporary Western settings. Over the last one hundred years, complex socio-historical factors have altered Chinese medicine's traditional concepts and methods and generated misunderstandings for Western students and professionals. In the health care professions today, research and education guide best clinical practice. However, the two main branches of research into Chinese medicine - bioscientific and socio-historical - rarely assist Chinese medicine professionals with issues of clinical practice. Although historical, anthropological and textual researchers reveal sophisticated discourses built around a distinctive approach to knowing the world and the body-person, they do not normally discuss the implications of their work for clinical practice. Bioscientific researchers argue that it must be possible to utilise and test Chinese medicine from within a biomedical framework. Yet the methodological constraints required by scientific research alter Chinese medicine's traditional methods, standardise treatment protocols and remove its flexibility and responsiveness to clinical variations.
Garvey, M. 2012, 'Emotions, desires and physiological fire in Chinese medicine, part one: The pericardium and lifegate', Australian Journal of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 16-22.
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Chinese medicine's concept of qi mediates between a person's mental-emotional life and the physiological processes producing and maintaining the body form. The pathogenic potential of human emotions and desires figured prominently in China's ancient medical and philosophical texts, and more than any other type of qi, the sovereign and minister fire embody the influences and relationships between mental, emotional, sensory and physiological activities. When level and calm, the minister fire transmits the lifegate's original yang qi influences from the lower jiao; the liver, sanjiao and gall bladder (the jueyin and shaoyang) manage its dissemination through the body interior, and its movement between the interior and surface of the body. Contemporary traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) textbooks however rarely mention the minister fire, except as an illness mechanism that is identified with liver and gall bladder yang repletion patterns. The preferred term for its physiological influences today is the kidney yang qi. The two parts of this paper examine the physiological and clinical implications of the minister fire. Part One began with the heart and kidney (shaoyin) relationship, as reflected in the pericardium and lifegate's association with the minister fire and their role in communicating the orders of the sovereign fire. In Part Two, the discussion turns to the minister fire's physiological influences, and the pathogenic stirring of minister fire due to emotions and desires
Garvey, M. 2012, 'Emotions, desires and physiological fire in Chinese medicine, part two: The minister fire', Australian Journal of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 24-30.
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Chinese medicine's concept of qi mediates between a person's mental-emotional life and the physiological processes producing and maintaining the body form. The pathogenic potential of human emotions and desires figured prominently in China's ancient medical and philosophical texts, and more than any other type of qi, the sovereign and minister fire embody the influences and relationships between mental, emotional, sensory and physiological activities. When level and calm, the minister fire transmits the lifegate's original yang qi influences from the lower jiao; the liver, sanjiao and gall bladder (the jueyin and shaoyang) manage its dissemination through the body interior, and its movement between the interior and surface of the body. Contemporary traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) textbooks however rarely mention the minister fire, except as an illness mechanism that is identified with liver and gall bladder yang repletion patterns. The preferred term for its physiological influences today is the kidney yang qi. The two parts of this paper examine the physiological and clinical implications of the minister fire. Part One began with the heart and kidney (shaoyin) relationship, as reflected in the pericardium and lifegate's association with the minister fire and their role in communicating the orders of the sovereign fire. In Part Two, the discussion turns to the minister fire's physiological influences, and the pathogenic stirring of minister fire due to emotions and desires.
Garvey, M. 2011, 'The transmission of Chinese medicine in Australia', Portal Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 1-13.
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Chinese medicine is a complex field with a very long history and a great many diverse currents. Today, mainland Chinese still use Chinese medicine (CM) for the treatment of a wide range of medical conditions, and Chinas medical students study CM alongside Western biomedicine because the nations integrated healthcare system delivers both. Australians also use CM for all kinds of acute and chronic illnesses even though Australian CM practitioner training qualifies its graduates to practice Chinese acupuncture and herbal medicine only. A brief overview of CM in China and Australia below will highlight some of the factors that have influenced its evolution over the last century, its transmission to Australia, and the continued challenges to its transmission in Australia.
Qu, L. & Garvey, M. 2009, 'On the Psychological Significance of the Heart Governing Shen Ming', Australian journal of acupuncture and Chinese medic, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 14-22.
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According to the Huangdi Neijing, Suwen Chapter 8, the heart is the ruler of the body and the host for spirit brightness (shen ming). The paper examines the meaning and contribution of the heart with spirit brightness (xin zhu shen ming) to Chinese medical thinking. From earliest times, Chinese medicine's analysis of health and illness included the physical, sensory, emotional, social and cognitive aspects of the person's lived experience. The shen-mind with ming-brightness was said to radiate peace, virtue, clarity and intelligence, and the cultivation of shenming was thought to enhance one's physical health and longevity. In Part One, we discuss the conditions that influence the development of shenming and the maturation of mental-emotional intelligence. In Part Two we discuss its opposite, the heart without spirit brightness (xin zhu bu ming) to identify its mechanisms and the consequences for health. Xin zhu bu ming leads to the distortion of sensory perceptions and emotional responses, and refers to a person with mental-emotional instability and poor adaptive ability. Daoism, Confucianism and Buddhism identify the influences affecting shenming-spirit brightness and explain the connections between ethical conduct, correct qi, and mind-body health. Mental-emotional development and the cultivation of shenming is discussed and contrasted with the social consequences and clinical manifestations of human mentality without spirit brightness.
Qu, L. & Garvey, M. 2009, 'On the Psychological Significance of Heart Governing Shen Ming', Australian journal of acupuncture and Chinese medic, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 14-22.
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According to the Huangdi Neijing, Suwen Chapter 8, the heart is the ruler of the body and the host for spirit brightness (shen ming). The paper examines the meaning and contribution of the heart with spirit brightness (xin zhu shen ming) to Chinese medical thinking. From earliest times, Chinese medicineâs analysis of health and illness included the physical, sensory, emotional, social and cognitive aspects of the personâs lived experience. The shen-mind with ming-brightness was said to radiate peace, virtue, clarity and intelligence, and the cultivation of shenming was thought to enhance oneâs physical health and longevity. In Part One, we discuss the conditions that influence the development of shenming and the maturation of mental-emotional intelligence. In Part Two we discuss its opposite, the heart without spirit brightness (xin zhu bu ming) to identify its mechanisms and the consequences for health. Xin zhu bu ming leads to the distortion of sensory perceptions and emotional responses, and refers to a person with mental-emotional instability and poor adaptive ability. Daoism, Confucianism and Buddhism identify the influences affecting shenming-spirit brightness and explain the connections between ethical conduct, correct qi, and mind-body health. Mental-emotional development and the cultivation of shenming is discussed and contrasted with the social consequences and clinical manifestations of human mentality without spirit brightness.
Qu, L. & Garvey, M. 2009, 'The Psychological Significance of Yuanshen and Shishen', The Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. October, no. 91, pp. 61-67.
This paper discusses the distinction between our inherited and acquired - shen (spirit-mind), and their influence on our psychological traits and mental-emotional patterns. Because the shen was considered a special manifestation of nature and human life, our discussion begins with early Chinese perspectives of nature and the 'continuity of being'. Nature generates human life and its organising li-principles manifest as our individual ming-life/destiny. Every human life has attributes and abilities derived from many generations of human evolution, and depending on our inherited allotment, each human life also has a certain potential for developing those abilities. The paper examines the characteristics and abilities of our inherited (yuanshen) and acquired (shishen) spirit-mind, and the potential and implications of their interaction for our mental and emotional development.
Qu, L. & Garvey, M. 2008, 'Chinese Medicine and the Yi Jing's Epistemic Methodology', Australian Journal of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 17-23.
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Traditional Chinese medicine and contemporary biomedicine have developed methodologies that observe and investigate the human body from different epistemological perspectives. Their conceptual differences have been a recurring topic in the West. The contribution of our article to this topic draws on the ontological and epistemological insights found in the Yi Jing (Book of Changes). Readers will already be familiar with the argument that Chinese medicine has been profoundly influenced by the Yi Jingâs use of yin-yang theory. This paper offers a fresh perspective by examining the Great Commentaryâs dao-xiang-qi cosmology. âDao-xiang-qiâ stands for abstract principles, emergent manifestations, and concrete objects respectively, and this triadic conception of reality leads to an analysis of the human body from a holistic, process-oriented epistemology. The interpretations of reality and being contained in the Yi Jing were developed by careful and detailed observation over time, and have deeply influenced Chinaâs philosophical and scientific traditions, including medicine. The effect of the dao-xiang-qi (way-image-vessel) triad on Chinese medicine has lead to its characteristic âdao xiangâ epistemic: investigations of human health and illness focus on the living body and result in a more functional or process-oriented epistemic. Relatively speaking, biomedical investigations are guided by a qi-vessel epistemic that places more importance on objective, physicalist information and on quantitative and concrete data. The purpose of this paper is to explore the Yi Jingâs influence on medical epistemics and the influence of dao-xiang-qi for Chinese medical investigations and methodologies.
Garvey, M. & Qu, L. 2008, 'Shenzhi Theory: A Clinical Model of the Mind and Mental Illness in Chinese Medicine', Australian Journal of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 13-17.
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The term shenzhi means 'spirit-mind' and refers to the five spirits (shen, hun, po, yi, zhi) of early Chinese medical theorising. The theory of shenzhi provides a conceptual model that helps to explain Chinese medicine's perspective on human consciousness and body-mind physiology. Each of the five spirits (wushen) governs certain aspects of mentality and is closely related to sensory faculties, body tissues, visceral systems, and physiological substances. Orderly, integrated wushen activities provide the human organism with its distinctive array of mental and sensory abilities including intelligence, insight, attention, and memory. When these physiological activities and relationships are disrupted, a variety of common or more serious disorders may result. Broadly speaking, they are 'mind' or 'mental' disorders - shenzhi bing. We discuss some of these to illustrate the diagnostic relevance of shenzhi theory for the Chinese medical clinic today. Analysis of their signs and symptoms allows the practitioner to identify disordered wushen activities. A brief discussion of psychological classifications, pathomechanisms and treatment examples is included to help link the theory to contemporary clinical presentations.
Qu, L. & Garvey, M. 2007, 'Shen-Zhi Theory: Analysis of the Signs and Symptoms of Mental Disorder', European Journal of Oriental Medicine, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 4-16.
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The Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon) contains numerous references to 'spirits' that are said to reside within the body. The term 'shen-zhi' means 'spirit-mind' and telescopes the five spirits {shen, hun, po, yi, zhi) of early Chinese medical theorising. Shen-zhi theory explains the principles for understanding Chinese medicine's perspective on human consciousness. The theory describes how each of the wu shen (five spirits) govern certain aspects of mentality and are closely related to sensory faculties, body tissues, visceral systems, and physiological substances according to the wu xing (five phase) framework of correspondence and relationship. Spirit activities thereby provide the human organism with its distinctive array of mental and sensory abilities including intelligence, insight, focused attention, and memory. Shen-zhi theory is derived from key sections of the Neijing that define the nature of the wu shen, their physiological activities and relationships. When these resources and relationships are disrupted a variety of common or more serious disorders may result. We discuss some of these, and a number of specific disorders that have a particular connection with the five spirits and shen-zhi theory. Broadly speaking, they are 'mind' or 'mental' disorders. Analysis of their signs and symptoms illustrates the theory and clarifies its diagnostic relevance for modern clinicians.
Garvey, M. 2001, 'Hysteria', Clinical Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 221-227.
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Garvey, M. & Lifang, Q. 2001, 'The Liver's Shuxie Function', European Journal of Oriental Medicine, vol. 3, no. 5, p. 31.
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Qu, L. & Garvey, M. 2001, 'The location and function of San Jiao', The Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 65, no. February, pp. 26-32.
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Chinese medical classics describe the location and function of sanjiao (the Triple Energiser). Chinese medicine's conception of sanjiao is examined in this paper using references in the classical texts. Classical material presents sanjiao as the 'unique fu': a hollow organ whose unusual structure includes all kinds of cavities and spaces in the body. The three biggest cavities in the trunk â the chest, abdominal and pelvic cavities â are associated with the upper, middle and lower jiao (the âthree burning spacesâ). Other spaces in the extremities and muscles are called cou in the Neijing and these are as important as the âthree burning spacesâ in understanding sanjiaoâs physiology and pathology. Part 1 of this paper explores classical medical sources concerning sanjiaoâs location, shape and structure. Part 2 extends this discussion to include sanjiaoâs role in Chinese medical physiology. The cavities and spaces that comprise the structure and location of sanjiao form a network of fluid and qi passageways extending in all directions throughout the body. The cavities and spaces are a point of juncture and passageway for the qi, the body fluids, and their transformations. Sanjiao's network of spaces therefore provides a site and a thoroughfare, enabling the ascending and descending movement of qi and fluids, and the movement between interior and exterior â the coming in and going out of yin and yang. Chinese medicine's classical sources describe sanjiao's locations and functions in detail: they support Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)âs viscera-based concept of sanjiao, and explain less well-understood aspects of its nature and physiology.
Zaslawski, C., Rogers, C., Garvey, M., Ryan, D., Yang, C.X. & Zhang, S.P. 1997, 'Strategies to maintain the credibility of sham acupuncture used as a control treatment in clinical trials.', Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.), vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 257-266.
Many clinical trials concerning acupuncture are flawed by methodological problems. One of the major difficulties is the appropriate selection and use of a placebo control. This article evaluates the use of sham acupuncture as a placebo control and analyzes its credibility as a control treatment. Sixty-four subjects were assessed for their perception of whether they were receiving sham or real acupuncture while participating in a clinical trial of acupuncture. It was found that if used under specific experimental conditions, sham acupuncture can function as a credible control. Specific strategies are suggested to maintain the credibility of sham acupuncture as a placebo control.

Shanghai University of Chinese Medicine

Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine (Harbin)