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Professor Mary-Anne Williams

Biography

Mary-Anne Williams is Director of the Innovation and Enterprise Research Laboratory (The Magic Lab) at UTS. Mary-Anne has a Masters of Laws and a PhD in Knowledge Representation and Reasoning with transdisciplinary strengths in AI, disruptive innovation, design thinking, data analytics, IP law and privacy law. Mary-Anne is a Faculty Fellow at Stanford University and a Guest Professor at the University of Science and Technology China where she gives intensive courses on disruptive innovation. Mary-Anne chaired the Australian Research Council's Excellence in Research for Australia Committee that undertook a national evaluation of Mathematics, Information and Computing Sciences in 2012. 
Mary-Anne has a passion for design led innovation.  She works with her research team in the Magic Lab to bring science fiction to reality; the research goal is to design autonomous technologies that can learn to delight and adapt in novel situations as they collaborate with people to achieve shared goals.

Professional

Mary-Anne is a Director of KR inc, and has organised numerous large conferences including the 2014  International Conference on Social Robotics. In addition she is Review Editor for the prestigious Artificial Intelligence Journal, serves on the Editorial Board for AAAI/MIT Press, the leading Information Systems Journal and the International Journal of Social Robotics. Mary-Anne is a member of the ACM Eugene L. Lawler Award Committee for Humanitarian Contributions within Computer Science and Informatics. 

Image of Mary-Anne Williams
Professor (Research), School of Software
Core Member, Joint Research Centre in Intelligent Systems Membership
Core Member, QCIS - Quantum Computation and Intelligent Systems
Associate Member, INEXT - Innovation in IT Services and Applications
Associate Member, CRIN - Centre for Realtime Information Networks
Associate Member, CMOS - Centre for Management and Organisational Studies
Core Member, AAI - Advanced Analytics Institute
BSc (UNE), GradDipCompSc (UNE), MSc (UNE), LL.M., PhD (Syd)
Member, Association for Computing Machinery
Senior Member, Finance & Treasury Association
Member, Association for Information Systems
Life Member, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
Senior Member, Strategic Management Society
Fellow, Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (FTSE)
Member, The Institution of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
Fellow, Australian Computer Society
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 2451

Research Interests

Artificial Intelligence, Innovation and Enterprise, Social Robotics, The Internet of Everything, Privacy, Risk Management, Software Engineering, Human-Robot Interaction, Information Systems.

Can supervise: Yes
I supervise students in the Innovation and Enterprise Research Lab, also known as the Magic Lab. The lab focuses on creative and innovative technologies with broad application from robotics through logic-based systems to treasury risk management.

Innovation and Enterprise, Social Robotics, The Internet of Everything, Privacy, Risk Management, Software Engineering, Human-Robot Interaction, Information Systems.

Chapters

Chen, S. & Williams, M. 2008, 'Learning Personalized Ontologies from Text: A Review on an Inherently Transdisciplinary Area' in Gonzalez, R.A., Chen, N. & Dahanayake, A. (eds), Personalized Information Retrieval and Access Concepts Methods and Practices, IGI Global, UK & USA, pp. 1-29.
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Book Chapter on Ontology learning - a review of the main concepts of ontologies and the state of the art in the area of ontology learning from text.
Williams, M. 2007, 'Computer Mediated Communication' in Editor, J.R.B. & Editor, S.R.C. (eds), International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies, Sage Publications, London, pp. 207-212.
http://www.amazon.com/International-Encyclopedia-Organization-Studies-Stewart/dp/1412915155
Gardenfors, P. & Williams, M. 2007, 'Multi-Agent Communication, Planning, and Collaboration' in Schalley, A.C. & Khlentzos, D. (eds), Mental States: Language and Cognitive Structure, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp. 197-253.
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Williams, M. & Gardenfors, P. 2007, 'Communication, Planning and Collaboration based on Representations and Simulations' in Editor, A.C.S. & Editor, D.K. (eds), Mental States: Volume 1: Evolution, function, nature; Volume 2: Language and cognitive structure, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 95-122.
Williams, M. & Elliot, S. 2003, 'An Evaluation of Intelligent Agent based Innovation in the Wholesale Financial Services Industry' in Andersen, K.V., Elliot, S., Swatman, P., Trauth, E. & Bj0rn-Anders, N. (eds), SEEKING SUCCESS IN E-BUSINESS, KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS, USA, pp. 91-105.
In this paper we describe the problems and challenges facing Australian corporations in the Wholesale Financial Services sector and describe a research model which seeks to assess the impact of emerging Intelligent Agent enabled e-business initiatives, particularly in the area of system architecture and mass customisation. The purpose is to assist these firms achieve a level of international competitiveness in this area through (a) the investigation and longitudinal monitoring of the current status of and further developments in intelligent agent technologies, and (b) the investigation of emergent applications and successful approaches for the adoption and implementation of these key technologies in the provision of improved value-added customer services. We argue that a multidisciplinary integration of e-business strategy, finance, intelligent agent architectures and knowledge technologies offer a previously unexplored solution to the documented challenges confronting Australia's Wholesale Financial Services industry. Agents can evolve over time iteratively and independently, without impacting other agents. A key difference between agent architectures and more traditional architectures is that instead of building relationships between software components at design time, agent architectures allow relationships to be fonned on the fly at run-time. This results in highly responsive systems that are sensitive to the dynamic financial services context and that may be opportunistic in any competitive complex business environment.

Conferences

Abidi, S., Piccardi, M. & Williams, M. 2016, 'Static Action Recognition by Efficient Greedy Inference', Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision, 2016 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision, IEEE, Lake Placid, NY, USA, pp. 1-8.
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Action recognition from a single image is an important task for applications such as image annotation, robotic navigation, video surveillance and several others. Existing methods for recognizing actions from still images mainly rely on either bag-of-feature representations or pose estimation from articulated body-part models. However, the relationship between the action and the containing image is still substantially unexplored. Actually, the presence of given objects or specific backgrounds is likely to provide informative clues for the recognition of the action. For this reason, in this paper we propose approaching action recognition by first partitioning the entire image into superpixels, and then using their latent classes as attributes of the action. The action class is predicted based on a graphical model composed of measurements from each superpixel and a fully-connected graph of superpixel classes. The model is learned using a latent structural SVM approach, and an efficient, greedy algorithm is proposed to provide inference over the graph. Differently from most existing methods, the proposed approach does not require annotation of the actor (usually provided as a bounding box). Experimental results over the challenging Stanford 40 Action dataset have reported an impressive mean average precision of 72.3%, the highest achieved to date.
Novianto, R. & Williams, M.A. 2016, 'Emotion in robot decision making', Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, pp. 221-232.
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© Springer international publishing switzerland 2017.Social robots are expected to behave in a socially acceptablemanner. They have to accommodate emotions in their decision-makings when dealing with people in social environments. In this paper, we present a novel emotion mechanism that influences decision making and behaviors through attention. We describe its implementation in a cognitive architecture and demonstrate its capability in a robot companion experiment. Results show that the robot can successfully bias its behaviors in order to make users happy. Our proposed emotion mechanism can be used in social robots to predict emotions and bias behaviors in order to improve their performances.
Williams, M., Raza, R.A. & Johnston, B. 2016, 'Reward from Demonstration in Interactive Reinforcement Learning', Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference.
Vitale, J., Williams, M.-.A. & Johnston, B. 2016, 'The face-space duality hypothesis: a computational model', Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 38th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Cognitive Science Society, Philadelphia, pp. 514-519.
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Ojha, S. & Williams, M.A. 2016, 'Ethically-Guided Emotional Responses for Social Robots: Should I Be Angry?', International Conference on Social Robotics, Kansas City, USA.
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Emotions play a critical role in human-robot interaction. Human-robot interaction in social contexts will be more effective if robots can understand human emotions and express (display) emotions accordingly as a means to communicate their own internal state. In this paper we present a novel computational model of robot emotion generation based on appraisal theory and guided by ethical judgement. There have been recent advances in developing emotion for robots. However, despite the extensive research on robot emotion, it is difficult to say if a particular robot is exhibiting appropriate emotions or even showing that it can empathize with humans by exhibiting similar emotions to humans in the same situation. A key question is - to what extent should a robot direct anger toward a young child or an elderly person for an act that it should show anger towards an ordinary adult to signal danger or stupidity? Realizing the need for an ethically guided approach to emotion expressions in social robots as they interact with people, we present a novel Ethical Emotion Generation System (EEGS) for the expression of the most acceptable emotions in social robots.
Romat, H., Williams, M.-.A., Wang, X., Johnston, B., Bard, H. & IEEE 2016, 'Natural Human-Robot Interaction Using Social Cues', 2016 11TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION (HRI), pp. 503-504.
Ramezani, N. & Williams, M. 2015, 'Smooth robot motion with an Optimal Redundancy Resolution for PR2 robot based on an analytic inverse kinematic solution', Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE-RAS 15th International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids), IEEE-RAS 15th International Conference on Humanoid Robots, IEEE, Seoul, Korea, pp. 338-345.
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Current support for the PR2 humanoid arm motion planning does not provide a redundancy resolution scheme and this can cause excessive movements and discontinuities in the generated trajectories. We provide an innovative solution and implementation in ROS that can be used to deliver smooth motions that people find to be intuitive and easy to predict. This paper, provides a comprehensive analysis of kinematics of the PR2 humanoid robot arm including an analytic Inverse Kinematics solution and an Optimal Redundancy Resolution scheme. First, a closed form IK computation method is introduced for the PR2 arms providing all feasible solutions in global jointspace for a given value of the first joint angle as a redundant parameter. Then, a redundancy optimization technique is customized and formulated based on a desired objective function that finds optimal values for the redundant parameter. The proposed technique computes robot motion plan more effectively so that the robot behaviors are expected to be more reliable. The technique has been implemented successfully on PR2 for a hand writing task.
Vitale, J., Williams, M.-.A. & Johnston, B. 2014, 'Socially impaired robots: Human social disorders and robots' socio-emotional intelligence', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 6th International Conference on Social Robotics, Springer Verlag, Sydney, Australia, pp. 350-359.
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Social robots need intelligence in order to safely coexist and interact with humans. Robots without functional abilities in understanding others and unable to empathise might be a societal risk and they may lead to a society of socially impaired robots. In this work we provide a survey of three relevant human social disorders, namely autism, psychopathy and schizophrenia, as a means to gain a better understanding of social robots' future capability requirements.We provide evidence supporting the idea that social robots will require a combination of emotional intelligence and social intelligence, namely socio-emotional intelligence. We argue that a robot with a simple socio-emotional process requires a simulation-driven model of intelligence. Finally, we provide some critical guidelines for designing future socio-emotional robots.
Wang, X., Williams, M.-.A., Gardenfors, P., Vitale, J., Abidi, S., Johnston, B., Kuipers, B. & Huang, A. 2014, 'Directing human attention with pointing', Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 2014 RO-MAN: The 23rd IEEE International Symposium on, The 23rd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, IEEE, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 174-179.
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Pointing is a typical means of directing a human's attention to a specific object or event. Robot pointing behaviours that direct the attention of humans are critical for human-robot interaction, communication and collaboration. In this paper, we describe an experiment undertaken to investigate human comprehension of a humanoid robot's pointing behaviour. We programmed a NAO robot to point to markers on a large screen and asked untrained human subjects to identify the target of the robots pointing gesture. We found that humans are able to identify robot pointing gestures. Human subjects achieved higher levels of comprehension when the robot pointed at objects closer to the gesturing arm and when they stood behind the robot. In addition, we found that subjects performance improved with each assessment task. These new results can be used to guide the design of effective robot pointing behaviours that enable more effective robot to human communication and improve human-robot collaborative performance.
Novianto, R., Williams, M.-.A., Gärdenfors, P. & Wightwick, G. 2014, 'Classical conditioning in social robots', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag, Germany, pp. 279-289.
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Classical conditioning is important in humans to learn and predict events in terms of associations between stimuli and to produce responses based on these associations. Social robots that have a classical conditioning skill like humans will have an advantage to interact with people more naturally, socially and effectively. In this paper, we present a novel classical conditioning mechanism and describe its implementation in ASMO cognitive architecture. The capability of this mechanism is demonstrated in the Smokey robot companion experiment. Results show that Smokey can associate stimuli and predict events in its surroundings. ASMO's classical conditioning mechanism can be used in social robots to adapt to the environment and to improve the robots' performances.
Novianto, R. & Williams, M.-.A. 2014, 'Operant Conditioning in ASMO Cognitive Architecture', BICA 2014. 5th Annual International Conference on Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architecture, Elsevier, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA, pp. 404-411.
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Peppas, P. & Williams, M. 2014, 'Belief Change and Semiorders', http://www.aaai.org/Press/Proceedings/kr14.php, Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, AAAI, Vienna.
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A central result in the AGM framework for belief revision is the construction of revision functions in terms of total preorders on possible worlds. These preorders encode comparative plausibility: r ă r1 states that the world r is at least as plausible as r1. Indifference in the plausibility of two worlds, r, r1, denoted r ' r1, is defined as r r1 and r1 r. Herein we take a closer look at plausibility indifference. We contend that the transitivity of indifference assumed in the AGM framework is not always a desirable property for comparative plausibility. Our argument originates from similar concerns in preference modelling, where a structure weaker than a total preorder, called a semiorder, is widely consider to be a more adequate model of preference. In this paper we essentially re-construct revision functions using semiorders instead of total preorders.We formulate postulates to characterise this new, wider, class of revision functions, and prove that the postulates are sound and complete with respect to the semiorder-based construction. The corresponding class of contraction functions (via the Levi and Harper Identities) is also characterised axiomatically.
Williams, M. & Peppas, P. 2014, 'Constructive models for contraction with intransitive plausibility indifference', Logics in Artificial Intelligence - Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 14th European Conference on Logics in Artificial Intelligence, Springer Verlag, Madeira, Portugal, pp. 355-367.
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Plausibility rankings play a central role in modeling Belief Change, and they take different forms depending on the type of belief change under consideration: preorders on possible worlds, epistemic entrenchments, etc. A common feature of all these structures is that plausibility indifference is assumed to be transitive. In a previous article, [7], we argued that this is not always the case, and we introduced new sets of postulates for revision and contraction (weaker variants of the classical AGM postulates), that are liberated from the indifference transitivity assumption. Herein we complete the task by making the necessary adjustments to the epistemic entrenchment and the partial meet models. In particular we lift the indifference transitivity assumption from both these two models, and we establish representation results connecting the weaker models with the weaker postulates for contraction introduced in [7].
Abidi, S.S., Williams, M. & Johnston, B.G. 2013, 'Human pointing as a robot directive', ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, IEEE, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 67-68.
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People are accustomed to directing other people's attention using pointing gestures. People enact and interpret pointing commands often and effortlessly. If robots understand human intentions (e.g. as encoded in pointing-gestures), they can reach higher
Felix Navarro, K.M., Gay, V.C., Johnston, B.G., Leijdekkers, P., Vaughan, E.P., Wang, T. & Williams, M. 2013, 'SocialCycle What Can a Mobile App Do To Encourage Cycling', 38th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN 2013) and Workshops, Second IEEE International Workshop on Global Trends in Smart Cities 2013, IEEE Computer Society, Sydney Australia, pp. 24-30.
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Traffic congestion presents significant enviromnental, social and economic costs. Encouraging people to cycle and use other fonns of alternate transportation is one important aspect of addressing these problems. However, many city councils face significant difficulties in educating citizens and encouraging them to fonn new habits around these alternate fonns of transport. Mobile devices present a great opportunity to effect such positive behavior change. In this paper we discuss the results of a survey aimed at understanding how mobile devices can be used to encourage cycling and/or improve the cycling experience. We use the results of the survey to design and develop a mobile app called SocialCycle, which purpose is to encourage users to start cycling and to increase the number of trips that existing riders take by bicycle
Chen, S. & Williams, M. 2013, 'Grounding Privacy-by-Design for Information Systems', Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, AIS Electronic Library, Jeju Island, Korea.
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The Privacy-by-Design approach has gained an increasing acceptance for privacy management in the privacy community. However, there is still a research gap in methodologies for implementing this approach and a need to develop frameworks and systems to support Privacy-by-Design practice. In an attempt to bridge this gap, this paper uncovers hidden issues of the Privacy-by-Design approach as a means to derive privacy requirements for implementing information systems with privacy embedded by design.
Williams, M.-.A., Abidi, S., Gaerdenfors, P., Wang, X., Kuipers, B. & Johnston, B. 2013, 'Interpreting Robot Pointing Behavior', SOCIAL ROBOTICS, ICSR 2013, pp. 148-159.
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Wang, W., Johnston, B.G. & Williams, M. 2012, 'Social networking for robots to share knowledge, skills and know-how', International Conference on Social Robotics, Springer, Chengdu, China, pp. 418-427.
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A major bottleneck in robotics research and development is the difficulty and time required to develop and implement new skills for robots to realize task-independence. In spite of work done in terms of task model transfer among robots, so far little work has been done on how to make robots task-independent. In this paper, we describe our work-in-progress towards the development of a robot social network called Numbots that draws on the principle of sharing information in human social networking. We demonstrate how Numbots has the potential to assist knowledge sharing, know-how and skill transfer among robots to realize task-independence.
Chen, S. & Williams, M. 2012, 'Information Makes A Difference For Privacy Design', The Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, The Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems PASIS, PACIS, Ho Chi Minh City, pp. 1-13.
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In the current information age, information can make a difference to all aspects of ones life, emotionally, ethically, financially or societally. Information privacy plays a key role in enabling a difference in many dimensions such as trust, respect, reputation, security, resource, ability, employment, etc. The capability of information to make a difference to ones life is a fundamental factor; and privacy status of information is a key factor driving this difference. Understanding the impact of these two factors to ones life within an IS context is an important research gap in the discipline. This paper studies information + privacy, ontologically and integrally, in making a difference to ones life, within the IS context. In recognition of the importance of the Privacy-by- Design approach to IS development, a methodology is proposed to understand the grounds of information and model fundamental constructs for using Privacy-by-Design approach to develop robust privacy-friendly information systems
Raza, S., Haider, S. & Williams, M. 2012, 'Teaching coordinated strategies to soccer robots via imitation', 2012 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, ROBIO 2012 - Conference Digest, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, IEEE, Guangzhou, China, pp. 1434-1439.
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Developing coordination among multiple agents and enabling them to exhibit teamwork is a challenging yet exciting task that can benefit many of the complex real-life problems. This research uses imitation to learn collaborative strategies for a team of agents. Imitation based learning involves learning from an expert by observing him/her demonstrating a task and then replicating it. The key idea is to involve multiple human experts during demonstration to teach autonomous agents how to work in coordination. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology has been assessed in a goal defending scenario of the RoboCup Soccer Simulation 3D league. The process involves multiple human demonstrators controlling soccer agents via game controllers and demonstrating them how to play soccer in coordination. The data gathered during this phase is used as training data to learn a classification model which is later used by the soccer agents to make autonomous decisions during actual matches. Different performance evaluation metrics are derived to compare the performance of imitating agent with that of the human-driven agent and hand-coded (if-then-else rules) agent.
Haider, S., Abidi, S.S. & Williams, M. 2012, 'On evolving a dynamic bipedal walk using Partial Fourier Series', 2012 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, ROBIO 2012 - Conference Digest, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, IEEE, Guangzhou, China, pp. 8-13.
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The paper presents a Partial Fourier Series (PFS) based bipedal gait in sagittal and transverse planes. The parameters of the Fourier series are optimized through Evolutionary Algorithms (EA). In addition to evolving the two walks (forward and turn) separately, the paper demonstrates how the combination of the two enables a dynamic and adjustable walk. The stability of the walk is ensured through an effective use of the built-in gyroscope sensor. The evolved walk has been tested on the simulated version of the humanoid Nao robot and is being used within the RoboCup Soccer 3D Simulation competition
Al-Sharawneh, J.A., Williams, M., Wang, X. & Goldbaum, D. 2011, 'Mitigating Risk in Web-Based Social Network Service Selection: Follow the Leader', The Sixth International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services (ICIW 2011), International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services, The International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), St. Maarten, The Netherlands Antilles, pp. 156-164.
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In the Service Web, a huge number of Web services compete to offer similar functionalities from distributed locations. Since no Web service is risk free, this paper aims to mitigate the risk in service selection using 'Follow the Leader' principle as a new approach for risk-reducing strategy. First, we define the user credibility model based on the 'Follow the Leader' principle in web-based social networks. Next we show how to evaluate the Web service credibility based on its trustworthiness and expertise. Finally, we present a dynamic selection model to select the best service with the perceived performance risk and customer risk-attitude considerations. To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the new 'Follow the Leader' driven approach to alleviate the risk in service selection, we used a Social Network Analysis Studio (SNAS) to verify the validity of the proposed model. The empirical results incorporated in this paper, demonstrate that our approach is a significantly innovative approach as riskreducing strategy in service selection.
Chen, S. & Williams, M. 2011, 'Grounding Data Purpose And Data Usage For Better Privacy Requirements Development: An Information System Perspective', The Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, The Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, PACIS, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 1-13.
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Data purpose is a central concept to modeling privacy requirements for information systems. Existing purpose-centric approaches for privacy protection have mainly focused on access control. The problem of ensuring the consistency between data purpose and data usage has been under-addressed. Given the lack of practical purpose-centric solutions, we argue that a grounded understanding of the underlying concepts of data purpose and usage is fundamental to modeling privacy requirements. In recognition of an existing "privacy rights" framework, this paper develops an ontological grounding of data purpose and usage that can be used to understand their implications on fundamental privacy rights for modeling privacy requirements for information systems.
Chen, S. & Williams, M. 2011, 'An ontological study of data purpose for privacy policy enforcement', The Third IEEE International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust, IEEE International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust, IEEE,CPS, Boston, MA,USA, pp. 1208-1213.
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Data purpose is a central concept in modeling privacy requirements. Existing purpose-based approaches for privacy protection have mainly focused on access control. The problem of ensuring the consistency between data purpose and data usage has been under-addressed. In an attempt to bridge this research gap, we develop a grounded understanding of data purpose and relevant key concepts that is fundamental to address the problem. We propose a Minimum Action Permission Principle as a basic guideline to establish a path to solutions to the consistency problem.
Novianto, R. & Williams, M. 2011, 'Innate and Learned Emotion Network', Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures 2011 - Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications vol 233: Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the BICA Society, Annual Meeting of the BICA Society, IOS Press, Arlington, USA, pp. 263-268.
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Autonomous agents sometimes can only rely on the subjective information in terms of emotions to make decision due to the inavailability of the non-subjective knowledge. However, current emotion models lack of integrating innate emotion and learned emotion and tend to focus on a specific aspect. This paper describes the underlying new computational emotion model in ASMO which integrates both innate and learned emotions as well as reasoning based on probabilistic causal network. ASMO's emotion model is compared with other models and related works and shows its practical capabilities to utilize subjective knowledge in decision making.
Rudduck, S.G., Williams, M. & Stoianoff, N.P. 2011, 'Visualizing the Shape of Quality: An application in the context of Intellectual Property', SHAPES 1.0 The Shape Of Things 2011, Proceedings of the First Interdisciplinary Workshop on SHAPES, SHAPES 1.0 The Shape Of Things 2011, Proceedings of the First Interdisciplinary Workshop on SHAPES, CUER Wokshop Proceeedings, Karlsruhe, Germany, pp. 1-10.
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The aim of this work is to explore how the concept of shape can be applied in the context of Intellectual Property Law (IPL). Despite the global nature of IPL, the system is plagued with considerable uncertainty, especially in the specific instrument of patents. We believe the shape concept can find a balance between the inventive ideas, patent claims and objects in the world. The outcomes of this can then be measured as a time-dependent expectancy that an invention will conform to legal rules when under examination by officials. Specifically, we establish an empirical-based benchmark which can be utilized to test whether shape (via visual figures) is useful in reducing the uncertainty (measured via number of examination actions) which an applicant might face in patenting technological ideas.
Wang, X. & Williams, M. 2010, 'A Graphical Model for Risk Analysis and Management', Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 6291 - Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management, Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Belfast, Northern Ireland, pp. 256-269.
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Risk analysis and management are important capabilities in intelligent information and knowledge systems. We present a new approach using directed graph based models for risk analysis and management. Our modelling approach is inspired by and builds on the two level approach of the Transferable Belief Model. The credal level for risk analysis and model construction uses beliefs in causal inference relations among the variables within a domain and a pignistic(betting) level for the decision making. The risk model at the credal level can be transformed into a probabilistic model through a pignistic transformation function. This paper focuses on model construction at the credal level. Our modelling approach captures expert knowledge in a formal and iterative fashion based on the Open World Assumption(OWA) in contrast to Bayesian Network based approaches for managing uncertainty associated with risks which assume all the domain knowledge and data have been captured before hand. As a result, our approach does not require complete knowledges and is well suited for modelling risk in dynamic changing environments where information and knowledge is gathered over time as decisions need to be taken. Its performance is related to the quality of the knowledge at hand at any given time.
Williams, M., Gardenfors, P., Johnston, B.G. & Wightwick, G.R. 2010, 'Anticipation as a Strategy: A Design Paradigm for Robotics', Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 6291 - Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management, Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Belfast, Northern Ireland, pp. 341-353.
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Anticipation plays a crucial role during any action, particularly in agents operating in open, complex and dynamic environments. In this paper we consider the role of anticipation as a strategy from a design perspective. Anticipation is a crucial skill in sporting games like soccer, tennis and cricket. We explore the role of anticipation in robot soccer matches in the context of reaching the RoboCup vision to develop a robot soccer team capable of defeating the FIFA World Champions in 2050. Anticipation in soccer can be planned or emergent but whether planned or emergent, anticipation can be designed. Two key obstacles stand in the way of developing more anticipatory robot systems; an impoverished understanding of the âanticipationâ process/capability and a lack of know-how in the design of anticipatory systems. Several teams at RoboCup have developed remarkable preemptive behaviors. The CMU Dive and UTS Dodge are two compelling examples. In this paper we take steps towards designing robots that can adopt anticipatory behaviors by proposing an innovative model of anticipation as a strategy that specifies the key characteristics of anticipation behaviors to be developed. The model can drive the design of autonomous systems by providing a means to explore and to represent anticipation requirements. Our approach is to analyze anticipation as a strategy and then to use the insights obtained to design a reference model that can be used to specify a set of anticipatory requirements for guiding an autonomous robot soccer system.
Al-Sharawneh, J.A., Williams, M. & Goldbaum, D. 2010, 'Web Service Reputation Prediction based on Customer Feedback Forecasting Model', Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference Workshops (EDOCW), 2010 14th IEEE International, Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference, IEEE Computer Society, Brazil, pp. 33-40.
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In the Service Web, customersâ feedback constitutes a substantial component of Web Service reputation and trustworthiness, which in turn impacts the service uptake by consumers in the future. This paper presents an approach to predict reputation in service-oriented environments. For assessing a Web Service reputation, we define reputation key metrics to aggregate the feedback of different aspects of the ratings. In situations where rating feedback is not available, we propose a Feedback Forecasting Model (FFM), based on Expectation Disconfirmation Theory (EDT), to predict the reputation of a web service in dynamic settings. Then we introduce the concept âReputation Aspectâ and show how to compute it efficiently. Finally we show how to integrate the Feedback Forecasting Model into Aspect-Based Reputation Computation. To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach, we test the proposed model using our Service Selection Simulation Studio (4S). The simulation results included in this paper show the applicability and performance of the proposed Reputation Prediction based on the Customer Feedback Forecasting Model. We also show how our model is efficient, particularly in dynamic environments.
Al-Sharawneh, J.A. & Williams, M. 2010, 'Credibility-based Social Network Recommendation: Follow the Leader', ACIS 2010 Proceedings - 21st Australasian Conference on Information Systems - Information Systems: Defining and Establishing a High Impact Discipline, Australasian Conference on Information Systems, AIS Library, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD, Australia, pp. 1-11.
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In Web-based social networks (WBSN), social trust relationships between users indicate the similarity of their needs and opinions. Trust can be used to make recommendations on the web because trust information enables the clustering of users based on their credibility which is an aggregation of expertise and trustworthiness. In this paper, we propose a new approach to making recommendations based on leadersâ credibility in the âFollow the Leaderâ model as Top-N recommenders by incorporating social network information into user-based collaborative filtering. To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of âFollow the Leaderâ as a new approach to making recommendations, first we develop a new analytical tool, Social Network Analysis Studio (SNAS), that captures real data and used it to verify the proposed model using the Epinions dataset. The empirical results demonstrate that our approach is a significantly innovative approach to making effective collaborative filtering based recommendations especially for cold start users.
Novianto, R., Johnston, B.G. & Williams, M. 2010, 'Attention in the ASMO cognitive architecture', Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures 2010 - Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications vol 221: Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the BICA Society, Annual Meeting of the BICA Society, IOS Press, Washington, USA, pp. 98-105.
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The ASMO Cognitive Architecture has been developed to support key capabilities: attention, awareness and self-modification. In this paper we describe the underlying attention model in ASMO. The ASMO Cognitive Architecture is inspired by a biological attention theory, and offers a mechanism for directing and creating behaviours, beliefs, anticipation, discovery, expectations and changes in a complex system. Thus, our attention based architecture provides an elegant solution to the problem of behaviour development and behaviour selection particularly when the behaviours are mutually incompatible.
Williams, M. 2010, 'Autonomy: Life and Being', Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 6291 - Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management, Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Belfast, Northern Ireland, pp. 137-147.
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This paper uses robot experience to explore key concepts of autonomy, life and being. Unfortunately, there are no widely accepted definitions of autonomy, life or being. Using a new cognitive agent architecture we argue that autonomy is a key ingredient for both life and being, and set about exploring autonomy as a concept and a capability. Some schools of thought regard autonomy as the key characteristic that distinguishes a system from an agent; agents are systems with autonomy, but rarely is a definition of autonomy provided. Living entities are autonomous systems, and autonomy is vital to life. Intelligence presupposes autonomy too; what would it mean for a system to be intelligent but not exhibit any form of genuine autonomy. Our philosophical, scientific and legal understanding of autonomy and its implications is immature and as a result progress towards designing, building, managing, exploiting and regulating autonomous systems is retarded. In response we put forward a framework for exploring autonomy as a concept and capability based on a new cognitive architecture. Using this architecture tools and benchmarks can be developed to analyze and study autonomy in its own right as a means to further our understanding of autonomous systems, life and being. This endeavor would lead to important practical benefits for autonomous systems design and help determine the legal status of autonomous systems. It is only with a new enabling understanding of autonomy that the dream of Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life can be realized. We argue that designing systems with genuine autonomy capabilities can be achieved by focusing on agent experiences of being rather than attempting to encode human experiences as symbolic knowledge and know-how in the artificial agents we build.
Wang, W., Elliot, S. & Williams, M. 2010, 'An IS contribution to the UN Millennium Development Goals: Next Generation Vaccination Management in the Developing World', ACIS 2010 Proceedings, Australasian Conference on Information Systems, AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), Brisbane, Australia, pp. 1-10.
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More than 9.5 million people die in the developing world unnecessarily each year due not to a lack of medicine but due to poor information management. It is proposed that the IS Discipline could contribute to resolving this and similar global challenges by making a greater contribution to high impact and high visibility global issues such as the UNâs Millennium Development Goals. In this paper we illustrate the potential for the IS Discipline to take a leading role in high impact issues by presenting an innovative design for a mainstream IS solution to an illustrative global healthcare issue through appropriate applications of mobile technologies, cloud computing, social networking and geolocation services.
Chen, S. & Williams, M. 2010, 'Towards A Comprehensive Requirements Architecture For Privacy-Aware Social Recommender Systems', The Seventh Asia-Pacific Conferences on Conceptual Modelling, Asia-Pacific Conferences on Conceptual Modelling, Australian Computer Society, Inc, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 33-42.
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Social recommendations have been rapidly adopted as important components in social network sites. However, they assume a cooperative relationship between parties involved. This assumption can lead to the creation of privacy issues and new opportunities for privacy infringements. Traditional recommendation techniques fail to address these issues, and as a consequence the development of privacy-aware cooperative social recommender systems give rise to an important research gap. In this paper we identify key problems that arise from the privacy dimension of social recommendations and propose a comprehensive requirements architecture for building privacy-aware cooperative social recommender systems.
Chen, S. & Williams, M. 2010, 'Privacy: An Ontological Problem', The Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, The Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, PACIS, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 1402-1413.
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Approaches to addressing privacy issues tend to assume privacy is well understood and typically approach the problem from a security perspective. However, security is more concerned with safety than with privacy. Given the lack of satisfaction with advanced privacy-enhancing-technologies, we argue that an ontological framework is fundamental to advancing the capabilities of technologyenabled solutions. In recognition that privacy is a right to control information about oneself, this paper develops a new ontological foundation for privacy - an initial and important step to modeling privacy as a means to improving the privacy protection effectiveness of information systems.
Chen, S. & Williams, M. 2010, 'Modeling Privacy Requirements for Quality Manipulation of Information on Social Networking Sites', 2010 AAAI Spring Symposium on Intelligent Information Privacy Management, National Conference of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence, AAAI Press, Stanford University, pp. 42-47.
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The volume and diversity of information shared and exchanged within and across social networking sites is increasing. As a result new and challenging requirements are needed for quality manipulation of the information. An important requirement is information usability with privacy dimensions. Existing social networking sites do not provide adequate functionalities to fulfill privacy requirements of information use. This is largely due to the lack of a privacy-by-design approach that conducts an effective privacy requirements analysis as a means to develop suitable models for social networking that protect privacy. To bridge this gap, this paper analyses and models privacy requirements for a recommendation service in social networking sites.
Al-Sharawneh, J.A. & Williams, M. 2010, 'Credibility-aware Web-based Social Network Recommender: Follow the Leader', Proceedings of the 2nd ACM RecSys 10 Workshop on Recommender Systems and the Social Web, ACM Recommender Systems, WARWICK, Barcelona, Spain, pp. 1-8.
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In web-based social networks social trust relationships between users indicate the similarity of their needs and opinions. Trust in this sense can be used to make recommendations on the web because trust information enables the clustering of users based on their credibility which is aggregation of expertise and trustworthiness. In this paper, we propose a new approach to making recommendations based on leadersâ credibility in the âFollow the Leaderâ model as Top-N recommenders by incorporating social network information into user-based collaborative filtering. To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of âFollow the Leaderâ as a new approach to making recommendations, first we developed a Social Network Analysis Studio (SNAS) that captures real data from the Epinions dataset, next we used it to verify the proposed model. The empirical results incorporated in this paper, demonstrate that our approach is a significantly innovative approach to making effective CF based recommendations especially for cold start users.
Rudduck, S.G. & Williams, M. 2010, 'Conceptual Ternary Diagrams for Shape Perception: A Preliminary Step', 2010 AAAI Spring Symposium Series: Cognitive Shape Processing, National Conference of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence, AAAI, Stanford University, USA, pp. 34-38.
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This work-in-progress provides a preliminary cognitive investigation of how the external visualization of the Ternary diagram (TD) might be used as an underlying model for exploring the representation of simple 3D cuboids according to the theory of Conceptual Spaces. Gärdenfors introduced geometrical entities, known as conceptual spaces, for modeling concepts. He considered multidimensional spaces equipped with a range of similarity measures (such as metrics) and guided by criteria and mechanisms as a geometrical model for concept formation and management. Our work is inspired by the conceptual spaces approach and takes ternary diagrams as its underlying conceptual model. The main motivation for our work is twofold. First, Ternary Diagrams are powerful conceptual representations that have a solid historical and mathematical foundation. Second, the notion of overlaying an Information- Entropy function on a ternary diagram can lead to new insights into applications of reasoning about shape and other cognitive processes.
Elliot, S. & Williams, M. 2010, 'World-Class IS-Enabled Business Innovation: A Case Study of IS Leadership, Strategy and Governance', Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS 2010), DBLP Computer Science Bibliography, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 1814-1821.
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While many global corporations acknowledge they lack corporate capabilities for successful technology-enabled business innovation, an Australian financial services provider has been ranked by an international ratings agency in its highest categories due to the capabilities of its Information Systems. Its Loan Processing system has been commended by the ratings agency as the principal reason for its high ranking and for the organizationâs inclusion on a global list of selected service providers. This paper presents a longitudinal case study of how an organization with 750 employees located in rural Australia came to develop world-class strategic Information Systems. From its first system nearly 30 years ago, this paper shows how the organization has grown in-house capabilities to devise, develop, implement and manage applications of technology from operational systems that automate specific functions to systems that inform and enable enterprise strategy. The implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Wang, X. & Williams, M. 2010, 'A Practical Risk Management Framework for Intelligent Information Systems', PACIS 2010 Proceedings, Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS 2010), AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), Tapei, Taiwan.
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This paper reports progress towards the development of a practical risk analysis and management framework for intelligent information systems based on the state-of-art techniques in uncertainty management. We provide an analysis of challenges raised by the need to manage risk and identify a set of key requirements for a practical framework that can support risk management in real environments that are open, complex and dynamic. We assess a number of relevant theories, approaches and techniques for their suitability in addressing the risk management challenges. Finally, we present our current multi-level risk analysis and modelling framework, and use benchmark problems in two entirely different domains to illustrate the broad range of our framework applicability.
Williams, M. 2009, 'Evidence Transmutations: Gathering Admissible Evidence using Belief Revision', Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, ACM, Barcelona, Spain, pp. 216-217.
In this paper we explore the potential of using extended belief change operators for modeling the evolution of legal evidence. We introduce a new representation, an evidence structure that can be used to support rich change operators called transmutations. Evidence structures and transmutations support the iterated nature of evidence gathering and acquisition. Importantly reliability is maintained during transmutations and modified where necessary using the Principle of Minimal Change. We establish that this process possesses desirable properties; in particular we construct transmutations that do not assume logical omniscience and that satisfy the widely accepted AGM rationality postulates for revision and contraction but at the same time preserve a key value of the evidence, its reliability.
Al-Sharawneh, J.A. & Williams, M. 2009, 'A Social Network Approach in Semantic Web Services Selection using Follow the Leader Behavior', Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference Workshops, 2009., Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference, IEEE, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 310-319.
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Automatic discovery of web services is a crucial task for e-Business communities. Locating and selecting âthe bestâ web service from a vast number of similar services that matches the user's requirements and preferences is a cognitive challenge and requires the use of an intelligent decision making framework. This paper develops a flexible ontological architecture and framework for Semantic Web Service Selection that exploits Goldbaum's innovative "Follow the Leader" model originally designed as an analytic tool for studying social network behavior and evolution. The framework proposes two new ontologies integrated in a recommender system, which guides a user to select the best service that matches their requirements and preferences. We test and evaluate several behaviors of market leader scenarios using a simulation agent.
Al-Sharawneh, J.A. & Williams, M. 2009, 'ABMS: Agent-based Modeling and Simulation in Web Service Selection', International Conference on Engineering Management and Service Sciences (EMS 2009), International Conference on Engineering Management and Service Sciences, IEEE, Beijing, China., pp. 1-6.
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Agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) is a new approach to modeling systems comprised of autonomous interacting agents. It promises to have an important role in research and education. Some researchers have contended that ABMS âis a third way of doing scienceâ. ABMS has been applied to a wide range of research in a varied number of complex domain problems. Social simulation is playing an increasingly important role in todayâs interconnected society. In this paper we apply agent based modeling and simulation to investigate the impact of Goldbaum's innovative "Follow the Leader" in social networks in web services selection using a recommender system that guides a user to select the best service that matches his requirements and preferences. We test and evaluate several customersâ behaviors scenarios using our simulation tool âSSSS: Service Selection Simulation Studioâ.
Novianto, R. & Williams, M. 2009, 'The Role of Attention in Robot Self-Awareness', Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 2009. RO-MAN 2009. The 18th IEEE International Symposium on, IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, IEEE, Toyama, pp. 1047-1053.
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A robot may not be truly self-aware even though it can have some characteristics of self-awareness, such as having emotional states or the ability to recognize itself in the mirror. We define self-awareness in robots to be characterized by the capacity to direct attention toward their own mental state. This paper explores robot self-awareness and the role that attention plays in the achievement self-awareness. We propose a new attention based approach to self-awareness called ASMO and conduct a comparative analysis of approaches that highlights the innovation and benefits of ASMO. We then describe how our attention based self-awareness can be designed and used to develop self-awareness in state-of-the-art humanoidal robots.
Chen, S. & Williams, M. 2009, 'Privacy In Social Networks: A Comparative Study', Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS) 2009 Proceedings, Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, Association for Information Systems, India School of Business, Hyderabad, India, pp. 1-12.
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Social networks provide unprecedented opportunity for individuals and organizations to share information. At the same time they present significant challenges to privacy that left unaddressed will stifle information sharing and innovation. In this paper we analyse four different prototypical existing social networks, and identify key problems that arise for a privacy-by-design approach to the development of a new breed of social networks.
Williams, M. 2009, 'Privacy Management, the Law & Business Strategies: A Case for Privacy Driven Design', International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering, International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering, IEEE Press, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 60-68.
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This paper explores the adage that good privacy is good business. Businesses, like social networks, often seek to create value from personal information and monetize it. Unlocking and harvesting value embedded in personal information can lead to disclosure of private and sensitive information, and subsequent harm. Personal information management practices can be a means to competitive and strategic advantage, however they are also subject to privacy law. We explore the underlying tension between transparency and disclosure in the privacy verses business strategy in the pursuit of innovation arena, and argue that in order achieve sustained innovation next generation applications and services will require a fresh imaginative and strategic privacy by design approach. Personal information management is a complex task and cannot be adequately achieved without significant attention and commitment to privacy requirements in systems analysis and design. Due to the potential power, magnitude, complexity and scope of web technologies there is a pressing need to understand privacy requirements better, and to invest in developing tools and techniques for modeling, analyzing, designing and building more effective personal information management systems that seek consent where appropriate and that offer users natural choices and sophisticated mechanisms for controlling their personal information.
Johnston, B.G. & Williams, M. 2009, 'Conservative and Reward-driven Behavior Selection in a Commonsense Reasoning Framework', 2009 AAAI Symposium: Multirepresentational Architectures for Human-Level Intelligence, National Conference of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence, AAAI Press, Washington, USA, pp. 14-19.
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Comirit is a framework for commonsense reasoning that combines simulation, logical deduction and passive machine learning. While a passive, observation-driven approach to learning is safe and highly conservative, it is limited to interaction only with those objects that it has previously observed. In this paper we describe a preliminary exploration of methods for extending Comirit to allow safe action selection in uncertain situations, and to allow reward-maximizing selection of behaviors.
Johnston, B.G. & Williams, M. 2009, 'A Formal Framework for the Symbol Grounding Problem', Proceedings of the Second Conference on Artificial General Intelligence, Conference on Artificial General Intelligence, Atlantis Press, Washington, USA, pp. 61-66.
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A great deal of contention can be found within the published literature on grounding and the symbol grounding problem, much of it motivated by appeals to intuition and unfalsifiable claims. We seek to define a formal framework of representa- tion grounding that is independent of any particular opinion, but that promotes classification and comparison. To this end, we identify a set of fundamental concepts and then formalize a hierarchy of six representational system classes that corre- spond to different perspectives on the representational require- ments for intelligence, describing a spectrum of systems built on representations that range from symbolic through iconic to distributed and unconstrained. This framework offers utility not only in enriching our understanding of symbol grounding and the literature, but also in exposing crucial assumptions to be explored by the research community.
Johnston, B.G. & Williams, M. 2009, 'Autonomous Learning of Commonsense Simulations', International Symposium on Logical Formalizations of Commonsense Reasoning, Symposium on Logical Formalizations of Commonsense Reasoning, UTSePress, Toronto, Canada, pp. 73-78.
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Parameter-driven simulations are an effective and efficient method for reasoning about a wide range of commonsense scenarios that can complement the use of logical formalizations. The advantage of simulation is its simplified knowledge elicitation process: rather than building complex logical formulae, simulations are constructed by simply selecting numerical values and graphical structures. In this paper, we propose the application of machine learning techniques to allow an embodied autonomous agent to automatically construct appropriate simulations from its real-world experience. The automation of learning can dramatically reduce the cost of knowledge elicitation, and therefore result in models of commonsense with breadth and depth not possible with traditional engineering of logical formalizations.
Benferhat, S., Dubios, D., Prade, H. & Williams, M. 2009, 'A General Framework for Revising Belief Bases using Qualitative Jeffrey's Rule', Foundations of Intelligent Systems - 18th International Symposium, ISMIS 2009: Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence vol 5722, International Symposium on Foundations of Intelligent Systems, Springer, Prague, Czech Republic, pp. 612-621.
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Intelligent agents require methods to revise their epistemic state as they acquire new information. Jeffreys rule, which extends conditioning to uncertain inputs, is currently used for revising probabilistic epistemic states when new information is uncertain. This paper analyses the expressive power of two possibilistic counterparts of Jeffreys rule for modeling belief revision in intelligent agents. We show that this rule can be used to recover most of the existing approaches proposed in knowledge base revision, such as adjustment, natural belief revision, drastic belief revision, revision of an epistemic by another epistemic state. In addition, we also show that that some recent forms of revision, namely improvement operators, can also be recovered in our framework.
Williams, M. & Elliot, S. 2009, 'Strategic Treasury Risk Management in Uncertain and Changing Environments', Strategic Management Society Conference, Strategic Management Society, Washington, USA.
Johnston, B. & Williams, M.A. 2009, 'A formal framework for the symbol grounding problem', Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Artificial General Intelligence, AGI 2009, pp. 79-84.
A great deal of contention can be found within the published literature on grounding and the symbol grounding problem, much of it motivated by appeals to intuition and unfalsifiable claims. We seek to define a formal framework of representation grounding that is independent of any particular opinion, but that promotes classification and comparison. To this end, we identify a set of fundamental concepts and then formalize a hierarchy of six representational system classes that correspond to different perspectives on the representational requirements for intelligence, describing a spectrum of systems built on representations that range from symbolic through iconic to distributed and unconstrained. This framework offers utility not only in enriching our understanding of symbol grounding and the literature, but also in exposing crucial assumptions to be explored by the research community.
Johnston, B.G. & Williams, M. 2008, 'Comirit: Commonsense Reasoning by Integrating Simulation and Logic', Artificial General Intelligance 2008 Proceedings of the First AGI Conference, Conference on Artificial General Intelligence, IOS Press, Inst of Technology, University of Memphis, TN, USA, pp. 200-211.
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Rich computer simulations or quantitative models can enable an agent to realistically predict real-world behaviour with precision and performance that is difficult to emulate in logical formalisms. Unfortunately, such simulations lack the deductive flexibility of techniques such as formal logics and so do not find natural application in the deductive machinery of commonsense or general purpose reasing systems. This dilemma can, however, be resolved via a hybrid architecture that combines tableaux-based reasoning with a framework for generic simulation based on the concept of 'molecular' models. This combination exploits the complementary strengths of logic and simulation, allowing an agent to build and reason with automatically constructed simulations in a problem-sensitive manner.
Johnston, B.G., Yang, F., Mendoza, R., Chen, X. & Williams, M. 2008, 'Ontology Based Object Categorization for Robots', Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence Vol 5345: Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management - Proceedings of the 7th International Conference, PAKM 2008, International Conference on Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management, Springer, Yokohama, Japan, pp. 219-231.
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Meaningfully managing the relationship between representations and the entities they represent remains a challenge in robotics known as grounding. In this paper we Semantic Web technologies to provide a powerful extension to existing proposals for grounding robotic systems and have consequently developed OBOC, the first robotic software system with an ontology-based vision syb-system.
Liu, W. & Williams, M. 2008, 'Strategies for Business in Virtual Worlds: Case Studies in Second Life', Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, PACIS 2008, Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, City University of Hong Kong Press, Suzhou, China, pp. 888-900.
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In this paper, we use qualitative and quantitative methodologies to analyse and understand a range of business strategies in Second Life.
Williams, M. 2008, 'Representation = Grounded Information', Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence Vol 5351: PRCAI 2008: Trends in Artificial Intelligence, Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Springer, Hanoi, Vietnam, pp. 473-484.
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The grounding problem remains one of the most fundamental issues in the field of Artificial Intelligence. We argue that representations are grounded information and that an intelligent system should be able to make and manage its own representations.
Williams, M. & Trieu, M. 2007, 'Grounded representation driven robot motion design', 11th RoboCup International Symposium, RoboCup 2007, Robot Soccer World Cup, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, Atlanta, GA, pp. 520-527.
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Grounding robot representations is an important problem in Artificial Intelligence. In this paper we show how a new grounding framework guided the development of an improved locomotion engine [3] for the AIBO. The improvements stemmed from higher quality representations that were grounded better than those in the previous system [1]. Since the AIBO is more grounded under the new locomotion engine it makes better decisions and achieves its design goals more efficiently. Furthermore, a well grounded robot offers significant software engineering benefits since its behaviours can be developed, debugged and tested more effectively. © 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Anshar, M. & Williams, M. 2007, 'Evolutionary Robot Gaits', International Conference on Intelligent Unmanned Systems, International Conference on Intelligent Unmanned Systems, Bali, Indonesia, pp. 217-223.
Mendoza, R., Johnston, B.G., Yang, F., Huang, Z., Chen, X. & Williams, M. 2007, 'OBOC: Ontology Based Object Categorisation for Robots', The Fourth International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Massey University Press, Palmerston North, New Zealand, pp. 178-183.
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Meaningfully managing the relationship between representations and the entities they represent remains a challenge in robotics known as grounding. Useful insights can be found by approaching robotic systems development specifically with the grounding and symbol grounding problem in mind. In particular, Semantic Web technologies turn out to be not merely applicable to web-based software agents, but can also provide a powerful extension to existing proposals for grounded robotic systems development. Given the interoperability and openness of the Semantic Web, such technologies can increase the ability for a robot to introspect, communicate and be inspected - benefits that ultimately lead to more grounded systems with open-ended intelligent behaviour.
Sims, F., Williams, M. & Elliot, S. 2007, 'Understanding the Mobile Experience Economy: A key to richer effective M-Business Models and Strategies', Proceedings of the International Conference on Mobile Business, International Conference on Mobile Business, IEEE Computer Society Press, Toronto, Canada, pp. 1-8.
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A major challenge for firms these days is how to differentiate themselves in a global market and build competitive advantage. Many firms have been able to move up the value chain from a services base to an experience base as a means to attaining high levels of customer satisfaction and profitability. Consequently a better understanding of the experience economy will assist business managers and designers to develop effective strategies by focusing on the m-business experience and how this experience can build sustainable technology innovation, business models and strategies, and help design products for mobile delivery to meet the market's needs. In this paper we describe several experience economy models, identify their weaknesses, and introduce a new cognitive based experience model that can be used to develop more effective m-business infrastructure and applications. It offers a new understanding of experiences which emphasizes cognition as a whole which includes background knowledge, desires and intentions, rather than the sensory and perceptual aspects alone which are the focus of most traditional models. As a result the new model offers new predictive and explanatory power in understanding the m-business experience economy.
Johnston, B.G. & Williams, M. 2007, 'A Generic Framework for Approximate Simulation in Commonsense Reasoning Systems', International Symposium on Logical Formalizations of Commonsense R, Symposium on Logical Formalizations of Commonsense Reasoning, AAAI Press, Stanford University, USA, pp. 71-76.
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This paper introduces the Slick architecture and outlines how it may be applied to solve the well known Egg-Cracking Problem. In contrast to other solutions to this problem that are based on formal logics, the Slick architecture is based on general- purpose and low-resolution quantitative simulations. On this benchmark problem, the Slick architecture offers greater elaboration tolerance and allows for faster elicitation of more general axioms. "This paper was selected by a process of anonymous peer reviewing for presentation at COMMONSENSE 2007" - first page of http://www.ucl.ac.uk/commonsense07/papers/johnston-and-williams.pdf "All submissions will be reviewed by the program committee listed at www.ucl.ac.uk/commonsense07/committee <http://www.ucl.ac.uk/commonsense07/committee/>, and notification of acceptance will be given by November 24, 2006." - from CFP at http://www.ucl.ac.uk/commonsense07/cfp/
Karol, A. & Williams, M. 2005, 'Distributed sensor fusion for object tracking', Robocup 2005: Robot Soccer World Cup ix, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, Robot Soccer World Cup, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Japan, pp. 504-511.
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In a dynamic situation like robot soccer any individual player can only observe a limited portion of their environment at any given time. As such to develop strategies based upon planning and cooperation between different players it is imperative that th
Karol, A., Williams, M. & Elliot, S. 2006, 'The evolution of IS: Treasury decision support & management past, present & future', Past And Future Of Information Systems: 1976-2006 And Beyond, World Computer Congress, Springer, Santiago, CHILE, pp. 89-100.
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This paper contributes to the discipline of Information Systems (IS) by illustrating the continuing evolution of IS applications to a single, core business function. Historical developments in IS and the major global treasury activity, foreign exchange t
Elliot, S., Williams, M. & Bjorn-Anderson, N. 2005, 'Strategic Management of technology-enabled disruptive innovation: Next generation web technologies', Proceedings of CIMCA 2005 jointly with International Conference on Intelligent Agents, Web Technologies, and Internet Commerce 2005, International Conference on Intelligent Agents, Web Technologies, and Internet Commerce, IEEE, Vienna, Australia, pp. 113-120.
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Technology-enabled business innovation presents the potential to structurally transform enterprise and industry practice, but uncertainty remains as to how such transformations might be managed. The search for higher returns from technology-enabled business innovation will inevitably lead to the adoption and exploitation of powerful, but disruptive technologies that bring with them higher levels of risk. Disruptive innovation is placed into context through the literature and through examples of past IT innovations with disruptive impact. This paper examines how organizations could obtain improved management of the adoption of potentially disruptive future generation Web technologies. The Business Innovation Technology Adoption Model (BITAM) is applied to emerging Web technologies to help identify the nature and extent of their potentially disruptive impact on business practice and management strategies so as to better enable mitigation of business risk.
Stanton, C.J. & Williams, M. 2005, 'A novel and practical approach towards color constancy for mobile robots using overlapping color space signatures', Robocup 2005: Robot Soccer World Cup ix, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, Robot Soccer World Cup, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Osaka, Japan, pp. 444-451.
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Color constancy is the ability to correctly perceive an object's color regardless of illumination. Within the controlled, color-coded environments in which many robots operate (such as RoboCup), engineers have been able to avoid the color constancy probl
Xu, K., Chen, X., Liu, W. & Williams, M. 2006, 'Legged Robot Gait Locus Generation Based on Genetic Algorithms', International Symposium on Practical Cognitive Agents and Robots (PCAR 2006) - Proceedings, International Symposium on Practical Cognitive Agents and Robots, ACM digital library, Perth, Australia, pp. 51-62.
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Achieving an effective gait locus for legged robots is a challenging task. It is often done manually in a laborious way due to the lack of research in automatic gait locus planning. Bearing this problem in mind, this article presents a gait locus planning method using inverse kinematics while incorporating genetic algorithms. Using quadruped robots as a platform for evaluation, this method is shown to generate a good gait locus for legged robots.
Chen, X., Liu, W. & Williams, M.A. 2006, 'ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: Preface', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series.
Tran, Q., Low, G.C. & Williams, M. 2004, 'A preliminary comparative feature analysis of multi-agent systems development methodologies', Lecture Notes in Computer Science - Agent-Oriented Information Systems Ii, Agent-Oriented Information Systems Workshop, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Riga, Latvia, pp. 157-168.
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While there are a considerable number of software engineering methodologies for developing multi-agent systems, not much work has been reported on the evaluation and comparison of these methodologies. This paper presents a comparative analysis of five we
Hecker, M., Karol, A., Stanton, C.J. & Williams, M. 2005, 'Smart sensor networks: communication, collaboration and business decision making in distributed complex environments', Proceedings of the International Conference on Mobile Business (ICMB-05), International Conference on Mobile Business, IEEE, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-7.
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Smart Sensor Networks are one of the most exciting research areas in information technology today; their potential for business applications is vast, but yet to be realised. In this paper we argue that intelligent sensor networks can only reach their potential for business applications if the network is grounded so as to support meaningful information sharing and knowledge generation as the basis for an effective business decision model. Our work is based on the idea that sensors extract information from their environment which, typically, must be fused with other sensor data and network knowledge so that effective business decision making is supported.
Karol, A. & Williams, M. 2005, 'Understanding Human Strategies for Change - An Empirical Study', Theoretical Aspects of Rationality and Knowledge - Proceedings of the Tenth Conference, Theoretical Aspects of Rationality and Knowledge, ACM digital library, Singapore, pp. 137-149.
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Stanton, C.J. & Williams, M. 2005, 'An innovative interactive web-enabled learning space for exploring intelligent mobile sensor networks and their business applications', Proceedings of International Conference on Mobile Business (ICMB'05), International Conference on Mobile Business, IEEE, Sydney, Australia, pp. 249-254.
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In this paper we describe a physical and virtual space for conducting research into intelligent mobile sensor networks. Intelligent mobile sensor networks present a number of difficult theoretical and practical research challenges. We design an imaginati
Karol, A., Gray, R.W., Williams, M. & Elliot, S. 2004, 'Improved eBusiness Treasury Risk Management Using Intelligent Agents', Managing New Wave Information Systems: Enterprise, Government and Society - Proceedings of the 15th Australasian Conference on Information Systems (ACIS2004), Australasian Conference on Information Systems, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, pp. 54-55.
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Stanton, C.J. & Williams, M. 2003, 'Grounding Robot Sensory and Symbolic Information Using the Semantic Web', Robocup 2003: Robot Soccer World Cup VII, Robot Soccer World Cup, Springer Verlag, Padua, Italy, pp. 757-764.
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Robots interacting with other agents in dynamic environments require robust knowledge management capabilities if they are to communicate, learn and exhibit intelligent behaviour. Symbol grounding involves creating, and maintaining, the linkages between internal symbols used for decision making with the real world phenomena to which those symbols refer. We implement grounding using ontologies designed for the Semantic Web. We use SONY AIBO robots and the robot soccer domain to illustrate our approach. Ontologies can provide an important bridge between the perceptual level and the symbolic level and in so doing they can be used to ground sensory information. A major advantage of using ontologies to ground sensory and symbolic information is that they enhance interoperability, knowledge sharing, knowledge reuse and communication between agents. Once objects are grounded in ontologies, Semantic Web technologies can be used to access, build, derive, and manage robot knowledge.
Karol, A., Nebel, B., Stanton, C.J. & Williams, M. 2003, 'Case Based Game Play in the Robocup Four-Legged League: Part I The Theoretical Model', Robocup 2003: Robot Soccer World Cup VII, Robot Soccer World Cup, Springer Verlag, Padua, Italy, pp. 739-747.
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Robot Soccer involves planning at many levels, and in this paper we develop high level planning strategies for robots playing in the RoboCup Four-Legged League using case based reasoning. We develop a framework for developing and choosing game plays. Game plays are widely used in many team sports e.g. soccer, hockey, polo, and rugby. One of the current challenges for robots playing in the RoboCup Four-Legged League is choosing the right behaviour in any game situation. We argue that a flexible theoretical model for using case based reasoning for game plays will prove useful in robot soccer. Our model supports game play selection in key game situations which should in turn significantly advantage the team.
Williams, M. & Elliot, S. 2004, 'Corporate Control of Rogue Traders', Multidisciplinary Solutions to Industry and Government's e-Business Challenges, Proceedings of the IFIP WG.4 Working Conference on E-business, IFIP WG8.4 Working Conference on eBusiness, Trauner Verlag, Saltzburg, Austria, pp. 123-141.
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Karol, A., Nebel, B., Stanton, C.J. & Williams, M. 2003, 'Case Based Game Play in the RoboCup Four Legged League Part I The Theoretical Model', RoboCup2003. Proceedings of the International Symposium with Team Description Papers, Robot Soccer World Cup, University of Padova, Padua, Italy, pp. 1-8.
Karol, A. & Williams, M. 2003, 'Understanding Human Strategies for Change - An Empirical Study', IJCAI-03 Workshop on Nonmonotonic Reasoning, Action and Change (NRAC'03) Working Notes, International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Unknown, Acapulco, Mexico, pp. 118-123.
Lee, I. & Williams, M. 2003, 'Multi-level Clustering and Reasoning about its Clusters Using Region Connection Calculus', Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. 7th Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2003 Proceedings, Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Seoul, Korea, pp. 283-294.
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Tran, Q., Low, G.C. & Williams, M. 2003, 'A Feature Analysis Framework for Evaluating Multi-Agent System Development Methodologies', Foundations of Intelligent Systems. 14th International Symposium, ISMIS 2003 Proceedings, International Symposium on Foundations of Intelligent Systems, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Maebashi City, Japan, pp. 1-5.
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This paper proposes a comprehensive and multi-dimensional feature analysis framework for evaluating and comparing methodologies for developing multi-agent systems (MAS). Developed from a synthesis of various existing evaluation frameworks, the novelty of our framework lies in the high degree of its completeness and the relevance of its evaluation criteria. The paper also presents a pioneering effort in identifying the standard steps and concepts to be supported by a MAS-development process and models.
Tran, Q.N.N., Low, G. & Williams, M.A. 2003, 'A feature analysis framework for evaluating multi-agent system development methodologies', Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (Subseries of Lecture Notes in Computer Science), pp. 613-617.
This paper proposes a comprehensive and multi-dimensional feature analysis framework for evaluating and comparing methodologies for developing multi-agent systems (MAS). Developed from a synthesis of various existing evaluation frameworks, the novelty of our framework lies in the high degree of its completeness and the relevance of its evaluation criteria. The paper also pre-sents a pioneering effort in identifying the standard steps and concepts to be supported by a MAS-development process and models.
Williams, M. & Gardenfors, P. 2001, 'Reasoning about Categories in Conceptual Spaces', Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Morgan Kaufmann, Seattle Washington, pp. 385-392.
IJCAI is the most prestigious international conference in AI. This paper provided the first computational model for conceptual spaces which can be applied in cognitive agents.

Journal articles

Anshar, M. & Williams, M.A. 2016, 'Evolving synthetic pain into an adaptive self-awareness framework for robots', Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, vol. 16, pp. 8-18.
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In human-robot interaction, physical contact is the most common medium to be used, and the more physical interaction occurs, at certain times, the higher possibilities of causing humans to experience pain. Humans, at times, send this message out through social cues, such as verbal and facial expressions in which requires robots to have the skill to capture and translate these cues into useful information. The task of understanding human pain concept and its implementation on robots plays a dominant factor in allowing robots to acquire this social skill. However, it is reported that the concept of human pain is strongly related to the concept of human self-awareness concept and cognitive aspects with complex nerve mechanisms, hence, it is crucial to evolving appropriate self-awareness and pain concepts for robots. This paper focuses on imitating the concept of pain into a synthetic pain model, utilised in justifying the integration and implementation an adaptive self-awareness into a real robot design framework, named ASAF. The framework develops an appropriate robot cognitive system-"self-consciousness" that includes two primary levels of self-concept, namely subjective and objective. Novel experiments designated to measure whether a robot is capable of generating appropriate synthetic pain; whether the framework's reasoning skills support an accurate synthetic pain acknowledgement, and at the same time, develop appropriate counter responses. We find that the proposed framework enhances the awareness of robot's body parts and prevent further catastrophic impact on robot hardware and possible harm to human peers.
Peppas, P., Williams, M.-.A., Chopra, S. & Foo, N. 2015, 'Relevance in belief revision', ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, vol. 229, pp. 126-138.
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Possible-world semantics are provided for Parikh's relevance-sensitive axiom for belief revision, known as axiom (P). Loosely speaking, axiom (P) states that if a belief set K can be divided into two disjoint compartments, and the new information relates only to the first compartment, then the second compartment should not be effected by the revision of K by . Using the well-known connection between AGM revision functions and preorders on possible worlds as our starting point, we formulate additional constraints on such preorders that characterise precisely Parikh's axiom (P). Interestingly, the additional constraints essentially generalise a criterion of plausibility between possible worlds that predates axiom (P). A by-product of our study is the identification of two possible readings of Parikh's axiom (P), which we call the strong and the weak versions of the axiom. Regarding specific operators, we show that Dalal's belief revision operator satisfies both weak and strong (P), and it is therefore relevance-sensitive.
Vitale, J., Williams, M.-.A., Johnston, B. & Boccignone, G. 2014, 'Affective facial expression processing via simulation: A probabilistic model', Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, vol. 10, pp. 30-41.
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Understanding the mental state of other people is an important skill for intelligent agents and robots to operate within social environments. However, the mental processes involved in `mind-reading' are complex. One explanation of such processes is Simulation Theory - it is supported by a large body of neuropsychological research. Yet, determining the best computational model or theory to use in simulation-style emotion detection, is far from being understood. In this work, we use Simulation Theory and neuroscience findings on Mirror-Neuron Systems as the basis for a novel computational model, as a way to handle affective facial expressions. The model is based on a probabilistic mapping of observations from multiple identities onto a single fixed identity (`internal transcoding of external stimuli'), and then onto a latent space (`phenomenological response'). Together with the proposed architecture we present some promising preliminary results
Cabibihan, J.-.J., Williams, M.-.A. & Simmons, R. 2014, 'When Robots Engage Humans', International Journal of Social Robotics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 311-313.
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Raza, S., Haider, S. & Williams, M. 2013, 'Robot reasoning using first order bayesian networks', Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 8032, no. 1, pp. 1-12.
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This study presents the application of first-order Bayesian Networks (FOBN) to model and reason in domains with complex relational and rich probabilistic structures. The FOBN framework used in this study is 'multi-entity Bayesian networks (MEBN). MEBN ha
Al-Sharawneh, J.A., Sinnappan, S. & Williams, M. 2013, 'Credibility-based twitter social network analysis', Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7808, no. 1, pp. 323-331.
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Social Network (SN) members in Twitter communicate in varied contexts such as crisis. Formations within social networks are unique as some members have more influence over other members; members with more influence are known as leaders or pioneers. Findi
Novianto, R., Johnston, B.G. & Williams, M. 2013, 'Habituation and sensitisation learning in ASMO cognitive architecture', Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 8239, pp. 249-259.
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As social robots are designed to interact with humans in unstructured environments, they need to be aware of their surroundings, focus on significant events and ignore insignificant events in their environments. Humans have demonstrated a good example of adaptation to habituate and sensitise to significant and insignificant events respectively. Based on the inspiration of human habituation and sensitisation, we develop novel habituation and sensitisation mechanisms and include these mechanisms in ASMO cognitive architecture. The capability of these mechanisms is demonstrated in the `Smokey robot companion experiment. Results show that Smokey can be aware of their surroundings, focus on significant events and ignore insignificant events. ASMOs habituation and sensitisation mechanisms can be used in robots to adapt to the environment. It can also be used to modify the interaction of components in a cognitive architecture in order to improve agents or robots performances.
Peppas, P., Koutras, C.D. & Williams, M. 2012, 'Maps In Multiple Belief Change', Acm Transactions On Computational Logic, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1-23.
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Multiple Belief Change extends the classical AGM framework for Belief Revision introduced by Alchourron, Gardenfors, and Makinson in the early '80s. The extended framework includes epistemic input represented as a (possibly infinite) set of sentences, as
Bogdanovych, A., Stanton, C.J., Wang, X. & Williams, M. 2012, 'Real-Time Human-Robot Interactive Coaching System with Full-Body Control Interface', Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7416, pp. 562-573.
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The ambitious goal being pursued by researchers participating in the RoboCup challenge [8] is to develop a team of autonomous humanoid robots that is capable of winning against a team of human soccer players. An important step in this direction is to actively utilise human coaching to improve the skills of robots at both tactical and strategic levels. In this paper we explore the hypothesis that embedding a human into a robots body and allowing the robot to learn tactical decisions by imitating the human coach can be more efficient than programming the robot explicitly. To enable this, we have developed a sophisticated HRI system that allows a human to interact with, coach and control an Aldebaran Nao robot through the use of a motion capture suit, portable computing devices (iPhone and iPad), and a head mounted display (which allows the human controller to experience the robots visual perceptions of the world). This paper describes the HRI-Coaching system we have developed, detailing the underlying technologies and lessons learned from using it to control the robot. The system in its current stages shows high potential for human-robot coaching, but requires further calibration and development to allow a robot to learn by imitating the human coach.
Williams, M. 2012, 'Robot social intelligence', Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7621, pp. 45-55.
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Robots are pervading human society today at an ever-accelerating rate, but in order to actualize their profound potential impact, robots will need cognitive capabilities that support the necessary social intelligence required to fluently engage with people and other robots. People are social agents and robots must develop sufficient social intelligence to engage with them effectively. Despite their enormous potential, robots will not be accepted in society unless they exhibit social intelligence skills. They cannot work with people effectively if they ignore the limitations, needs, expectations and vulnerability of people working in and around their workspaces. People are limited social agents, i.e. they do not have unlimited cognitive, computational and physical capabilities. People have limited ability in perceiving, paying attention, reacting to stimuli, anticipating, and problem-solving. In addition, people are constrained by their morphology; it limits their physical strength for example. People cannot be expected to and will not compensate for social deficiencies of robots, hence widespread acceptance and integration of robots into society will only be achieved if robots possess the sufficient social intelligence to communicate, interact and collaborate with people. In this paper we identify the key cognitive capabilities robots will require to achieve appropriate levels of social intelligence for safe and effective engagement with people. This work serves as a proto-blueprint that can inform the emerging roadmap and research agenda for the new exciting and challenging field of social robotics.
Stanton, C.J., Ratanasena, E., Haider, S. & Williams, M. 2012, 'Perceiving forces, bumps, and touches from proprioceptive expectations', Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7416, pp. 377-388.
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We present a method for enabling an Aldebaran Nao humanoid robot to perceive bumps and touches caused by physical contact forces. Dedicated touch, tactile or force sensors are not used. Instead, our approach involves the robot learning from experience to generate a proprioceptive motor sensory expectation from recent motor position commands. Training involves collecting data from the robot characterised by the absence of the impacts we wish to detect, to establish an expectation of normal motor sensory experience. After learning, the perception of any unexpected force is achieved by the comparison of predicted motor sensor values with sensed motor values for each DOF on the robot. We demonstrate our approach allows the robot to reliably detect small (and also large) impacts upon the robot (at each individual joint servo motor) with high, but also varying, degrees of sensitivity for different parts of the body. We discuss current and possible applications for robots that can develop and exploit proprioceptive expectations during physical interaction with the world
Macinnis-Ng, C.M., Zeppel, M.J., Williams, M. & Eamus, D. 2011, 'Applying a SPA model to examine the impact of climate change on GPP of open woodlands and the potential for woody thickening', Ecohydrology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 379-393.
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Woody thickening is a global phenomenon that influences landscape C density, regional ecohydrology and biogeochemical cycling. The aim of the work described here is to test the hypothesis that increased atmospheric CO2 concentration, with or without photosynthetic acclimation, can increase gross primary production (GPP) and that this can explain woody thickening. We examine mechanisms underlying the response of GPP and highlight the importance of changes in soil water content by applying a detailed soil-plant-atmosphere model. Through this model, we show that CO2 enrichment with decreased or increased D and photosynthetic acclimation results in decreased canopy water use because of reduced gs. The decline in water use coupled with increased photosynthesis resulted in increased GPP, water-use efficiency and soil moisture content. This study shows that this is a valid mechanism for GPP increase because of CO2 enrichment coupled with either a decrease or an increase in D, in water-limited environments. We also show that a large increase in leaf area index could be sustained in the future as a result of the increased soil moisture content arising from CO2 enrichment and this increase was larger if D decreases rather than increases in the future. Large-scale predictions arising from this simple conceptual model are discussed and found to be supported in the literature. We conclude that woody thickening in Australia and probably globally can be explained by the changes in landscape GPP and soil moisture balance arising principally from the increased atmospheric CO2 concentration.
Goebel, R. & Williams, M. 2011, 'Editorial : The Expansion Continues: Stitching together the Breadth of Disciplines Impinging on Artificial Intelligence', Artificial Intelligence Journal, vol. 175, no. 5-6, pp. 929-929.
Benferhat, S., Dubois, D., Prade, H. & Williams, M. 2010, 'A Framework For Iterated Belief Revision Using Possibilistic Counterparts To Jeffrey'S Rule', Fundamenta Informaticae, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 147-168.
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Intelligent agents require methods to revise their epistemic state as they acquire new information. Jeffrey's rule, which extends conditioning to probabilistic inputs, is appropriate for revising probabilistic epistemic states when new information comes
Goebel, R. & Williams, M. 2010, 'The Expanding Breadth of Artificial Intelligence Research', Artificial Intelligence Journal, vol. 174, no. 2, pp. 133-133.
Williams, M., McCarthy, J., Gardenfors, P., Stanton, C.J. & Karol, A. 2009, 'A Grounding Framework', Autonomous Agents And Multi-Agent Systems, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 272-296.
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In order for an agent to achieve its objectives, make sound decisions, communicate and collaborate with others effectively it must have high quality representations. Representations can encapsulate objects, situations, experiences, decisions and behavior just to name a few. Our interest is in designing high quality representations, therefore it makes sense to ask of any representation; what does it represent; why is it represented; how is it represented; and importantly how well is it represented. This paper identifies the need to develop a better understanding of the grounding process as key to answering these important questions. The lack of a comprehensive understanding of grounding is a major obstacle in the quest to develop genuinely intelligent systems that can make their own representations as they seek to achieve their objectives. We develop an innovative framework which provides a powerful tool for describing, dissecting and inspecting grounding capabilities with the necessary flexibility to conduct meaningful and insightful analysis and evaluation. The framework is based on a set of clearly articulated principles and has three main applications. First, it can be used at both theoretical and practical levels to analyze grounding capabilities of a single system and to evaluate its performance. Second, it can be used to conduct comparative analysis and evaluation of grounding capabilities across a set of systems. Third, it offers a practical guide to assist the design and construction of high performance systems with effective grounding capabilities.
Chen, X., Liu, W. & Williams, M. 2009, 'Introduction: Practical Cognitive Agnets and Robots', Autonomous Agents And Multi-Agent Systems, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 245-247.
Stanton, C.J. & Williams, M. 2008, 'Robotics: State of the Art and Future Challenges', Artificial Intelligence Journal, vol. 172, no. 18, pp. 1967-1972.
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This document reviews the book &acirc;Robotics: State of the Art and Future Challenges&acirc;. The review begins by providing a chapter by chapter summary of the book, and then concludes with a detailed review of the entire book. Robotics is a rich and exciting field of Artificial Intelligence. It has taken great strides in the last decade and a book on the state of the art and future challenges is timely. The reviewed book will assist AI researchers to keep abreast of developments in robotics&acirc;a flagship area that enjoys a high profile and profound visibility in broader society&acirc;by providing an empirically based overview of the field. The book a major outcome of a comparative robotics study and unique largely due to the fact that such field studies require a strong team of experts to invest significant time and effort, and site visits require significant funding. The book &acirc;Robotics: State of the Art and Future Challenges&acirc; contains an extensive high level comparative review of the field of robotics across several pioneering research centers in several geographical regions by a team of scientists which included experts from NASA and US based universities. The book has seven chapters, and an appendix containing the biographies of team members. The broad field of robotics is divided into the following six research areas each of which has a single chapter devoted to it: robotic vehicles, space robotics, humanoid robots, industrial, service and personal robots, robotics in biology and medicine, and networked robots. The data for the reviews was obtained from site visits to 50 laboratories in countries such as Japan, South Korea, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK. A 51st virtual site visit was conducted to Australia.
Anshar, M. & Williams, M. 2007, 'Extended Evolutionary Fast Learn-to-Walk Approach for Four-Legged Robots', Journal of Bionic Engineering, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 255-264.
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Robot locomotion is an active research area. In this paper we focus on the locomotion of quadruped robots. An effective walking gait of quadruped robots is mainly concerned with two key aspects, namely speed and stability. The large search space of potential parameter settings for leg joints means that hand tuning is not feasible in general. As a result walking parameters are typically determined using machine learning techniques. A major shortcoming of using machine learning techniques is the significant wear and tear of robots since many parameter combinations need to be evaluated before an optimal solution is found. This paper proposes a direct walking gait learning approach, which is specifically designed to reduce wear and tear of robot motors, joints and other hardware. In essence we provide an effective learning mechanism that leads to a solution in a faster convergence time than previous algorithms. The results demonstrate that the new learning algorithm obtains a faster convergence to the best solutions in a short run. This approach is significant in obtaining faster walking gaits which will be useful for a wide range of applications where speed and stability are important. Future work will extend our methods so that the faster convergence algorithm can be applied to a two legged humanoid and lead to less wear and tear whilst still developing a fast and stable gait.
Benferhat, S., Kaci, S., La Berre, D. & Williams, M. 2004, 'Weakening Conflicting Information for Iterated Revision and Knowledge Integration', Artificial Intelligence Journal, vol. 153, no. 1-2, pp. 339-371.
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Tselekidis, G., Peppas, P. & Williams, M. 2003, 'Belief revision and organisational knowledge dynamics', Journal Of The Operational Research Society, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 914-923.
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Liu, W. & Williams, M. 2002, 'Trustworthiness Of Information Sources And Information Pedigrees', Lecture Notes In Computer Science vol 2333 - Intelligent Agents Viii: Agent Theories, Architectures, And Languages, vol. 2333, pp. 290-306.
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To survive, and indeed thrive, in an open heterogenous information sharing environment, an agent's ability to evaluate the trustworthiness of other agents becomes crucial. In this paper, we investigate a procedure for evaluating an agent's trustworthines
Benferhat, S., Dubois, D., Prade, H. & Williams, M. 2002, 'A Practical Approach to Revising Prioritized Knowledge Bases', Studia Logica, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 105-130.
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This paper investigates simple syntactic methods for revising prioritized belief bases, that are semantically meaningful in the frameworks of possibility theory and of Spohn''s ordinal conditional functions. Here, revising prioritized belief bases amounts to conditioning a distribution function on interpretations. The input information leading to the revision of a knowledge base can be sure or uncertain. Different types of scales for priorities are allowed: finite vs. infinite, numerical vs. ordinal. Syntactic revision is envisaged here as a process which transforms a prioritized belief bases into a new prioritized belief base, and thus allows a subsequent iteration.
Antoniou, G. & Williams, M. 1997, 'Reasoning With Incomplete And Changing Information: The Cin Project', Information Sciences, vol. 99, no. 1-2, pp. 83-99.
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Most information systems are faced with incomplete information, even for simple database applications; therefore, they must make plausible conjectures in order to operate in a satisfactory way. A simple example is the closed world assumption, which is us
Antoniou, G., Courtney, A., Ernst, J. & Williams, M. 1996, 'A System For Computing Constrained Default Logic Extensions', Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1126, pp. 237-250.
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The aim of this paper is to describe the algorithmic foundations of the part of the program Exten responsible for the computation of extensions in Constrained Default Logic. Exten is a system that computes extensions for various default logics. The effic

Non traditional outputs

Johnston, B., Shuard, C., Parajuli, P. & Williams, M. 2011, 'UTS Song and Dance', University of Technology Sydney.
Johnston, B. & Williams, M. 2010, 'Human-Robot Interactive Dance', Melbourne Exhibition Centre.
Williams, M. & Johnston, B. 2010, 'UTS Human-Robot Dance', University of Technology Sydney.
Williams, M. 2009, 'Robots: Future Challenges', Powerhouse Museum.
Public Robot Performance

Reports

Instone, L., Mee, K., Palmer, J.M., Williams, M. & Vaughan, N. National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility 2013, Climate Change Adaptation and the Rental Sector, Gold Coast, Australia.
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The research employed an asset-based approach to understanding the capacities, assets and skills which tenants, landlords and housing managers bring to climate change adaptation. The project also took a pro-poor approach focusing on the adaptive capacity of low-income renters in the public and private sectors, addressing the equity dimensions of vulnerability and adaptation. In addition to analysing a range of secondary sources such as media articles, `green guides and policy documents, the research analysed primary data from interviews and focus groups, focusing on: The assets of the rental sector in adaptation Barriers which limit the capacity of individuals and organisations to exercise these assets The relationships between the stakeholders tenants, landlords and property managers which underlie both assets and barriers to adaptation. We found that the tenants we interviewed were motivated by concern about the impact of human activity on the environment, and exercised this concern through everyday sustainable household practices, as well as through engagement with community or political organisations. They believed however that their capacity to act in the home was inhibited by a lack of care from some landlords and property managers about the sustainability of rental housing. Public housing managers who were interviewed positioned the public housing sector as policy leaders in sustainability and adaptation, but as constrained by a lack of resources (human and financial) and the busy reactive nature of their work. Busyness and lack of resources was also seen as a constraint on private property managers capacity to advocate or arrange for sustainability modifications to the properties they managed. Property managers emerged as crucial `knowledge brokers mediating between landlords and tenants, but expressed a need for more information and training. Both tenants and property managers acknowledged that the current shortage of rental housing in ...

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