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Professor Lori Lockyer

Biography

Lori is Dean of the Graduate Research School.  She is responsible for leading the strategic direction and policy development for research training across the University. 

Lori has been involved in research leadership and development throughout her career.  Prior to joining UTS she held roles as Head of the School of Education and Vincent Fairfax Family Foundation Chair in Teacher Education at Macquarie University; Associate Dean Research in the Faculty of Education, Director of Educational Development in the Graduate School of Medicine, and Associate Director of the Digital Media Centre at the University of Wollongong; and, Manager of the Centre for Behaviour Research and Program Evaluation at the National Cancer Institute of Canada.  Lori has been a member of the Australian Research Council College of Experts and the Research Evaluation Committee for Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA15).

Lori researches learning technology, learning design and teacher practice.  Lori has led and collaborated on research projects supported by $20M+ funding from government (ARC, NHMRC, OLT, SSHRC, NHRDP) and industry sources in Australia and internationally.  Currently, Lori is investigating teacher design thinking through an ARC Discovery project Designing effective learning experiences: Investigating novice and expert teachers’ design processes and researching confusion in digital learning environments as a CI in the ARC Science of Learning Research Centre.

Image of Lori Lockyer
Dean, Graduate Research School
PhD
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 4979
Can supervise: Yes

Books

Harper, B., Hedberg, J., Bennett, S. & Lockyer, L. 2000, The on-line experience: A review of the state of Australian on-line education and training practices, National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Kensington Park, SA.

Chapters

Lockyer, L., Agostinho, S. & Bennett, S. 2016, 'Design for e-learning' in Haythornthwaite, C., Andrews, R., Fransman, J. & Meyers, E.M. (eds), The SAGE Handbook of E-learning Research, SAGE, London, pp. 336-353.
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The rapid and pervasive implementation of e-learning across education sectors has led researchers and practitioners to examine the pedagogical implications for these learning environments. The technologies, and the contexts in which they are used, provide both opportunities and complexities in how teaching and learning might occur. This complexity and discussion about quality in teaching led to the emergence of a research and development field, known as learning design, concurrent to the developments in e-learning. The field of learning design emerged, in the early 2000s, in an effort to reconceptualise teaching and learning practices to effectively make use of technology and to share those practices in such a way that educators could reuse and/or adapt the ideas of others in their own contexts. The work in this area has ranged from the development of technologies that support the reuse of designs, investigation of how designs can be documented and represented for interpretation by others, and examination about how teachers apply learning designs for their e-learning contexts. This chapter defines the field of learning design and describes the context in which it emerged. The chapter then describes the development work within the field, which primarily focuses on frameworks, repositories and tools to support teachers in their learning design practice. Finally, the chapter reviews the research and considers new directions and compatible areas of inquiry for the field
Bennett, S., Agostinho, S. & Lockyer, L. 2015, 'Investigating university educators' design thinking and the implications for design support tools' in Dalziel, J. (ed), Learning Design: Conceptualizing a framework for teaching and learning online, Routledge, New York, pp. 146-162.
Bennett, S., Lockyer, L. & Harper, B. 2013, 'Designing learning objects for primary learners' in Ertmer, P., Quinn, J. & Glazewski, K. (eds), The ID Casebook: Case Studies in Instructional Design, Pearson Publishing, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Eady, M. & Lockyer, L. 2013, 'Tools for learning: Technology and teaching strategies' in Hudson, P. (ed), Learning to Teach in the Primary School, Cambridge University Press, pp. 72-89.
Provides a pathway into the Australian curriculum for primary teachers, including practical guidance across a range of key learning areas.
Agostinho, S., Bennett, S., Lockyer, L., Jones, J. & Harper, B. 2013, 'Learning designs as a stimulus and support for teachers' design practices' in Beetham, H. & Sharpe, R. (eds), Rethinking pedagogy for a Digital Age: Designing and delivering e-learning, Routledge, New York, pp. 119-132.
Corrin, L., Bennett, S. & Lockyer, L. 2013, 'Digital Natives: Exploring the diversity of young people's experience with technology' in Huang, R., Kinshuk & Spector, J.M. (eds), Reshaping Learning Frontiers of Learning Technology in a Global Context, Springer, New York, pp. 113-138.
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Brown, I.M., Lockyer, L., Caputi, P. & Tognolini, J.S. 2010, 'Multimodality, Multiliteracy and Visual Literacy: Where does assessment fit?' in Avgerinou, M., Griffin, R.E. & Search, P. (eds), Critically Engaging the Digital Learner in Visual Worlds and Virtual Environments, International Visual Literacy Association, Loretto, PA, pp. 71-78.
The how and why of assessment still eludes many in the area of visual literacy. The researchers aim to provide a theoretical foundation for why current assessment practices should be examined in light of the current changes to curriculum offerings. The paper outlines current research being undertaken into test development for measuring outcomes to check for improved student learning. The paper will explore both the success and failure of the methodology, examining both quantitative and qualitative responses.
Brown, I., Lockyer, L. & Caputi, P. 2009, 'Multiliteracies and assessment practice' in Multiliteracies in Motion: Current Theory and Practice, pp. 191-206.
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Lockyer, L., Kosta, L. & Bennett, S. 2009, 'An analysis of learning designs that integrate patient cases in health professions education' in Lockyer, L., Bennett, S., Agostinho, S. & Harper, B. (eds), Handbook of Research in Learning Designs and Learning Objects, IGI Global, Hershey, New York, pp. 777-791.
Lockyer, L., Patterson, J., Rowland, G. & Hearne, D. 2007, 'ActiveHealth: Enhancing the community of physical and health educators through online technologies' in Instructional Design: Case Studies in Communities of Practice, pp. 331-348.
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This chapter explores the perspectives of an instructional design team that designed and developed an online environment to facilitate the Australian physical and health educators' community of practice. The objective of the multidisciplinary design team was to determine what activities and supporting technologies would help invigorate senior members and initiate novice members to this well-established community. The chapter describes the community and the particular challenges it faces; details the design, development and implementation processes for the online environment and activities; identifies the issues addressed during the design and implementation process; and, analyses the experiences of the initial implementation. The authors hope that the instructional design principles derived from examining the challenges and successes for this particular community of practice will support designers and researchers working with other communities to address similar issues. © 2007, IGI Global.
Bennett, S., Lockyer, L. & Harper, B. 2007, 'Designing learning objects for primary learners' in Ertmer, P. & Quinn, J. (eds), The ID Casebook Case Studies in Instructional Design, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 12-26.
Features of the Third Edition include: NEW! Nine cases have been added, increasing the variety of contents, contexts, and audiences encompassed by the text. NEW!
Brown, I.M. & Lockyer, L. 2007, 'Don't Mention the 'T' Word: Value and Validity in Testing Visual Literacy' in Griffin, G.E., Avgerinou, M. & Giesen, J. (eds), History, Community, & Culture: Celebrating Tradition & Transforming Our Future, Selected Readings of the International Visual Literacy Association, The International Visual Literacy Association, Loretto, PA, pp. 7-13.
As a result of the expanding global view of literacy an Australian research team has been exploring the concept of testing for visual literacy development. A study has been established to develop a standards referenced test to explore learning development and learning designs appropriate for multiliteracy development for secondary students. This paper will present the development of the test, the validation and the results achieved. The establishment of a test for visual literacy will evaluate, improve and provide information on student learning.
Bennett, S., Lockyer, L. & Harper, B. 2006, 'Learning designs, learner interactions and learning objects' in Interactions in Online Education: Implications for Theory and Practice, pp. 104-116.
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Lockyer, L. & Bennett, S. 2006, 'Understanding roles within technology supported teaching and learning: Implications for staff, academic units, and institutions' in Technology Supported Learning and Teaching: A Staff Perspective, pp. 210-223.
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This chapter provides a case study of a postgraduate course focused on network-based learning, which from its original design was based on constructivist learning principles. Over time, this course has evolved to incorporate increasing use of learning technology - particularly, synchronous and asynchronous communication tools. This evolution has led to a reappraisal and less emphasis on face-to-face class meetings. The course has also increased its student base through distance and offshore offerings. These shifts have translated into changes in the way the course is resourced in both human and infrastructure terms. The case uses Goodyear, Salmon, Spector, Steeples, and Tickner's (2001) roles and responsibilities of an online teacher to analyse the teaching team's perspective on the resource implications of a move to increased technology-facilitated teaching and learning for the teaching staff, the academic department, and the institution. © 2006, Idea Group Inc.
Cooper, N., Lockyer, L., Brown, I.M., Blackall, D.R. & Harper, B.M. 2005, 'Developing Multi-literacies in Technology-Enhanced Environments' in Pandian, A., Kabilan, M. & Kaur, S. (eds), Teachers Practices and Supportive Cultures, Universiti Putra Malaysia Press, Serdang, Malaysia, pp. 296-300.
Our lives are constantly being transformed by new technologies, global economies and cultures (Anstey, 2002). Educators in the 21st century are faced with the task of preparing students to function successfully in this ever changing and increasingly technological, globalised society. This has important implications for current practices in literacy education and it has been argued that new types of literacies need to be cultivated to ensure education is relevant in today's society (Kellner, 2000). In fact, having a degree of mastery over a wide range of 21st century literacies may mean the difference between 'a fully functioning life and one on the margin (Gallego & Hollingsworth, 1992 p.206). What is required is a rethink of the concept of literacy. For example, the New London Group argue that 'the multiplicity of communications channels and increasing cultural and linguistic diversity in the world today call for a much broader view of literacy than portrayed by traditional language-based approaches. (1996, p.60). Further to this Unsworth (2002) indicates that the literacy practices characterised by the new millennium must go beyond traditional literacy practices. Kellner (cited in Snyder, 2002, p.155) also states, '...if education is to be relevant to the problems and challenges of contemporary life it must expand the concept of literacy and develop new curricula and pedagogies. If teachers are to support this change, we can no longer think of being literate as having control over the written word either through reading or writing (Zammit and Downes, 2002), but the concept must 'reflect the diversity of social, technological, cultural, linguistic and economic contexts of which they form a part.(Ludwig, (2003, pi).
Lockyer, L., Rowland, G., Patterson, J. & Hearne, D. 2001, 'Computer-mediated communication facilitating physical and health education teacher preparation' in Hedberg, J.G. (ed), Online learning environments: Research and teaching RILE Monograph 2001, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia, pp. 145-154.

Conferences

Pachman, M. & Lockyer, L. 2016, 'Improving self-detection of confusion: Is metacognitive monitoring a key?', Proceedings of International Conference of the Learning Sciences, ICLS, pp. 1165-1166.
© ISLS.Self-reporting of confusion is often seen as a quite unreliable way to measure this cognitive affective state. Testing the link between metacognition and confusion detection, in this study we have investigated two prospective interve nti ons to improve sel f-reporting of confusion along with improving students metacognitive monitoring. Prospective implications for confusion research, research on metacognition and mathematics education are discussed.
Bakharia, A., Corrin, L., De Barba, P., Kennedy, G., Gaševíc, D., Mulder, R., Williams, D., Dawson, S. & Lockyer, L. 2016, 'A conceptual framework linking learning design with learning analytics', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 329-338.
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© 2016 ACM.In this paper we present a learning analytics conceptual framework that supports enquiry-based evaluation of learn- ing designs. The dimensions of the proposed framework emerged from a review of existing analytics tools, the analy-sis of interviews with teachers, and user scenarios to under- stand what types of analytics would be useful in evaluating a learning activity in relation to pedagogical intent. The proposed framework incorporates various types of analyt- ics, with the teacher playing a key role in bringing context to the analysis and making decisions on the feedback pro- vided to students as well as the scaffolding and adaptation of the learning design. The framework consists of five di-mensions: Temporal analytics, tool-specific analytics, cohort dynamics, comparative analytics and contingency. Specific metrics and visualisations are defined for each dimension of the conceptual framework. Finally the development of a tool that partially implements the conceptual framework is discussed.
Pachman, M., Arguel, A. & Lockyer, L. 2015, 'Learners' confusion: faulty prior knowledge or a metacognitive monitoring error?', ascilite2015: Conference Proceedings, Perth, Western Australia, pp. 170-174.
Corrin, L., Kennedy, G., Barba, P.D., Bakharia, A., Lockyer, L., Gasevic, D., Williams, D., Dawson, S. & Copeland, S. 2015, 'Loop: A learning analytics tool to provide teachers with useful data visualisations', ascilite2015: Conference Proceedings, Perth, Western Australia, pp. 57-61.
Norman, A., Lockyer, L. & Bennett, S. 2015, 'MOOCs: Free Education for Some', Proceedings of EdMedia: World Conference on Educational Media and Technology 2015, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), pp. 159-164.
Beckman, K., Bennett, S. & Lockyer, L. 2014, 'Reconceptualizing technology as a social tool: A secondary school student case study', Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2014, EdMedia2014, AACE, Chesapeake, VA, pp. 1554-1559.
Kennedy, G., Corrin, L., Lockyer, L., Dawson, S., Williams, D., Mulder, R., Khamis, S. & Copeland, S. 2014, 'Completing the loop: returning learning analytics to teachers', Rhetoric and Reality: Critical perspectives on educational technology. Proceedings, ascilite2014, Dunedin, pp. 436-440.
Shanahan, M., Lockyer, L. & Dawson, S. 2014, 'Towards a more detailed understanding of professional learning mediated by educational tools', Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2014, EdMedia2014, AACE, Chesapeake, VA, pp. 1441-1450.
Graf, S., Ives, C., Lockyer, L., Hobson, P. & Clow, D. 2012, 'Building a data governance model for learning analytics', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 21-22.
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This international panel presentation aims to explore and discuss the issues that emerge when an educational institution decides to develop learning analytics initiatives. While learning analytics may provide data that lead to improvements in the quality of teaching and learning design, and therefore has the potential to enhance the overall quality of education, the successful development and implementation of tools and processes for learning analytics are complex and problematic. In this panel, data governance considerations will be discussed from organizational, ethical, learning design, and technical points of view. © 2012 Authors.
Lockyer, L. & Dawson, S. 2012, 'Where learning analytics meets learning design', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 14-15.
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The wealth of data available through student management systems and eLearning systems has the potential to provide faculty with important, just-in-time information that may allow them to positively intervene with struggling students and/or enhance the learning experience during the delivery of a course. This information might also facilitate post-delivery review and reflection for faculty who wish to revise course design and content. But to be effective, this data needs to be appropriate to the context or pedagogical intent of the course - this is where learning analytics meets learning design. © 2012 Authors.
Lockyer, L. & Dawson, S. 2011, 'Learning designs and learning analytics', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 153-156.
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Government and institutionally-driven reforms focused on quality teaching and learning in universities emphasize the importance of developing replicable, scalable teaching approaches that can be evaluated. In this context, learning design and learning analytics are two fields of research that may help university teachers design quality learning experiences for their students, evaluate how students are learning within that intended learning context and support personalized learning experiences for students. Learning Designs are ways of describing an educational experience such that it can be applied across a range of disciplinary contexts. Learning analytics offers new approaches to investigating the data associated with a learner's experience. This paper explores the relationship between learning designs and learning analytics. © 2011 ACM.
Corrin, L., Bennett, S. & Lockyer, L. 2011, 'The Life of a 'Digital Native'', Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2011, AACE, Chesapeake, VA, pp. 2942-2951.
Jones, J., Bennett, S. & Lockyer, L. 2011, 'Applying a Learning Design to the Design of a University Unit: A Single Case Study', Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2011, AACE, Chesapeake, VA, pp. 3340-3349.
Goodyear Prof, P., Markauskaite, L., Agostinho, S., Lockyer, L., Dalziel, J. & Cameron, L. 2010, 'Teachers, technology and design', ASCILITE 2010 - The Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, pp. 393-394.
Deciding how best to combine good learning tasks and appropriately supportive technology is becoming increasingly complicated. Teachers in higher education are struggling with rising expectations about graduate capabilities, a diversifying intake, increasing pressure on time and a dizzying proliferation of technology options. One response we are seeing is a strengthening interest in taking a more design-based approach to tackling what many would see as 'wicked problems' (Luckin, 2010; Hoadley, 2010; Goodyear & Retalis, 2010). This symposium provides an opportunity to discuss some of the latest insights from research on teachers' experiences with the tools and methods of educational design (aka 'design for learning'). © 2010 Peter Goodyear. Lina Markauskaite, Shirley Agostinho, Lori Lockyer, James Dalziel & Leanne Cameron.
Dawson, S., Macfadyen, L., Lockyer, L. & Mazzochi-Jones, D. 2010, 'From neural to social: Medical student admissions criteria and engagement in a social learning environment', ASCILITE 2010 - The Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, pp. 292-301.
Notions of what it is to be knowledgeable and skilled in one's profession have evolved in recent decades. For instance, medical practitioners are expected to think critically and creatively, communicate effectively, and to be a professional and community leader. While these attributes have always been well regarded, it is only relatively recently that higher education institutions are actively incorporating these skills and attributes into student admissions criteria. In parallel, methods of instruction and course delivery have also changed over time with respect to these driving social paradigms. Today's medical schools are expected to both select and develop students in terms of these qualities through socially based pedagogical practices. This paper investigates the admissions criteria that best predict student engagement in a social learning environment and thus the related attributes such as communication, creativity, and leadership. The paper frames this investigation in the scholarship related to 21st century skills and achievement orientations. © 2010 Shane Dawson, Leah Macfadyen, Lori Lockyer & David Mazzochi-Jones.
Lockyer, L., Dawson, S. & Heathcote, E. 2010, 'Web 2.0 in Higher Education: blurring social networks and learning networks', Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2010, AACE, Chesapeake, VA, pp. 2454-2461.
Corrin, L., Bennett, S. & Lockyer, L. 2010, 'Digital natives: Everyday life versus academic study', Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Networked Learning 2010, Lancaster University, Aalborg, pp. 643-650.
Lockyer, L. & Olmos, M. 2009, 'Online Learning environments for medical education - A case study', Proceedings of the International Conference on e-Learning, ICEL, pp. 322-330.
Copyright The Authors, 2009. All Rights Reserved.New and established medical schools around the world have been facing challenges and opportunities of increasingly diverse and distributed student groups, an expanded teaching population and the changing practice of medicine. This has led to re-visioning medical education curricula and the technologies that facilitate teacher and student interaction and delivery of curriculum resources. This paper provides an overview of how technology is being used in medical education to meet these new contexts. Of focus is a case study of the Online Learning Environment designed for a new medical school located in Australia. This school - at the University of Wollongong - has been established with a particular focus on regional and rural health. The school is located across two campuses and clinical experiences are provided for students in numerous, geographically dispersed locations in a range of health care settings. As a graduate-entry school, students are drawn from a variety of backgrounds. Similarly, the teaching staff brings a diversity of academic and health care expertise. The Online Learning Environment integrates a learning management system and a content management system. The environment has been designed to respond to: the vision of the school; the profile of its student body; staff background and teaching practices; and, the research base in online teaching and learning in higher education that has developed over more than a decade. The case study describes and evaluates the Online Learning Environment in terms of the criteria set down by the IMS Global Learning Consortium as setting up the potential for 'learning impact' - access; affordability; quality; adoption; accountability; organizational learning; interoperability; and innovation. The paper considers these criteria and how the Online Learning Environment addresses the criteria.
Agostinho, S., Bennett, S., Lockyer, L., Kosta, L., Jones, J. & Harper, B. 2009, 'An examination of learning design descriptions in an existing learning design repository', ASCILITE 2009 - The Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, pp. 11-19.
The past decade has seen a significant expansion of flexible learning in higher education as new communication technologies have broadened the scope and potential for online learning. With this expansion has come the need for pedagogically sound learning experiences and an interest in reusing effective pedagogical designs. The concept of a 'learning design' - a formalism for documenting educational practice to facilitate sharing and reuse by teachers, is being researched as one way of supporting dissemination of 'best practice'. This paper reports an analytical study that sought to advance understanding of what constitutes an effective learning design description based on an analysis of learning designs in an existing repository. The study contended that an effective learning design description comprises a clear description of the pedagogy, a quality rating and advice on potential reuse. Six, from a repository of 32, were identified as effective learning design descriptions. © 2009 Shirley Agostinho, Sue Bennett, Lori Lockyer, Lisa Kosta, Jennifer Jones and Barry Harper.
Dawson, S., Macfadyen, L. & Lockyer, L. 2009, 'Learning or performance: Predicting drivers of student motivation', ASCILITE 2009 - The Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, pp. 184-193.
There is substantial research demonstrating that a student's motivation for learning can be largely explained in terms of their preferred achievement orientation. This paper explores a case study investigating ICT derived lead indicators of student achievement orientation, and therefore underlying motivations. The study incorporated Tan's (2009) research on learning dispositions to quantify student achievement orientations. These findings were then correlated with student LMS data to identify if patterns of online behaviour are indicative of the observed achievement orientation scores. The results suggest that there is a significant correlation between student achievement orientation and participation in discussion forums. Students reporting a strong learning orientation were more inclined to utilise the unit's 'learning forum'. Conversely, students tending towards a performance orientation were more prone to use the 'administration forum'. The findings and data harvesting methodology employed, represent a novel, scalable and automated approach for rapidly identifying the drivers of student learning motivation. © 2009 Shane Dawson, Leah Macfadyen and Lori Lockyer.
Bennett, S., Kosta, L., Agostinho, S., Lockyer, L., Jones, J. & Harper, B. 2009, 'Understanding the design context for Australian university teachers: Implications for the future of learning design', Proceedings of The Future of Learning Design conference, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia, pp. 4-12.
Jones, J., Bennett, S. & Lockyer, L. 2009, 'Investigating Lecturers' use of Learning Designs to Support Technology Enhanced Course Design', Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2009, Chesapeake, VA, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), pp. 2719-2725.
Cotton, W., Lockyer, L. & Brickell, G. 2009, 'A Journey Through a Design-Based Research Project', Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2009, Chesapeake, VA, AACE, pp. 1364-1371.
Lockyer, L. & Patterson, J. 2008, 'Integrating social networking technologies in education: A case study of a formal learning environment', Proceedings - The 8th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2008, pp. 529-533.
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The concept of Internet-facilitated social networking is not new - we have evidence of the development of the concept and the technologies over decades. However, Web 2.0 technologies and the emergence of social networking sites has expanded accessibility and use beyond levels that may have been thought imaginable just two or three years ago. These developments have been accompanied with calls to integrate the new technologies and experiences of social networks within formal education. Yet, there is limited research on the potential or outcomes of such initiatives. This paper presents a case study that examines the technology and experience in a formal education context. © 2008 IEEE.
Bennett, S., Agostinho, S. & Lockyer, L. 2008, 'Understanding university teachers' approaches to design', Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2008 World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Chesapeake, VA, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), pp. 3631-3637.
Bennett, S., Agostinho, S., Lockyer, L., Kosta, L., Jones, J., Koper, R. & Harper, B. 2007, 'Learning designs: Bridging the gap between theory and practice', ASCILITE 2007 - The Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, pp. 51-60.
This paper summarises the work being conducted in an ongoing research agenda focused on exploring how the 'learning design' construct can be used to support university educators to create both pedagogically sound and interoperable e-learning experiences. The premise of this work is that a learning design can be used to support the pedagogical design process and the integration of international e-learning standards, such as learning object metadata and IMS-LD, enabling resources and tools to be technically interoperable across different standards-compliant systems. The paper presents the rationale guiding this research focus, describes the features of the research that is underway, and outlines future directions of this research. © 2007 Sue Bennett, Shirley Agostinho, Lori Lockyer, Lisa Kosta, Jennifer Jones, Rob Koper and Barry Harper.
Bennett, S. & Lockyer, L. 2007, 'A Web-Based E-Portfolio Support System For Teacher Education Students', Proceedings of E-Learn 2007 World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare and Higher Education, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Norfolk, VA, pp. 7010-7020.
Cooper, N., Kosta, L., Lockyer, L. & Brown, I. 2007, 'Making News Today: Content creation in the classroom', Proceedings of Apple University Consortium 2007 Conference - Contribute, Communicate, Collaborate, Apple University Consortium, Gold Coast.
Harper, B., Agostinho, S., Bennett, S., Lukasiak, J. & Lockyer, L. 2005, 'Constructing high quality learning environments using learning designs and learning objects', Proceedings - 5th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2005, pp. 266-270.
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Designing learning experiences supported by Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is becoming an important skill for all academics in the higher education sector, With a range of "quality" measures being implemented and foreshadowed by government, including "dollars" linked to student learning outcomes, all academics will be increasingly asked to examine their instructional strategies and to offer high quality learning opportunities. Sharing learning resources is seen as one strategy to help academics in this change process. As such, online repositories of learning objects are flourishing to encourage the concept of reuse. However, what is lacking are tools to support academics in designing high quality learning environments that incorporate learning objects. This paper presents a prototype tool that uses the concept of a "learning design" as the framework to assist academics in the design process and demonstrates how learning objects can be incorporated. © 2005 IEEE.
Bennett, S., Agostinho, S. & Lockyer, L. 2005, 'Reusable learning designs in university education', Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Education and Technology, ICET 2005, pp. 102-106.
This paper discusses the application of reusable learning designs as a support mechanism to guide teachers in designing learning experiences for students. Learning designs, which describe a sequence of learning activities, together with the necessary resources and supports, can serve as a framework which a teacher can then adapt to suit the needs of his or her students. The paper draws on an ongoing study of university teachers using learning designs to design their subjects to highlight reusability issues and outline what further research is necessary.
Lockyer, L. & Patterson, J. 2005, 'Scaffolding clinical problem based learning within an online collaborative environment', Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Education and Technology, ICET 2005, pp. 236-241.
With a specific focus on addressing the health care needs of regional, rural and remote communities, the new medical school at the University of Wollongong will open the doors to its first cohort of students in January 2007. Clinical placements will see students spend substantial periods of time in general practices located in these target communities - which may be as far as 1200km from campus. Problem based learning (PBL) is the underpinning educational strategy used to facilitate students' integration of medical science knowledge and clinical competencies. Educational technology has made a significant impact on the quality of the resources used to facilitate PBL in medical education through the development of multimedia clinical cases and online delivery of curriculum materials, readings, and literature. However, the learning interactions remain largely face-to-face. The unique context of this medical school requires the design of solutions that utilize communication technologies to connect learning groups but that do so in a way that scaffolds the learning process that is so embedded in the traditional face-to-face setting. This paper outlines the PBL process currently implemented in medical education and proposes a framework to structure the process when learners engage in web-based environments.
Agostinho, S., Bennett, S., Lockyer, L. & Harper, B. 2003, 'Integrating learning objects with learning designs', Interact, Integrate, Impact: Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE), Australian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Eduction, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 571-575.
Bennett, S., Brown, C. & Lockyer, L. 2003, 'The Evolution Of Teaching And Learning Over Seven Years Of On-Line Program Development', Proceedings of International Conference onNetwork Universities and E-learning.
Bennett, S., Lockyer, L. & Brown, I. 2003, 'Design and implementation strategies to support on-line programs for off-shore teaching', Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare and Higher Education, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Norfolk, VA, pp. 386-389.
Bennett, S., Lockyer, L. & Ferry, B. 2003, 'Developing a multi-mode program for on-campus, distance and off-shore learners: Challenges and opportunities', The 'Second Wave of ICT in Education: from Facilitated Teaching and Learning to Engendering Education Reform. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education 2003, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Norfolk, VA, pp. 817-819.
Hearne, D., Lockyer, L., Rowland, G. & Patterson, J. 2003, 'An online mentoring practicum in physical and health education teacher preparation: Preliminary findings and future directions', Proceedings of ED-MEDIA2003 World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Norfolk, VA, pp. 1546-1553.
Lockyer, L. & Bennett, S. 2003, 'Digital video cases: Investigating the effectiveness of technology-supported continuing professional education for general practitioners', Proceedings of the Apple University Consortium Conference, Adelaide, SA, Apple Computer Australia, pp. 13-1-13-7.
Lockyer, L., Brown, I. & Blackall, D. 2003, 'A learning design to support multi-literacy development in K-12 contexts', Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare and Higher Education, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Norfolk, VA, pp. 1703-1706.
Lockyer, L., Wright, R., Curtis, S., Curtis, O. & Hodgson, A. 2003, 'Energy Balance: Design and formative evaluation of a health education multimedia game', Proceedings of ED-MEDIA2003 World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Norfolk, VA, pp. 2721-2724.
Meek, J. & Lockyer, L. 2003, 'Perspective Pop-ups and Character Design', Interact, Integrate, Impact: Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE), Australian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Eduction, Adelaide.
Ferry, B., Kiggins, J., Hoban, G. & Lockyer, L. 2002, 'Supporting E-Knowledge-Building in Teacher Education: The Use of Computer-Mediated Communication', Proceedings of E-Learn 2002, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Norfolk VA USA, pp. 283-290.
Meek, J. & Lockyer, L. 2002, 'Trying Something Different in Training: TIP', Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE): winds of change in the sea of learning, UNITEC Institute of Technology, Auckland, NZ, pp. 847-850.
Rowland, G.S., Hearne, D.B., Lockyer, L. & Pearson, P.J. 2002, 'Integrating technology to enhance teaching and learning in physical and health education: an ActiveHealth framework', Proceedings of the Biennial Conference of ACHPER, Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation Inc., Australia, pp. 1-6.
Stuckey, B., Hedberg, J. & Lockyer, L. 2002, 'Facilitating Teacher Collaboration in On-line Environments', Proceedings of SITE 2002 Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Norfolk, VA, pp. 2398-2402.
Stuckey, B., Hedberg, J. & Lockyer, L. 2002, 'The Place of Internet-based Architectures in Supporting the Professional Practice of Teaching', Proceedings of SITE 2002 Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Norfolk, VA, pp. 2456-2461.
Yeatman, H. & Lockyer, L. 2002, 'Generic skills development: integrating ICT in professional preparation', Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE): winds of change in the sea of learning, UNITEC Institute of Technology, Auckland, NZ, pp. 741-748.
Bennett, S., Harper, B., Hedberg, J. & Lockyer, L. 2001, 'Towards sustainability: Issues in on-line education and training in the Australian VET sector', Education Odyssey 2001: Continuing the journey through adaptation and innovation – Collected papers from the 15th Biennial Forum of the Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, ODLAA/Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, Sydney.
Harper, B., O'Donoghue, J., Oliver, R. & Lockyer, L. 2001, 'New designs for Web-based learning environments', Proceedings of ED-MEDIA2001 World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Norfolk, VA, pp. 674-675.
Lockyer, L. & Patterson, J. 2001, 'Learning technologies and professional development: Enhancing a community of physical and health educators', Proceedings of the 2001 9th International Symposium Improving Student Learning: Improving Student Learning Using Learning Technologies, Oxford Brookes University Press, Oxford, pp. 475-481.
Rowland, G. & Lockyer, L. 2001, 'Exploring on-line communities: Supporting physical and health education professional development opportunities', Proceedings of Apple University Consortium Conference, Apple Computer Australia, Sydney, pp. 22-1-22-7.
Stuckey, B., Hedberg, J. & Lockyer, L. 2001, 'Building On-Line Community for Professional Development', Proceedings of ED-MEDIA2001 World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Norfolk, VA, pp. 1831-1836.
Stuckey, B., Hedberg, J. & Lockyer, L. 2001, 'Growing an on-line community of practice: community development to support in-service teachers in their adoption of innovation', Proceedings of the 2001 9th International Symposium Improving Student Learning: Improving Student Learning Using Learning Technologies, Oxford Brookes University Press, Oxford, pp. 482-494.
Stuckey, B., Hedberg, J. & Lockyer, L. 2001, 'Professional development online – Doing IT pedagogically', Proceedings of SITE 2001 Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Norfolk, VA, pp. 2439-2444.
Stuckey, B., Lockyer, L. & Hedberg, J. 2001, 'The case for community: On-line and ongoing professional support for communities of practice', Education Odyssey 2001: Continuing the journey through adaptation and innovation – Collected papers from the 15th Biennial Forum of the Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, ODLAA/Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, Sydney.
Lockyer, L. & Kerr, Y. 2000, 'Learner as designer-producer: Physical and health education students experience Web-based learning resource development', Proceedings of ED-MEDIA2000 World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Charlottesville, VA, pp. 591-595.
Lockyer, L., Rowland, G. & Patterson, J. 2000, 'The development of an on-line learning community of physical and health education professionals', Proceedings of ED-MEDIA2000 World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Charlottesville, VA, pp. 596-600.
Ferry, B., Hoban, G.H. & Lockyer, L. 1999, 'The use of computer-mediated communication to support the formation of a knowledge-building community in initial teacher education', Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, pp. 95-102.
Lockyer, L., Harper, B. & Patterson, J. 1999, 'Health Education in a Web-based Learning Environment: Learners' Perceptions', Proceedings of ED-MEDIA99 World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Charlottesville, VA, pp. 55-61.
Hedberg, J., Harper, B., Lockyer, L., Ferry, B., Brown, C. & Wright, R. 1998, 'Supporting ill-structured problem solving in interactive multimedia learning environments', Proceedings of ED-MEDIA/ED-TELECOM 98 World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia & World Conference on Educational Telecommunications, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Charlottesville, VA, pp. 496-501.
Hedberg, J., Harper, B., Lockyer, L., Ferry, B., Brown, C. & Wright, R. 1998, 'Supporting learners to solve ill-structured problems', Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, pp. 317-327.
Lockyer, L., Patterson, J. & Harper, B. 1998, 'Delivering Health Education via the Web: Design and Formative Evaluation of a Discourse-based Learning Environment', Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, pp. 465-475.

Journal articles

Bennett, S., Agostinho, S. & Lockyer, L. 2016, 'The process of designing for learning: understanding university teachers' design work', Educational Technology Research and Development, pp. 1-21.
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© 2016 Association for Educational Communications and TechnologyInterest in how to support the design work of university teachers has led to research and development initiatives that include technology-based design-support tools, online repositories, and technical specifications. Despite these initiatives, remarkably little is known about the design work that university teachers actually do. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study that investigated the design processes of 30 teachers from 16 Australian universities. The results show design as a top-down iterative process, beginning with a broad framework to which detail is added through cycles of elaboration. Design extends over the period before, while, and after a unit is taught, demonstrating the dynamic nature of design and highlighting the importance of reflection in teachers' design practice. We present a descriptive model of the design process, which we relate to conceptualizations of higher education teaching and learning, and compare with the characteristics of general design and instructional design. We also suggest directions for future research and development.
Thomas, L., Bennett, S. & Lockyer, L. 2016, 'Using concept maps and goal-setting to support the development of self-regulated learning in a problem-based learning curriculum', Medical Teacher, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 930-935.
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© 2016 Taylor & Francis.Problem-based learning (PBL) in medical education focuses on preparing independent learners for continuing, self-directed, professional development beyond the classroom. Skills in self-regulated learning (SRL) are important for success in PBL and ongoing professional practice. However, the development of SRL skills is often left to chance. This study presents the investigated outcomes for students when support for the development of SRL was embedded in a PBL medical curriculum. This investigation involved design, delivery and testing of SRL support, embedded into the first phase of a four-year, graduate-entry MBBS degree. The intervention included concept mapping and goal-setting activities through iterative processes of planning, monitoring and reflecting on learning. A mixed-methods approach was used to collect data from seven students to develop case studies of engagement with, and outcomes from, the SRL support. The findings indicate that students who actively engaged with support for SRL demonstrated increases in cognitive and metacognitive functioning. Students also reported a greater sense of confidence in and control over their approaches to learning in PBL. This study advances understanding about how the development of SRL can be integrated into PBL.
Bennett, S., Agostinho, S. & Lockyer, L. 2016, 'Investigating University Educators' Design Thinking and the Implications for Design Support Tools', Journal of Interactive Media in Education, vol. 2016, no. 1.
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Pachman, M., Arguel, A., Lockyer, L., Kennedy, G. & Lodge, J.M. 2016, 'Eye tracking and early detection of confusion in digital learning environments: proof of concept', Australasian Journal of Educational Technology.
Lodge, J.M., Kennedy, G. & Lockyer, L. 2016, 'Special issue: Brain, mind and educational technology', Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. i-iii.
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Carceller, C., Dawson, S. & Lockyer, L. 2015, 'Social capital from online discussion forums: Differences between online and blended modes of delivery', Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 150-163.
© 2015.This study explored the concept of social capital in higher education contexts by investigating student discussion forum activity and academic performance. To address these aims online discussion forum logs, student marks and teaching delivery method (blended or fully online) data were extracted from the universities learning management system (LMS). Student social network centrality measures were then calculated from the course discussion activity and correlated against student academic performance for each delivery mode. Drawing on social capital and social network theories the analyses identified that in comparison to low performing students the high-performing group held more central positions in their networks and tended to establish dense social connections with students of a similar academic ability. It was also observed that the relationships formed in blended teaching units were of a greater intensity and reciprocity than those established in fully online teaching units indicating a higher level of social capital was reached. This difference in the amount of available social capital between the two teaching modes suggests that students in blended units have comparatively greater access to resources embedded within the network, which in turn can be mobilised to assist them in their academic endeavours.
Bennett, S., Agostinho, S. & Lockyer, L. 2015, 'Technology tools to support learning design: Implications derived from an investigation of university teachers' design practices', Computers and Education, vol. 81, pp. 211-220.
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Crown Copyright © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.The need to improve the quality of higher education has fostered an interest in technology tools to support effective design for teaching and learning. Over the past decade this interest has led to the development of tools to support the creation of online learning experiences, specifications to underpin design systems, and repositories to share examples. Despite this significant activity, there remain unanswered questions about what shapes university teachers' design decisions and how tools can best support their design processes. This paper presents findings from a study of university teachers' design practices that identified teachers' perceptions of student characteristics, their own beliefs and experiences, and contextual factors as key influences on design decisions. The findings extend our understanding of activities fundamental to higher education teaching and inform thinking about design support tools.
Khamis, S., Kennedy, G., Lockyer, L., Dawson, S., Copeland, S. & Williams, R. 2014, 'Completing the Loop: Returning learning analytics to teachers', Rhetoric and Reality: Critical perspectives on educational technology, pp. 436-440.
Beckman, K., Bennett, S. & Lockyer, L. 2014, 'Understanding students' use and value of technology for learning', Learning, Media and Technology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 346-367.
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Despite significant research in the field of educational technology, there is still much we do not fully understand about students' experiences with technology. This article proposes that research in the field of educational technology would benefit from a sociological framing that pays attention to the understandings and lives of learners. Within a broader study that aimed to investigate students' use and value of technologies guided by Bourdieu's sociological theory, this article reports on qualitative embedded case study data of 12 students in years 9 and 10 from two Australian secondary schools. The article provides detailed accounts of students' experiences with technologies in various contexts with consideration of the milieu in which technology use occurred, illustrating the heterogeneous and complex network of influencing factors on students' technology practices. The findings and discussion augment the application of Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital as a tool to view and understand students' varied and complex experiences and relationships with technology. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Carceller, C., Dawson, S. & Lockyer, L. 2013, 'Improving academic outcomes: Does participating in online discussion forums payoff?', International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 117-132.
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This paper reports on a study investigating the potential relationship between a student's discussion forum activity and their academic performance. The study also examined the influence of the delivery method (i.e. blended or fully online) on the impact that forum participation may have on a student's final mark. To address these aims, student forum participation data and teaching delivery method were extracted from the universities Learning Management System (LMS). The analysis identified that students who actively participate in their teaching unit's discussion forum are more likely to achieve a higher final mark than those that do not participate. It was also observed that the resulting effect of participation in a teaching unit's online discussion forum was greater for a blended delivery modal than for fully online teaching units. This study affirms how learning analytics data derived from online discussion forums can be proactively applied to enhance teaching and learning practice.Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Lockyer, L., Heathcote, E. & Dawson, S. 2013, 'Informing Pedagogical Action: Aligning Learning Analytics With Learning Design', American Behavioral Scientist, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 1439-1459.
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This article considers the developing field of learning analytics and argues that to move from small-scale practice to broad scale applicability, there is a need to establish a contextual framework that helps teachers interpret the information that analytics provides. The article presents learning design as a form of documentation of pedagogical intent that can provide the context for making sense of diverse sets of analytic data. We investigate one example of learning design to explore how broad categories of analytics-which we call checkpoint and process analytics-can inform the interpretation of outcomes from a learning design and facilitate pedagogical action. © 2013 SAGE Publications.
Cooper, N., Lockyer, L. & Brown, I. 2013, 'Developing multiliteracies in a technology-mediated environment', Educational Media International, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 93-107.
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Evolving technologies and globalisation presents educators with the challenge of creating learning experiences to help students develop competencies to enable them to function successfully in a dynamic society. Today's learner is expected to be multiliterate - able to analyse and construct multi-modal texts. A qualitative embedded multi-case study was conducted to investigate the learning experiences and multiliteracy outcomes for students engaged in an educational program with a media studies focus. The program, designed for a secondary school English curriculum, was underpinned by multiliteracies pedagogy and delivered within a technology-mediated environment. This paper reports a single class case drawing upon examples from small group cases embedded within the class. The findings suggest that educational programs underpinned by multiliteracy pedagogy supported by technology can provide meaningful learning experiences for students whilst achieving multiliteracies focused learning outcomes. For this to occur important factors such as teacher technology competencies and expertise, access and integration of technology and facilitation of effective learning scaffolds should be considered. © 2013 Copyright International Council for Educational Media.
Blackall, D., Lockyer, L. & Harper, B.M. 2011, 'Making news today: A tool for adoption of ethics principles using technology-supported television journalism', Learning, Media and Technology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 277-294.
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There are movements internationally towards curricula that incorporate values and citizenship education. In Australia, this movement has been illustrated with the adoption of a national curriculum in values education. This has arisen from the perceived need for citizens to hold values around the rights and responsibilities of functioning within a democracy. The Making News Today programme has been designed to develop a range of literacies enabling learners, for example, to read the media beyond the interests of the elite. The programme incorporates a journalistic process for television news production for middle school students using laptop and handheld video technologies, with embedded ethics and values education. The article reports on an analysis of the implementation of this programme with middle school students in Australia with reference to student adoption of ethical stances in the journalistic process and the implications for the use of this project in developing ethics, values and citizenship as part of the curriculum process. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.
Bennett, S., Thomas, L., Agostinho, S., Lockyer, L., Jones, J. & Harper, B. 2011, 'Understanding the design context for Australian university teachers: Implications for the future of learning design', Learning, Media and Technology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 151-167.
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Based on the premise that providing support for university teachers in designing for their teaching will ultimately improve the quality of student learning outcomes, recent interest in the development of support tools and strategies has gained momentum. This article reports on a study that examined the context in which Australian university teachers design in order to understand what role design support tools and strategies could play. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 academics across 16 Australian universities. The findings suggest that most Australian university teachers have a high degree of flexibility in their design decisions suggesting that opportunities exist for learning design tools and strategies to be adopted. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.
Jones, R., Wells, M., Okely, A., Lockyer, L. & Walton, K. 2011, 'Is an online healthy lifestyles program acceptable for parents of preschool children?', Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 149-154.
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Aims: To assess the acceptability and potential efficacy of an online healthy lifestyles program for parents of overweight, or at risk of overweight, preschool-aged children. Methods: A pilot trial was conducted within a regional area of New South Wales, Australia. Two cohorts totalling 47 dyads were recruited. Primary outcomes were parental self-reported perceived knowledge and parental proxy-reported behaviour of their child. Data analysis was completed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (v 16). Results: At follow up (10weeks) parents reported high acceptability of the program. Changes in the hypothesised direction were reported for all parental perceived knowledge and parental and child behavioural outcomes. Conclusion: This is the first study to describe the acceptability and potential efficacy of an online healthy lifestyles program for parents of preschool children. The Time2bHealthy Program offers a viable option for parental involvement in obesity prevention programs targeting young children. Given the online nature of the program it has the capacity to be utilised within metropolitan, regional and rural areas of Australia. © 2011 The Authors. Nutrition & Dietetics © 2011 Dietitians Association of Australia.
Dawson, S., Macfadyen, L., Lockyer, L. & Mazzochi-Jones, D. 2011, 'Using social network metrics to assess the effectiveness of broad based admission practices', Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 16-27.
Notions of what it is to be knowledgeable and skilled in one's profession have evolved in recent decades. For instance, medical practitioners are expected to think critically and creatively, communicate effectively, and to be a professional and community leader. While these attributes have always been well regarded, it is only relatively recently that higher education institutions are actively incorporating these skills and attributes into student admissions criteria. In parallel, methods of instruction and course delivery have also changed over time with respect to these driving social paradigms. Today's medical schools are expected to both select and develop students in terms of these qualities through socially based pedagogical practices. This paper investigates the admissions criteria that best predict student engagement in a social learning environment and thus the related attributes such as communication, creativity, and leadership. The paper frames this investigation in the scholarship related to 21st century skills and achievement orientations.
Agostinho, S., Bennett, S., Lockyer, L. & Harper, B. 2011, 'The future of learning design', Learning, Media and Technology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 97-99.
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Corrin, L., Lockyer, L. & Bennett, S. 2010, 'Technological diversity: An investigation of students' technology use in everyday life and academic study', Learning, Media and Technology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 387-401.
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Generational generalisations regarding how students interact with technology have been used in recent times to prompt calls for radical changes to the delivery of teaching in higher education. This article reports on a study aimed to investigate first-year students' technology access and usage in two contexts of use: everyday life and academic study. A survey was delivered to first-year students across seven faculties of an Australian university during the second semester of the 2008 academic year. A total of 470 respondents met the criteria for this study. The findings suggest a wide diversity of usage of technologies with the usage rates of technology in academic study being generally lower than those in everyday life. These findings indicated that generational generalisations are not useful in informing the design of learning and teaching in higher education. However, there are questions regarding reliability of current survey-based methods to examine students' technology use and the level of diversity discovered across both contexts of use. This suggests that further in-depth research into how students shape technology to suit their lives is required to gain a greater understanding of how technology can effectively support teaching and learning. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.
Bennett, S., Agostinho, S., Lockyer, L. & Harper, B. 2009, 'Researching learning design in open, distance, and flexible learning: investigating approaches to supporting design processes and practices', Distance Education, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 175-177.
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Jones, R.A., Price, N., Okely, A.D. & Lockyer, L. 2009, 'Developing an online program to prevent obesity in preschool-aged children: What do parents recommend?', Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 151-157.
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Aim: The purpose of the present study was to describe preliminary research preceding the development of an online educational program for parents of preschool-aged children who are overweight or at-risk of overweight. Methods: The study consisted of an evaluation of current health-related websites and four focus groups with typical-end point users. It was conducted in one metropolitan region in New South Wales. Twenty-seven participants were recruited for the focus groups. The focus groups aimed to investigate the thoughts and opinions of participants towards an online educational program. Focus group transcripts were analysed using logico-inductive analysis procedures. Results: The evaluation of the websites revealed that most were largely repositories of information and did not provide guidance on how to practically implement the information into everyday life. Several themes emerged from the focus groups, including: usability and readability; credibility; inclusiveness; personalisation and practical help in modifying current behaviours. Conclusions: The present study highlights many of the limitations in current online programs/websites and interventions targeting preschool children. We have attempted to address these in the design and development of the Time2bHealthy Program. The present study describes the first step in the development of a novel and innovative initiative that has the potential to make a contribution to long-term health of preschool children and their families. © 2009 The Authors Journal compilation © 2009 Dietitians Association of Australia.
Jones, R.A., Price, N., Okely, A.D. & Lockyer, L. 2009, 'Development of a parent-led online program to prevent obesity in pre-school children', Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 66, pp. 152-158.
Bennett, S. & Lockyer, L. 2008, 'A study of teachers' integration of interactive whiteboards into four Australian primary school classrooms', Learning, Media and Technology, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 289-300.
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Interactive whiteboards (IWBs) have become increasingly available in Australian primary schools. However, little is known about how they are being integrated by teachers into their teaching practices. This paper reports on a study of the introduction of IWBs into an Australian public primary school. Data were collected for one day per week over two school terms, involving four classroom teachers. Data collected included a log of time allocation, lesson observations and a series of interviews with the teachers. The study found that participants used IWBs to a varying extent over the course of a teaching week, with lessons that integrated the use of IWBs tending to focus on literacy and numeracy. The technology was readily incorporated into the classroom environment by teachers and considered easy to use. Teachers adopted a range of pedagogical approaches when using the IWBs and these approaches were consistent with those they usually employed in their teaching.
Lockyer, L. & Patterson, J. 2007, 'Technology use, technology views: Anticipating professional use of ICT for beginning teachers', Journal of Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, vol. 4, pp. 261-267.
Probst, Y.C., Lockyer, L., Tapsell, L., Steel, D., McKerrow, O. & Bare, M. 2007, 'Toward nutrition education for adults: A systematic approach to the interface design of an online dietary assessment tool', International Journal of Learning Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 32-50.
Bennett, S., Agostinho, S., Lockyer, L., Harper, B. & Lukasiak, J. 2006, 'Supporting University Teachers Create Pedagogically Sound Learning Environments Using Learning Designs and Learning Objects', IADIS International journal on www/internet, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 15-25.
Cooper, N., Lockyer, L. & Brown, I. 2006, 'Media Analysis and Production: Developing Multiliteracies in Technology-Enhanced Environments', Joint Issue of Journal of eLiteracy (JeLit) and Innovation in Teaching And Learning in Information and Computer Sciences (ITALICS), vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 75-95.
Lockyer, L. & Harper, B. 2006, 'A technology-enhanced multiliteracies learning design for geography education', 3L Journal of Language, Linguistics and Literature, vol. 12, pp. 13-28.
Brown, I. & Lockyer, L. 2006, 'Exploring a learning design to operationalise new pedagogical frameworks using multi-literacies', International Journal of Learning, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 175-178.
Probst, Y.C., Krnavek, C., Lockyer, L. & Tapsell, L.C. 2005, 'Development of a computer assisted dietary assessment tool for use in primary healthcare practice: Perceptions of nutrition and computers in a sample of older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus', Australian Journal of Primary Health, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 54-62.
As part of a larger study developing dietary software, this study aims to evaluate a sample of potential users for their experience and comfort with computers, and assess the preferred program design and navigation features for the development of the automated diet history interview. A telephone-based questionnaire and focus groups were employed to evaluate the perceptions, beliefs and attitudes of 37 older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Participants were also shown a range of existing dietary assessment programs and asked to state their perceptions of each. Data was coded and thematically analysed based on computer use, software features, dietary assessment and nutrition programs using N-Vivo software. Three participants had never used a computer, yet others had used computers, and were comfortable using them. For navigation about the program, a preference toward text was identified whilst photographs were preferred for determining food portion sizes. Reduction in the complexity of screen layouts was important and the time to be spent using the program varied widely with a minimum of 10 minutes reported. Development of the computerised dietary assessment program must ensure simplicity of the interface design and flexibility of the locations of use for the older computer user.
Lukasiak, J., Agostinho, S., Bennett, S., Harper, B., Lockyer, L. & Powley, B. 2005, 'Learning objects and learning designs: an integrated system for reusable, adaptive and shareable learning content', Research in Learning Technology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 151-169.
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Agostinho, S., Bennett, S., Lockyer, L. & Harper, B. 2004, 'Developing a learning object metadata application profile based on LOM suitable for the Australian higher education context', Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 191-208.
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Bennett, S. & Lockyer, L. 2004, 'Becoming an Online Teacher: Adapting to a Changed Environment for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education', Educational Media International, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 231-248.
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Blackall, D., Lockyer, L. & Brown, I. 2004, 'Straight Shooting – Developing Camera Ethics and Multiple Literacy Through Digital Video New Production in High Schools', Asia Pacific Media Educator, vol. 15, pp. 47-62.
Probst, Y., Burden, A., McKerrow, O., Krnavek, C., Skoumbourdis, D., Lockyer, L., Bare, M. & Harper, B. 2004, 'Process evaluation of the development of the user interface for a self-administered dietary assessment program for use in general practice', Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 13, no. 40.
Lockyer, L. 2004, 'Book review of Learning and Teaching With Technology: Principles and Practices', Distance Education, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 146-148.
Vialle, W., Lockyer, L. & Knapp, L. 2003, 'A problem-based learning approach to professional development for teachers of the gifted', Australasian Journal of Gifted Education, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 41-50.
Lockyer, L., Patterson, J., Rowland, G. & Hearne, D. 2002, 'Online mentoring and peer support: using learning technologies to facilitate entry into a community of practice', Research in Learning Technology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 24-31.
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Lockyer, L., Patterson, J. & Harper, B. 2001, 'ICT in higher education: Evaluating outcomes for health education', Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 275-283.
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This paper presents an investigation that examined and compared the effectiveness of collaborative tutorial activities carried out in both web-based and face-to-face learning environments within an undergraduate health education subject. Effectiveness of the different learning environments was measured in terms of observed learning outcomes, analysis of learner interactions and reported perceptions of the learners regarding their experience. Results demonstrated that web-based environments, with embedded collaborative activities, can effectively foster rich learning experiences that result in attaining positive learning outcomes.
Ferry, B., Kiggins, J., Hoban, G. & Lockyer, L. 2000, 'Using computer-mediated communication to form a knowledge-building community with beginning teachers', Educational Technology and Society, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 496-505.
This study investigated how different types of computer-mediated communication (CMC) such as asynchronous forums, synchronous forums and e-mail were used to support an alternative approach to initial teacher education that relied on the formation of a knowledge-building community (KBC). The KBC involves students working in small and large groups to solve 'real world' problems, and in the process develop skills of negotiation, communication, and collaboration. Emphasis is placed on authentic problems that are linked to a school context. The findings showed that the students preferred to use the forum available to all participants. Also they used the forums in many different ways, in addition to those intended by the authors. Further, many students made use of other modes of CMC such as e-mail and synchronous forums downloaded from the web. We also found that many of the skills we used in mediating face-to-face discussion could be transferred to the on-line situation.
Lockyer, L., Futcher, R., Ashbury, F.D. & Iverson, D.C. 1999, 'The Sociobehavioural Cancer Research Network: background and progress report.', Cancer Prev Control, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 125-130.
The Sociobehavioural Cancer Research Network (SCRN) was established in 1994 by the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) with funding from the Canadian Cancer Society (CCS). The network was created to facilitate the development of behavioural science studies that would contribute to a fuller understanding of the cancer experience, from prevention through detection, treatment and post treatment (including palliative care). This article describes the nature of network research, the development and organization of the Sociobehavioural Cancer Research Network and the challenges it faces.
Lockyer, L., Patterson, J. & Harper, B. 1999, 'Measuring Effectiveness of Health Education in a Webbased Learning Environment: a preliminary report', Higher Education Research & Development, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 233-246.
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Ashbury, F.D., Lockyer, L., McKerracher, K. & Findlay, H. 1997, 'Focus groups with cancer patients: toward a more comprehensive understanding of the cancer experience.', Cancer Prev Control, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 222-227.
Six focus groups of 58 individuals (30 women and 28 men) were held in 3 Canadian cities to help develop a survey instrument to be implemented nationally to identify cancer patients' experiences with cancer: treatment, symptoms and symptom management. Patient participants had different cancer diagnoses, but their experience with cancer had been within the year preceding the study. Our intent was to identify as many themes as possible to allow for comparison of different experiences in a national survey. This paper reports on what was learned substantively from these focus groups and discusses the methodological contribution of focus groups in developing survey tools.
Arguel, A., Lockyer, L., Lipp, O.V., Lodge, J.M. & Kennedy, G., 'Inside Out: Detecting Learners Confusion to Improve Interactive Digital Learning Environments', Journal of Educational Computing Research.
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Other

Lockyer, L. 2001, 'Pedagogy first: The key to effective technology use in schools'.
Lockyer, L. 2000, 'Delivering Health Education Via The World Wide Web: An Investigation Of Knowledge Construction, Attitude And Behaviour Change Within Collaborative Learning Environments'.
Steggles, S. & Lockyer, L. 1996, 'Psychosocial Oncology in Canada.', pp. 11-12.
Iverson, D.C., Lockyer, L. & Cameron, C. 1995, 'Qualife Manual', Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation, National Cancer Institute of Canada, Toronto.

Reports

Colvin, C., Rogers, T., Wade, A., Dawson, S., Gasevic, D., Buckingham Shum, S., Nelson, K., Alexander, S., Lockyer, L., Kennedy, G., Corrin, L. & Fisher, J. Australian Government Office for Learning and Teaching 2016, Student retention and learning analytics: A snapshot of Australian practices and a framework for advancement, Canberra, Australia.
Dawson, S., Bakharia, A., Lockyer, L. & Heathcote, E. Australian Learning and Teaching Council Ltd. 2011, 'Seeing' networks: visualising and evaluating student learning networks Final Report, Canberra, Australia.
Cooper, N., Lockyer, L. & Harper, B. Digital Media Centre, University of Wollongong 2001, Direct to Desktop Broadband Video for Tertiary Education Environments, Wollongong.
Lockyer, L. Digital Media Centre, University of Wollongong 2001, Internet technologies to facilitate cancer-related health promotion and support programs: Literature review and program recommendations, Wollongong.
Bennett, S., Lockyer, L. & Harper, B. The Curriculum Corporation 1999, The impact of digital technologies on teaching and learning in K-12 education: A review of the literature, Melbourne.
Lockyer, L. Apple Computer Australia Pty Ltd. 1998, Getting physical on the net, Australasian Wheels for the Mind, Sydney.
Howard, J. & Lockyer, L. Mental Health Branch of the Commonwealth Department of Health and Family Service 1997, Effective Suicide Prevention Programs for Secondary Schools: Literature Review, Mind Matters: National Mental Health in Schools Project Brief, Australia.
Lockyer, L., Wang, C., Ashbury, F.D. & Lin, Z. Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation, National Cancer Institute of Canada 1997, Facts On Series Evaluation - Final Report, Toronto.
Ashbury, F.D. & Lockyer, L. Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation, National Cancer Institute of Canada 1995, Factors Influencing Heavily Addicted Smokers' Decisions to Quit Smoking: Final Report, Toronto.
Hachi, C., Lockyer, L., Ashbury, F.D. & Copoloff, D. Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation, National Cancer Institute of Canada 1995, Facts On Series Evaluation: Preliminary Report, Toronto.
McDonald, R., Lockyer, L. & Ashbury, F.D. Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation, National Cancer Institute of Canada 1995, Review of Tobacco Training Programs, Toronto.
Toivonen, D., Lockyer, L. & Ashbury, F.D. Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation, National Cancer Institute of Canada 1995, Canadian Cancer Society Help Book Use and Suggested Evaluation Approach, Toronto.
Lockyer, L. & Ashbury, F.D. Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation, National Cancer Institute of Canada 1994, Canadian Cancer Society "The Cure for Cancer..." Market Testing Project, Toronto.