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Associate Professor Linda Leung

Biography

Linda Leung is an Honorary Associate Professor in Arts, Cultural and Digital Creative Industries. 

In her most previous role, she taught postgraduate students working in the creative and cultural industries on the Master of Management. Aimed at those who have trained in these sectors but are moving into management positions, the program brings together a diverse range of people from publicly-funded visual and performing arts institutions, small commercial creative organisations, as well as tech start-ups and microbusinesses. Graduating students work at the forefront of the Experience Economy, leading the way in designing innovative cultural / creative products and services which are accessible to all.

Linda is currently working on her third book Technologies of Refuge: Rethinking Digital Divides, which is a culmination of her research on the design of available, accessible and affordable technology products and services for marginalised communities such as refugees. Her second book, Digital Experience Design: Ideas, Industries, Interaction (Intellect Books) chronicles the diverse backgrounds of practitioners in the dot.com world, and subsequently, the theories, ideas, models and frameworks they bring and apply to the design of technologically mediated experiences. Her first book, Virtual Ethnicity: Race, Resistance & the World Wide Web (published by Ashgate) is concerned with how technology is appropriated by those with limited access to it, as well as the problems and possibilities which arise when technology is made available to minority groups. It draws from the disciplines of technology studies, media/communication studies, and anthropology/cultural studies. This cross-disciplinary approach also informs her teaching and research on digital creative industries, project management processes and practices, and user experience design.

Professional

In her prior role as director of postgraduate programs in interactive multimedia, Linda supervised numerous Masters of Interactive Multimedia (MIMM) students whose work has been recognised by the the Australian Interactive Media Industry Association's annual awards.

Linda has previously taught and/or conducted research at the universities of London, East London, North London, Miami and Western Sydney. Returning to Sydney from London in 1999 to catch the tail-end of the dot.com boom, she worked in the interactive imedia industry in Executive Producer and Project Manager roles with clients ranging from government departments to telcos to artists. In terms of service to multimedia education and the arts, she has assisted digital media artists in marketing and distributing their work. Digimatter was established in 1999 in response to the lack of representation of artists working with new media by the commercial gallery system. It has sold digital artworks to educational institutions, art organisations, specialist retailers, as well as individual collectors all over the world.

Image of Linda Leung
Associate of the Faculty, Management Discipline Group
Associate Member, TFC - Transforming Cultures
Core Member, HCTD - Human Centred Technology Design
BA (UWS), GradCert T&L (UEL), MA (London), PhD (UEL)
 
Phone
+61 2 9514 1663

Research Interests

The Digital Divide

Technology access and accessibility

Service design and innovation

Online communities

Digital Diasporas

Digital media development and practices

Technology Cultures

Dot.com industries

Creative industries policy and management

Cultural and creative labour

User-centred technology design

User experience design and innovation

Arts and Cultural Policy

Management of Creative Organisations

Creative and Cultural Industries

Digital Experience Design

Innovation by Design

Digital Media Development Process

Books

Leung, L.T., Finney Lamb, C. & Emrys, L. 2009, Technology's Refuge: the use of technology by asylum seekers and refugees, 1, UTS ePress, Sydney, Australia.
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This research by Linda Leung investigated the use of Information communication technologies (ICT) by refugees during flight, displacement and in settlement. It examined the impact of Australias official policy of mandatory detention on how asylum seekers and refugees maintain links to diasporas and networks of support. Given the restricted contact with the world outside of the immigration detention centre, the study juxtaposed forms and processes of technology-mediated communication between institutionalised detention with those of displacement and settlement. The research found that while there were obstacles to communication in situations of conflict and dislocation, asylum seekers and refugees are able to `make do with the technology options available to them in ways which were less constrained than in detention settings. Communication practices during the settlement process focused on learning new technologies, and repairing the disconnections with family members resulting from separation and detention.
Leung, L.T. 2005, Virtual Ethnicity: Race, resistance and the world wide web, 1, Ashgate Publishing, Hants, England.
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Chapters

Leung, L.T. 2015, 'Experiential Equality and Digital Discrimination' in Benz, P. (ed), Experience Design: Concepts and Case Studies, Bloomsbury Academic, London, pp. 45-54.
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Leung, L.T. 2011, 'Australia' in Barnett, G. (ed), Encyclopedia of Social Networks, Sage, Thousand Oaks, California, pp. 60-62.
Leung, L.T., Humphreys, T.J. & Weakley, A.J. 2010, 'Designing E-mail for Knowledge Management in Distributed Organizations' in Ragusa, A.T. (ed), Interaction in Communication Technologies and Virtual Learning Environments, IGI Global, Hershey, PA, pp. 26-37.
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E-mail has become so ubiquitous that it has surpassed existing only as a tool of asynchronous communication. E-mail has contributed to the rise of the distributed organization that is widely dispersed across nodes and locations. Email is being used in diverse ways and for an increasing range of unintended purposes. This chapter charts the history of e-mail, from early investigations of handling e-mail overload, to a review of software applications designed to ameliorate unanticipated outcomes. It suggests that while e-mail has been appropriated for information and knowledge management, there has been minimal analysis of this beyond the individual. By presenting a case study of a distributed organization, detailing the process by which e-mail was leveraged for organizational knowledge through the design of an application that enabled visualization of e-mail data, this research shows e-mail technology can become a core repository of corporate knowledge.
Leung, L.T. 2008, 'From "Victims of the Digital Divide" to "Techno-Elites": Gender, Class, and Contested "Asianness" in Online and Offline Geographies' in Gajjala, R. & Gajjala, V. (eds), South Asian Technospaces, Peter Lang, New York, USA, pp. 7-23.
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Leung, L.T. 2008, 'Users as Learners: Rethinking Digital Experiences as Inherently Educational' in Linda Leung (ed), Digital Experience Design: Ideas, Industries, Interaction, Intellect Books, UK, USA, pp. 15-24.
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Leung, L.T. & Goldstein, S. 2008, 'You are what you wear: The Ideal and Real Consumer/User' in Linda Leung (ed), Digital Experience Design: Ideas, Industries, Interaction, intellect books, UK, USA, pp. 25-34.
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Drago, C., Leung, L.T. & Ward, M. 2008, 'What's the Story? Harnessing the Power of Storytelling in Film for Experience Design' in Linda Leung (ed), Digital Experience Design: Ideas, Industries, Interaction, Intellect Books, UK, USA, pp. 35-48.
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Leung, L.T. & Tam, D. 2008, 'The Art of 'Slow': Taking Time in the Digital Age' in Linda Leung (ed), Digital Experience Design: Ideas, Industries, Interaction, intellect books, UK, USA, pp. 49-56.
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Leung, L.T. & Tan, A. 2008, 'The Personal is the political: Why Feminism is Important to Experience Design' in Linda Leung (ed), Digital Experience Design: Ideas, Industries, Interaction, Intellect Books, UK, USA, pp. 57-68.
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Kennedy, H. & Leung, L.T. 2008, 'Lessons from Web Accessibility and Intellectual Disability' in Linda Leung (ed), Digital Experience Design: Ideas, Industries, Interaction, Intellect Books, UK, USA, pp. 69-80.
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Ward, M. & Leung, L.T. 2008, 'Beyond the Visual:Applying Cinematic Sound Design to the Online Environment' in Linda Leung (ed), Digital Experience Design: Ideas, Industries, Interaction, Intellect Books, UK, USA, pp. 81-92.
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Leung, L.T. & Waters, M. 2008, 'Architectures of the Physical and Virtual: Parallel Design Principles in Built and Digital Environments' in Linda Leung (ed), Digital Experience Design: Ideas, Industries, Interaction, Intellect Books, UK, USA, pp. 93-100.
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Leung, L.T. & Bryant, S. 2008, 'Art and Articulation:The Finer Points of Engaging the User in Abstract' in Linda Leung (ed), Digital Experience Design: Ideas, Industries, Interaction, Intellect Books, UK, USA, pp. 101-112.
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Leung, L.T. 2008, 'Introduction' in Linda Leung (ed), Digital Experience Design: Ideas, Industries, Interaction, Intellect Books, UK, USA, pp. 9-14.
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Leung, L.T. 2001, 'From Set Menu to All-you-can-eat: Comparing Representations of my Ethnicity in Broadcast and New Media Technologies' in Henwood, F., Kennedy, H. & Miller, N. (eds), Cyborg Lives? Women's Technobiographies, Raw Nerve, York, UK, pp. 51-62.
Leung, L.T. 2001, 'The Past Lives of a Cyborg: Encountering "Space Invaders" from the 1980s to the 1990s' in Henwood, F., Kennedy, H. & Miller, N. (eds), Cyborg Lives? Women's Technobiographies, Raw Nerve, York, UK, pp. 127-132.
Leung, L.T. 1992, 'Inside An Outsider' in Herne, K., Travaglia, J. & Weiss, E. (eds), Who Do You Think You Are? Second Generation Immigrant Woman in Australia, Women's Redress Press, Sydney, pp. 14-17.

Conferences

Leung, L.T. 2015, 'The Creative Other: marginalization of and from the creative industries', 41st Social Theory, Politics and the Arts Conference, University of South Australia.
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Leung, L.T. 2014, 'Looking across digital divides: possible interventions in inclusive and accessible service design', ANZCA2014 Conference Proceedings, ANZCA2014, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne.
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Traversing the numerous studies of minority groups and the access to technology highlights the necessity of rethinking the popular notion of 'digital divides' by which particular communities are considered disadvantaged in their access to the Internet. The research points to pervasive technological determinism in the ways that services are designed to push users online regardless of the evidence that an array of minority groups prefer and use other means of communicating and seeking information. The 'digital divide' is evidence that information services have not been designed to be inclusive of a significant proportion of the wider community. It is also an inadequate model for conceptualising the diversity of technologies that are now used, as well as the literacies required to access them. Instead of dichotomising user groups, with minorities representing those who are disadvantaged and deprived of computers, there are persuasive business, regulatory and legal arguments for compelling service providers to consider their users as part of a spectrum of affordabilities, literacies and technologies through which their services are accessed.
Leung, L.T. 2013, 'Access from the margins: inclusive service design in the age of a national broadband network', Emerging Issues in Communication Research & Policy, Canberra.
Paper was part of the Digital Inclusion stream
Leung, L.T. 2012, 'Being on the wrong side of the "digital divide"', Australian Health Workforce Institute Research Workshop Exploring the Use of Telecommunications to Facilitate Access to Health Information for People from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds, University of Melbourne.
Leung, L.T. 2011, 'Communication Technology in Refugee Resettlement', Fourth International Conference on Global Studies, Rio de Janerio, Brazil.
Leung, L.T. 2011, 'Inclusive Design for Digital Accessibility', 2nd Annual National Public Sector Digital Media Officers' Forum 2011, Melbourne.
Dr Leungâs research is focused on the critical yet disregarded factors of new media experience: how technology is appropriated by those with limited access to it, as well as the problems and possibilities which arise when technology is made available to marginalised groups. This session will explore accessibility as part of a holistic approach to thinking about and designing user experiences. Drawing from recent studies, Dr Leung will examine the importance of user research in inclusive design. As accessibility relates to both technology and content, an understanding of usersâ technical and language literacy and practices is imperative.
Leung, L.T. 2011, 'Consumer advocacy for refugees and communications technology: highlights from Mind the Gap', Record of the Communications Policy & Research Forum 2011, Communications Policy & Research Forum, Network Insight, Sydney, pp. 301-308.
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This paper will give an overview of how refugees technology use has previously been studied. It will further demonstrate how the recent Mind the Gap project funded by ACCAN is a pioneering piece of research that provides insight into a marginalised group of technology consumers about which little is known, and who are under-represented in studies of technology consumers. The Mind the Gap research project extends an earlier pilot study by the author (Leung, Finney Lamb, Emrys 2009) which examined asylum seekers and refugees uses of technology in situations of displacement, including refugee camps. It was also one of the first studies to explore technology access and use inside immigration detention centres. A key finding of the pilot study was the fundamental role of telephony in the lives of refugees and asylum seekers in sustaining precarious connections with family members and subsequently, their overall emotional wellbeing. This was the basis for focusing on the telecommunications landscape, products and services in Mind the Gap
Leung, L.T. 2010, '"We don't need no education": preparing precariats for the digital creative industries', ACS Crossroads 2010 in Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Panel on issues in digital labour
Leung, L.T. 2010, 'Issues in mobility and literacy: user-centred information design for asylum seeker and refugee communities', My Language Your Language in the Digital Age, Sydney.
Leung, L.T. 2008, 'Techno-Fear and Loathing in Immigration Detention', Refugees and Forced Migrants at the Crossroads: Forced Migration in a Changing World, Cairo, Egypt.
Leung, L.T. 2008, 'Technology and power in immigration detention: Communicating fear in and about detained asylum seekers', Power and Place: Refereed Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Communication Association Conference 2008, Australian New Zealand Communications Association Annual Conference, Massey University, New Zealand, pp. 1-13.
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The paper examines how fear is communicated to refugees, asylum seekers, and the public through Australias immigration policy and practice. Between 1992 and 1994, Australian law moved from permitting (but not enforcing) limited detention of asylum seekers, to a blanket policy of mandatory detention which, at one point, had up to 12,000 individuals in detention.
Leung, L.T., Humphreys, T.J. & Weakley, A.J. 2008, 'Email as co-habitat in distributed organisations', OZCHI 2008 Designing for Habitus and Habitat Proceedings, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM Digital Library, Cairns, Australia, pp. 351-354.
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Email has now become so ubiquitous that it has surpassed its early role as an asynchronous communication tool. Having contributed to the rise of the distributed organisation, email is being used in diverse ways and for purposes for which it was not intended. It is no longer a technology of individual habitats, but one where members of distributed organisations co-habit. This paper charts the study of email management, from early investigations of personal approaches to handling email overload, through to a review of software applications designed to ameliorate this. It suggests that while email has been appropriated for information and knowledge management, there has been minimal analysis of this beyond the individual. Therefore, it presents a case study of a distributed organisation, detailing the process by which email was leveraged for organisational knowledge through the design of an application that enabled visualisation of email data.
Leung, L.T. 2008, 'Asylum seekers and the limits of cultural citizenship: the Australian context', CRESC Conference 2008 Cultural Citizenship, Oxford, UK.
Leung, L.T., Humphreys, T.J. & Weakley, A.J. 2008, 'VUE (Visualisation Using Emails)', AAAI Workshop on Enhanced Messaging (EMAIL-08), National Conference of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence Press, Illiinois, USA, pp. 48-51.
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The paper details the preliminary results of a research and design project for the Australasian Centre for Interaction Designs Virtual Communities program. The project aims to mine knowledge from an email archive through a 3D user interface and interaction. Working with a client organization, the project seeks to address the knowledge management needs of a small distributed company. The project is currently about to release its first beta version for testing.
Leung, L.T. 2007, 'Networks of Displacement: the role of technology-mediated communication amongst asylum seekers in institutionalized detention', BSA Annual Conference 2007 - Social Connections: Identities, Technologies, Relationships, BSA Annual Conference 2007 - Social Connections: Identities, Technologies, Relationships, British Sociological Association, London.
The paper discusses the authorâs recent work with refugees in Australian immigration detention centres investigating how asylum seekers use technology to sustain connections with their virtual communities in situations of displacement. It explores the range of technology available to detainees to communicate with the outside world as well as the constraints in the ways that they can be used. The primary research questions were: what kinds of technologies are available to refugees? How are these used? How are their benefits and limitations perceived? What, if any, virtual communities surround these technologies? How are relationships of power surrounding these technologies negotiated? Can technology assist refugees in sustaining connections with their virtual communities and reducing their sense of isolation? Can technology play a role in reducing the well-documented effects of this incarceration by providing mediated social interaction?What are the implications for policy, especially in relation to allowable technologies and surveillance of communication practices? The research attempts to theorise and map detaineeâs community and communication networks using Mark Granovetterâs (1983) ideas about the strength of weak ties. This paper also provides an overview of the gaps in literature which exist in the study of technology use by refugees. It argues that the examination of diasporas in Cultural Studies and Internet Studies has neglected the specific experiences of refugees. In addition, it shows that within Refugee Studies, the means by which asylum seekers sustain virtual networks of communication has had scarce attention.
Leung, L.T., Weakley, A.J. & Humphreys, T.J. 2007, 'Browsing archives in support of non-deliberate sharing', Collaboration and Communicative Tools for Distributed Communities: A Joint HCSNet-HxI Workshop, Collaboration and Communicative Tools for Distributed Communities: A Joint HCSNet-HxI Workshop, HCSNet ARC Network in Human Communication Science, University of New South Wales.
Humphreys, T.J., Leung, L.T. & Weakley, A.J. 2007, 'Challenges in Prototyping Email in Three Dimensions', Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia (VSMM'07), International Conference on Virtual Systems and MultiMedia, VSMM Society, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 1-15.
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There are numerous arguments for the usefulness of paper prototyping. It allows the identification and prevention of design problems and usability issues before work begins on an electronic proof of concept (EPOC). It is less costly and more flexible than testing with an EPOC and then amending it after it has been built. However, this project presented challenges in relation to paper prototyping an application that represents email data threedimensionally. Although it was possible to do some abstract prototyping on paper, there were limitations in the extent to which a 3D model could be articulated two-dimensionally. The paper details the authors multimethodological approach to developing an application which enables the search, display and filtering of email data beyond the standard functionalities available in conventional email software. Such methodologies included persona development, task analysis, competitor analysis, abstract (paper and electronic) prototyping. This combination demonstrates the utility of Houde and Hills (1997) model of developing a range of prototypes within a single project to demonstrate role, look and feel and implementation of a proposed design.
Leung, L.T. 2006, 'Virtual Asianness: absence and presence in online cultures', Media and Identity in Asia, Media-Asia Research Group 2006 conference, Curtin University of Technology, Sarawak, Malaysia, pp. 1-13.
Leung, L.T. 2006, 'The forgotten 'have-nots': refugees and the legacy of techno-utopianism', Internet Research 7.0: Internet Convergences, Internet Research 7.0: Internet Convergences, Association of Internet Researchers, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 1-10.
One of the main limitations of the study of diasporas on the Internet is that it has been confined to a narrow socio-economic demographic within any ethnic minority group. It is often restricted to those who are advantaged in their capacity to become members of a diaspora through economic migration: those who study overseas and remain in the countries in which they were educated, working in the professions for which they have been highly trained (see Mitra 1997, Gajjala 1999, Melkote and Liu 2000, Mallapragada 2000). While the profile of cyberspace is not as white as once claimed, the microscope is still positioned squarely on the West, the affluent and the educated. However, diasporas are also constituted by those who are not so materially privileged, and whose situations are unstable in their symbolic homelands such that they are forced to migrate and seek asylum in other countries. Although the study of refugees is a discipline in its own right, there has been minimal examination of how they appropriate technology, particularly the Internet, to maintain connections with their virtual communities while in situations of displacement. The studies that have been undertaken concentrate on the use of technology by refugees living in the wider community (see Glazebrook 2004, McIver Jr and Prokosch 2002, Howard and Owens 2002), rather than in the context of detention. The paper discusses the authors recent work with refugees in Australian immigration detention centres. It explores the range of technology available to detainees to communicate with the outside world as well as the constraints in the ways that they can be used. Specifically, it interrogates the policy of prohibiting access to the Internet while allowing a variety of old media to be used by detainees. What does this intimate about the perceived dangers of new media?
Leung, L.T. 2006, 'Learners as users, and users as learners', Conference proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education & Training, 7th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-4.
This paper explores how users' relationships to technology may impact processes of learning. In e-learning contexts, it is not only students' educational experiences which are being designed, but also their interaction with technology. Students have dual identities, as both learners and users. The paper reviews principles of usability in the discipline of human-computer interaction and its recommendations for facilitating ease-of-use in systems. It compares this with educational literature on learning styles which suggests that 'deep' learning is not necessarily easy. The paper discusses the difficulties which arise in the context of e-learning, when the processes and practices of educational and technological design are conflated. That is, what happens when the user and learner are one and the same, when systems are designed for learning, not just for use? Reviewing and juxtaposing literature from the disciplines of technology and educational design, the paper highlights differences in pedagogy and practice. In turn, it examines how these are manifest in IT students' perceptions of the role of technology in their own education.
Jakubowicz, A.H. & Leung, L.T. 2006, 'Exploring strategies for developing a multimedia digital workspace for humanities and social sciences', OZCHI 2006 design: activities, artifacts and environments, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, ACM, Sydney, Australia.
Leung, L. 2006, 'Learners as users, and users as learners', 7th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training, ITHET, pp. 541-544.
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This paper explores how users' relationships to technology may impact processes of learning. In e-learning contexts, it is not only students' educational experiences which are being designed, but also their interaction with technology. Students have dual identities, as both learners and users. The paper reviews principles of usability in the discipline of human-computer interaction and its recommendations for facilitating ease-of-usc in systems. It compares this with educational literature on learning styles which suggests that 'deep' learning is not necessarily easy. The paper discusses the difficulties which arise in the context of e-learning, when the processes and practices of educational and technological design are conflated. That is, what happens when the user and learner arc one and the same, when systems are designed for learning, not just for use? Reviewing and juxtaposing literature from the disciplines of technology and educational design, the paper highlights differences in pedagogy and practice. In turn, it examines how these are manifest in IT students' perceptions of the role of technology in their own education. © 2006 IEEE.
Leung, L., Bryant, S. & Tan, A. 2006, 'Translating principles of web design and information architecture to the development of interactive television (iTV) interfaces', ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 369-372.
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This paper discusses the application of information and interaction design principles to the design of iTV (Interactive TV) applications. It details the authors' experiences of teaching a subject in Digital Information & Interaction Design as part of a postgraduate program in Interactive Multimedia. Students worked on a design project for a common client - Austar, a Subscription TV and iTV service provider in rural and regional Australia - in which they developed the information architecture and interaction for proposed new iTV applications.The paper begins by defining iTV in relation to the Subscription TV service offered by Austar. It will also contextualise this against other forms of iTV which exist but are not yet possible within the infrastructure available in Australia.iTV was chosen as a novel alternative to designing web interfaces. The students were more than familiar with designing for web environments. iTV presented students with a new technology which many had never experienced directly, as well as new challenges in learning about its constraints and possibilities.Finally, the paper details the design process undertaken by the students, and the difficulties faced in their attempts to translate and apply their knowledge of HCI and web design to the development of iTV interfaces. Copyright the author(s) and CHISIG.
Leung, L.T. 2004, 'Designing Online Experiences: Beyond the Tyranny of Usability', Design Research Society (UK) International Conference - Futureground, Design Research Society (UK) International Conference, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-7.
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Leung, L.T. & Matthews, G. 2005, 'Reflecting On and Through Technology: Using Weblogs to Develop Hard and Soft Skills', m-ICTE2005: Third International Conference on Multimedia and Information & Communication Technologies in Education, m-ICTE2005: Third International Conference on Multimedia and Information & Communication Technologies in Education, Organising Committee, Caceres, Spain.
Leung, L.T. & Matthews, G. 2004, 'Learning about technology through technology: facilitating hard and soft skills development using weblogs and RSS (real simple syndication)', UTS Teaching & Learning Forum, UTS Teaching and Learning Forum, University of Technology Sydney, University of Technology Sydney.
Leung, L.T. 2003, 'Experience design: practising what we preach when negotiating technological and educational interdisciplinarity', eLearning for the creative industries Create.ed 2003 conference proceedings, Create.ed, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 15-22.
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Leung, L.T. 2002, 'Blowin' at the Rocco: Saturday Night', OzeCulture 2002 Taking the Next Step: a national conference about culture, new media and eBusiness, OzeCulture 2002 Taking the Next Step: a national conference about culture, new media and eBusiness, Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts, Sydney, Australia.

Journal articles

Leung, L.T. 2016, 'The Creative Other: Marginalization of and from the Creative Industries', The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 200-211.
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This article revisits, through a review of literature, arguments made about the underrepresentation of Other groups and identities in various industries and how this adversely impacts the creative output of those sectors. The proposition is that lack of diversity in the workforce equates to a lack of different ideas, practices, cultures, and processes entering an organization: the critical ingredients necessary for creativity and innovation. The highlighting of difference as core to creativity poses some difficult questions: how creative can the creative industries be without those that understand Otherness through their lived experiences? How are Other communities speaking to this exclusion?
Leung, L.T. 2014, 'Availability, access and affordability across 'digital divides': common experiences amongst minority groups', Australian Journal of Telecommunications and the Digital Economy, vol. 2, no. 2.
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In understanding commonalities between minority groups in relation to access to and affordability of technology, the paper argues that these can no longer be considered `minority issues as they affect a significant proportion of the Australian population. Rather, affordability needs to be framed as part of a wider discussion about access and accessibility. Furthermore, notions of access and accessibility should be emphasised and clearly distinguished from mere availability.
Leung, L.T. 2011, 'Phoning home', Forced Migration Review, vol. 38, pp. 24-25.
The telephone is the most critical piece of technology for resettled refugees connection to family members in terms of availability and familiarity. However, it is not without challenges such as the limited communication technology choices back `home and the costs involved.
Yenimazman, D. 2011, ''Digital Experience Design: Ideas, Industries, Interaction' by Linda Leung', Information, Communication & Society, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 755-756.
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Leung, L.T. 2010, 'Message from a Refugee', Australasian Science, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 36-37.
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Leung, L. 2010, 'Telecommunications across borders', Telecommunications Journal of Australia, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 58.1-58.13.
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This article reports on recent research examining refugees as a particular user group of communication technologies. The term 'refugee' refers to all people who are exposed to refugee-type experiences and may include displaced people, asylum seekers and resettled refugees who have been granted residency in Australia. A review of literature has found that refugees as technology users have had very little attention across different disciplines, although the research has shown that technology is key to sustaining emotional wellbeing and precarious connections with family members when displaced. In particular, the telephone is the most critical technology for refugees in terms availability and familiarity. However, the access and affordability of telecommunications services and other technologies during displacement impacts on refugees' adoption and use of technology in the settlement process.
Leung, L.T. 2008, 'Cyberminds', U:, vol. 1, no. March, pp. 17-17.
Review of 'Living on Cybermind' by Jonathan Paul Marshall at: http://www.newsroom.uts.edu.au/reviews/detail.cfm?ItemId=10051
Humphreys, T.J., Leung, L.T. & Weakley, A.J. 2008, 'Embedding expert users in the interaction design process: a case study', Design Studies, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 603-622.
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This paper describes an approach to interaction design that evolved from having a group of expert users as clients to being a participatory interaction design project. It presents a case study of the design and development of an application with three-di
Leung, L.T. 2007, 'Mobility and Displacement: refugees' mobile media practices in immigration detention', M/C Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-5.
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The paper discusses mobility in the context of displacement. How is the mobile phone appropriated by refugees in immigration detention? What does the mobile phone, and indeed, mobility, signify in an Australian policy landscape of mandatory detention of asylum seekers and formerly prohibited access to mobile phones for detainees inside immigration detention centres? What does this intimate about the perceived dangers of ânewâ and mobile media? The authorâs preliminary research with refugees in Australian immigration detention centres compares policy and practice. Firstly, it interrogates the unwritten policies regulating refugeesâ access to media technologies when incarcerated in immigration detention. As there is no written policy on technology access and practices vary across immigration detention centres, the information in this paper has been given by detainees and has not been verified by the management of detention centres. The paper suggests that the utopian promises of mobile media echo those made about cyberspace in the 1990s. Furthermore, the residual effects of such rhetoric have infiltrated government policy in terms of perceiving mobile media as dangerous when adopted by marginalised groups such as refugees. Secondly, the research examines how and why the mobile phone has been adopted by immigration detainees despite their former prohibition. It explores the ways in which refugees practice an imagined mobility through media whilst in detention, and finds that this is critical to sustaining connection with their imagined communities.
Leung, L.T. 2006, 'Legal System: Small claims, big implications: usability of legal systems in theory and practice', Alternative Law Journal, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 95-96.
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The Brief discusses the author's personal experience of Small Claims Court. As a lecturer in information technology, the author draws from her expertise in analysing technical systems to examine issues of usability in legal processes. Writing as a 'user' rather than as a practitioner of law, the author applies usability criteria of visibility, feedback, error detection and recovery, ease and efficiency of use, to critically analyse her interactions with the legal system.
Leung, L.T. 2005, 'Postcard from the Edge: Autobiographical Musings on the Dis/organisations of the Multimedia Industry', Fibreculture Journal, vol. 0, no. 5, pp. 1-5.
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Leung, L.T. 2004, 'Ethnicity Manifestations on the Internet', MEMEX: Information, Culture and Technology, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 1-2.
Leung, L.T. 2003, 'Where am I and who are 'We'?: Self-representation and the intersection of gender and ethnicity on the web', First Monday, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1-8.
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Leung, L.T. 2002, 'It's all there in black and white: media studies and the theorising of race and ethnicitty on the world wide web', Southern Review, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 23-38.
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Leung, L.T. 1997, 'The Making of Matriarchy', Journal of Gender Studies, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 33-42.
Leung, L. 1997, 'The Making of Matriarchy: A comparison of Madonna and Margaret Thatcher', Journal of Gender Studies, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 33-42.
The article reviews a selection of the plethora of academic literature available on Madonna and the limited amount on Thatcher, highlighting recurring themes. It attempts to identify the discourses from which these commentaries emerge, and apply the theoretical frameworks used in Madonna's deconstruction to that of Thatcher (and vice versa), These issues are examined in relation to the written language of Madonna and Thatcher: how their individuality and power are reiterated linguistically, the ways in which masculinity and femininity are employed in their vocabularies, and their utilisation of feminist and anti-feminist discourses. It also discusses the role of the image in the identities of Madonna and Thatcher, identifying how the themes mentioned above are manifested visually in their respective books, The Girlie Show and The Downing Street Years.

Non traditional outputs

Leung, L.T. 2012, 'Trunk Volume Two: Blood', Trunk, Boccalatte, Sydney, pp. 337-338.

Reports

Leung, L., Nikolova, N., Schweitzer, J., Goldsby-Smith, T., Whybrow, T. & Jurd, K. 2016, The View From The Top – 2016 Innovation Report: A conversation with Chairs & CEOs of 20+ major corporations on the state of innovation in Australia, pp. 1-40.
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Leung, L.T. Australian Communications Consumer Action Network 2011, Mind the Gap: Refugee and communication technology literacy, pp. 1-34, Sydney.
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Leung, L.T. & Finney Lamb, C. UTS Shopfront 2010, Refugees and Communication Technology, pp. 1-30, Sydney, Australia.