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Linda Candy

Adjunct Professor, School of Software
 

Books

Candy, L. & Edmonds, E.A. 2012, Interacting Art, Research and the Creative Practitioner, Libri Pub Limited.
Interacting gives a primary voice to practitioner researchers in the emerging academic discourse about creative practice and research, a voice which has been somewhat muted in debates about the nature of practitioner knowledge and the role ...
Edmonds, E.A. & Candy, L. 2002, Explorations in Art and Technology, 1, Springer-Verlag London Ltd, London, UK.
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Explorations in Art and Technology is about the creative process in action through the eyes of practitioners and researchers. The book explores the fascinating relationship between artist and technologist through studies of innovative projects that push the boundaries of digital art. The research sheds new light on the nature of interaction between people and computers and provides insight into the characteristics of environments in which creativity can be enhanced. In doing so, it presents a case for organisations to develop strategies for offering environments in which collaborative, sustainable partnerships can thrive. What emerges is a compelling story of new visions and new forms in a field that is set to transform traditional norms in both art and technology as we move through the 21st Century

Chapters

Alarcon-Diaz, X., Askaroff, K., Candy, L., Edmonds, E.A., Faram, J. & Hobson, G. 2014, 'Evaluation in Public Art: The Light Logic Exhibition' in Candy, L. & Ferguson, S. (eds), Interactive Experience in the Digital Age, Springer, pp. 187-208.
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With contributions from artists, scientists, curators, entrepreneurs and designers engaged in the creative arts, this book is an invaluable resource for both researchers and practitioners, working in this emerging field.
Candy, L. 2014, 'Interactive Experience, Art and Evaluation' in Candy, L. & Ferguson, S. (eds), Interactive Experience in the Digital Age, Springer, pp. 1-10.
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With contributions from artists, scientists, curators, entrepreneurs and designers engaged in the creative arts, this book is an invaluable resource for both researchers and practitioners, working in this emerging field.
Candy, L. 2014, 'Evaluation and Experience in Art' in Candy, L. & Ferguson, S. (eds), Interactive Experience in the Digital Age, Springer, pp. 25-48.
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With contributions from artists, scientists, curators, entrepreneurs and designers engaged in the creative arts, this book is an invaluable resource for both researchers and practitioners, working in this emerging field.
Loke, L. & Khut, G.P. 2014, 'Intimate Aesthetics and Facilitated Interaction' in Candy, L. & Ferguson, S. (eds), Interactive Experience in the Digital Age, Springer, pp. 91-108.
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Zhang, Y. & Candy, L. 2007, 'A Communicative Behaviour Analysis of Art-Technology Collaboration' in Smith, M.J. & Salvendy, G. (eds), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4558 - Human Interface and the Management of Information, Springer, Germany, pp. 212-221.
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This paper presents an approach to investigating interdisciplinary collaboration between an artist and a technologist based on case study methods. The aim of the research is to understand how artists and technologists communicate with each other during a collaborative process. The paper begins with a brief account of the art-technology context, and goes on to describe how the data was collected and how the analysis framework was developed specifically for this context. At the end of this paper, we discuss the preliminary findings which illustrate the characteristics of participantsâ communication behaviours in art-technology collaboration.

Conferences

England, D., Candy, L., Latulipe, C., Schiphorst, T., Kim, Y., Clark, S., Kerne, A. & Edmonds, E.A. 2015, 'Art.CHI', CHI EA'15 Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Computer Human Interaction, ACM, Seoul, Korea.
At CHI2014 our two day workshop "Curating the Digital: Space for Art and Interaction", led to a set of recommendations to the SIGCHI Executive for future two day workshops at CHI2015 and CHI2016, in which interactive artworks would be the focus of presentation and discussion. The Executive and the chairs of the upcoming conferences accepted these recommendations. In this proposal we set out how we will attract and select appropriate artworks for the CH2015 workshop, and how we will run the workshop to explore the themes that the art works raise. Additionally we will discuss how we will involve South Korean partners to highlight local culture and impacts of South Korean interactive artists and provide opportunities for deep cross-cultural dialogs.
Edmonds, E.A., England, D., Spence, J., Latulipe, C., Woolford, K., Candy, L., Schiphorst, T. & Bryan-Kinns, N. 2014, 'Curating the digital: spaces for art and interaction', CHI2014, ACM, Toronto, Canada, pp. 21-24.
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This workshop intends to use the key strength of the CHI Community; research linked to practice, to design an Art Catalog for CHI. The workshop will start with an examination of current research in curating interactive art. The outcomes of the first phase of the workshop will then feed into Design Charrette exercises that will involve prototyping an Art Catalog and developing ideas for presenting a future Art Gallery event as part of the CHI conference. The results from the workshop will then form the basis of an agenda of a Spotlight SIG meeting where we will discuss the nature of the CHI Art Catalog. Workshop outcomes will also be disseminated to a wider audience.
Seevinck, J., Edmonds, E.A. & Candy, L. 2012, 'Emergent participant interaction', Proceedings of the 24th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, OzCHI 2012, Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, ACM, Adelaide, australia, pp. 540-549.
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Emergence has the potential to effect complex, creative or open-ended interactions and novel game-play. We report on research into an emergent interactive system. This investigates emergent user behaviors and experience through the creation and evaluation of an interactive system. The system is +-NOW, an augmented reality, tangible, interactive art system. The paper briefly describes the qualities of emergence and +-NOW before focusing on its evaluation. This was a qualitative study with 30 participants conducted in context. Data analysis followed Grounded Theory Methods. Coding schemes, induced from data and external literature are presented. Findings show that emergence occurred in over half of the participants. The nature of these emergent behaviors is discussed along with examples from the data. Other findings indicate that participants found interaction with the work satisfactory. Design strategies for facilitating satisfactory experience despite the often unpredictable character of emergence, are briefly reviewed and potential application areas for emergence are discussed.
Johnston, A.J., Candy, L. & Edmonds, E.A. 2009, 'Designing for Conversational Interaction', Proceedings of New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME), New Interfaces for Musical Expression, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA, pp. 207-212.
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In this paper we describe an interaction framework which classifies musicians interactions with virtual musical instruments into three modes: instrumental, ornamental and conversational. We argue that conversational interactions are the most difficult to design for, but also the most interesting. To illustrate our approach to designing for conversational interactions we describe the performance work Partial Reflections 3 for two clarinets and interactive software. This software uses simulated physical models to create a virtual sound sculpture which both responds to and produces sounds and visuals.
Johnston, A.J., Marks, B. & Candy, L. 2007, 'Sound Controlled Musical Instruments Based On Physical Models', Proceedings of the 2007 International Computer Music Conference, International Computer Music Conference, International Computer Music Association, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 232-239.
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This paper describes three simple virtual musical instruments that use physical models to map between live sound and computer generated audio and video. The intention is that this approach will provide musicians with an intuitively understandable environment that facilitates musical expression and exploration. Musicians live sound exerts `forces' on simple mass-spring physical models which move around in response and produce sound. Preliminary findings from a study of musicians' experiences using the software indicate that musicians find the software easy to understand and interact with and are drawn to software with more complex interaction - even though this complexity can reduce the feeling of direct control.
Zhang, Y. & Candy, L. 2007, 'An In-depth Case Study of Art-Technology Collaboration', Proceedings of the 6th ACM SIGCHI conference on Creativity & cognition, ACM Creativity and Cognition, ACM, Washington DC, USA, pp. 53-62.
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This paper presents an in-depth case study of the collaborative process of a creative art-technology project. We begin by providing a brief description of art-technology collaboration research and go on to describe the particular art-technology collaboration project called "GEO Narrative Landscapes". This is followed by an account of a novel method for the analysis of the interaction between artists and technologists based on five communication modes. Findings include common types of conversation topics of communication modes, how these modes related to each other and how they were distributed in terms of frequencies and duration across meetings. Finally, we discuss the contribution of this work to our understanding of art-technology collaboration.
Zhang, Y. & Candy, L. 2007, 'A communicative behaviour analysis of art-technology collaboration', Human Interface and the Management of Information. Interacting in Information Environments - Symposium on Human Interface 2007 Held as Part of HCI International 2007, International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Springer, Beijing, China, pp. 212-221.
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This paper presents an approach to investigating interdisciplinary collaboration between an artist and a technologist based on case study methods. The aim of the research is to understand how artists and technologists communicate with each other during a collaborative process. The paper begins with a brief account of the art-technology context, and goes on to describe how the data was collected and how the analysis framework was developed specifically for this context. At the end of this paper, we discuss the preliminary findings which illustrate the characteristics of participants communication behaviours in art-technology collaboration.
Seevinck, J., Candy, L. & Edmonds, E.A. 2006, 'Exploration and reflection in interactive art: Glass pond', Proceedings of the 18th Australia conference on Computer-Human Interaction: Design: Activities, Artefacts and Environments. OZCHI Vol 206, Australian Computer Human Interaction Conference, CHISIG & ACM, Sydney, Australia, pp. 143-150.
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Glass Pond is an interactive artwork designed to engender exploration and reflection through an intuitive, tangible interface and a simulation agent. It is being developed using iterative methods. A study has been conducted with the aim of illuminating user experience, interface, design, and performance issues.The paper describes the study methodology and process of data analysis including coding schemes for cognitive states and movements. Analysis reveals that exploration and reflection occurred as well as composing behaviours (unexpected). Results also show that participants interacted to varying degrees. Design discussion includes the artwork's (novel) interface and configuration.
Johnston, A.J., Marks, B., Candy, L. & Edmonds, E.A. 2006, 'Partial reflections: interactive environments for musical exploration', ENGAGE: Interaction, Art and Audience Experience, ENGAGE: Interaction, Art and Audience Experience, Creativity and Cognition Studios Press, Sydney, Australia, pp. 100-109.
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This paper describes an ongoing project to develop interactive environments for musicians that encourage musical exploration. A process of developing software such as this, where requirements are highly dynamic and unclear is outlined and two musical compositions and associated interactive environments entitled 'Partial Reflections' are described.
Zhang, Y. & Candy, L. 2006, 'A study of interdisciplinary collaboration in art and technology', ENGAGE: Interaction, Art and Audience Experience, ENGAGE: Interaction, Art and Audience Experience, Creativity and Cognition Studios, Sydney, Australia, pp. 282-290.
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Zhang, Y. & Candy, L. 2006, 'Investigating interdisciplinary collaboration: Case studies in art and technology', The third international conference on qualitative research in IT & IT in qualitative research, International Conference on Qualitative Research in IT & IT in Qualitative Research, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 173-183.
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Edmonds, E.A. & Candy, L. 2005, 'Computation, interaction and imagination: Into virtual space and back to reality', New trends in software methodologies, tools and techniques: Proceedings of the fourth SoMeT-W05, International Conference on Software Methods and Tools, IOS Press, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 353-363.
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The main aim of the research from which this paper arises is to identify requirements of computer support for creative work by investigating the work of artists and exploring the potential of new creative technology in this field. The paper reports upon an experimental artists-in-residence on the campus of Loughborough University during which events were recorded and analysed. The nature of the interchanges between artist and technologist as well as the artists' perspectives upon the use of the technologies and what they gained from it are described. One significant conclusion is that the influence of using computers on the artists thinking is quite as significant as any direct outcome in terms of product. The paper poses three questions and tries to find an answer to each by exploring the modelling of the results of the study in the context of what we know so far about computational approaches to understanding creativity. The results demonstrate that one aspect of VR may be understood in relation to previous studies of emergence.
Candy, L. & Edmonds, E.A. 2004, 'Creative expertise and collaborative technology design', Asia-Pacific Computer Human Interaction Conference, Asia-Pacific Computer Human Interaction Conference, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Rotorua, New Zealand, pp. 60-69.
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Edmonds, E.A., Turner, G.A. & Candy, L. 2004, 'Approaches to Interactive Art Systems', Proceedings Graphite 2004, 2nd International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques in Australasia and SE Asia - Graphite 2004, AZM Press, Singapore, pp. 113-117.
Edmonds, E.A., Candy, L., Fell, M., Knott, R. & Weakley, A.J. 2003, 'Macaroni Synthesis: A Creative Multimedia Collaboration', Proceedings Seventh International Conference on Information Visualisation, International Conference on Information Visualisation, IEEE, London, England, UK, pp. 646-651.
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We describe a collaborative project between an HCI team and an internationally known Japanese artist, based in New York, who was artist-in-residence with the group in the UK. The collaboration resulted in a new performance art work and a new interactive instrument. The research included a full study of the process of collaboration and innovation. We describe the work that was created, the interactive instrument developed and illustrates its use in a performance.
Edmonds, E.A., Candy, L., Fell, M., Knott, R., Pauletto, S. & Weakley, A.J. 2003, 'Developing Interactive Art Using Visual Programming', Human-Computer Interaction: Theory and Practice (Part II), International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc, Publishers, Crete, Greece, pp. 1183-1187.

Journal articles

Edmonds, E.A. & Candy, L. 2010, 'Relating Theory, Practice And Evaluation In Practitioner Research', Leonardo - Oxford the Cambridge MA-, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 470-476.
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The authors have developed a model of practice-based research from observations and studies of practitioners undertaking Ph D s in digital art and specifically interactive art Trajectories of research and practice have been identified that have common el
Bilda, Z., Edmonds, E.A. & Candy, L. 2008, 'Designing for creative engagement', Design Studies, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 525-540.
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This paper addresses the problem of understanding creative engagement with interactive systems. A model of engagement is proposed which represents modalities and phases of interactive experiences. The model was derived from empirical studies of audience
Candy, L. & Hewett, T.T. 2008, 'Special Issue Introduction: Investigating and Cultivating Creativity', International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 441-443.
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Johnston, A.J., Candy, L. & Edmonds, E.A. 2008, 'Designing and evaluating virtual musical instruments: facilitating conversational user interaction', Design Studies, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 556-571.
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This paper is concerned with the design of interactive virtual musical instruments. An interaction design strategy which uses on-screen objects that respond to user actions in physically realistic ways is described. This approach allows musicians to `play the virtual instruments using the sound of their familiar acoustic instruments. An investigation of user experience identified three modes of interaction that characterise the musicians' approach to the virtual instruments: instrumental, ornamental and conversational. When using the virtual instruments in instrumental mode, musicians prioritise detailed control; in ornamental mode, they surrender detailed control to the software and allow it to transform their sound; in conversational mode, the musicians allow the virtual instrument to `talk back, helping to shape the musical direction of performance much as a human playing partner might. Finding a balance between controllability and complexity emerged as a key issue in facilitating `conversational interaction.
Candy, L. 2007, 'New Media Arts And The Future Of Technologies', Communications Of The Association for Computing Machinery, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 30-31.
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Shneiderman, B., Fischer, G., Czerwinski, M., Resnick, M., Myers, B., Candy, L., Edmonds, E.A., Eisenberg, M., Giaccardi, E., Hewett, T., Jennings, P., Kules, B., Nakakoji, K., Nunamaker, J., Pausch, M., Selker, T., Sylvan, E. & Terry, M. 2006, 'Creativity support tools Report from a US National Science Foundation Sponsored Workshop', International Journal Of Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 61-77.
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Creativity support tools is a research topic with high risk but potentially very high payoff. The goal is to develop improved software and user interfaces that empower users to be not only more productive but also more innovative. Potential users include
Candy, L., Amitani, S. & Bilda, Z. 2006, 'Practise-led strategies for interactive art research', CoDesign: International Journal of CoCreation in Design and the Arts, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 209-223.
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Interactive art is said to be `created by the people engaged in the active experience of it. Works are conceived and first tried out in the studio environment by the artist and then introduced to a wider audience whose behaviour influences its particular visual and auditory manifestations. Research into this kind of process presents interesting challenges that require interdisciplinary collaboration. Artists, technologists, curators, museum organizers are seeking new ways to understand what is effective and engaging about the interactive experience. The practice-led research process is one of co-evolution between creative acts and research knowledge drawn from both informal experiences and organized studies. The present paper describes practice-led strategies for research that have been developed at the Creativity and Cognition Studios and put into effect in Beta_space, an exhibiting space in a major public museum
Zhang, Y. & Candy, L. 2006, 'Investigating collaboration in art and technology', CoDesign, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 239-248.
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In order to understand how collaboration between people from different disciplines takes place, research is being undertaken in the area of art and technology. The present paper describes three studies of collaboration between artists and technologists drawn from the COSTART (COmputer SupporT for ARTists) project, an artist-in-residency programme that provided a platform for studying the creative process. The paper describes how case studies were carried out and, in particular, how the data analysis was conducted using a coding framework developed specifically for this art-technology context and what the preliminary findings that have emerged were.
Edmonds, E.A., Weakley, A.J., Candy, L., Fell, M., Knott, R. & Pauletto, S. 2005, 'The studio as laboratory: Combining creative practice and digital technology research', International Journal Of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 63, no. 4-5, pp. 452-481.
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Creativity research is a large and varied field in which the subject is characterized on many different levels. The arrival of digital media and computational tools has opened up new possibilities for creative practice. The cutting edge in the digital ar
Edmonds, E.A. & Candy, L. 2005, 'Computer Support For Creativity', International Journal Of Human-computer Studies, vol. 63, no. 4-5, pp. 363-364.
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Nagai, Y., Candy, L. & Edmonds, E.A. 2003, 'Representations of Design Thinking', Journal of the Asian Design International Conference, vol. 1, pp. 1-9.
Edmonds, E.A. & Candy, L. 2002, 'Creativity, and Practice of Knowledge', Communications Of The ACM, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 91-95.
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Mamykina, L., Candy, L. & Edmonds, E.A. 2002, 'Collaborative Creativity', Communications Of The Association for Computing Machinery, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 96-99.
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Candy, L. & Edmonds, E.A. 2000, 'Creativity Enhancement With Emerging Technologies - For The Creative Person, The Ability To Determine How The Creative Process Evolves Is Of Critical Importance.', Communications Of The Acm, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 62-65.
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Shah, D., Candy, L. & Edmonds, E.A. 1998, 'An Investigation Into Supporting Collaboration Over The Internet', Computer Communications, vol. 20, no. 16, pp. 1458-1466.
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This paper describes an investigation into the practical use of multi-media tools available on the Internet for the purpose of communication and collaboration between remotely located users, A prototype interface incorporating voice. text and graphics-ba
Edmonds, E.A., Candy, L., Jones, R. & Soufi, B. 1994, 'Support For Collaborative Design - Agents And Emergence', Communications Of The Acm, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 41-47.
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Jones, R., Candy, L. & Edmonds, E.A. 1993, 'Knowledge-based System Requirements', Knowledge-based Systems, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 31-37.
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There is a growing demand both for greater ease of use and support in use as existing software packages are employed for more complex tasks. End users are faced with both the intricacies of the existing software, and the increasing complexity of the appl
Candy, L., Obrien, S. & Edmonds, E.A. 1993, 'End-user Manipulation Of A Knowledge-based System - A Study Of An Experts Practice', International Journal Of Man-machine Studies, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 129-145.
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Rousseau, N., Candy, L. & Edmonds, E.A. 1993, 'Influence, Discretion And Time Available - A Case-study Of Hci Practice In Software-development', Interacting With Computers, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 397-411.
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In the field of human-computer interaction, reports of the involvement of its practitioners in system development projects are rarely available for general scrutiny. The paper draws upon the experience of an HCI team at work within a large collaborative
Candy, L., Edmonds, E.A. & Guest, S. 1984, 'User Interface Construction Software And The Computer-aided Acquisition Of Basic English Skills', Interfaces In Computing, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 69-80.
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Candy, L. & Edmonds, E.A. 1982, 'A Study In The Use Of A Computer As An Aid To English-teaching', International Journal Of Man-machine Studies, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 333-339.
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