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Dr Katherine Carroll

Associate of the Faculty, School of Education
Doctor of Philosophy
 

Books

Iedema, R.A., Mesman, J. & Carroll, K.E. 2013, Visualising Health Care Improvement, 1, Radcliffe, London.
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Why is it that in spite of all the health policy reforms, clinical practice innovations, increasing inter-sectoral inter-dependencies and new medical and information technologies, so little has changed in the way we research and evaluate healthcare? Dont these changes cry out for new ways of being studied and appraised? And dont our approaches to clinical practice innovation cry out for being reinvented too? Surely, we cannot continue to wheel out research and evaluation paradigms, improvement approaches and methods that were designed for 20th century problems and 20th healthcare, and assume they will be able to make sense of the problems we experience and the care we provide in the 21st century? These changes necessitate a new paradigm of health service research, evaluation and improvement and this new model adopts approaches and methods that embrace complexity. The approaches and methods can account for the vicissitudes of frontline care, the activities of frontline staff, and the experiences of patients and families where care happens. Healthcare managers, policy makers and shapers will find this book enlightening. It will also be empowering to all healthcare professionals and frontline staff. Visualising Health Care Practice Improvement draws on years of video feedback research shaping an approach that enables not only a retrospective understanding but also a view into the future, of what might be possible. It presents the argument that change is not principally about adopting solutions from elsewhere, but that it is conditional on people exploring whether proposed solutions suit existing habituations. It involves a process of exploration, discovery, secession, and renewal.

Chapters

Iedema, R.A., Long, D. & Carroll, K.E. 2010, 'Corridor communication, spatial design and patient safety: Enacting and managing complexities' in van Marrewijk, A. & Yanow, D. (eds), Organizational Spaces, Edward Elgar, United Kingdom, pp. 41-57.
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This chapter describes how a mUlti-diSciplinary clinical team occupies its clinical space and, in particular, its corridor. When we started to observe the practices of this clinical team in a metropolitan teaching hospital in Sydney in 2004, I the character of the work conversations that clinicians enacted there signalled to us that the corridor performed an important role. These conversations became possible in this corridor space, we suggest, because the team capitalized on what they probably perceived to be a 'liminal' space' that is a space that does not embody strong indications for staff about what' is to take place within it.

Conferences

Carroll, K.E. 2010, 'Embodied Knowledge: Bringing a new epistemology to the informed consent of oocyte donation', Social Causes, Private Lives, Maquarie Univeristy and The Australian Sociology Association, Macquarie University.
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Carroll, K.E., Bridgeford, S. & Iedema, R.A. 2007, 'Rostered Labour and Intensive Work Places: The Organisational and Industrial Relations Complexities of providing 24 hour care', Our Work...Our Lives: National Conference on Women and Industrial Relations, Our Work...Our Lives Conference, Hawke Research Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 24-34.
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Iedema, R.A., Long, D., Carroll, K.E., Stenglin, M. & Braithwaite, J. 2005, 'Corridor work: how 'liminal' space can be a focal resource for handling complexities of multi-disciplinary health care', Proceedings of the 11th International Colloquium of the Asia-Pacific Researchers in Organization Studies (APROS), APROS, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 238-247.
This paper presents an analysis of video-ethnographic data of a corridor in an Australian metropolitan teaching hospital. As the video data will illustrate, the corridor connects spaces (wards, consulting rooms) and practices (clinicians consulting each other about shared patients and co-organizing their work). The paper describes how the complexities of multi-disciplinary practice and disease trajectory; the dynamic circulation of bodies and materials, and the material-phenomenological intentionalities embedded in space converge in the corridor, and how this helps transmute 'marginal' space into a site of intense productivity. It is here that the interstices among clinical knowledges, processes, problems and purposes are dynamically negotiated and worked out. The corridor, perceived as liminal space, becomes the place par excellence for the negotiation and resolution of an array of complexities inherent in how multi-disciplinary care intersects with the uncertain trajectories of disease and access to hospital resources. In our conceptualization, the corridor is a space whose perceived liminality becomes a crucial resource: this is a unique site where final decisions can be held in abeyance and where uncertainties and provisional decisions can co-exist; a space where the fixities of hierarchy and specialization can be attenuated if not suspended, and a space where people can agree to work around rules and regulations; in short, a space where tasks and positionings become sufficiently provisional, flexible and negotiable to enable clinicians to weave the complexity of emerging facets of clinical practice into a workable and productive unfolding.
Carroll, K.E. & Iedema, R.A. 2006, 'Incorporating Complexity Theory and Feminism into Video Ethnography', Australian Consortium for Social and Political Research Incoporated - ACSPRI Social Science Methodology Conference Online Proceedings, Australian Consortium for Social and Political Research Incorporated, ACSPRI, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-13.
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This research uses video firstly as a tool for data collection, and secondly as a method for reflexive sessions that engage both the researcher and clinicians in reflexive viewing of organisational aspects of clinical work. By focusing on empirical data from videoethnographic research in an intensive care unit (ICU) in New South Wales (NSW)1 this paper broadly demonstrates the compatible intertwining of complexity theory, feminist research principles and video-reflexivity.

Journal articles

Wyer, M., Jackson, D., Iedema, R., Hor, S.-.Y., Gilbert, G.L., Jorm, C., Hooker, C., O'Sullivan, M.V.N. & Carroll, K. 2015, 'Involving patients in understanding hospital infection control using visual methods', Journal of Clinical Nursing, vol. 24, no. 11-12, pp. 1718-1729.
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Carroll, K.E., Lenne, B.S., McEgan, K., Opie, G., Amir, L.H., Bredemeyer, S., Hartmann, B., Jones, R., Koorts, P., McConachy, H., Mumford, P. & Polverino, J. 2014, 'Breast milk donation after neonatal death in Australia: a report.', Int Breastfeed J, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 23.
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Lactation and breast milk can hold great value and meaning for grieving mothers who have experienced a recent death of an infant. Donation to a human milk bank (HMB) as an alternative to discarding breast milk is one means of respecting the value of breast milk. There is little research, national policy discussion, or organizational representation in Australia on the subject of breast milk donation after infant death. On 29 November 2013 the Mercy Hospital for Women in Melbourne, Australia hosted Australia's first National Stakeholder Meeting (NSM) on the topic of milk donation after neonatal death. The NSM drew together representatives from Australian HMBs, neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) currently using donor human milk, and Australia's chief NICU parent support organization. The NSM was video-recorded and transcribed, and analyzed thematically by researchers. This article reports the seven dominant themes discussed by stakeholders during the NSM: the spectrum of women's lactation and donation experiences after infant death; the roles of the HMB and NICU in meeting the needs of the bereaved donor; how bereaved mothers' lactation autonomy may interface with a HMB's donation guidelines; how milk donation may be discussed with bereaved mothers; the variation between four categories of milk donation after neonatal death; the impact of limited resources and few HMBs on providing donation programs for bereaved mothers in Australia. This article provides evidence from researchers and practitioners that can assist HMB staff in refining their bank's policy on milk donation after infant death, and provides national policy makers with key considerations to support lactation, human milk banking, and bereavement services nation-wide.
Herrmann, K. & Carroll, K. 2014, 'An Exclusively Human Milk Diet Reduces Necrotizing Enterocolitis', Breastfeeding Medicine, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 184-190.
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Carroll, K. 2014, 'Body dirt or liquid gold? How the 'safety' of donated breastmilk is constructed for use in neonatal intensive care', Social Studies of Science, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 466-485.
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Carroll, K. & Herrmann, K.R. 2013, 'The Cost of Using Donor Human Milk in the NICU to Achieve Exclusively Human Milk Feeding Through 32 Weeks Postmenstrual Age', Breastfeeding Medicine, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 286-290.
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Carroll, K.E. 2013, 'Infertile? The emotional labour of sensitive and feminist research methodologies', Qualitative Research, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 546-561.
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A researcher's emotional labour is inextricably linked to the methodological and ethical underpinnings of doing' sensitive and some feminist research. However, a key component of the emotional labour theory does not fit with the emotional labour enacted
Waldby, C., Kerridge, I., Boulos, M. & Carroll, K.E. 2013, 'From altruism to monetisation: Australian women's ideas about money, ethics and research eggs', Social Science & Medicine, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 34-42.
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We report the results of a qualitative study carried out in metropolitan Australia between 2009 and 2011 that canvassed the issue of payment for research oocyte donation with participants drawn from three potential donor groups; fertility patients, repro
Naylor, J.M., Mittal, R., Carroll, K. & Harris, I.A. 2012, 'Introductory insights into patient preferences for outpatient rehabilitation after knee replacement: implications for practice and future research', JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 586-592.
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Carroll, K.E. & Waldby, C. 2012, 'Informed Consent And Fresh Egg Donation For Stem Cell Research Incorporating Embodied Knowledge Into Ethical Decision-Making', Journal Of Bioethical Inquiry, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 29-39.
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This article develops a model of informed consent for fresh oocyte donation for stem cell research, during in vitro fertilisation (IVF), by building on the importance of patients' embodied experience. Informed consent typically focuses on the disclosure
Carroll, K.E. & Mesman, J. 2011, 'Ethnographic context meets ethnographic biography: A challenge for the mores of doing fieldwork', International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 155-168.
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Iedema, R.A. & Carroll, K.E. 2011, 'The 'clinalyst': Institutionalizing Reflexive Space To Realize Safety And Flexible Systematization In Health Care', Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 175-190.
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Purpose: This paper aims to present evidence for regarding reflexive practice as the crux of patient safety in tertiary hospitals. Reflexive practice buttresses safety because it is the precondition for flexible systematization - that is, the process tha
Iedema, R. & Carroll, K. 2010, 'Discourse research that intervenes in the quality and safety of care practices', Discourse & Communication, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 68-86.
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Nugus, P., Carroll, K., Hewett, D.G., Short, A., Forero, R. & Braithwaite, J. 2010, 'Integrated care in the emergency department: A complex adaptive systems perspective', Social Science & Medicine, vol. 71, no. 11, pp. 1997-2004.
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Carroll, K. 2009, 'Outsider, insider, alongsider: Examining reflexivity in hospital-based video research', International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 246-263.
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Carroll, K., Iedema, R. & Kerridge, R. 2008, 'Reshaping ICU Ward Round Practices Using Video-Reflexive Ethnography', Qualitative Health Research, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 380-390.
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Long, D., Forsyth, R., Iedema, R. & Carroll, K. 2006, 'The (im)possibilities of clinical democracy', Health Sociology Review, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 506-519.
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Carroll, K. & Reiger, K. 2005, 'Fluid experts: Lactation consultants as postmodern professional specialists', Health Sociology Review, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 101-110.
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Reports

Braithwaite, J., Travaglia, J., Westbrook, M., Jorm, C., Hunter, C., Carroll, K.E., Iedema, R.A. & Ekambareshwar, M. UNSW 2006, Overview Report On The Evaluation Of The Incident Information Management System, pp. 1-33, Sydney, Australia.
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This report presents the findings of multiple studies conducted to evaluate the Incident Information Management System (IIMS) for NSW Health. IIMS was introduced by NSW Health to act as a core mechanism for safety and quality improvement in Area Health Services (AHSs).