Within contemporary debates in the digital humanities, design and design research should play a central role in the emphasis on visual methods of knowledge production and organisation. As Caviglia (2013) explains, the nature of humanities inquiry... [into] data and representations provide[s] an almost-perfect context for design and design thinking (p. 20). However, despite these opportunities there is very little analysis of the way design practitioners have visualised large textual data sets (specifically qualitative data such as manuscripts and corpus literature). Instead the focus has been on the treatment of quantitative data through the use of visual communication strategies such as colour, scale, and hierarchy etc (e.g. See Nicolas Felton and his annual Feltron reports). The recent growth of design literature and blogs celebrating these forms are testament to this work (see: Data Flow: Visualising Information in Graphic Design (2008), and Data Flow 2 (2010)
The problems and potentials of visualisation from a visual communication designers perspective
Visualization tools maps, charts, network diagrams and graphs are being used in Digital Humanities to assist in the analysis and understanding of data sets, and to communicate findings. But not all digital humanists are convinced by the appropriateness of these adopted tools. Johanna Drucker argues that by borrowing tools from the natural and social sciences the digital humanities have unwittingly borrowed the conceptual and visual language of scientific positivism, which does not suit the fundamental epistemological values of the humanities. (2012) She writes that these visualisation tools carry with them assumptions of knowledge as observer-independent and certain, rather than observer co-dependent and interpretive. (2011: 1) Drucker argues that human experience is not well served by existing digital tools of visualisation and calls for a radical reworking of the current conventions of graphical expression.
This paper argues that the field of visual communication design is well placed to assist in this radical reworking. Designers understand the rhetorical conventions used to display information and the ways in which to manipulate these visual strategies. Importantly, they are also keenly aware of the impossibility of neutrally represented information. At the core of the visual communication discipline is an understanding of the contingent relationship between form and content of the fallacy that information can be independent of its means of expression.
To make this point the paper will be divided into two sections. First, a brief discussion of three information visualisation practices: scientific, journalistic and artistic. (Hall 2011) I will discuss how traditionally, visualisation was used solely as a scientific tool for discovery, a method for understanding and analyzing large data sets, and how more recently it has been used in journalism to simpli...
Sadokierski, Z.A. & Sweetapple, K. 2013, 'The Book Spotter's Guide to Avian Titled Literature', Praxis + Poetics: Research Through Design, 2013 Conference Proceedings, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom, pp. 39-42.
In order to remain relevant in the digital age, physical libraries have to strengthen their position as social and cultural spaces. They need to find ways to challenge existing users perceptions of the collections and how they are accessed and presented. In an attempt to engage with these challenges, the University of Technology Sydney Library redesigned its visual identity and interior spaces, and commissioned us to create an installation in the central stairwell. From our initial research we formed the following question: how can we design a creative work (installation) that suggests the library is a space for play and discovery? This paper reports a practice-based research project with two intrinsically linked outcomes:1. An installation: `Avian Titled Literature'; 2. A hybrid exegesis: `Field Guide to Avian Titled Literature'. The project is the first iteration of a larger, ongoing research project investigating ways visual communication design could encourage serendipitous discovery, browsing and more playful engagement within libraries.
Sadokierski, Z.A. & Sweetapple, K. 2012, 'Drawing Out: How designers analyse written texts in visual ways', Design Research Society 2012: Bangkok, Department of Industrial Design, Faculty of Architecture, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, pp. 1646-1659.
This paper discusses the methods practitioner-researchers use to analyse written texts. Much attention towards the written word in design discourse is directed at typography - how words are used visually to communicate meaning. This paper considers the written word from a different perspective. Here, we aim to reveal how designers analyse written texts for research and ideation. We describe a range of methods we have developed through our own research and practice, as well as analytical approaches other practitioner-researchers use. There are many approaches to the analysis of texts - for example, semiotic (Kress and van Leeuwen 2001, 2006), content (Krippendorff 2004), discourse (Gee 1999) and more recently visual methods (Rose 2007). However, we are specifically interested in the methods designers use to draw out ideas, understanding and inspiration from written texts - a focus that is not directly addressed by any of these existing approaches. Importantly, many of the methods we describe here are widely used in design practice, but are not acknowledged or reported to be useful in a research context. Therefore, it is valuable to reframe these practice-based methods within a research context and claim their scholarly contribution. In this paper, we describe three approaches to analysing written texts, which we have named Visual Abstraction, Focused Data-mining and Exploratory Data-mining. Each approach is supported with examples and anecdotes by practitioner-researchers;; ourselves and others. Examining our own work allows us to trace initial text analysis through to final design/research outcomes, illustrated with examples from the entire process. To conclude, we discuss why these methods are a meaningful contribution to design scholarship.
Sweetapple, K. 2010, 'How del.icio.us: the impact of social bookmarking tools on the learning experiences of Visual Communication Design students', ConnectedED:International Conference on Design at Sydney, University of New South Wales, Sydney, pp. 1-5.
One of the key pedagogical strategies in first year design is teaching students to develop an independent, critical eye. To make independent judgments is an essential part of a design students education; and deep, sustained visual research is essential to this development. But how, among the millions of images out there do they find the `right ones: the visuals that will assist them in making informed decisions? Pre- Information age it was through the library, which has the advantage of offering material that is selected by academic staff and specialist librarians the gatekeepers of quality and relevance.
Palmer, C.G., Gothe, J., Mitchell, C.A., Riedy, C., Sweetapple, K., McLaughlin, S.M., Hose, G.C., Lowe, M., Goodall, H., Green, T., Sharma, D., Fane, S.A., Brew, K. & Jones, P.R. 2007, 'Finding integration pathways: developing a transdisciplinary (TD) approach for the Upper Nepean Catchment.', Proceedings of the 5th Australian Stream Management Conference. Australian rivers: making a difference, Charles Sturt University, Thurgoona, New South Wales, pp. 306-311.
Roxburgh, M.W. & Sweetapple, K. 2007, 'The Cartography of Theory and Practice', ConnectED: International Conference on Design Education, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-6.
Strickler argues that the growth of visual communication as an academic discipline can only occur if there is an empirical bridge between theory and practice (1999: 38). Such a bridge is also a precondition for the evolution of visual communication as a forward looking and reflective industry as opposed to one that simply responds to the dictates of the market. However, building this bridge is no easy task; visually articulate and practically oriented students are reluctant to engage with theories that may challenge their passionately held understandings of design. All the more so when the commonest mode such inquiry is conducted through is reading and writing. The challenges and problems of writing for visual thinkers has been well articulated by Grow (1994). That such students are resistant to forms that they are generally not well equipped for or confident in is hardly surprising. Couple this with a seemingly near universal questioning of the relevance of theory by aspiring practitioners and it would seem the odds are stacked against such an enterprise. In this paper we will reflect upon efforts to build this bridge through design theory curriculum using visual mapping tools drawn from constructivist education theory. The efficacy of these efforts is explored through both quantitative and qualitative student feedback.
Sweetapple, K. 2013, 'Designing Distance: a first-person visual narrator', Message, vol. 1.6, no. 6, pp. 14-23.
This article argues that the literary concept of 'distance' is a valuable theoretical framework through which to understand how designers affect viewer experience. This article argues that s designer's choice of typeface, composition, image treatment, colour, etc. _ are visual building blocks used to construct a point of view. Through the comparison of canonical written and designed texts, I will show how the equivalent of the literary first person can be found in visual work. The task of this article, however, is not to equate the visual with the verbal, but rather to identify the design decisions that can be equally described as characteristics of a first-person text.
McWhinnie, L.J., Sweetapple, K. & Benjamin, A.E. 2007, 'On Judging a Book By its Cover', Journal of Visual Communication, Vol 6, No 1., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 123-127.
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The following reviews are a response from a philosopher and two designers to the design for the Penguin Great Thinkers series. The contents have not been read by the design reviewers, instead their response is to the physicality of the books, and as such should be considered more a review of the books design than their contents.
Sweetapple, K. 2007, 'Power Dressing: a critique of design authorship', Research Journal of the Australian Graphic Design Association, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-8.
Non traditional outputs
Roxburgh, M.W. & Sweetapple, K., 'Work/Play: 30 Years of Visual Communication', UTS GALLERY.
This exhibition surveyed the work of some Australia's leading visual communication designers spanning the past 30 years. Participating exhibitors were asked to exhibit a single piece of work and design a piece of visual communication that explained the creative process they went through in conceiveing and executing that work.
Sadokierski, Z.A. & Sweetapple, K., 'Unlikely Avian Taxonomies', Unlikely Avian Taxonomies, Page Screen Studio, DAB LAB Gallery; Object Gallery; Wedge Gallery (Kinokuniya Sydney).
A collaborative research project, investigating how visual communication designers approach data mining and poetic information visualisation, the work was published through a series of exhibitions and public events over a two-year period. Invited to speak about this work at the Art Gallery of NSW Learning Symposium (15 March, 2014). Led to invitation to write a book chapter on practice-led methods for analysing written texts.
Sweetapple, K., 'Map of Sydney: Avian surnames', Mapping Sydney: experimental cartography and the imagined city, Local Consumption Press, Sydney, DAB LAB (University of Technology, Sydney).
This is one of six works included in the exhibition. 'Avian markers' construct a map of Sydney - each bird representing a household with an avian surname (938 in total). Together they form a flock of birds hinting at a coastline and inland suburbs. This map explores the poetic potential of conventional quantitative and cartographic data and in doing so raises questions about visual representation of information and the tension between the scientific and the aesthetic.
Sweetapple, K., 'Map of Sydney: Avian surnames; Map of Sydney: Fish surnames; Map of Sydney: Celestial surnames; The Browns; The Blacks and The Whites; The Greens and The Reds.', Mr Salmon and Mrs Sparrow: Experimental Cartography, -, DAB LAB, University of Technology Sydney.
This visual research contributes to the field of information visualisation, an area that is seeing enormous growth due to computer literacy and access to data sets, but which remains under-theorised from a visual communication perspective. The research understands the agency of information visualisation, in this instance cartography, and exposes it as a rhetorical system loaded with social and cultural codes. Although the notion of maps as partial documents is not new, very little research has been done into the aesthetics of authority, that is, the role that visual conventions play in continuing to assert neutrality. This body of work begins to redress this gap. 'Mr Salmon and Mrs Sparrow' was comprised of six maps, a substantial body of work that builds on my visual research into experimental cartography, particularly the rhetoric of cartographic language. Through the exploitation of cartography's semiological systems the authoritative, seemingly neutral, visualisations are revealed to be partial documents. Although the visual language of these maps reflect the conventions of mapping, the quantitative data sets are absurd: these are maps of Sydney residents who share surnames with bird and fish species, celestial bodies and colours. This exhibition was part of Sydney Design 2010. The significance of this work can be measured by its inclusion in two national collections: A set of three maps (Map of Sydney: Avian surnames, Map of Sydney: Fish surnames, and Map of Sydney: Celestial surnames) was purchased by the National Library of Australia and by the UTS library. The Map of Sydney: Fish surnames was also purchased by the Australian National Maritime Museum.